Page [unnumbered] A TREATISE OF THE PLAGUE, CONTAYNING The Causes, Signes, Symptomes, Prog∣nosticks, and Cure thereof.
Together with sundry other remarkable passages (for the prevention of, and preservation from the Pestilence) never yet published by anie man.
Collected out of the Workes of the no lesse learned than experimented and renowned Chirurgian
PSAL. 91. 5, 6.
LONDON, Printed by R. Y. and R. C. and are sold by Mich. Sparke, in the green Arbor Court in little Old Bailey, at the blew Bible. 1630.
Page [unnumbered] To the Reader.
REader; for a publike good, I haue ad∣uentured to vndergoe a publike cen∣sure, in those times totally addicted to criticisme; induced thereto by think∣ing it better to helpe with those small forces I haue in this dangerusi nua∣sion, than through feare of censures to be silent; chiefly seeing those, who at other times shew themselues prime leaders and souldiers to expell common and vsuall assailants, become the first and cheife fugitiues in these cases of extremity. And hauing found one whose knowledge and experience exceeds the greatest part of our common practitioners, I make bold here to present him to thy eye and vse: hee speakes plainely and honest∣ly, and handles not nice controuersies to small purpose, nor tires with tedious and impertinent discourses; where∣fore if thou be destitute of counsell, it shall not repent thee to vse his: In which if thou finde comfort, giue thankes to him to whom onely all praise is due, who of his mercy diuert, or if not, assist vs in all times of his visitations▪ farewell.Page [unnumbered]
Page [unnumbered] A Treatise of the Plague.
The description of the Plague.
THe Plague is a cruell and contagious Disease, which euerie-where, like a common Disease, inuading Man and Beast, kils verie many; being attended, and as it were associated with a continuall Feauer, Botches, Carbunkles, Spots, Nauseousnesse, Vomitings, and other such maligne accidents. This Disease is not so pernitious or hurtfull, by any Elementarie qualitie, as from a certaine poysonous and venenate malignitie, the force whereof exceeds the condition of common putrefaction. Yet I will not deny, but that it is more hurtfull in certaine Bodyes, Times, and Regions, as also many other Diseases, of which Hippocrates makes mention. But from hence we can onely collect, that the force and malignitie of the Plague may be increased, or diminished according to the condition of the Elementarie Page 2 qualities concurring with it, but not the whole nature and essence thereof to depend thereon.
This pestiferous Poyson principally assailes the Vitall Spirit, the Store-house and originall whereof is the Heart, so that if the Vitall Spirit proue stronger, it driues it farre from the Heart; but if weaker, it being ouercome and weakned by the hostile assault, flies backe into the Fortress of the Heart, by the like contagion infecting the Heart, and so the whole Body, being spred into it by the passages of the Arteries.
Hence it is, pestilent Feauers are some-times simple and folitarie, other-whiles associated with a troope of other affects, as Botches, Carbunkles, Blaines, and Spots, of one or more colours.
It is probable such affects haue their originall from the expulfiue Facultie, whether strong or weake, prouoked by the malignitie of the raging matter: Yet assuredly diuers symptomes and changes arise according to the constitu∣tion of the Body of the Patient, and condition of the hu∣mour in which the virulencie of the Plague is chiefely inherent, and lastly in the nature of the efficient cause.
I thought good by this description to expresse the na∣ture of the Plague, at this my first entrance into this mat∣ter, for we can scarce comprehend it in a proper definition. For although the force thereof be definite and certaine in Nature, yet it is not altogether certaine and manifest in Mens minds, because it neuer happens after one sort: so that in so great varietie it is verie difficult to set downe any thing generall and certaine.
Of the Diuine causes of an extraordinarie Plague.
IT is a confirmed, constant, and receiued opi∣nion in all Ages amongst Christians, that the Plague and other Diseases which violently assaile the life of Man, are often sent by the iust anger of God punishing our offences. The Prophet Amos hath long since taught it, saying, Shall there be affliction, shall there be euill in a Citie, and the Lord hath not done it? On which truly we ought alwayes to meditate, and that for two causes: The first is, that we al∣wayes beare this in mind, that we enioy health, liue, moue, and haue our beings from God, and descends from that Father of Light: and for this cause we are alwayes bound to giue him great and exceeding thankes. The other is, that knowing the calamities, by sending whereof the Di∣uine anger proceeds to reuenge, we may at length repend, and leauing the way of wickednesse, walke in the pathes of godlinesse. For thus we shall learne to see in God, our selues, the Heauen and Earth, the true knowledge of the causes of the Plague, and by a certaine Diuine Philosophy to teach, God to be the beginning and cause of the second causes, which well without the first cause cannot goe about, nor attempt, much lesse performe any thing. for from hence they borrow their force, order, and constancie of order; so that they serue as Instruments for God, who rules and gouernes vs, and the whole World, to performe all his workes, by that constant course of order, which he hath appointed vnchangeable from the beginning. Where∣fore all the cause of a Plague is not to be attributed to these neere and inferiour causes or beginnings, as the Epicures, and Lucianists commonly doe, who attributing too much, Page 4 yea all things to Nature, haue left nothing to Gods Pro∣uidence. On the contrarie, we ought to thinke and beleeue in all our thoughts, That euen as God by his omnipotent Power hath created all things of nothing, so he by his eternall Wisedome preserues and gouernes the same, leads and enclines them as he please, yea verily at his pleasure changes their order, and the whole course of Nature.
This cause of an extraordinarie Plague as we confesse and acknowledge, so here we will not prosecute it any fur∣ther but thinke fit to leaue it to Diuines, because it exceeds the bounds of Nature in which I will now containe my selfe. Wherefore let vs come to the naturall causes of the Plague.
Of the Naturall causes of the Plague, and chiefely of the Seminarie of the Plague by the corruption of the Aire.
THE generall and naturall causes of the Plague are absolutely two, that is, the infection of corrupt Aire, and a preparation and fitnesse of corrupt humours to take that infection; for it is noted before out of the Doctrine of Galen, that our humours may be corrupted, and degenerate into such an alienation which may equall the malignitie of Poyson.
The Aire is corrupted, when the foure seasons of the yeere haue not their seasonablenesse, or degenerate from themselues, either by alteration, or by alienation: as if the constitution of the whole yeere be moyst and rainie by reason of grosse and blacke Clouds; if the Winter be gentle and warme without any Northerly wind, which is cold and dry, and by that meanes contrarie to putrefaction; if the Spring which should be temperate, shall be faultie Page 5 in any excesse of distemper; if the Autumne shall be omi∣nous by Fires in the Aire, with Starres shooting, and as it were falling downe, or terrible Comets, neuer seene with∣out some disaster; if the Summer be hot, cloudy and moist, and without Winds, and the Clouds flye from the South into the North. These and such like vnnaturall constituti∣ons of the seasons of the yeere, were neuer better, or more excellently handled by any, then by Hippocrates in his Booke Epidemion. Therefore the Aire from hence drawes the Seeds of Corruption and the Pestilence, which at the length, the like excesse of qualities being brought in, it sends into the humours of our Bodyes, chiefly such as are thin and serous. Although the Pestilence doth not alwaies necessarily arise from hence, but some-whiles some other kind of cruell and infectious Disease.
But neither is the Aire onely corrupted by these supe∣riour causes, but also by putrid and filthy stinking vapours spread abroad through the Aire encompassing vs, from the Bodyes or Carkasses of things not buried, gapings or hol∣lownesses of the Earth, or Sinkes and such like places be∣ing opened: For the Sea often ouer-flowing the Land in some places, and leauing in the Mudde, or hollownesses of the Earth (caused by Earth-quakes) the huge Bodyes of monstrous Fishes, which it hides in its Waters, hath giuen both the occasion and matter of a Plague. For thus in our time a Whale cast vpon the Tuscane shore, presently cau∣sed a Plague ouer all that Countrey.
But as Fishes infect and breed a Plague in the Aire, so the Aire being corrupted, often causes a Pestilence in the Sea amongst Fishes, especially when they either swim on the top of the Water, or are infected by the pestilent va∣pours of the Earth lying vnder them, and rysing into the Aire thorough the Body of the Water, the latter whereof Aristotle saith, hapneth but seldome. But it often chances, that the Plague raging in any Countrey, many Fishes are cast vp on all the Coast, and may be seene lying on great heapes. But sulphurous vapours, or such as partake of Page 6 any other maligne qualitie, sent forth from places vnder the ground by gapings and gulfes opened by Earthquakes, not onely corrupt the Aire, but also infect and taint the Seeds, Plants, and all the Fruits which we eat, and so trans∣ferre the pestilent corruption into vs, and those Beasts on which we feed, together with our nourishment. The truth whereof, Empedocles made manifest, who by shutting vp a great Gulfe of the Earth opened in a Valley betweene two Mountaines, freed all Sicily from a Plague caused from thence.
If Winds rysing sodainly shall driue such filthy exhala∣tions from those Regions in which they were pestiferous, into other places, they also will carrie the Plague with them thither.
If it be thus, some will say, it should seeme that where∣soeuer stinking and putrid exhalations arise, as about stand∣ing Pooles, Sinkes, and Shambles, there should the Plague reigne, and straight suffocate with its noysome Poyson, the People which worke in such places: but experience finds this false.
We doe answer, that the putrifaction of the Plague is farre different, and of another kind then this common, as that which partakes of a certaine secret malignitie, and wholly contrarie to our liues, and of which we cannot ea∣sily▪ giue a plaine and manifest reason. Yet that vulgar pu∣trefaction wheresoeuer it be, doth easily and quickly enter∣taine and welcome the pestiferous contagion as often as, and whensoeuer it comes, as ioyned vnto it by a certaine familiaritie, and at the length, it selfe degenerating into a pestiferous malignitie, certainely no otherwise then those Diseases which arise in the Plague time, the putrid Disea∣ses in our Bodyes, which at the first wanted virulencie and contagion, as Vlcers, putrid Feauers, and other such Dis∣eases raysed by the peculiar default of the humours, easily degenerate into pestilence, presently receiuing the tainture of the Plague, to which they had before a certain prepar∣ation. Wherefore in time of the Plague, I would aduise Page 7 all Men to shun such exceeding stinking places, as they would the Plague it selfe: that there may be no preparati∣on in our Bodyes, or humours to catch that infection, (without which, as Galen teaches, the Agent hath no power ouer the Subiect, for otherwise in a Plague time the Sicknesse would equally seaze vpon all) so that the impres∣sion of the pestiferous qualitie may presently follow that disposition.
But when we say the Aire is pestilent, we doe not vn∣derstand that sincere, elementarie, and simple as it is of its owne nature, for such is not subiect to putrefaction, but that which is polluted with ill vapours rysing from the Earth, standing Waters, Vaults, or Sea, and degenerates, and is changed from its natiue puritie and simplicitie. But certainly amongst all the constitutions of the Aire fit to receiue a pestilent corruption, there is none more fit then a hot, moyst, and still season: For the excesse of such qua∣lities easily causes putrefaction. Wherefore the South Wind reigning, which is hot and moyst, and principally in places neere the Sea, there Flesh cannot long be kept, but it presently is tainted and corrupted.
Further, we must know, that the pestilent malignitie which rises from the Carcasses or Bodyes of Men, is more easily communicated to Men; that which rises from Oxen, to Oxen; and that which comes from Sheepe, to Sheepe, by a certaine sympathy & familiaritie of Nature: no other∣wise then the Plague which shall seaze vpon some one in a Family, doth presently spread more quickly amongst the rest of that Family, by reason of the similitude of temper, then amongst others of another Family disagreeing in their whole temper. Therefore the Aire thus altered and estranged from its goodnesse of nature necessarily drawne in by inspiration and transpiration, brings in the Seeds of the Plague, and so consequently the Plague it selfe, into Bodyes prepared and made ready to receiue it.
Of the preparation of humours to putrefaction, and admission of pestiferous impressions.
HAuing shewed the causes from which the Aire doth putrefie, become corrupt, and is made partaker of a pestilent and poysonous consti∣tution, we must now declare what things may cause the humours to putrefie, and make them so apt to receiue and retaine the pestilent Aire and venenate qualitie.
Humours putrefie either from fulnesse, which breeds obstruction, or by distemperate excesse, or lastly, by ad∣mixture of corrupt matter and euill iuice, which ill feeding doth specially cause to abound in the Body: For the Plague often followes the drinking of dead and mustie Wines, muddy and standing Waters which receiue the sinkes and filth of a Citie, and Fruits and Puls eaten without discre∣tion in scarcitie of other Corne, as Pease, Beanes, Lentiles, Vetches, Acornes, the Roots of Ferne, and Grasse made into Bread. For such meats obstruct, heape vp ill humours in the Body, and weaken the strength of the Faculties, from whence proceeds a putrefaction of humours, and in that putrefaction a preparation and disposition to receiue, conceiue, and bring forth the Seeds of the Plague: which the filthy Scabbes, maligne Sores, rebellious Vlcers, and putrid Feuers being all fore-runners of greater putrefacti∣on and corruption doe testifie. Vehement passions of the Mind, as Anger, Sorrow, Griefe, Vexation, and Feare helpe forward this corruption of humours, all which hin∣der Natures diligence and care of concoction: For as in the Dogge-dayes the Lees of Wine subseding to the bot∣tome are by the strength and efficacie of heat drawne vp to the top, and mixed with the whole substance of the Page 9 Wine, as it were by a certaine ebullition, or working: So Melancholly humours being the Dregges or Lees of the Blood, stirred vp by the Passions of the Mind, defile or taint all the Blood with their feculent impuritie.
We found that some yeeres agone by experience, at the Battell of StDennis, For all Wounds, by what Weapon soeuer they were made, degenerated into great and filthy putrefactions and corruptions with Feauers of the like nature, and were commonly determined by Death, what Medicines, and how diligently soeuer they were applyed; which caused many to haue a false suspition that the Wea∣pons on both sides were poysoned. But there were mani∣fest signes of corruption and putrefaction, in the Blood let the same day that any were hurt, and in the principall parts dissected afterwards, that it was from no other cause, then an euill constitution of the Aire, and the Minds of the Souldiers peruerted by Hate, Anger, and Feare.
What signes in the Aire and Earth prognosticate a Plague.
