The compleat gentleman fashioning him absolute in the most necessary & commendable qualities concerning minde or bodie that may be required in a noble gentleman. By Henry Peacham, Mr. of Arts sometime of Trinity Coll: in Cambridge.
Peacham, Henry, 1576?-1643?, Delaram, Francis, 1589 or 90-1627, engraver.

CHAP. 7.

Of Cosmographic.

THat like a stranger in a forraine land, yee may not wander without a guide, ignorant of those places by which you are to passe, and sticke amused, ama∣zed in the Labyrinth of Historie: Cosmography a second Ariadne, bringinga lines enough is come to your deliue∣ry, whom imagine standing on a faire hill, and with one hand, pointing and discoursing vnto you of the Coelesti∣all Sphaere, the names, vses, and distinctions of euery cir∣cle, whereof it consisteth, the scituation of Regions ac∣cording to the same, the reason of Climates, length and shortnesse of dayes and nights, motion, rising and setting as well of fixed stars, as erratique, eleuation of the Pole, Paralells, Meridians, and whatsoeuer els respecteth that Coelestiall body.

Page  56With the other hand downeward, she sheweth you the globe of the earth, (distinguished by Seas, Mountaines, Riuers, Rockes, Lakes and the like,) the subiect of Geo∣graphie, which defined according to Ptolomey and others, is an imitation of the face (by draught and picture) of the whole earth, and all the principall and knowne parts thereof, with the most remarkeable things 〈◊〉 belonging.

A science at once both feceding the eye and minde with such incredible varietie, and profitable pleasure, that euen the greatest kings and Philosophers, haue not one∣ly bestowed the best part of their time in the contem∣plation hereof at home, but to their infinite charge and perill of their persons, haue themselues trauailed to vn∣derstand the Scituation of farre countries, bounds of Seas, qualities of Regions, manners of people and the like.

So necessary for the vnderstanding of Historie (as I haue said) and the fables of Poets,* (wherein no small part of the treasure of humane learning lyeth hid) that with∣out it we know not how the most memorable enterprises of the world haue bin carryed and performed; we are ig∣norant of the growth, flourish and fall of the first Monar∣chies, whereat Historie taketh her head and beginning: we conceiue nothing of the gouernment, and commodi∣ties of other nations, wee cannot iudge of the strength of our enemies, distinguish the limits betweene king∣dome and kingdome, names of places from names of people: nay (with Mounsier Gaular) we doubt at Pa∣ris whether wee see there the same Moone wee haue at London or not: on the contrary, we know this and much more, without exposing (as in old time) our bodies to a tedious trauaile, but with much more ease, hauing the world at will, or (as the saying is) the world in a string, in our owne chamber. How praeiudiciall the ignorance of Geography hath beene vnto Princes in forraine expedi∣tions Page  57 against their enemies, vnfortunate Cyrus will tell you, h beeing ignorant of Oaxis and the Streights, was ouerthrone by Thomiris the Scythian Queene; and of two 〈◊〉 thousand Persins in his armie, not one escaped through his vnskilfulnesse herein, as Iustine re∣porteth.

And at another time what a memorable victorie to his perpetuall glorie carryed Lonidas from the Persians, onely for that they 〈◊〉 vnacquainted with the Streights of*Thermopylae?

And the foule ouerthrow that Crassus receiued by the Parthians, was imputed to nothing else, hen his igno∣rance of that Countrie, and the passages thereof.

Alexander, therefore taking any enterprise in hand, would first cause an exact mappe of the country to bee drawne in collours, to consider where were the safest en∣trance, where he might passe this Riuer, how to auoide that Rocke, and in what place most commodiously giue his enemie battaile.

Such is the pleasure, such is the profite of this admira∣ble knowledge, which account rather in the member of your recreations then seuerer studies, it beeing beside quickly, and with much ease attained vnto. Prince Hen∣ry of eternall memory, was herein very studious, hauing for his instructour that excellent Mathematician,* and (while hee liued) my louing friend Master Edward Wright.

To the attaining of perfection herein,* as it were your first entrance, you are to learne and vnderstand certaine Geometricall definitions, which are first Punctum, or a pricke; a Line, a Superficies either plaine, Convexe or Con∣cave, your Angels right, blunt and sharpe, Figures, Cir∣cles, Semicircles, the Diameter, Triangles, Squares of all sorts, paralells and the like, as Master Blundevile in his first booke of the Sphaere will shew you; for you shall haue vse of many of these, to the vnderstanding thereof. Page  58 Cosmography containeth Astronomie, Astrologie, Geo∣graphy and Chorography.* Astronomie considereth the magnitude and motions of the coelestiall bodies.