WE may know a Plague to be at hand and hang ouer vs, if at any time the Aire, and Seasons of the yeere swarue from their naturall con∣stitution, after those wayes I haue mentioned before, if frequent and long continuing Me∣teors, or sulphurous Thunders infect the Aire; If Fruits, Seeds, and Puls be Worme-eaten; If Birds forsake their Nests, Egges, or Young, without any manifest cause; If we perceiue Women commonly to abort, by continuall breathing in the vaporous Aire, being corrupted and hurt∣full both to the Embrion and originall of life, and by which it being suffocated is presently cast forth and expell'd. Yet notwithstanding, those Airie impressions doe not solely Page 10 corrupt the Aire, but there may be also others raysed by the Sunne from the filthy exhalations, and poysonous va∣pours of the Earth and Waters, or of dead Carkasses, which by their vnnaturall mixture, easily corrupt the Aire subiect to alteration, as which is thin and moyst, from whence diuers Epidemiall Diseases, and such as euerie∣where seaze vpon the common sort, according to the seue∣rall kinds of corruptions, such as that famous Catarrhe with difficultie of breathing, which in the yeere 1510 going almost ouer the World, and raged ouer all the Cities and Townes of France, with great heauinesse of the Head (whereupon the French named it Cucuita) with a strait∣nesse of the Heart and Lungs, and a Cough, a continuall Feauer, and sometimes rauing.
This although it seazed vpon many more then it killed, yet because they commonly dyed who were either let Blood, or purged, it shewed it selfe pestilent by that vio∣lence and peculiar and vnheard of kind of malignitie.
Such also was the English Sweating-sicknesse, or Swea∣ting-Feauer, which vnusuall with a great deale of terrour invaded all the lower parts of Germany, and the Low Countreys, from the yeere 1525 vnto the yeere 1530, and that chiefly in Autumne.
As soone as this pestilent Disease entred into any Citie, suddainly two or three hundred fell sicke on one day, then it departing thence to some other place, the people struck∣en with it languishing, fell downe in a swound, and lying in their Beds, swet continually, hauing a Feauer, a frequent, quicke, and vnequall Pulse, neither did they leaue sweating till the disease left them, which was in one or two dayes at the most: yet freed of it, they languished long after, they all had a beating, or palpitation of the Heart, which held some for two or three yeeres, and others all their life after.
At the first beginning it killed many, before the force of it was knowne: but afterwards verie few, when it was found out by practice and vse, that those who furthered, and continued their sweats, and strengthened themselues Page 11 with Cordials, were all restored. But at certaine times many other popular Diseases spring vp, as putrid Feauers, Fluxes, Bloody Fluxes, Catarrhes, Coughes, Phrenzies, Sqinancies, Pleurisies, Inflamations of the Lungs, Inflama∣tions of the Eyes, Apoplexies, Lethargies, small Pockes, and Measels, Scabbes, Carbuncles, and maligne Pustules. Wherefore the Plague is not alwayes, nor euerie-where of one and the same kind, but of diuers; which is the cause that diuers names are imposed vpon it, according to the varietie of the effects it brings, and symptomes which ac∣companie it, and kinds of putrefaction, and hidden quali∣ties of the Aire.
They affirme, when the Plague is at hand, that Mush∣romes grow in greater aboundance out of the Earth, and vpon the surface thereof many kinds of poysonous insecta creepe in great numbers, as Spiders, Caterpillers, Butter∣flyes, Grasse-hoppers, Beetles, Hornets, Waspes, Flyes, Scorpions, Snailes, Locusts, Toads, Wormes, & such things as are the of-spring of putrefaction. And also wild Beasts tyred with the vaporous malignitie of their Dennes, and Caues in the Earth, forsake them; and Moles, Toads, Vi∣pers, Snakes, Lezards, Aspes, and Crocodiles are seene to flye away, and remoue their habitations in great troopes. For these, as also some other Creatures, haue a manifest power by the guift of God, and the instinct of Nature, to presage changes of Weather, as Raines, Showers, and faire Weather; and Seasons of the yeere, as the Spring, Summer, Autumne, Winter, which they testifie by their Singing, Chirping, Crying, Flying, Playing, and Beating their Wings, aud such like signes; so also they haue a per∣ception of a Plague at hand. And moreouer, the Carcasses of some of them which tooke lesse heed of themselues, suffocated by the pestiferous Poyson of the ill Aire contai∣ned in the Earth, may be euerie-where found, not onely in their Dennes, but also in the plaine Fields.
These vapours corrupted not by a simple putrefaction, but an occult malignitie, are drawne out of the Bowels of Page 12 the Earth into the Aire, by the force of the Sunne and Starres, and thence condensed into Clouds, which by their falling vpon Corne, Trees, and Grasse, infect and corrupt all things, which the Earth produces, and also killes those Creatures which feed vpon them; yet brute Beasts sooner then Men, as which stoop and hold their Heads downe to∣wards the Ground (the maintainer and breeder of this Poyson) that they may get their Food from thence. There∣fore at such times, skilfull Husbandmen, taught by long ex∣perience, neuer driue their Cattell or Sheepe to pasture, before that the Sunne by the force of his Beames, haue wasted and dissipated into Aire, this pestiferous dew hang∣ing and abiding vpon boughes and leaues of Trees, Herbs, Corne, and Fruits.
But on the contrarie, that Pestilence which proceeds from some maligne qualitie from aboue, by reason of euill and certaine coniunction of the Starres, is more hurtfull to Men and Birds, as those, who are neerer to Heauen.
By vsing what cautions in Aire and Dyet, one may preuent the Plague.
HAuing declared the signes fore-shewing a Pe∣stilence: now we must shew by what meanes we may shun the imminent danger thereof, and defend our selues from it. No preuention seemed more certaine to the Ancients, then most speedily to remoue into places farre distant from the infected place, and to be most slow in their returne thither againe. But those who by reason of their businesse, or employments cannot change their habitation, must prin∣cipally haue care of two things: The first is, that they strengthen their Bodyes, and the principall parts thereof against the daily imminent inuasions of the Poyson, or the Page 13 pestiferous and venenate Aire. The other, that they abate the force of it, that it may not imprint its virulencie in the Body; which may be done by correcting the excesse of the qualitie inclining towards it, by the opposition of its con∣trarie. For if it be hotter, then is meet it must be tempered with cooling things; if too cold, with heating things: yet this will not suffice. For we ought besides, to amend and purge the corruptions of the venenate malignitie diffused through it, by smels and perfumes resisting the Poyson thereof. The Body will be strengthened and more power∣fully resist the infected Aire, if it want excrementitious humors, which may be procured by purging and bleeding, and for the rest a conuenient dyet appointed, as shunning much varietie of Meats, and hot and moyst things, and all such which are easily corrupted in the Stomacke, and cause obstructions, such as those things which be made by Com∣fit-makers; we must shun satietie and drunkennesse, for both of them weakens the Powers, which are preserued by the moderate vse of Meats of good iuice.
Let moderate exercises in a cleere Aire, and free from any venemous tainture, preceed your Meales.
Let the Belly haue due euacuation either by Nature or Art.
Let the Heart, the seat of Life, and the rest of the Bow∣els be strengthened with Cordials and Antidotes applyed and taken (as we shall here-after shew) in the forme of Epithemes, Ointments, Emplasters, Waters, Pilles, Pow∣ders, Tablets, Opiates, Fumigations, and such like.
Make choyce of a pure Aire and free from all pollution, and farre remote from stinking places, for such is most fit to preserue life, to recreate and repaire the Spirits, whereas on the contrarie a cloudy, or mistie Aire, and such as is in∣fected with grosse and stinking vapours, duls the Spirits, deiects the Appetite, makes the Body faint and ill coloured, oppresses the Heart, and is the breeder of many diseases.
The Northern Wind is healthfull, because it is cold and dry. But on the contrarie, the Southern Wind, because it Page 14 is hot and moyst, weakens the Body by sloth or dulnesse, opens the Pores, and makes them peruious to the pestife∣rous malignitie. The Western Wind is also vnwholsome, because it comes neere to the nature of the Southern: wherefore the Windowes must be shut vp on that side of the House on which they blow, but opened on the North and East side, vnlesse it happen the Plague come from thence.
Kindle a cleere Fire in all the Lodging Chambers of the House, and perfume the whole House with Aromaticke things, as Frankensence, Myrrhe, Benzoine, Ladanum, Styrax, Roses, Mirtle-leaues, Lauender, Rosemary, Sage, Sauory, Wild Time, Marierome, Broome, Pine Apples, peeces of Firre, Iuniper Berries, Cloues, Perfumes: and let your Cloathes be aired in the same.
There be some, who thinke it a great preseruatiue against the pestilent Aire to keepe a Goat in their houses, because the capacitie of the Houses filled with the strong sent which the Goat sends forth, prohibits the entrance of the venemous Aire: which same reason hath place also in sweet smels, and besides, it argues, that such as are hungry are apter to take the Plague, then those who haue eaten moderately: for the Body is not onely strengthened with Meat, but all the passages thereof are filled by the vapours diffused from thence, by which otherwise the infected Aire would find a more easie entrance to the Heart.
Yet the common sort of People yeeld another reason for the Goat, which is, That one ill sent driues away ano∣ther, as one wedge driues forth another; which calles to my mind that which is recorded by Alexander Benedictus, that there was a Scythian Physition, which caused a Plague arysing from the infection of the Aire, to cease, by causing all the Dogges, Cats, and such like Beasts which were in the Citie, to be hilled, and casting their Carcasses vp and downe the Streets, that so by the comming of this new putrid vapour as a stranger, the former pestiferous infecti∣on, as an old guest, was put out of its Lodging, and so the Page 15 Plague ceased. For Poysons haue not onely an antipathy with their Antidotes, but also with some other Poysons.
Whilst the Plague is hot it is not good to stirre out of doore before the rysing of the Sunne: wherefore we must haue patience, vntill he haue cleansed the Aire with the comfortable light of his Beames, and dispersed all the foggy and nocturnall pollutions, which commonly hang in the Aire in dirtie, and specially in low places and Valleys.
All publike and great meetings and assemblyes must be shunned.
If the Plague begin in Summer, and seeme principally to rage, helped forward by the Summers heat, it is the best to performe a Iourney begun, or vndertaken for perfor∣mance of necessarie affaires, rather vpon the night time, then on the day, because the Infection takes force, strength and subtiletie of substance, by which it may more easily permeate and enter in, by the heat of the Sunne; but by night Mens Bodies are more strong, and all things are more grosse and dense. But you must obserue a cleane contrarie course if the malignitie seeme to borrow strength, and celeritie from coldnesse. But you must alwayes eschew the Beames of the Moone, but specially at the full: For then our Bodyes are more languid and weake, and fuller of ex∣crementitious humors. Euen as Trees which for that cause must be cut downe in their season of the Moone, that is, in the decrease thereof.
After a little gentle walking in your Chamber, you must presently vse some meanes that the principall parts may be strengthened by suscitating the heat and Spirits, and that the passages to them may be filled, that so the way may be shut vp from the Infection comming from with∣out. Such as by the vse of Garlike haue not their Heads troubled, nor their inward parts inflamed, as Countrey people, and such as are vsed to it, to such there can be no more certaine preseruatiue and antidote against the pestife∣rous Fogges or Mists, and the nocturnall obscuritie, then to take it in the morning with a draught of good Wine; Page 16 for it being aboundantly diffused presently ouer all the Bo∣dy, filles vp the passages thereof, and strengheneth it in a moment.
For Water, if the Plague proceed from the tainture of the Aire, we must wholly shun and auoid Raine-water, be∣cause it cannot but be infected by the contagion of the Aire. Wherefore the Water of Springs, and of the deepest Welles are thought best. But if the malignitie proceed from the vapours contained in the Earth, you must make choyse of Raine-water. Yet it's more safe to digest euerie sort of Water by boyling it, and to preferre that Water before other, which is pure and cleerer to the sight, and without either tast or smell, and which besides suddainly takes the extremest mutation of heat and cold.
Of the Cordiall Remedies by which we may preserue our Bodyes in feare of the Plague, and cure those already infected there-with.
SVch as cannot eat without much labour, exer∣cise, and hunger, and who are no louers of Breakefasts, hauing euacuated their Excre∣ments, before they goe from home, must strengthen the Heart with some Antidote against the virulencie of the Infection. Amongst which, Aqua Theriacalis, or Treacle Water, two Ounces, with the like quantitie of Sacke, is much commended being drunke, and rubbing the Nose-thrils, Mouth, and Eares with the same; for the Treacle Water strengthens the Heart, expels Poyson, and is not onely good for a preserua∣tiue, but also to cure the Disease it selfe: For by sweat it driues forth the Poyson contained within. It should be made in Iune, at which time all simple Medicines, by the vitall heat of the Sunne, are in their greatest efficacie.
Page 17 The composition whereof is thus: Take the Roots of Gentian, Cyperus, Tormentill, Diptam, or Fraxinella Elecampaine, of each one Ounce; the Leaues of Mullet, Carduus Benedictus, Diuels-bit, Burnet, Scabious, Sheepes Sorrell, of each halfe a Handfull; of the tops of Rue a little quantitie; Mirtle Berries one Ounce; of Red Rose Leaues, the Flowres of Buglosse, Borage, and St Iohns Wurt, of each one Ounce: let them be all cleansed, dryed, and macerated for the space of 24 houres in one pound of White Wine or Malmsey, and of Rose Water or Sorrell Water, then let them be put in a Vessell of Glasse, and add thereto of Treacle and Methridate, of each foure Ounces, then distill them in Balneo Mariae, and let the distilled Wa∣ter be receiued in a Glasse Viall, and let there be added thereto of Saffron two Drammes, of Bole Armenicke, Terra Sigillata, Yellow Sanders, Shauings of Iuorie and Harts-horne, of each halfe an Ounce, then let the Glasse be well stopped and set in the Sunne for the space of eight or tenne dayes. Let the prescribed quantitie be taken euerie morning so oft as shall be needfull. It may be giuen with∣out hurt to sucking Children, and to Women great with Child. But that it may be the more pleasant, it must be strayned thorough an Hippocras Bagge, adding thereto some Sugar and Cynnamon.
Some thinke themselues sufficiently defended with a Root of Elecampaine, Zedoarie, or Angelica, rowled in their Mouth, or chawed betweene their Teeth.
Others drinke euerie morning one Dramme of the Root of Gentian brused, being macerated for the space of one night in two Ounces of White Wine.
Others doe take Worme-wood Wine.
Others sup vp in a rere Egge one Dramme of Terra Sigillata, or of Harts-horne, with a little Saffron, and drinke two Ounces of Wine after it.
There be some that doe infuse Bole Armenicke, the Roots of Gentian, Tormentill, Diptam, the Berryes of Iuniper, Cloues, Mace, Cynnamon, Saffron, and such like, Page 18 in Aqua Vitae and strong White Wine, and so distill it in Balneo Mariae.
This Cordiall Water that followeth is of great virtue. Take of the Roots of the long and round Aristolochia, Tormentill, Diptam, of each three Drammes, of Zedoarie, two Drammes, Lignum Aloes, Yellow Sanders, of each one Dramme, of the Leaues of Scordium, St Iohns Wurt, Sorrell, Rue, Sage, of each halfe an Ounce, of Bay and Iuniper Berryes, of each three Drammes, Cytron Seeds one Dramme, of Cloues, Mace, Nutmegs, of each two Drammes, of Masticke, Olibanum, Bole Armenicke, Terra Sigillata, Shauings of Harts-horne, and Iuorie, of each one Ounce, of Saffron one Scruple, of the Conserues of Roses, Buglosse Flowers, Water Lillyes, and old Treacle, of each one Ounce, of Camphire halfe a Dramme, of Aqua Vitae halfe a pint, of White Wine two pints and a halfe, make thereof a distillation in Balneo Mariae. The vse of this distilled Water is euen as Treacle Water is.
The Electuarie following is verie effectuall. Take of the best Treacle three Ounces, Iuniper berries and Carduus Seeds of each one Dramme and a halfe, of Bole Armenicke prepared halfe an Ounce, of the Powder of the Electuarie De Gemmis, and Diamargariton Frigidum, the Powder of Harts-horne, and Red Corall, of each one Dramme: mixe them with the Sirrupe of the Rinds and Iuyce of Pome-citrons as much as shall suffice, and make thereof a liquid Electuarie in the forme of an Opiate, let them take euerie morning the quantitie of a Filberd, drinking after it two Drammes of the Water of Scabions, Cherryes, Car∣duus Benedictus, and of some such like cordiall things, or of strong Wine.
The following Opiate is also verie profitable, which also may be made into Tablets. Take of the Roots of Angelica, Gentian, Zedoarie, Elecampaine, of each two Drammes; of Cytron and Sorrell Seeds of each halfe a Dramme; of the dryed Rinds of Cytrous, Cinnamon, Bay and Iuniper Berryes, and Saffron, of each one Scruple; Page 19 of Conserue of Roses and Buglosse, of each one Ounce; of fine hard Sugar as much as is sufficient: make thereof Tablets of the weight of halfe a Dramme, let him take one of them two houres before meat: Or make thereof an Opiate with equall parts of Conserues of Buglosse and Mel Anthosatum, and so adding all the rest dry and in Pow∣der: Or take of the Roots of Valerian, Tormentill, Dip∣tam, of the Leaues of Rue, of each halfe an Ounce; of Saffron, Mace, Nutmegs, of each halfe a Dramme; of Bole Armenicke prepared halfe an Ounce; of Conserue of Roses, and Sirupe of Lemons as much as will be suffi∣cient to make thereof an Opiate liquid enough. Or take of the Roots of both the Aristolochia's, of Gentian, Tor∣mentill, Diptam, of each one Dramme and a halfe; of Ginger three Drammes; of the Leaues of Rue, Sage, Mints, and Peny-royall, of each two Drammes; of Bay and Iuniper Berries, Citron Seeds, of each foure Scruples; of Mace, Nutmegs, Cloues, Cinnamon, of each two Drammes; of Lignum Aloes, and Yellow Saunders, of each one Dramme; of Male Frankincense, i. Olibanum, Masticke, shauings of Harts-horne and Iuorie, of each two Scruples; of Saffron halfe a Dramme; of Bole Ar∣menicke, Terra Sigillata, Red Corall, Pearle, of each one Dramme; of Conserues of Roses, Buglosse Flowers, Water Lillyes, and old Treacle, of each one Ounce; of Loafe Sugar one pound and a quarter: A little before the end of the making it vp, add two Drammes of Confectio Alkermes, and of Camphire dissolued in Rose Water one Scruple: make thereof an Opiate according to Art, the Dose thereof is from halfe a Dramme to halfe a Scruple.
Treacle and Mithridate saithfully compounded excell all other Cordiall Medicines, adding for euerie halfe ounce of each of them, one Ounce and a halfe of Conserues of Roses, or of Buglosse, or of Violets, and three Drammes of Bole Armenicke prepared: Of these being mixed with stirring, and incorporated together, make a Conserue: It must be taken in the morning the quantitie of a Filberd: Page 20 You must choose that Treacle that is not lesse then foure yeeres old, nor aboue twelue: That which is some-what new, is iudged to be most meet for Cholericke persons, but that which is old for Flegmaticke and old Men. For at the beginning the strength of the Opium that enters into the composition thereof, remaines in its full vertue for a yeere: but afterwards the more yeeres old it waxeth, the strength thereof is more abolished, so that at length the whole composition becommeth verie hot.
The Confection of Alkermes is verie effectuall both for a preseruatiue against this Disease, and also for the Cure.
The quantitie of a Filberd of Rubarbe, with one Cloue chawed or rowled in the Mouth, is supposed to repell the comming of the pestilent Aire: As also this composition following.
Take of preserued Citron and Orange Pilles, of each one Dramme; of Conserue of Roses, and of the Roots of Buglosse, of each three Drammes; of Citron Seeds halfe an Ounce; of Annice Seeds, and Fennell Seeds, of each one Dramme; of Angelica Roots, foure Scruples; Sugar of Roses, as much as suffices: Make a Confection, and couer it with Leaues of Gold, and take a little of it out of a Spoone before you goe abroad euerie morning.
Or take of Pine Apple Kernels, and Fisticke Nuts, in∣fused for the space of sixe houres in the Water of Scabi∣ous, and Roses of each two Ounces; of Almonds blan∣ched in the fore-named Waters halfe a Pound; of prefer∣ued Citron and Orange Pilles, of each one Dramme and a halfe; of Angelica Roots foure Scruples: Make them ac∣cording to Art vnto the forme of March-pane, or of any other such like Confection: And hold a little piece thereof often in your Mouth.
The Tablets following are most effectuall in such a case. Take of the Roots of Diptam, Tormentill, Valerian, Ele∣campaine, Eringoes, of each halfe a Dramme; of Bole Armenicke, Terra Sigillata, of each one Scruple; of Cam∣phire, Cinnamon, Sorrell Seeds, and Zedoarie, of each Page 21 one Scruple▪ of thē Species of the Electuarie Diamarga∣riton Frigidum, two Scruples; of Conserue of Roses, Buglosse, preserued Citron Pilles, Mithridate, Treacle, of each one Dramme; of fine Sugar dissolued in Scabious, and Carduus Water, as much as shall suffice: Make there∣of Tablets of the weight of a Dramme, or halfe a Dramme, take them in the morning before you eat.
The Pilles of Ruffus are accounted most effectuall pre∣seruatiues, so that Ruffus himselfe saith, that he neuer knew any to be infected that vsed them: The composition of them is thus.
Take of the best Aloes halfe a Dramme; of Gumme Ammoniacum two Drammes; of Mirrhe two Drammes and an halfe; of Masticke two Drammes; of Saffron seuen Granes: Put them altogether, and incorporate them with the Iuice of Citrons, or the Sirupe of Limons, and make thereof a Masse, and let it be kept in Leather: Let the Patient take the weight of halfe a Dramme euery morning two or three houres before Meat, and let him drinke the Water of Sorrell after it, which through its tartnesse, and the thinness of its parts, doth infringe the force and power of the malignitie, or putrefaction: For experience hath taught vs, that Sorrell being eaten, or chawed in the Mouth doth make the pricking of Scorpions vnhurtfull. And for those Ingredients which doe enter into the composition of those Pilles, Aloes doth clense and purge; Myrrhe resisteth putrefaction; Masticke strengthens; Saffron exhilarates and makes liuely the Spirits that gouerne the Body, especi∣ally the Vitall and Animall.
Those Pilles that follow are also much approued. Take of Aloes one Ounce▪ of Myrrhe halfe an Ounce; of Saffron one Scruple; of Agaricke in Trochisces, two Drammes; of Rubarbe in powder, one Dramme; of Cinnamon two Scruples; of Masticke one Dramme and a halfe; of Citron Seeds twelue Graines: Powder them all as is requisite, and make thereof a Masse with the Sirupe of Maiden Haire: Let it be vsed as afore-said.
Page 22 If the Masse begin to waxe hard, the Pilles that must presently be taken, must be mollified with the Sirupe of Lemons.
Take of washed Aloes two Ounces; of Saffron one Dramme; of Myrrhe halfe an Ounce; of Ammoniacum dissolued in White Wine, one Ounce; of Honey of Ro∣ses, Zedoarie, Red Saunders, of each one Dramme; of Bole Armenicke prepared two Drammes; of Red Corall halfe an Ounce; of Camphire halfe a Scruple: Make thereof Pilles according to Art. But those that are subiect or apt to the Haemorrhoides ought not at all, or verie sel∣dome to vse those kinds of Pilles that doe receiue much Aloes.
They say, that King Mithridates affirmed by his owne writing, that whosoeuer tooke the quantitie of an Hasell Nut of the preseruatine following, and dranke a little Wine after it, should be free from Poyson that day. Take two Wall-Nuts, those that be verie dry, two Figges, twen∣tie Leaues of Rue, and three Graines of Salt: beat them, and incorporate them together, and let them be vsed as is afore-said.
This remedy is also said to be profitable for those that are bitten or stung by some venomous Beast, and for this onely, because it hath Rue in the composition thereof. But you must forbid Women that are with Child the vse of this Medicine, for Rue is hot and dry in the third degree, and therefore it is said to purge the Wombe, and prouoke the Flowers, whereby the nourishment is drawne away from the Child.
Of such varietie of Medicines euerie one may make choyse of that that is most agreeable to his tast, and as much thereof as shall be sufficient.
Of Locall Medicines to be applyed outwardly.
THose Medicines that haue proper and excel∣lent vertues against the Pestilence are not to be neglected to be applyed outwardly, or carried in the Hand. And such are all aro∣maticall, astringent, or spirituous things which therefore are endewed with vertue to repell the ve∣nomous and pestiferous Aire from comming and entring into the Body, and to strengthen the Heart and the Braine. Of this kind are Rue, Baulme, Rosemary, Scordium, Sage, Worme-wood, Cloues, Nutmegs, Saffron, the Roots of Angelica, and Louage, and such like, which must be mace∣rated one night in sharpe Vineger and Aqua Vitae, and then tyed in a knot as bigge as an Egge: Or rather let it be car∣ryed in a Sponge made wet or soaked in the said Infusion. For there is nothing that doth sooner and better hold the spirituous vertue and strength of aromaticke things, then a Sponge. Wherefore it is of principall vse either to keepe or hold sweet things to the Nose, or to apply Epithemes, and Fomentationsto the Heart.
Those sweet things ought to be hot or cold, as the season of the yeere, and kind of the Pestilence is. As for example, in the Summer you ought to infuse and macerate Cinamon and Cloues beaten together with a little Saffron in equall parts, of Vineger of Roses, and Rose Water, into which you must dip a Sponge, which rowled in a faire Linnen Cloath you may carrie in your Hand, and often smell to.
Take of Worme-wood halfe a Handfull; ten Cloues; of the Roots of Gentian and Angelica, of each two Drams; of Vineger and Rose Water, of each two Ounces; of Treacle and Mithrid te, of each one Dramme: beat and mixe them all well together, and let a Sponge be dipped Page 24 therein, and vsed as aboue-said. They may also be enclosed in Boxes, made of sweet Wood, as of Iuniper, Ceder, or Cypresse, and so carryed for the same purpose.
But there is nothing more easie to be carryed then Po∣manders: the forme of which is thus. Take of Yellow Saunders, Mace, Citron Pilles, Rose and Mirtle Leaues, of each two Drammes; of Benzoin, Ladanum, Storax, of each halfe a Dramme; of Cinnamon, and Saffron, of each two Scruples; of Camphire, and Amber Greece, of each one Scruple; of Muske three Graines: Make there of a Pomander, with Rose Water, with the infusion of Tra∣gacanth. Or take Red Rose Leaues, the Flowers of Wa∣ter Lillyes, and Violets, of each one Ounce; of the three Saunders, Coriander Seeds, Citron Pilles, of each halfe an Ounce; of Camphire one Dramme: Let them all be Powders, and with Water of Roses, and Tragacanth make a Pomander.
In the Winter it must be made thus: Take of Storax, Benzoin, of each one Dramme and a halfe; of Muske halfe a Scruple; of Cloues, Lauander, and Cyperus, of each two Drammes; of the Root of Orris, i. Flower de Luce, and Calamus Aromaticus, of each two Drammes and a halfe; of Amber Greece three Drammes; of Gum Tragacanth dissolued in Rose Water and Aqua Vitae, as much as shall suffice: Make thereof a Pomander.
And for the same purpose you may also vse to carrie about with you sweet Powders made of Amber Greece, Storax, Orris, Nutmegs, Cinamon, Mace, Cloues, Saffron, Benzoin, Muske, Camphire, Roses, Violets, Iuncus Odo∣ratus, Marioram, and such like: Of which being mixed together, Powders may be compounded and made.
Take of the Roots of Orris two Drammes; of Cype∣rus, Calamus Aromaticus, Red Roses, of each halfe an Ounce; of Cloues halfe a Dramme; of Storax one Dramme; of Muske eight Graines: Mixe them, and make a Powder for a Bagge. Or take the Roots of Orris two Ounces; Red Rose Leaues, White Saunders, Storax, Page 25 of each one Ounce; of Cyperus one Dramme; of Cala∣mus Aromaticus one Ounce; of Marierome halfe an Ounce; of Cloues three Drammes; of Lauender halfe a Dramme; of Coriander Seeds two Drammes; of good Muske halfe a Scruple; of Ladanum and Benzoin, of each a Dramme; of Nutmegs, and Cinnamon, of each two Drammes: Make thereof a fine Powder, and sow it in a Bagge.
It will be verie conuenient also to apply to the Region of the Heart, a Bagge filled with Yellow Saunders, Mace, Cloues, Cinnamon, Saffron, and Treacle, shaken together, and incorporated, and sprinckled ouer with strong Vine∣ger and Rose Water in Summer, and with strong Wine and Muskedine in the Winter.
These sweet aromaticke things that are so full of Spi∣rits, smelling sweetly and strongly, haue admirable virtues to strengthen the principall parts of the Body, and to stirre vp the expulsiue facultie to expell the Poyson.
Contrarie-wise, those that are stinking and vnsauerie procure a desire to vomit, and dissolution of the Powers, by which it is manifest how foolish and absurd their per∣swasion is, that councell such as are in a pestilent constitu∣tion of the Aire, to receaue and take in the stinking and vnsauorie vapors of Sinkes and Priuies, and that especially in the morning.