The Coelestiall bodies are the eleuen heauens and Sphaeres.

The eleuenth heauen is the habitation of God and his Angels.

The tenth the first mooouer.

The ninth the Christallne heauen,

The eight the starry firmament.

Then the seuen Planets in their order,* which you may remember in their order by this verse.

Post Sim SVM sequitur, vltima LVN Asubst:
Would you count the Planets sooe,
Remember SIM SVM and the MOONE.

The first Letter S for Saturne, I for Iupiter, M for Mars, S for the Sunne, V Venus, M Mercurie; lastly the Moone.

The Imperiall Heauen is immoueable, most pure, im∣mense in quantitie, and cleere in qualitie.

The tenth Heauen or first moouer, is also most pure and cleare, and maketh his reuolution in foure and twen∣tie houres, carrying with the swiftnesse the other Hea∣uens violently from East to West, from their proper re∣uolutions, which is from West to East.

The ninth, or Christalline heauen, moueth by force of the first mouer, first from East to West, then frō West to East vpon his owne poles, and accomplisheth his reuolu∣tion in 36000. yeares. And this reuolution being fini∣shed, Plato was of opinion, that the world should be in the same state it was before; I should liue and print such a book againe, and you reade it in the same apparell, and the same age you are now in.

Two Schollers in Germany hauing laine so long in an Page  59 Inne,* that they had not onely spent all their Money, but also ran into debt some two hundred Dollers; told their Host of Plats great yeare, and how that time sixe and thirtie thousand yeares the world should be againe as it was, and they should be in the same Inne and Chamber againe, and desired him to trust them till then: Quoth mine Host, I beleeue it to be true; and I remember sixe and thirty thousand yeares agoe you were here, and left iust such a reckoning behind to pay, I pray you Gentle∣men discharge that first, and I will trust you for the next.

The eight Heauen or glorious starry Firmament, hath a threefold motion, (viz:) from East to West in foure and twenty houres, secundism primum Mobile; then from West to East, according to the motion of the ninth Hea∣uen; then sometimes to the South, and somtime towards the North, called motus trepidationis.

Touching the motions of the Planets, since you may haue them in euery Almanacke, I willingly omit them.

The Spheare of the world consisteth of ten Circles, the Aequinoctiall, the Zodiacke, the two Colures, the Horizon, the Meridian, the two Tropiques, and the two polar Circles.*

The Aequinoctiall,* is a circle diuiding the world, as in the midst equally distant from the two poles: it contai∣neth three hundred and sixtie degrees, which being mul∣tiplyed by sixtie, (the number of miles in a degree) make one and twentie thousand and sixe hundred miles, which is the compasse of the whole earth. The third part of which (being the Diameter) about seuen thousand and odde miles, is the thicknesse of the same. Those who dwell vnder the Aequinoctiall, hauing no Latitude ei∣ther to the North or South, but their daies and nights al∣waies of an equall length.

The Zodiacke is an oblick circle,* diuiding the Spheare athwart the aequinoctiall into points, (viz:) the be∣ginning of Aries and Libra: In the midst whereof is Page  60 the Eclipticke line; the vtmost limits thereof are the two Tropiques, Cancer and Capricorne: the length thereof is three hundred and sixtie degrees, the bredth sixteene. It is diuided into twelue signes, sixe Northerly, and sixe Southerly: the Northerne are, Aries, Taurus, Cancer, Gemini, Leo, Virgo; Southerne, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittari∣us, Capricornus, Aquarius, Pisces: he turneth vpon his owne poles from West to East.

The two Colures,* are two great moueable Circles, pas∣sing through both the poles of the world, crossing one another with right Sphearicall Angles: so that like an Apple cut into foure quarters, they diuide into equall parts the whole Spheare: the one passeth thorough the aequinoctiall points and poles of the world, and is called the aequinoctiall Colure: the other passeth through the Solstitiall points, and is called the Solstitiall Colure.

The Horizon,* is a Circle immoueable, which diuideth the vpper Hemispheare, or halfe part of the world from the neather: it hath the name of 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, which is termin, or to bound or limit; because, imagine you stood vpon High-gate, or the Towre hill at Greenewich, so farre as you can see round about as in a circle, where the heauen seemeth to touch the earth, that is called the Horizon: The poles whereof, are the point iust ouer your head, calleth Zenith in Arabian; and the other vnder your feete, passing by the Center of the world, called Nadir.