But it will not suffice to carrie those Preseruatiues alone without the vse of any other thing, but will be also verie profitable, to wash all the whole Body in Vineger of the decoction of Iuniper and Bay Berryes, the Roots of Gen∣tian, Marigolds, St Iohns Wort, and such like, with Trea∣cle or Mithridate also dissolued in it. For Vineger is an enemie to all Poysons in generall, whether they be hot or cold: For it resisteth and hindreth putrefaction, because it is cold and dry: Therefore in this, inanimate Bodyes, as Flesh, Hearbes, Fruits, and many other such like things may be kept a long time without putrefaction. Neither is it to be feared, that it should obstruct the Pores, by Page 26 reason of its coldnesse, if the Body be bathed in it: For it is of subtile parts, and the Spices boyled in it haue vertue to open.
Whosoeuer accounteth it hurtfull to wash his whole Body there-with, let him wash but onely his Arme-holes, the Region of his Heart, his Temples, Groine parts of Generation, as hauing great and maruelous sympathy with the principall and noble parts.
If any mislike bathing▪ let him annoint himselfe with the following Vnguent.
Take Oyle of Roses foure Ounces; Oyle of Spike two Ounces; of the Powder of Cinnamon and Cloues, of each one Ounce and a halfe; of Benzoin halfe an Ounce; of Muske sixe Graines; of Treacle halfe a Dramme; of Venice Turpentine one Dramme and a halfe; of Waxe as much as shall suffice: Make thereof a soft Vnguent.
You may also drop a few drops of Oyle of Masticke, of Sage, or of Cloues, and such like, into the Eares, with a little Ciuet or Muske.
Of the signes of such as are insected with the Plague.
WE must not stay so long before we pronounce one to haue the Plague, vntill there be paine and a tumour vnder his Arme-holes, or in his Groyne, or Spots (vulgarly called Tokens) appeare ouer all the Body, or Carbuncles arise: For many dye through the venenate malignitie, be∣fore these signes doe appeare. Wherefore the chiefest and truest signes of this Disease, are to be taken from the Heart, being the Mansion of Life, which chiefly, and first of all is wont to be assaulted by the force of the Poyson. Therefore they that are infected with the Pestilence, are vexed with often swoundings, and fainting; their Pulse is Page 27 feebler and slower then others, but some-times more fre∣quent, but that is specially in the night season; they feele prickings ouer all their Body, as if it were the pricking of Needles; but their Nose-thrils doe itch especially▪ by occasion of the maligne vapours rysing vpwards from the lower and inner, into the vpper parts, their Breast bur∣neth, their Heart beateth, with paine vnder the left Dug, difficultie of taking breath, Ptissicke, Cough, paine of the Heart, & such an elation or puffing vp of the Hypocondria or sides of the Belly distended with the aboundance of vapours raysed by the force of the feuerish heat, that the Patient will in a manner seeme to haue the Tympanie. They are molested with a desire to vomit, and oftentimes with much and painfull vomiting, wherein greene and blacke matter is seene, and alwayes of diuers colours, answering in proportion to the excrements of the lower parts, the Sto∣macke being drawne into a consent with the Heart, by rea∣son of the vicinitie and communion of the Vessels; often∣times Blood alone, and that pure, is excluded and cast vp in vomiting; and it is not onely cast vp by vomiting out of the Stomacke, but also verie often out of the Nose∣thrils, Fundament, and in Women out of the Wombe; the inward parts are often burned, and the outward parts are stiffe with cold, the whole heat of the Patient being drawne violently inward, after the manner of a Cupping-Glasse, by the strong burning of the inner parts; then the Eye-lids wax blew, as it were through some contusion, all the whole Face hath a horrid aspect, and as it were the co∣lour of Lead, the Eyes are burning red, and, as it were, swolne or puffed vp with Blood, or any other humour, shed teares; and to conclude, the whole habite of the Bo∣dy is some-what changed and turned yellow.
Many haue a burning Feauer, which doth shew it selfe by the Pacients vlcerated Iawes, vnquenchable thirst, dry∣nesse and blacknesse of the Tongue, and it causeth such a Phrensie by inflaming the Braine, that the Pacients running naked out of their Beads, seeke to throw themselues out Page 28 of Windowes into the Pits and Riuers that are at hand. In some the Ioynts of their Body are so weakned, that they cannot goe nor stand, from the beginning they are as it were buryed in a long swound and deepe sleepe, by reason that the Feauer sendeth vp to the Brayne the grosse vapors from the crude and cold humors, as it were from greene Wood newly kindled to make a Fire.
Such sleeping doth hold them especially while the mat∣ter of the Sore or Carbuncle is drawne together and be∣ginneth to come to suppuration. Often-times when they are awaked out of sleepe, there doe spots and markes ap∣peare dispersed ouer the Skin, with a stinking sweat. But if those vapours be sharpe that are stirred vp vnto the Head, in stead of sleepe they cause great waking, and al∣wayes there is much diuersitie of accidents in the Vrine of those that are infected with the Plague, by reason of the diuers temperature and condition of Bodyes: neither is the vrine at all times, and in all Men of the same consistence and colour: For some-times they are like vnto the vrine of those that are sound and in health, that is to say, laudable in colour and substance, because that when the Heart is affe∣cted by the venomous Aire, that entereth in vnto it, the Spirits are more greatly grieued and molested then the hu∣mours: but those, i. the Spirits, are infected and corrupted when these doe begin to corrupt.
But Vrines onely shew the dispositions of the humours or parts in which they are made, collected together, and through which they doe passe.
This reason seemeth truer to me then theirs which say, that Nature terrified with the malignitie of the Poyson auoyds contention, and doth not resist or labour to digest the matter that causeth the Disease.
Many haue their appetites so ouerthrowne, that they can abstaine from meat for the space of three dayes together.
And to conclude, the varietie of accidents is almost infi∣nite, which appeare and spring vp in this kind of Disease, by reason of the diuersitie of the Poyson and condition of Page 29 the Bodyes and greeued parts: but they doe not all ap∣peare in each Man, but some in one, and some in another.
What signes in the Plague are mortall.
II is a most deadly signe in the Pestilence, to haue a continuall and burning Feauer, to haue the Tongue dry, rough, and blacke, to breathe with difficultie, and to draw in a great quan∣titie of breath, but breathe out little; to talke idely; to haue the Phrensie and madnesse together, with vnquenchable thirst, and great watching; to haue Con∣vulsions, the Hickit, Heart beating, and to swound verie often and vehemently; further, tossing and turning in the Bead, with a loathing of meats, and daily vomits of a greene, blacke, and bloody colour; and the Face pale, blacke, of a horrid and cruell aspect, bedewed with a cold sweat, are verie mortall signes.
There are some which at the verie beginning haue vice∣rous and painfull wearinesse, pricking vnder the Skin, with great torment of paine; the Eyeslooke crewelly and staringly, the voyce waxeth hoarce, the Tongue rough and shutting, and the vnderstanding decaying, the Pacient vtte∣reth and talketh of friuolous things. Truly those are verie dangerously sicke, no otherwise then those whose Vrine is pale, blacke, and troubled like vnto the Vrine of carriage Beasts, or Lye, with diuers coloured clouds, or contents, as blew, greene, blacke, fattie, and oyly, as also resembling in shew a Spiders Webbe, with a round body swimming on the top.
If the Flesh of the Carbuncle be dry and blacke, as it were seared with a hot Iron, if the Flesh about it be blacke and blew, if the matter doe flow backe, and turne in, if they haue a laske, with greatly stinking, liquid, thin, clam∣my, Page 30 blacke, greene, or blewish Ordure; If they auoyd Wormes by reason of the great corruption of the humors and yet for all this the Pacient is neuer the better; If the Eyes waxe often dimme, if the Nose-thrils be contracted or drawne together, if they haue a grieuous crampe, the Mouth be drawne aside, the Muscles of the Face being drawn or contracted equally or vnequally; If the Nailes be blacke; If they be often troubled with the Hickit, or haue a Convulsion and resolution ouer all the Body, then you may certainly prognosticate that Death is at hand, and you may vse Cordiall Medicines onely, but it is too late to purge or let Blood.
Of the Prognostication that is to be instituted in the Plague.
WHen you thorowly know the nature of the Disease, and accidents thereof, and the con∣dition, function, and excellencie of the Bo∣dy and grieued parts, you may well fore∣tell the future motions and euents of Dis∣eases: Although that this may be spoken in generall, that there is no certaine prediction in pestilent Diseases, either to health or death, for they haue verie vn∣constant motions, sometimes swift and quicke, sometimes slow, and sometimes choaking or suffocating in a moment while one breathes in the venomous Aire, as he is going about any of his necessarie affaires, hauing Pustles rysing in the Skin with sharpe paine, and as though the whole Bo∣dy were pricked all ouer with Needles, or the stings of Bees. Which I haue seene with my Eyes in the Plague that was at Lyons when Charles the French King lay there. It many times commeth to passe that the accidents that were very vehement and raging a little before, are sodainly Page 31 asswaged, and the Pacients doe thinke themselues better, or almost perfectly sound. Which hapned to Mary one of the Queene-Mother her Mayds in that notable pestilent constitution of the Aire that yere when Charles the French Kinglay at the Castle of Rossilion: For when she was in∣fected, a great Tumour or Bubo arose in her Groyne, and sodainly it went in againe, so that the third day of her sick∣nesse, she said she was without any griefe or disease at all, but that she was some-what troubled with a difficultie of making Water, and I thinke it was, because the Bladder was inflamed by the reflux of the matter; but she was sound in Mind and Body, and walked vp and downe the Chamber on the same day that she dyed. The strangenesse of which thing made the King so fearfull, that he hasted to depart thence.
Although this Disease doth spare no Man, of what age, temperature, complexion, dyet, and condition soeuer, yet it assaulteth young Men that are Cholericke and Sanguine, more often then old Men that are cold and dry, in whom the moysture that is the nourisher of putrefaction by rea∣son of their age is consumed, and the wayes, passages, and pores of the Skin whereby the venomous Aire should en∣ter and pierce in, are more strait and narrow. And more∣ouer, because old men doe alwayes stay at home, but young men for their necessarie businesse, and also for their delight and pleasure, are alwayes abroad on the day time in the Aire, wherehence the pollution of the Pestilence commeth more often.
That Pestilence that commeth by the corruption of the humours, is not so contagious as that which commeth by the default of the Aire. But those that are Flegmaticke and Melancholy are most commonly greeued with that kind of Pestilence, because in them the humours are more clammy and grosse, and their Bodyes more cold and lesse perspirable, for which causes the humours sooner and more speedily putrefie.
Men that are of an ill iuyce are also most apt to this kind Page 32 of Pestilence, for in the naughtie qualitie of the iuyce there is a great preparation of the humours vnto putrefaction: You may know it by this, that whē the Pestilence raigneth, there are no other Diseases among the common People, which haue their originall of any ill iuyce but they all de∣generate into the Plague. Therefore when they begin to appeare and wander vp and downe, it is a token that the Pestilence will shortly cease, or is almost at an end.
But here also I would haue you to understand those to be of an ill iuice, which haue no Pores in their Skin, by which, as it were by Riuers, the euill iuyce which is con∣trarie to Nature, may be euacuated and purged. And I haue noted and obserued, that those are lesse in danger of the Pestilence which haue cancerous Vlcers, and stinking Sores in their Noses, and such as are infected with the French Poxe, haue by reason thereof, Tumours and rotten Vlcers, or haue the Kings Euill running vpon them, the Leprosie, or the Scabbe: And to conclude, all those that haue Fistulous and running Vlcers in their Bodyes.
I thinke those that haue Quartaine Feauers are the bet∣ter priuiledged for the same, because that by the Fit causing sweat, that commeth euerie fourth day, they auoyd much of the ill iuyce that was ingendred.
This is more like to be true, then to thinke that the Poyson that commeth from without, may be driuen away by that which lurketh within.
Contrarie-wise, Women that are great with Child, as I haue noted, because they haue much ill iuyce, being pro∣hibited from their accustomed euacuations, are verie apt to take this Disease, and doe seldome recouer after they are infected.
Blacke or blew Impostumes, and Spots and Pustules of the same colour dispersed ouer the Skin, argue that the Disease is altogether vncurable and mortall.
When the Swelling or Sore goeth or commeth before the Feauer, it is a good signe, for it declareth that the ma∣lignitie is verie weake and feeble, and that Nature hath Page 33 ouercome it, which of it selfe is able to driue so great por∣tion thereof from the inner parts. But if the Sore or Tu∣mour come after the Feauer, it is a mortall & deadly signe, for it is certaine that that commeth of the venomous mat∣ter not translated, but dispersed, not by the victorie of Na∣ture, but thorough the multitude of the matter, with the weight whereof Nature is ouercome.
When the Moone decreaseth, those that are infected with the Pestilence are in great doubt and danger of death, because then the humours that were collected and gathered together before the full of the Moone, through delay and aboundance, do swell the more, and the Faculties by which the Body is gouerned, become more weake and feeble, be∣cause of the imbecilitie of the natiue heat, which before was nourished and augmented by the light, and so conse∣quently by the heat of the full Moone: For as it is noted by Aristotle, the wainings of the Moone are more cold and weake: and thence it is that Women haue their menstruall Fluxes chiefely or most commonly at that time.
In a grosse and cloudy Aire the pestilent Infection is lesse vehement and contagious then in a thin and subtle Aire; whether that thinnesse of the Aire proceed from the heat of the Sunne, or from the North Wind and cold. Therefore at Paris where naturally, and also through the aboundance of filth that is about the Citie, the Aire is darke and grosse, the pestilent Infection is lesse fierce and contagious then it is in Prouince, for the subtletie of the Aire stimulates or helps forward the Plague.
But this Disease is mortall and pernitious wheresoeuer it be, because it suddainly assaulteth the Heart, which is the Mansion, or as it were the Fortresse or Castle of Life: but commonly not before the signes and tokens of it ap∣peare on the Body: and yet you shall scarce find any Man that thinketh of calling the Physitian to helpe to preserue him from so great danger before the signes thereof be eui∣dent to be seene and felt: but then the Heart is assaulted. And when the Heart is so assaulted, what hope of life is Page 34 there, or health to be looked for? Therefore because Me∣dicines come oft-times too late, and this Malady is as it were a suddaine and a winged Messenger of our death, it commeth to passe that so many die thereof. And moreouer because at the first suspition of this so dire and cruell a Disease, the imagination and mind (whose force in the diuersly stirring vp of the humours is great and almost in∣credible) is so troubled with feare of imminent death, and despaire of health, that together with the perturbed hu∣mours, all the strength and power of Nature falles and sinkes downe.
This you may perceiue and know, by reason that the Keepers of such as are sicke, and the Bearers which are not fearefull, but verie confident, although they doe all the ba∣sest offices which may be for the sicke, are commonly not infected, and seldome dye thereof if infected.
Into what place the Patient ought to betake himselfe so soone as he finds himselfe infected.
WE haue said that the perpetuall and first originall of the Pestilence commeth of the Aire, therefore so soone as one is blasted with the pestiferous Aire, after he hath taken some preseruatiue against the malignitie thereof, he must with∣draw himselfe into some wholesome Aire, that is cleane and pure from any venomous Infection or Contagion for there is great hope of health by the alte∣ration of the Aire, for we doe most frequently and aboun∣dantly draw in the Aire of all things, so that we cannot want it for a minute of time: therefore of the Aire that is drawne in, dependeth the correction, amendment, or increase of the Poyson or malignitie that is receiued, as Page 35 the Aire is pure, sincere, or corrupted. There be some that doe thinke it good to shut the Patient in a cloase Chamber, shutting the Windowes to prohibite the entrance of the Aire as much as they are able: But I thinke it more conue∣nient that those Windowes should be open from whence that Wind bloweth that is directly contrarie vnto that which brought in the venomous Aire: For although there be no other cause, yet if the Aire be not moued, or agitated, but shut vp in a cloase place, it will soone be corrupted. Therefore in a cloase and quiet place that is not subiect to the entrance of the Aire, I would wish the Patient to make Wind, or to procure Aire with a thicke and great Cloath dipped or macerated in Water and Vineger mixt together, and tyed to a long Staffe, that by tossing it vp and downe the cloase Chamber, the Wind or Aire thereof may coole and recreate the Patient. The Patient must euerie day be carryed into a fresh Chamber, and the Beds and the Linnen Cloathes must be changed: There must alwayes be a cleere and bright Fire in the Patients Chamber, and especially in the night, whereby the Aire may be made more pure, cleane, and voyd of nightly vapours, and of the filthy and pestilent breath proceeding from the Patient, or his Excre∣ments. In the meane time, least (if it be in hot weather) the Patient should be weakned or made more faint by rea∣son that the heat of the Fire doth disperse and wast his Spirits, the Floore or Ground of the Chamber must be sprinkled or watered with Vineger and Water, or strowed with the branches of Vines made moyst in cold Water, with the Leaues and Flowers of Water Lillyes, or Poplar, or such like. In the feruent heat of Summer he must ab∣staine from strong Fumigations that do smell too strongly, because that by assaulting the Head, they increase the paine. If the Patient could goe to that cost, it were good to hang all the Chamber where he lyeth, and also the Bed, with thicke or coarse Linnen Cloathes moysted in Vineger and Water of Roses. Those Linnen Cloathes ought not to be verie white, but some-thing browne, because much and Page 36 great whitenesse doth disperse the sight, and by wasting the Spirits doth increase the paine of the Head: for which cause also the Chamber ought not to be verie lightsome.
Contrariwise on the night season there ought to be Fi∣ers and Perfumes made, which by their moderate light, may moderately call forth the Spirits.
Sweet Fiers may be made of little peeces of the Wood of Iuniper, Broome, Ash, Tamarisk, of the Rind of Oran∣ges, Lemmons, Cloues, Benzoin, Gumme Arabicke, Orris Roots, Myrrhe grossely beaten together, and layd on the burning Coales put into a Chasing Dish. Truly the breath or smoake of the Wood or Berries of Iuniper, is thought to driue Serpents a great way from the place where it is burnt. The vertue of the Ash Tree against venome is so great, as Pliny testifieth, that a Serpent will not come vnder the shaddow thereof, no not in the morning nor euening, when the shaddow of any thing is most great and long, but she will run from it. I my selfe haue proued that if a circle or compasse be made with the Boughes of an Ash Tree, and a Fier made in the middest thereof, and a Serpent put within the compasse of the Boughes, that the Serpent will rather run into the Fier then thorow the Ashes Boughes.
There is also another meanes to correct the Aire. You may sprinkle Vineger of the decoction of Rue, Sage, Rose∣mary, Bay Berries, Iuniper Berries, Cyperus Nuts, and such like, on Stones or Brickes made red hot, and put in a Pot or Pan, that all the whole Chamber where the Patient lyeth may be perfumed with the vapour thereof.
Also Fumigations may be made of some matter that is more grosse and clammy, that by the force of the Fire the sume may continue the longer, as are Ladanum, Myrrhe, Masticke, Rosine, Turpentine, Storax, Olibanum, Benzoin, Bay Berries, Iuniper Berries, Cloues, Sage, Rosemary, and Marioram stamped together, and such like.
Those that are rich and wealthy may haue Candles and Fumes made of Wax, or Tallow mixed with some sweet things.
Page 37 A Spong macerated in Vinegar of Roses and Water of the same, and a little of the decoction of Cloues, and of Camphire added thereto, ought alwayes to be ready at the Patients hand, that by often smelling vnto it, the Animall Spirits may be recreated and strengthened.
The Water following is very effectuall for this matter. Take of Orris fourė Ounces; of Zedoarie, Spikenard, of each sixe Drammes; of Storax, Benzoin, Cynamon, Nut∣megs, Cloues, of each one Ounce and a halfe; of old Trea∣cle halfe an Ounce: Bruise them into a grosse Powder, and macerate them for the space of twelue houres in 4 pound of white and strong Wine, then distill them in a Limbecke of Glasse on hoat Ashes, and in the distilled Liquor wet a Spong, and then let it be tyed in a Linnen Cloath, or closed in a Box, and so often put vnto the Nose-thrils. Or take of the Vineger and Water of Roses, of each foure Ounces; of Camphire six Graines; of Treacle halfe a Dramme: let them be dissolued together, and put into a Viall of Glasse, which the Patient may often put vnto his Nose.
This Nodula following is more meet for this matter. Take of Rose Leaues two Pugils; of Orris halfe an Ounce; of Calamus Aromaticus, Cynnamon, Cloues, of each two Drammes; of Storax and Benzoin, of each one Dramme and a halfe; of Cyperus halfe a Dramme: beat them into a grosse Powder, make thereof a Nodula betweene two peeces of Cambricke or Lawne of the bignesse of an Hand Ball, then let it be moystned in 8 Ounces of Rose Water, and two Ounces of Rose Vineger, and let the Patient smell vnto it often. These things must be varied according to the time: For in the Summer you must vse neither Muske nor Ciuet, nor such like hot things: and moreouer women that are subiect to fits of the Mother, & those that haue Feauers or the Head ach ought not to vse those things that are so strong smelling & hot, but you must make choise of things more gentle: Therefore things that are made with a little Camphire and Cloues bruised and macerated together in Rose Water and Vineger of Roses shall be sufficient.
What Dyet ought to be obserued, and first of the choyce of Meats.
THE order of Dyet in a Pestilent disease ought to be cooling and drying: not slender, but some-what full. Because by this kind of Dis∣ease there commeth wasting of the Spirits, and exolution of the Faculties, which infer∣reth often swounding, therefore that losse must be repaired as soone as may be with more quantitie of Meats that are of easie concoction and digestion. Therefore I neuer saw any being infected with the Pestilence that kept a slender dyet that recouered his health but dyed, and few that had a good stomacke and fed well dyed.
Sweet, grosse, moyst, and clammy Meats, which are al∣together, and exquisitely of subtile parts, are to be auoy∣ded; for the sweet doe easily take Fier, and are soone in∣flamed; the moyst will putrefie; the grosse and clammy obstruct, and therefore ingender putrefaction; those meats that are of subtile parts, ouer-much attenuate the humors and inflame them, and doe stirre vp hot and sharpe vapors into the Brayne, whereof commeth the Feauer. Therefore we must eschew Garlike, Onions, Mustard, Salted and spiced Meats, and all kinds of Puls must also be auoyded, because they ingender grosse winds, which are the authors of obstruction: but the decoction of them is not alwayes to be refused, because it is a prouoker of Vrine. Therefore let this be their order of Dyet: Let their Bread be of Wheat or Barly, well wrought, well leauened and salted neither too new nor too stale: Let them be fed with such Meat as may be easily concocted and digested, and may en∣gender much laudable iuyce, and verie little excrementall, as are the Flesh of Weather Lambes, Calues, Kidds, Le∣uerets, Page 39 Pullets, Partriches, Pigeons, Thrushes, Larkes, Quailes, Blacke Birds, Turtle Doues, Moore Hennes, Phesants, and such like, auoyding Water Foules. Let the Flesh be moyst∣ned in Veriuyce of vn-ripe Grapes, Vineger, or the iuyce of Lemmons, Oranges, Cytrons, tart Pomegranats, Barbe∣ryes, Gooseberryes, or red Currance, or of Garden and wild Sorrell: for all these sowre things are verie whole∣some in this kind of Disease, for they doe stirre vp the appetite, resist the venomous qualitie and putrefaction of the humours, restraine the heat of the Feauer, and prohi∣bite the corruption of the meats in the stomacke. Although that those that haue a more weake stomacke▪ and are en∣dewed with a more exact sence, & are subiect to the Cough and Diseases of the Lungs, must not vse these vnlesse they be mixed with Sugar and Cynnamon.
If the Patient at any time be fed with sodden Meats, let the Broathes be made with Lettuce, Purslaine, Succorie, Borage, Sorrell, Hoppes, Buglosse, Cresses, Burnet, Mari∣golds, Cheruill, the cooling Seeds, Barley and Oates clean∣sed, with a little Saffron, for Saffron doth engender many Spirits, and resisteth Poyson. To these opening Roots may be added for to auoyd obstruction; yet much Broath must be refused by reason of moysture. The Fruit of Capers be∣ing eaten in the beginning of the Meale prouoke the ap∣petite, and prohibite obstructions, but they ought not to be seasoned with ouer-much Oyle & Salt, they may also with good successe be put in Broathes.
Fishes are altogether to be auoyded, because they doe soone corrupt in the Stomacke: but if the Patient be de∣lighted with them, those that liue in stony places must be chosen, that is to say, those that doe liue in pure and sandy Water, and about Rocks, and Stones, as are Trowts, Pikes, Pearches, Gudgions, and Crauises boiled in Milke, Wilks, and such like. And concerning Sea-Fish, he may be fed with Giltheads, Gurnarts, with all the kinds of Cod-fish, Whitings not seasoned with Salt, and Turbuts.
Fagges potched and eaten with the iuyce of Sorrell, are Page 40 very good. Likewise Barley Water seasoned with the Graynes of a tart Pomegranate, and if the Feauer be vehe∣ment, with the Seeds of white Poppey. Such Barley Wa∣ter is easie to be concocted and digested, it cleanses greatly, and moystens and mollifies the Belly. But in some it pro∣cures an appetite to vomit, and paine of the Head, and those must abstaine from it. But in stead of Barley Water they may vse Pappe, and Bread crummed in the decoction of a Capon.
For the second course let him haue Raysons of the Sun, newly sodden in Rose Water with Sugar, soure Damaske Prunes, tart Cherryes, Pippins, and Katherine Peares.
And in the latter end of the Meale, Quinces rosted in Embers, Marmelate of Quinces, & Conserues of Buglosse or of Roses, and such like may be taken: Or else this Powder following.
Take of Coriander Seeds prepared two Drammes; of Pearle, Rose Leaues, shauings of Harts-Horne and Iuory, of each halfe a Dramme; of Amber two Scruples; of Cynnamon one Scruple; of Vnicornes Horne, and the Bone in a Stagges Heart, of each halfe a Scruple; of Sugar of Roses foure Ounces: Make thereof a Powder, and vse it after Meats.
If the Patient be some-what weake, he must be fed with Gelly made of the Flesh of a Capon, and Veale sod∣den together in the Water of Sorrell, Carduus Benedictus, with a little quantitie of Rose Vineger, Cynnamon, Sugar, and other such like, as the present necessitie shall seeme to require.
In the night season for all euents and mischances, the Patient must haue ready prepared Broath of Meats of good digestion, with a little of the iuyce of Citrons, or Pomegranates.
This Restauratiue that followeth may serue for all. Take of the Conserue of Buglosse, Borage, Violets, Water Lillyes, and Succory, of each two Ounces; of the Powder of the Electuarie Diamargaritum Frigidum, of the Tro∣chisces Page 41 of Camphire, of each three drams; of Citron seedes, Carduus seedes, Sorrell seedes, the rootes of Dip∣tamnus, Tormentill, of each two drams; of the broth of a young Capon, made with Lettuce, Purselaine, Buglosse, and Borraged boile in it, sixe pintes; put them in a Lembecke of glasse with the flesh of two Pullets, of so manie Partridges, and with fifteene leaues of pure gold: make thereof a di∣stillation ouer a soft fier. Then take of the distilled liquor halfe a pinte, straine it through a woollen bagge, with two ounces of white Sugar, and halfe a dram of Cinamon: let the patient vse this when he is thirstie. Or else put the flesh of one old Capon, and of a legge of Veale, two minced Partridges, and two drams of whole Cinamon without a∣nie liquor in a lembecke of glasse, well luted and couered, and so let them boile in Balueo Mariae vnto the perfect con∣coction. For so the fleshes will be boiled in their owne iuice without any hurt of the fier; then let the iuice bee pressed out therehence with a presse: giue the patient for euery dose one ounce of the iuice with some cordiall wa∣ters, some Trisantalum, and Diamargaritum frigidum. The preserues of sweete fruits are to bee auoided, because that sweete things turne into cholor; but the confections of tart Prunes, Cherries, and such like may be fitly vsed. But because there is no kinde of sickenesse that so weakens the strength as the Plague; it is alwaies necessarie, but yet spa∣ringly and often, to feede the patient, still hauing respect vnto his custome, age, the region, and the time: for through emptinesse there is great danger, lest that the venomous matter that is driuen out to the superficiall parts of the bo∣die, should be called backe vnto the inward parts, by an hun∣grie stomacke, and the stomacke it selfe should bee filled with choloricke, hot, thinne, and sharpe excrementall hu∣mors, whereof commeth biting of the stomacke, and gri∣pings in the guttes.
What drinke the Patient infected ought to vse.
IF the Feauer be great and burning, the patient must abstain from wine, vnlesse that he be sub∣iect to swounding; and he may drink the Ox∣ymell following in stead thereof.
Take of fair water three quarts, wherin boile foure ounces of hony vntill the third part bee consumed, scumming it continually; then straine it and put it into a clean vessell, and adde thereto foure ounces of vineger, and as much cynamon as will suffice to giue it a taste. Or else a sugered water as followeth. Take two quarts of fair water, of hard sugar sixe ounces, of cynamon two ounces, straine it through a woollen bagge or cloth without anie boiling: and when the patient will vse it, put thereto a little of the iuice of Citrons. The syrupe of the iuce of Citrons excel∣leth amongst all others that are vsed against the Pestilence.