The Meridian is an immoueable circle,* passing through the poles of the world: it is called the Meridian of Meri∣dies Noonetide, because when the Sun rising frō the East, toucheth this line with the Center of his body, then it is noone to those ouer whose Zenith that Circle passeth, and midnight to their Antipodes, or those who are iust vnder them in the other world.

The number of Meridians, are 180. (allowing two to euery degree in the Aequinoctiall) which all concenter in either pole, and are the vtmost bounds of Longitude.

Page  61By the Meridian, the Longitude of all places is gathe∣red, and what places lye more Easterly or Westerly from either.

The Longitude of any place,* is that distance you find vpon the Aequinoctiall, betweene the Meridian of the place, whose Longitude you desire; and the first Meri∣dian which directly passeth ouer the Canarie, or Fortu∣nate Ilands: which distance or space you must account by the degrees, purposely set vpon the Brazen Circle; or if you please by miles, allowing sixtie to euery de∣gree. Longitude is onely taken East and West.

Latitude is the distance of the Meridian,* betweene the verticall point (or pole of the Horizon) and the Aequinoctiall, being euer equall to the height, or eleuati∣on of the pole aboue the Horizon: or more plainly, the distance of any place, either North or South from the Aequinoctiall, which you are to take (vpon the standing Globe) by the degrees of the brazen Meridian, that Countrey or place in the Globe, whose Latitude you de∣sire, being turned directly vnder it.

The Tropicke of Cancer is an imaginary Circle,* be∣twixt the Aequinoctiall and the Arcticke Circle; which Circle the Sunne maketh about the thirteenth day of Iune, declining at his farthest from the Aequinoctiall, and comming Northerly to vs-ward; then are our daies at the longest, and nights shortest. Capricorne the like to the Antarcticke Circle, making our daies the shortest a∣bout the twelfth of December.

The Arcticke Circle* (anciently accounted the Hori∣zon of Greece) is a small circle: the Center whereof is the North pole of the world, which is inuisible; It is so called from Arctes the Beare, or Charles Wine, the Nor∣therne Starre, being in the tip of the taile of the said Beare.

The Antarctike,* which is neere to the South pole, and answering the other vnder vs.

Page  62But I had rather you learnd these principles of the sphere by demonstration, and your owne diligence (being the labour but of a few houres) then by meere verball de∣scription, which profiteth not so much in Mathematicall demonstrations.

Wee will therefore descend to Geographi, which is more easie and familiar, (the definition I gaue you be∣fore.) I come to the Subiect, the Terrestrial Globe, which is composed of Sea and Land.

The Sea is a mightie water,* ebbing and flowing conti∣nually about the whole Earth, whose parts are diuersly named according to the places whereupon they bound. In the East it is called the Indian Sea; in the West the Atlanticks, so named from the Mount Atlas in Mauri∣tania: in the North, the Hyperborean; in the South, the Meridionall, or South Sea, commonly called Mar del Zur.

The Mediterranean sea, is that which stretcheth it selfe by the middest of the earth from West to East, diuiding Europe, Asia, and Africa.

Sinus (or a Gulfe) is a part of the sea,* insinuating and embosoming it selfe within the land, or betweene two se∣uerall landes: as the gulfe of Venice, the Persian gulfe, the Red Sea, Sinus Mexicanus, Vermilius, Gangeticus.

Fretum (or a Streight) is a narrow passage betweene two lands,* as the Streight of Magellan, Anian, Gibral∣terre, &c.

An Hauen,* is the entrance of the sea within the land, at the mouth of some Riuer or Creeke, where shippes may ride at Anchor.

A Lake,* is a great and wide receptacle of water, euer standing still, and not mouing out of the place; as the Lake Asphalies, Lacus Larius, or Lago di Como, Lansan∣n by Geneva, &c.

The Earth,* is either Continent or Iland.

A Continent is the land,* continued without any diuision Page  63 of Sea, as the Low Countries to Germany, that to Au∣stria, Austria to Hungary, &c.

An Iland,* called Insula, quasi in Sale, is a land encom∣passed round with the Sea, as Great Britaine, Ireland, Corsica, Candia, &c.

An Isthmus,* or Chersonesus, is a Streight or necke of land betweene two Seas, as Cimbria, Chersonesus, Tauri∣ca, Aurea, and Achaica.