The vse of the Iulep following is also verie wholesome. Take of the iuice of Sorrell well clarified halfe a pinte, of the iuice of Lettuce so clarified foure ounces, of the best hard Sugar one pound, boile them together vnto a perfecti∣on, let them be strained and clarified, adding a little before the end a little vineger, let it be vsed betweene meales, with boyled water, or with equall portions of the water of Sor∣rell, Lettuce, Scabious, and Buglosse: or take of this former described Iulep strained and clarified foure ounces, let it be mixed with one pound of the forenamed cordiall waters, and boile them together a little. And when they are taken from the fire, put thereto of yellow Sanders one dram, of beaten Cinamon halfe a dram, straine it through a cloth: when it is cold, let it bee giuen vnto the patient to drinke with the iuice of Citrons. Those that haue accustomed to drinke Sider, Perrie, Beere, or Ale, ought to vse that drinke still, so that it be clear, transparent, and thinne, and made of those fruits that are somewhat tarte; for troubled and Page 43 dreggish drinke doth not onely engender grosse humors, but also crudities, windinesse, and obstructions of the first region of the bodie, whereof comes a feauer. Oxycrate being giuen in manner following, doth asswage the heate of the feauer, and represse the putrefaction of the humors, and the fiercenesse of the venome, and also expelleth the water through the veines, if so be that the patients are not troubled with spitting of bloud, cough, yexing, and alto∣gether weake of stomacke: for such must auoid all tart things. Take of faire water one quart; of white or red Vineger three ounces; of fine Suger foure ounces; of Sirup of Roses two ounces: boile them alittle, and then giue the patient thereof to drinke. Or, Take of the iuice of Lemons and Citrons, of each halfe an ounce; of iuice of soure Pome∣granats two ounces; of the water of Sorrell and Roses, of each one ounce; of fair water boiled, as much as shall suffice: make therof a Iulep, and vse it between meales. Or take of Sirup of Lemons and of red Currance, of each one ounce, of the water of Lillies foure ounces; of faire water boiled halfe a pinte▪ make therof a Iulep. Or, Take of the syrups of wa∣ter Lillies, and Vineger, of each halfe an ounce, dissolve it in fiue ounces of the water of sorrell; of faire water one pinte: make thereof a Iulep. But if the patient bee young and haue a strong and good stomacke, and choloricke by natnre, I thinke it not vnmeete for him to drinke a full and large draught of fountaine water cold; for that is effectu∣all to restraine and quench the heate of the feauer, and con∣trariwise they that drinke cold water often, and a verie small quantitie at a time, as the Smith doth sprinkle water on the fire at his forge, doe increse the heate and burning, and thereby make it endure the longer. Therefore by the iudgement of Celsus, when the disease is in the chiefe in∣crease, and the patient hath endured thirst for the space of three or foure dayes, cold water must be giuen vnto him in great quantitie, so that hee may drinke past his satietie, that when his belly and stomacke are filled beyond measure, and sufficiently cooled, he may vomit. Some doe not drinke Page 44 so much thereof as may cause them to vomite, but do drinke euen vnto satietie, and so vse it for a cooling medicine; but when either of these is done, the patient must be coue∣red with many clothes, and so placed that he may sleepe, and for the most part, after long thirst and watching, and after long fulnesse, and long and great heate sound sleepe commeth, by which great sweat is sent out, and that is a present helpe. But thirst must sometimes bee quenched with little peeces of Melons, Gourds, Cucumbers, with the leaues of Lettuce, Sorrell, and purslane made moist or so∣ked in cold water, or with a little square peece of a Citron, Lemon, or Orange macerated in Rose water, and sprinkled with sugar, and so held in the mouth, and then changed. But if the patient be aged, his strength weake, phlegmaticke by nature, and giuen to wine, when the state of the feauer is somewhat past, and the chiefe heate beginning to asswage, he may drinke wine verie much delayed at his meate, for to restore his strength and to supply the want of the wa∣sted Spirits. The patient ought not by anie meanes to suf∣fer great thirst, but must mitigate it by drinking, or else al∣lay it by washing his mouth with Oxicrate, and such like, and hee may therein also wash his hands and his face, for that doth recreate the strength. If the Fluxe or Laske troubel him, he may verie well vse to drinke steeled water, and also boiled milke, wherein many stones comming red hot out of the fire haue beene manie times quenched. For the drinesse and roughnesse of the mouth it is verie good to haue a cooling, moistening and lenifying lotion of the mucilaginous water of the infusion of the seedes of Quinces, Psilium, id est, Flea-wurt, adding thereto a little Camphyre, with the water of Plantaine and Roses, then cleanse and wipe out the filth, and then moisten the mouth, by holding therein a little oyle of sweete Almonds mixed with a little sirup of Violets. If the roughnesse doe breede or degenerate into Vlcers, they must be touched with the water of the infusion of sublimate, or Aqua fortis.
Of Antidotes to be vsed in the Plague.
NOw we must entreate of the proper cure of this disease, which must bee vsed as soone as may bee possible, because this kinde of poison in swiftnesse exceedes the celeritie of the medicine. Therefore it is better to erre in this, that you should thinke euerie disease to be pestilent in a pestilent season, and to cure it as the Pestilence: because that so long as the ayre is polluted with the seedes of the Pestilence, the humors in the bodie are soone infected with the vicinitie of such an ayre, so that then there happeneth no disease void of the Pestilence, that is to say, which is not pestilent from the beginning by his owne nature, or which is not made pestilent. Manie begin the cure with bloud-letting, some with purging, and some with Antidotes. We taking a consideration of the sub∣stance of that part that is assaulted, first of all begin the cure with an Antidote, beeause that by its specificke proper∣tie, it defends the heart from poison, as much as it is offen∣ded therewith. Although there are also other Antidotes which preserue and keep the heart and the patient from the danger of Poison and the Pestilence, not onely because they doe infringe the power of the poison in their whole sub∣stance, but also because they driue it and expell it out of all the bodie by sweate, vomiting, scouring, and such other kindes of euacuations. The Antidote must be giuen in such a quantitie as may bee sufficient to ouercome the poison; but because it is not good to vse it in greater quantitie than neederh, lest it should ouerthrow our nature, for whose preseruation only it is vsed, therefore that which cannot bee taken together and at once, must bee taken at seuerall times, that some portion thereof may daily be vsed so long, Page 46 vntill all the accidents, effects, and impressions of the poison be past, and that there bee nothing to be feared. Some of those Antidotes consist of portions of venomous things, be∣ing tempered together, and mixed in an apt proportion with other medicines, whose power is contrarie to the ve∣nom: as Treacle, which hath for an ingredient the flesh of Vipers, that it being thereto mixed may serue as guide to bring all the Antidote vnto the place where the venenate malignitie hath made the chiefe impression; because by the similitude of nature and sympathie, one poison is sodainly snatched and carried vnto another. There are other abso∣lute poisonous, which neuerthelesse are Antidotes one vn∣to another: as a Scorpion himselfe cureth the pricke of a Scorpion. But Treacle and Mithridate excell all other An∣tidotes: for by strenthening the noblest part, and the man∣sion of life, they repaire and recreate the wasted Spirits, and ouercome the poyson, not onely being taken inwardly, but also applied outwardly to the region of the heart, Botches and Carbuncles: for by an hidden propertie they draw the poisons vnto them, as Amber doth Chaffe, and digest it when it is drawne, and spoile and robbe it of all its deadly force; as it is declared at large by Galen, in his booke de Theriaca ad Pisonem, by most true reasons, and experiments. But you will say, that these things are hote, and that the Plague is often accompanied with a burning Feauer. But therereto I answer, there is not so great danger in the Fea∣uer as in the Pestilence, although in the giuing of Treacle I would not altogether seeme to neglect the Feauer, but thinke it good to minister or apply it mixed with cordiall cooling medicines, as with the Trochisces of Camphire, Sirup of Lemmons, of water Lillies, the water of Sorrell, and such like. And for the same cause wee ought not to choose old Treacle, but that which is of a middle age, as of one or two yeares old: to those that are strong, you may giue halfe a dramme, and to those that are more weake a dramme. The patient ought to walke presently after that he hath taken Treacle, Mithridate, or anie other Antidote; Page 47 but yet as moderately as he can: not like vnto many, which when they perceiue themselues to be infected, do not cease to course and runne vp and downe, vntill they haue no strength to sustaine their bodies, for so they doe dissolue na∣ture, so that it cannot suffice to ouercome the contagion. After moderate walking, the patient must be put warme to bedde, and couered with manie clothes, and warme brick∣bats, or tiles applied to the soles of his feete; or in stead thereof you may vse swines bladders filled with hot wa∣ter, and apply them to the grindes and arme-holes to pro∣uoke sweate: for sweating in this disease is a most excel∣lent remedie, both for to euacuate the humors in the Fea∣uer, and also to driue forth the malignitie in the Pestilence, although euerie sweate brings not forth the fruit of health. For George Agricola saith, that he saw a woman at Misnia in Germanie that did sweat so for the space of three dayes, that the bloud came forth at her head and breast, and yet neuerthelesse she died.
This potion following will prouoke sweate. Take the roots of China shaued in thinne peeces one ounce and halfe; of Guaiacum two ounces; of the barke of Tamariske one ounce; of Angelica rootes two drams; of the shauings of Harts-horne one ounce; of Iuniper berries three drams; put them into a viall of glasse that will containe sixe quarts; put therto foure quarts of rūning or riuer water that is pure and clear, macerate them for the space of one whole night on the hot ashes: and in the morning boile them all in Balneo Mariae vntill the halfe be consumed, which will be done in the space of sixe houres; then let them be strained through a bagge, and then strained againe, but let that be with sixe ounces of sugar of Roses, and a little Treacle; let the pati∣ent take eight ounces or fewer of that liquor, and it will prouoke sweat. The pouder following is also verie pro∣fitable. Take of the leaues of Dictamnus, the rootes of Tor∣mentill, Betoni, of each halfe an ounce; of bole Armenicke prepared one ounce; of Terra Sigillata three drams; of A∣loes and Mirrhe of each halfe a dram; of Saffron one dram; Page 48 of Masticke two drammes: pouder them all according to Arte, and giue one dram thereof dissolued in Rose-water, or the water of wilde sorrell, and let the patient walke so soone as he hath taken that pouder; then let him be laid in his bed to sweate as I haue shewed before. The water fol∣lowing is greatly commended against poyson. Take the roots of Gentian and Cyperus, of each three drams; of Carduus benedictus, Burnet, of each one handfull; of Sor∣rell seedes, and Diuels-bit, of each two pugils; of Ivie and Iuniper berries, of each halfe an ounce; of the flowers of Buglosse, Violets, and red Roses, of each two pugils, pou∣der them somewhat grossely; then soake or steepe them for a night in white wine and Rose water; then adde thereto of Bole Armenicke one ounce; of Treacle halfe an ounce, distill them all in Balneo Mariae, and keepe the distilled li∣quor in a viall of glasse well couered or close stopped for your vse: let the patient take sixe ounces thereof with Su∣gar and a little Cinamon and Saffron: then let him walke, and then sweate, as is aforesaid: the Treacle and cordiall water formerly prescribed are verie profitable for this pur∣pose. Also the water following is greatly commended. Take of Sorrell sixe handfuls: of Rue one handfull: drie them, and macerate them in Vineger for the space of foure and twentie houres, adding thereto foure ounces of Trea∣cle: make thereof a distillation in Balneo Mariae, and let the distilled water be kept for your vse; and so soone as the pa∣tient doth thinke himselfe to bee infected, let him take foure ounces of that liquor, then let him walk and sweat. He must leaue sweating when he beginneth to waxe faint and weake, or when the humor that runs down his bodie begins to waxe cold, then his bodie must be wiped with warme clothes, and dried. The patient ought not to sweate with a full stomacke, for so the heate is called away from perfor∣ming the office of concoction: also he must not sleepe when he is in his sweate, lest the malignitie, goe inwardly with the heate and spirits vnto the principall parts; but if the patient be much enclined to sleepe, he must be kept from it Page 49 with hard rubbing, and bands tyed about the extreame parts of his bodie, and with much noise of those that are about him, and let his friends comfort him with the good hope that they haue of his recouerie; but if allthis will not keepe him from sleepee, dissolue Castoreum in tart Vineger, and Aqua vitae, and let it be iniected into his no∣strels: and let him be kept continually waking the first day, and on the second and third, euen vnto the fourth; that is to say, vnto the perfect expulsion of the venom; & let him not sleep aboue three or foure houres on a day and night. In the meane time let the Physition that shall bee present consider all things by his strength: for it is to be feared, that great watchings will dissolue the strength, and make the patient weake: you must not let him eate within three houres after his sweating; in the meane season, as his strength shall require, let him take the rinde of a preserued Citron, conserue of Roses, bread toasted and steeped in wine, the meate of a preserued Myrabo∣lane, or some such like thing.
Whether purging and bloud-letting be necessarie in the beginning of pestilent diseases.
SO soone as the heart is strengthened and corroberated with cordials & Antidotes, we must come vnto phlebotomie and pur∣ging. As concerning bloud-letting in this case, there is a great controuersie among Physitions. Those that wish it to be vsed, say or affirme that the pestilent Feauer doth infixe it selfe in the bloud, and therein also the pestilent ma∣lignitie taketh its seate; and therefore it will soone infect the other humors, vnlesse that the bloud be euacuated, and the infection that remaineth in the bloud be thereby ta∣ken Page 50 away. Contrariwise those that do allow phleboto∣mie in this case, alledge that it often commeth to passe that the bloud is void of malignitie when the other hu∣mors are infected with the venemous contagion. If a∣ny man require my iudgement in this doubtfull questi∣on, I say, that the Pestilence sometimes doth depend on the default of the ayre: This default being drawn through the passages of the bodie, doth at length pierce vnto the entrals, as wee may vnderstand by the abscesses which breake out one while behinde the eares, sometimes in the arme-holes, and sometimes in the groines, as the braine, heart, or liuer are infected. And hereof also come Car∣buncles, and other collections of matter and eruptions, which are seene in all parts of the bodie, by reason that nature vsing the strength of the expulsiue facultie, doth driue forth whatsoeuer is noisome or hurtfull. Therefore if the Physition will follow this motion of nature, he must neither purge, nor let bloud, lest that by a contrarie mo∣tion, that is, by drawing in from without, the motion of nature which proceeds outwardly from within, should be troubled. So wee often see in those who are purged or let bloud for such Buboes as come through vnlawfull copulation, that the matter is thereby made contumaci∣ous, and by drawing it inwardly it speedily causeth the French Poxes. Wherefore when Buboes, Carbuncles, and other pestilent eruptions appeare, which come through the default of the ayre, wee ought to abstaine from purging and phlebotomie; but it is sufficient to forearme the heart inwardly and outwardly with Anti∣dotes that are endewed with a proper vertue of resisting the poison. For it is not to bee doubted, but that when nature is debilitated with both kindes of euacuation, and when the spirits together with the bloud are exhau∣sted, the venemous ayre will soone pierce, and be recei∣ued into the emptie bodie, where it exerciseth its tyran∣nie to the vtter destruction thereof.
In the yeare of our Lord God 1565. in which yeare Page 51 there was great mortalitie through out all France, by rea∣so nof the Pestilence, and pestilent diseases, I earnestly and diligently enquired of all the Physitions, and Chirur∣gians of all the Cities (through whom King Charles the ninth passed in his progresse vnto Bayon) what successe their patients had after they were letten bloud & purged, wherunto they all answerd alike, that they had diligently obserued, that all that were infected with the Pestilence, and were letten bleede some good quantitie of bloud, or had their bodies somewhat strongly purged, thencefor∣wards waxed weaker and weaker, and so at length died; but others which were not let bloud, nor purged, but took cordial Antidotes inwardly and applied them outwardly, for the most part escaped and recouered their health: for that kinde of Pestilence tooke its originall of the pri∣matiue and solitarie default of the ayre, and not of the corruption of the humors. The like euent was noted in the hoarsenesse that wee spake of before: that is to say, that the patients waxed worse and worse by pur∣ging, and phlebotomie; but yet I doe not disallow ei∣ther of those remedies, if there bee great fulnesse in the bodie, especially in the beginning, and if the matter haue a cruell violence, whereof may be feared the breaking in vnto some noble part. For we know that it is confir∣med by Hippocrates, that what disease soeuer is caused by repletion, must bee cured by euacuation: and that in diseases that are verie sharpe, if the matter doe swell, it ought to be remedied the same day, for delay in such dis∣eases is dangerous; but such diseases are not caused or inflicted vpon mans bodie by reason or occasion of the Pestilence, but of the diseased bodies and diseases them∣selues commixed together with the Pestilence; there∣fore then peraduenture it is lawfull to purge strongly, and to let a good quantitie of bloud, lest that the pestilentve∣nome should take hold of the matter that is prepared, and so infect it with a contagion, whereby the pestilence ta∣keth new and farre greater strength; especially as Cel∣susPage 52 admonisheth vs, where he saith; that, By how much the sooner those sodaine inuasions do happen, by so much the sooner remedies must bee vsed, yea or rather rashly applied; therefore if the veines swell, the face waxe fie∣rie red, if the arteries of the temples beate strongly, if the patient can verie hardly breath by reason of a weight in his stomacke, if his spittle be bloudie, then ought hee to be let bloud without delay, for the causes before men∣tioned. It seemes best to open the liuer veine on the left arme, whereby the heart and the spleene may be better discharged of their abundant matter; yet bloud letting is not good at all times, for it is not expedient when the bodie beginneth to waxe stiffe by reason of the comming of the Feuer; for then by drawing backe the heate and spirits inwardly, the outward parts beeing destitute of bloud waxe stiffe and cold; therefore bloud cannot bee letten then without great losse of the strength, and per∣turbation of the humors. And it is to bee noted, that when those plethoricke causes are present, there is one Indication of bloud-letting in a simple pestilent Feauer, and another in that which hath a Bubo, id est, a Botch or a Carbuncle ioined therewith. For in one or both of these being ioined with a vehement and strong burning Feuer, bloud must bee letten by opening the veine that is neerest vnto the tumor or swelling against nature, kee∣ping the straightnesse of the fibres, that this being open the bloud might be drawne more directly from the part affected; for all and euerie retraction of putrified bloud vnto the noble parts is to bee auoided, because it is noi∣some and hurtfull to nature, and to the patient. There∣fore for examples sake, admit the patient bee plethoricke by repletion which is called Ad vasa, id est, vnto the ves∣sells, and Ad vires, id est, vnto the strength: and there∣withall he hath a tumor that is pestilent in the parts be∣longing vnto his head or necke, the bloud must be let out of the cephalicke or median veine, or out of one of their branches dispersed in the arme on the greened side. But Page 53 if through occasion of fatt, or any other such like cause those veines doe not appeare in the arme, there bee some that giue counsell in such a case to open the veine that is betweene the forefinger and the thombe, the hand being put into warme water, whereby that veine may swell and be filled with bloud, gathered thither by meanes of the heate. If the tumor bee vnder the arme-hole or a∣bout those places, the liuer veine, or the median must be opened which runneth alongst the hand: if it bee in the groine, the veine of the hamme, or Saphena, or any other veine aboue the foote that apreareth well, but alwaies on the greeued fide. And phlebotomie must bee performed before the third day: for this disease is of the kinde or nature of sharpe diseases; because that within foure and twentie houres it runneth past helpe. In letting of bloud you must haue consideration of the strength. You may perceiue that the patient is readie to swound when that his forehead waxeth moist, with a small sweate sodainely arising, by the aking or paine at the stomacke, with an ap∣petite to vomite, and desire to go to stoole, gaping, black∣nesse of the lippes, and sodaine alteration of the face vnto palenesse: and lastly most certainely by a small and slow pulse: and then you must lay your finger on the veine, and stop it vntill the patient come to himselfe againe, either by nature; or else restored by Arte, that is to say, by giuing vnto him bread dipped in wine, or anie other such like thing: then if you haue not taken bloud enough, you must let it goe againe and bleede so much as the great∣nesse of the disease, or the strength of the patient will permit or require: which being done, some one of the An∣tidotes that are prescribed before will be verie profitable to be drunk, which may repaire the strength and infrigne the force of the malignitie.
Of purging medicines in a pestilent disease.
IF you call to minde the proper indications, purging shall seeme necessarie in this kinde of disease, and that must be prescribed as the pre∣sent case and necessitie requireth; rightly con∣sidering that the disease is sodaine, and doth require medicines that may with all speede driue out of the bodie the hurtfull humor wherein the noisome qua∣litie doth lurke and is hidden; which medicines are di∣uerse by reason of the diuersity of the kinde of the humor, and the condition, or temperature of the patient. For this purpose sixe graines of Scammonie beaten into pou∣der, or else tenne graines are commonly ministred to the patient with one dramme of Treacle. Also pils may bee made in this forme: Take of Treacle and Mithridate, of each one dramme; of Sulphur vinum finely poudered halfe a dram; of Diagridium foure graines: make thereof Pils. Or, Take three drams of Alloes; of Myrhe and Saffron, of each one dramme; of white Hellebore and Asarabac∣ca, of each foure scruples: make thereof a masle with old Treacle, and let the patient take foure scruples there∣of for a dose, three houres before meate. Ruffus his Pils may be profitably giuen to those that are weake. The ancient Physitions haue greatly commended Agarick for this disease, because it doth draw the noisome humors out of all the members: and the vertues thereof are like vnto those of Treacle; for it is thought to strengthen the heart and to draw out the malignitie by purging. To those that are strong the weight of two drammes may be giuen, and to those that are more weake halfe a dramme. It is better to giue the infusion in a decoction, than in substance; for beeing elected and prepared truely into Page 55 Trochises, it may bee called a most diuine kinde of me∣dicine. Antimonium is highly praised by the experi∣ence of many; but because I know the vse thereof is con∣demned by the counsell and decree of the Schoole of Physitions at Paris, I will here cease to speake of it. Those medicines that cause sweates are thought to excell all o∣thers, when the Pestilence commeth of the venemous ayre: among whom the efficacie of that which follow∣eth hath beene proued, to the great good of manie in that Pestilence which was lately throughout all Germanie, as Matthias Rodler, Chauncellor to Duke George the Count Palatine, signified vnto mee by letters. They doe take a bundle of Mugwort, and of the ashes thereof after it is burnt they make a lye thereof with foure pints of water; then they doe set it ouer the fier and boile it in a vessell of earth well leaded vntill the liquor be consumed, the ear∣thy dregges falling vnto the bottome like vnto salt, wher∣of they make Trochises of the weight of a crowne of gold: then they dissolue one or two of those Trochises, according to the strength of the patient, in good Muska∣dine, and giue it the patient to drinke, and let him walke after that he hath drunk it for the space of halfe an houre; then lay him in his bedde, and there sweate him two or three houres, and then hee will vomite, and his belly will be loosed as if he had taken Antimonie; and so they were all for the most part cured, especially all those that tooke that remedie betimes, and before the disease went vnto their heart, as I my selfe haue proued in some that were sicke at Paris, with most happie successe: Truely Mug∣wort is highly commended by the ancient Physitions, be∣ing taken and applied inwardly or outwardly against the bitings of venemous creatures, so that it is not to be doub∣ted but that it hath great vertue against the Pestilence. I haue heard it most certainly reported by Gilbertus Hero∣aldus Physition of Mompilier▪ that eight ounces of the pickle of Anchoues drunke at one draught is a most cer∣taine and approued remedie against the Pestilence, as hee Page 56 and many other haue often found by experience. For the Plague is no other thing but a verie great putrefaction, for the correction and amendment whereof, there is no∣thing more apt or fit than this pickle or substance of the Anchoues, being melted by the sun & force of the salt that is strawed thereon. There be some which infuse one dramme of Walewort seede in white wine, and affirme that it drunken wil performe the like effect as Antimony. Others dissolue a little weight of the seede of Rue beeing bruised in Muskadine, with the quantitie of a Beane of Treacle, and so drink it. Others beate or bruise an hand∣full of the leaues or toppes of Broome in halfe a pinte of white wine, and so giue it to the patient to drink to cause him to vomite, loose his belly, and make him to sweate. Truely, those that are wounded or bitte with venemous beasts, if they binde broome aboue the wound it will prohibit or hinder the venome from dispersing it selfe, or going any farther: therefore a drinke made thereof will prohibite the venome from going anie neerer the heart. Some take of the roote of Elecampane, Gentian, Tormen∣till, Kermesberries, and broome; of the pouder of Iuorie and Harts-horne, of each halfe a dramme, they do bruise and beat all these, and infuse them for the space of foure and twentie hours in white Wine and Aquavita on the warme embers, and then straine it, and giue the patient three or foure ounces thereof to drinke; this prouokes sweate, and infrignes the power of the poison, and the potion following hath the same vertue.
Take good Mustard halfe an ounce; of Treacle or Mithridate the weight of a Beane, dissolue them in white Wine and a little Aqua vita, and let the patient drinke it and sweate thereon with walking. You may also roste a great Onion made hollow, and filled with halfe a dram of Treacle and Vineger vnder the embers; and then straine it, and mixe the iuice that is pressed out of it with the water of Sorrell, Carduus Benedictus, or anie other cordiall thing, and with strong wine, and giue the pati∣ent Page 57 to drinke thereof to prouoke sweate, and to repell the malignitie. Or else take as much Garlicke as the quantitie of a bigge Nut; of Rue and Celandine, of each twentie leaues, bruise them all in white Wine and a little Aqua vi∣ta; then straine it, and giue the patient thereof to drinke. There be some that doe drinke the iuice that is pressed out of Celandine and Mallowes, with three ounces of Vineger, and halfe an ounce of the oyle of Walenuts, and then by much walking doe vnburthen their stomacke and belly vpwards and downewards, and so are helped. When the venemous ayre hath alreadie crept into and infected the humors, one dramme of the dried leaues of the Bay tree macerated for the space of two daies in Vineger and drunk, is thought to bee a most soueraigne medicine to prouoke sweate, loosenesse of the belly, and vomiting. Matthiolus in his Treatise de Morbo Gallico writeth, that the powder of Mercury ministred vnto the patient with the iuice of Car∣duus Benedictus, or with the electuarie de Gemmis, will driue away the Pestilence before it be confirmed in the bodie, by prouoking vomite, loosenesse of the belly, and sweate: one dramme of Calchanthum or white Copperose dissolued in Rose-water, performeth the like effect in the same disease. Some do giue the patient a little quantitie of the oile of Scorpions with white wine to expel the poison by vomite, and therewithall they doe annoint the region of the heart, the brest, and the wrasts of the hands. I thinke these ve∣ry meet to be vsed often in bodies that are strong and well exercised, because weaker medicines doe euacuate little or nothing at all, but onely moue the humors, whereby com∣meth a Feauer. When a sufficient quantie of the malignitie is euacuated, then you must minister things that may strengthen the belly and stomacke, and withhold the agi∣tation or working of the humors: and such is confection of Alkermes.
Of maute Symptomes which happen together with the Plague: and first of the paine of the head.