Peninsula* (quasi penè Insula) is a Land enuironed with the Sea, except at some narrow place or entrance; as that vaste Continent of Peru and Brasil in America, were an Iland, but for that Streight or Necke of Land, betweene Panama and Nombre de dies: which Philip the second, King of Spaine, was once minded to haue cut for a shor∣ter passage for ships into the South Sea, but vpon better deliberation he gaue ouer his proiect.

A Cape* or head of Land, is the vtmost end of a Pro∣montorie, or high Land, standing out into the Sea, as the Cape De Buna Speranza, Cape Mendozi••, S. Vincene, Cape Verde, the great Cape S. Augustine in America, &c.

Proceeding now to vnderstand the seuerall parts and Regions of the world, with their scituation (as it is meet, dwelling in an house, you should know all the roomes thereof) you may if you please, obserue Ptolomis Me∣thod,* beginning first with Europe; and herein with our Northerne Ilands of Great Britains, Ireland, the Orcha∣des, and Thule, which are the Contents of his first Table, and so forth into Europe: but he was erronious in his de∣scriptions, obscure by reason of his Antiquitie, the names of places since changed; Nauigation by the benefit of the Load-stone, perfected; the want whereof heretofore hath beene occasion of infinite errors among the anci∣ents, as well Diuines as Historiographers and Geogra∣phers: as Lactantius and S. Augustine, could neuer bee perswaded, that there were Antipodes, or people going Page  64 feete to feet vnder vs; the contrary whereof experience hath taught vs.*Arrianus, that much esteemed Greeke Authour, affirmed the scituation of Germany to be very neere to the Ionique Sea. Stephanus also, another Coun∣trey-man of his, saith that Vienna was a Citie of Galilie. Strabo saith, that Danubius hath his head neere to the Adriatique Sea, which indeed (being the greatest Riuer of Europe) riseth out of the hill Arnoba in Germany, and by Hungaria, and many other Countries, runneth into Sclauonia, receiuing threescore other Riuers into his Channell: it is therefore farre more safe to follow our later Writers.

In euery Countrey (to giue one instance for all) in your obseruation you are to follow this Method;* first to know the Latitude, then the Longitude of the place, the temperature of the Climate, the goodnesse or barren∣nesse of the ground, the limits of the Countrey, how it is bounded by Sea or Land, or both; by East, West, North, or South: into what Prouinces it is diuided with∣in it selfe, the commodities it affoordeth, as what Mines, Woods or Forrests; what Beasts, Fowles, Fishes, Fruits, Herbs, Plants; what Mountaines, Riuers, Fountaines and Cities: what notable matter of wonder or Antiqui∣tie: the manners, shape, and attire of the people; their building, what Ports and Hauens; what Rockes, Sands, and such like places of danger, are about the place: and last of all, the Religion and Gouernment of the Inha∣bitants.

You shall haue drawne vpon your Globe or Mappe,* vpon the vastest Seas (where most roome is to bee spa∣red) a round figure, representing the Mariners Com∣passe, with the two and thirtie winds; from euery of which there runneth a line to the Land, to some famous Citie, Hauen, or either; to shew you, in that Sea and place what course you are to keepe to goe thither, whe∣ther full North, North-east, South, or South-west, and Page  65 so forth. These winds, of the Spaniards are called Rom∣bes: and for that, Columbus and Vesputius, Italians, with others, first discouered the East and West Indies; the eight principall winds, are commonly expressed in the Italian. This Compasse hath the needle in manner of a Flowre-deluce, which pointeth still to the North,

I could wish you now and then,* to exercise your Pen in Drawing, and imitating Cards and Mappes; as also your Pensill in washing and colouring small Tables of Countries and places, which at your leasure you may in one fortnight easily learne to doe: for the practise of the hand, doth speedily instruct the mind, and strongly con∣firme the memorie beyond any thing else; nor thinke it any disgrace vnto you, since in other Countries it is the practise of Princes, as I haue shewed heretofore; also many of our young Nobilitie in England exercise the same with great felicitie.

I haue seene French Cards to play withall, the foure suites changed into Maps of seuerall Countries, of the foure parts of the world, and exactly coloured for their numbers, the figures 1. 2. 3. 9. 10. and so forth, set o∣uer the heads; for the Kings, Queenes, and Knaues, the Pourtrais of their Kings and Queenes, in their seuerall Countrey habits; for the Knaues, their Peasants or Slaues; which ingenious deuice, cannot be but a great furtherance to a young capacitie, and some comfort to the infortunate Gamester; when, what he hath lost in Money, he shall haue dealt him in land or wit.