IF the malignitie be carried into the braine, and nature be not able to expell it, it inflames not onely it, but also the membranes that do couer it: which inflamation doth one while hurt, trouble, or abolish the imagination, another while the iudgement, and sometimes the memorie, accor∣ding to the situation of the inflamation, whether it bee in the former, hinder, or middle part of the head; but hereof commeth alwayes a Phrensie, with fierie rednesse of the eyes and face, and heauinesse and burning of the whole head. If this will not be amended with Clisters, and with opening the Cephalicke veine in the arme, the arteries of the temples must be opened, taking so much bloud out of them, as the greatnesse of the Symptomes and the strength of the patient shall require and permit. Truely the incisi∣on that is made in opening of an arterie will close and ioine together as readily, and with as little difficultie, as the incision of a veine. And of such an incision of an arte∣rie commeth present helpe, by reason that the tensiue and sharpe vapours do plentifully breath out together with the arterious bloud. It were also verie good to prouoke a fluxe of bloud at the nose, if nature be apt to exonerate her selfe that way. For, as Hippocrates saith, when the head is grie∣ued, or generally aketh; if matter, water, or bloud flow cut at the nostrels, mouth, or eares, it presently cures the disease. Such bleeding is to be prouoked by strong blow∣ing, or striuing to cleanse the nose, by scratching or pick∣ing of the inner sides of the nostrels, by pricking with an horse haire, and long holding downe of the head. The Lord of Fontaines, a Knight of the Order, when wee were at Bayon, had a bleeding at the nose, which came naturally Page 59 for the space of two daies, and thereby hee was freed of a pestilent Feuer which he had before, a great sweate rising therewithall, and shortly after his Carbuncles came to sup∣puration, and by Gods grace he recouered his health being vnder my cure. If the bloud doe flow out and cannot bee stopped when it ought, the hands, armes, and legges must be tied with bands, and sponges wet in Oxycrate must be put vnder the arme-holes, cupping-glasses must be applied vnto the dugges, the region of the liuer and spleene; and you must put into the nostrels the doune of the Willow tree, or anie other astringent medicine, incorporated with the haires pluckt from the flanke, belly, or throat of a Hare, bole Armenicke, Terra sigillata, the iuice of Plantain and Knotgrasse mixed together; and furthermore the pati∣ent must be placed or laied in a coole place. But if the pain be nothing mitigated, notwithstanding all these fluxes of bloud, wee must come to medicines that procure sleepe, whose formes are these:
Take of greene Lettuce one handfull, flowers of water Lillies and Violets, of each two pugils; one head of white Poppy bruised; of the foure cold seedes, of each two drams; of Liquoris and Raisons, of each one dramme: make there∣of a decoction, and in the straining dissolue one ounce and an halfe of Diacodion: make thereof a large potion, to bee giuen when they goe to rest. Also a Barly-creame may bee prepared in the water of water Lillies and Sorrell, of each two ounces, adding thereto sixe or eight graines of Opium: of the foure cold seedes, and of white Poppie seedes, of each halfe an ounce, and let the same bee boiled in broths with Lettuce and Purslane; also the Pils de Cynoglosso, idest, Hounds tongue may be giuen. Clisters that prouoke sleepe must be vsed, which may be thus prepared:
Take of Barly-water halfe a pinte; oile of Violets and wa∣ter-Lillies, of each two ounces; of the water of Plantaine and Purselaine, or rather of their iuices, three ounces; of Camphire seuen graines, and the whites of three egges: make thereof a Clister. The head must be fomented with Page 60 Rose-vineger, the haire being first shauen away, leauing a double cloth wet therein on the same, and often renewed. Sheepes lungs taken warme out of the bodies, may bee ap∣plied to the head, as long as they are warme. Cupping∣glasses with scarrification and without scarrification, may be applied vnto the necke and shoulder-blades. The armes and legges must bee strongly bound, being first well rubbed to diuert the sharpe vapours and humors from the head. Frontals may also bee made on this manner. Take of the oyle of Roses and water-Lillies, of each two ounces; of the oile of Poppey halfe an ounce; of Opium one dramme; of Rose-vineger one ounce, of Camphire halfe a dram, mixe them together. Also Nodules may bee made of the flow∣ers of Poppies, Henbane, water-Lillies, Mandrakes beaten in Rose-water with a little Vineger, and a little Camphire, and let them be often applied to the nostrels: for this pur∣pose Cataplasmes also may bee laid to the forehead. As, Take of the mucilage of the seedes of Psilium, id est, Flea∣wort, and Quince seedes extracted in Rose-water, three ounces; of Barly meale foure ounces; of the pouder of Rose leaues, the flowers of water-Lillies and Violets, of each halfe an ounce; of the seedes of Poppies and Purflaine, of each two ounces; of the water and vineger of Roses, of each three ounces: make thereof a Cataplasine, and apply it warme vnto the head. Or, Take of the iuice of Lettuce, water-Lillies, Henbaine, Purselaine, of each halfe a pinte; of Rose▪leaues in pouder, the seedes of Poppie, of each halfe an ounce; oyle of Roses three ounces; of Vineger two ounces; of Barly meale as much as shall suffice: make thereof a Cataplasme in the forme of a liquid Pultis. When the heate of the head is mitigated by these medicines, & the inflammation of the braine asswaged, we must come vnto digesting and resoluing fomentations, which may disperse the matter of the vapours. But commonly in paine of the head, they doe vse to binde the forehead and hinder part of the head verie strongly, which in this case must bee a∣uoided.
Of the Erruptiou and spotts which commonly are called by the name of Purples and Tokens.
IN Pestilent feauers, the skinne is marked and variegated in diuerse places with spotts, like vnto the bitings of Fleas or Gnats, which are not alwaies simple, but many times arise in forme like vnto a graine of millet. The more spots appeare, the better it is for the patient: they are of diuerse colours according to the virulency of the malig∣nity and condition of the matter, as red, yellow, browne, violet, or purpule, blew & blacke. And because for the most part they are of a purple colour, therefore wee callthem Purples. Others call them Lenticulae, because they haue the colour and forme of lentills. They are also called Papiliones (i) Butterflies, because they doe suddainly seaze or fall vpon diuerse regions of the body, like vnto winged Butterflies, sometimes the face, sometimes the armes and leggs, and sometimes all the whole body; oftentimes they doe not onely affect the vpper part of the skinne, but goe deeper into the flesh, specially when they proceed of mat∣ter that is grosse and adust. They doe sometimes appeare great and broad, affecting the whole arme, legge or face like vnto an Erysipelas: to conclude, they are diuerse accor∣ding to the variety of the humour that offends in quality or quantity. If they are of a purple or blacke colour, with often sounding, and sinke in sodainly without any manifest cause, they foreshew death. The cause of the breaking out of those spotts, is the working, or heate of the bloud, by reason of the cruelty of the venom receiued, or admitted. They often arise at the beginning of a Pesti∣lent feauer: many times before the breaking out of the Sore, or Botch, or Carbuncle, and many times after: but then they shew so greata corruption of the humors in the Page 62 body, that neither the Sores, nor Carbuncles will suffice to receaue them, and therefore they appeare as fore-runners of death. Sometimes they breake out alone, without a Botch or Carbuncle: which if they be redde and haue no euill Symptomes ioyned with them, they are not wont to proue deadly: they appeare for the most part on the third or fourth day of the dissease, and sometimes later, and sometimes they appeare not before the patient bee dead, because the working, or heate of the humors, being the ofspring of putrefaction is not as yet restrayned and ceased. Wherefore then principally the putrid heate, which is greatest a little before the death of the patient, driues the ex∣crementall humors, which are the matter of the spotts, vnto the skin; or else because nature in the last conflict hath contended with some greater endeuour then before (which is common to all things, that are ready to dye.) a little before the instant time of death, the Pestilent humor being presently driuen vnto the skinne; and nature thus weakened by this extreame conflict, falleth downe pro∣strate and is quite ouerthrowne by the remnant of the matter.
Of the cure of Eruptions and Spotts.
YOu must first of all take heede lest you driue in the humor that is comming outwards with repercussiues: Therefore beware of cold, all purging things, Phlebotomy, and drowsie or sound sleeping. For all such things do draw the humors inwardly, and worke contrary to nature. But it is better to prouoke the motion of nature outwardly, by applying of drawing medicines outwardly, and mini∣string medicines to prouoke sweate inwardly for other∣wise by repelling and stopping the matter of the eruptions there will be great danger lest the heart be oppressed with Page 63 the aboundance of the venome flowing backe: or else by turning into the belly it inferres a mortall bloody flixe: which discommodities that they may be auoyded, I haue thought good to set downe this remedy, whose Efficacy I haue knowne and proued many times and on diuerse per∣sons, when by reason of the weaknes of the expulsiue facul∣ty and the thicknes of the skinne, the matter of the spotts cannot breake forth, but is constrayned to surke vnder the skinne, lifting it vp into bunches and knobbes. I was brought vnto the inuention of this remedy by comparison of the like. For when I vnderstood that the essence of the French Poxs (and likewise of the Pestilence) consisted in a certaine hidden virulency and venemous quality, I soone descended vnto that opinion, that euen as by the a∣noynting of the body with the vnguent compounded of Quicksiluer, the grosse & clammie humors which are fixed in the bones, and vnmoueable are dissolued, relaxed, and drawen from the center into the superficiall parts of the body, by strengthening and stirring vp the expulsiue faculty, and euacuated by sweating and fluxing at the mouth; That so it should come to passe in Pestilent feauers, that nature being strengthened with the same kind of vnction, might vnloade her selfe of some portion of the venemous and Pestilent humor by opening the pores and passages and letting it breake forth into spotts and pustles and into all kinde of eruptions. Therefore I haue annoyn∣ted many in whom nature seemed to make passage for the venemous matter very slowly, first loosing their belly with a Clister and then giuing them Treacle water to drinke, which might defend the vitall faculty of the heart, but yet not distende the stomacke, as though they had had the French Poxe, and I obtained my expected purpose; in stead of the Treacle water, you may vse the decoction of Guaia∣cum, which doth heate, dry, prouoke sweat and repell putre∣faction, adding thereto also vineger, that by the subtletie thereof it may pearce the better, and withstand the putre∣faction. This is the description of the vnguent. Take of Page 64 Hoggs grease one pound, boyle it a little with the leaues of Sage, Time, Rosmary, of each halfe an handfull, straine it, and in the straining extinguish fiue ounces of Quicksiluer, which hath bin first boyled in Vineger with the forenamed herbs, of Sal Nitrum 3 drams, the yelkes of three eggs boyled vn∣till they be hard, of Treacle and Mithridate of each halfe an ounce, of Venice Turpentine, oile of Scorpions and Bayes, of each three ounces, incorporate them altogether in a morter, and make thereof an vnguent, wherewith annoynt the patients arme-hooles and groine, auoyding the parts that belong to the head, breast and backe bone, then let him be layed in his bed and couered warme, and let him sweat there for the space of two houres, and then let his body be wiped and clensed, and if it may bee let him be layed in another bed, and there let him be refreshed with the broth of the decoction of a Capon, reare Eggs, and with such like meates of good iuyce that are easie to be con∣cocted and digested; let him be anointed the second and the third day, vnlesse the spotts appeare before. If the pa∣tient fluxe at the mouth it must not be stopped: when the spotts and pustles doe all appeare and the patient hath made an end of sweating, it shall be conuenient to vse diureticke medicines, for by these the remainant of the matter of the spotts, which happely could not all breath forth, may easily be purged and auoyded by the vrine. If any noble or gentlemen refuse to be annoynted with this vnguent, let them be inclosed in the body of a Mule or Horse that is newly killed, and when that is cold let them be layed in another, vntill the pustles and eruptions doe breake forth, being drawne by that naturall heate. For so Matthiolus writeth, that Valentinus the sonne of Pope Alex∣ander the sixt was deliuered from the danger of most deadly poyson which he had drunke.
Of a Pestilent Bubo, or Plague-sore.
A Pestilent Bubo is a tumor at the beginning long and moueable, and in the state and full perfection copped and with a sharpe head, vnmoueable and fixed deepely in the glandules, or kernels, by which the braine exonerates it selfe of the venemous and pestiferous matter into the kernells that are behinde the eares, and in the necke: the heart into those that are in the arme-hooles: and the liuer into those that are in the groine; that is, when all the matter is grosse and clammy, so that it cannot bee drawen out by spotts and pustles breaking out on the skin; and so the matter of a Carbuncle is sharpe and so feruent that it maketh an Eschar on the place where it is fixed. In the beginning while the Bubo is breeding it maketh the patient to feele as it were a coard or rope stretched in the place, or a hardened nerue with pricking payne: and shortly after the matter is raised vp as it were into a knob, and by little and little it groweth bigger and is enflamed, these accidents before mentioned accompanying it. If the tumor be red and encrease by little and little, it is a good and salutary signe: but if it be liuide or blacke, and come very slowly vnto its iust bigness, it is a deadly signe: It is also a deadly signe if it encrease sodainly and come vnto his iust bigness as it were with a swift violence, & as in a moment haue all the Symptomes in the highest ex∣cesse, as pain, swelling and burning. Buboes or Sores appeare sometimes of a naturall colour like vnto the skinne, and in all other things like vnto an oedematous tumor, which notwithstanding will sodainly bring the patient to destruction, like those that are liuide and blacke, where∣fore it is not good to trust too much to those kindes of tumors.
Of the cure of Buboes, or Plague-sores.
SO soone as the Bubo appeares, apply a Cupping-glasse with a great flame vnto it; vnlesse it bee that kinde of Bubo which will sodainly haue all the accidents of burning and swelling in the highest nature; but first the skinne must be annointed with oyle of Lillies, that so it beeing made more loose the Cupping-glasse may draw the stronger and more powerfully: it ought to sticke to the part for the space of a quarter of an houre, and to bee renewed and ap∣plied againe euerie three quarters of an houre, for so at the length the venome shall bee the better drawne forth from anie noble part that is weake, and the worke of suppurati∣on or resolution, whichsoeuer nature hath assaied, will the better and sooner be absolued and perfected: which may be also done by the application of the following ointment.
Take of Vnguentum Dialthaea one ounce and a halfe; oile of Scorpions halfe an ounce; of Mithridate dissolued in Aquavitae halfe a dramme: this liniment will verie well relaxe and loosen the skinne, open the pores thereof, and spend forth portion of that matter which the Cupping-glasse hath drawne thither: in stead thereof mollifying fomentations may bee made, and other drawing and suppu∣rating medicines, which shall bee described hereafter. A Vesicatorie applied in a meete place below the Bubo pro∣fits verie much, but not aboue; as for example. If the Bu∣bo be in the throate, the Vesicatorie must be applied vnto the shoulder blade on the same side: if it bee in the arme-holes, it must be applied in the middest of the arme, or of the shoulder bone on the inner side: if in the groine, in the middest of the thigh on the inner side, that by the double passage that is open for to draw out the matter, the part wherein the venome is gathered together may bee the bet∣ter exonerated. Spurge, Crow-foot, Arsmart, Beare-foote, Page 67 Brionie, the middle barke of Trauellers-ioy, the rindes of mullet, Flammula or vpright Virgines-bower, are fit for raising blisters. If you cannot come by those simple me∣dicines, you may apply this that followeth, which may be prepared at all times.
Take Cantharides, Pepper, Euphorbium, Pellitory of Spaine, of each halfe a dramme; of soure Leauen two drams; of Mustard one dramme, and a little Vineger; the Vineger is added thereto to withhold or restraine the vehemencie of the Cantharides; but in want of this medicine it shall suffice to droppe scalding oyle or water, or a burning candle, or to lay a burning cole on the place: for so you may raise blisters, which must presently bee cut away, and you must see that you keepe the vlcers open and flowing as long as you can by applying the leaues of red Coleworts, Beetes, or Iuie dipped in warme water, and anointed with oyle or fresh butter. Some apply Cauteries, but Vesicatories worke with more speede: for before the Eschar of the Cauteries will fall away the patient may die: therefore the vlcers that are made with vesicatories will suffice to euacuate the pestilent venome; because that doth worke rather by its qualitie than its quantitie. Let the abscesse bee fomen∣ted as it is shewed before: and then let the medicine fol∣lowing, which hath vertue to draw, bee applied, Fill a great onion, being hollowed, with Treacle and the leaues of Rue; then rost it vnder the hote embers, beate it with a little Leauen and a little Swines grease, and so apply it warme vnto the abscesse or sore; let it be changed euery sixe hours. Or, Take the rootes of Marsh-mallowes and Lillies, of each halfe a pound; of Line, Foenigreeke, and Mustard seedes, of each halfe an ounce; of Treacle one dram; tenne figges, and as much hogges grease as shall suffice: make thereof a Cataplasme according to Arte. Or, Take of Onions and Garlicke rosted in the embers, of each three ounces; bruise them with one ounce of soure Leauen, adding thereto Vu∣guentum Basilicon one ounce; Treacle one dramme; Mithri∣date halfe a dramme; of old hogges grease one ounce; of Page 68 Cantharides in powder one scruple; of Pigeons doung two drams; beate them and mixe them together into the forme of a Cataplafme. Hereunto old Rennet is verie profitable; for it is hot and therefore atractiue beeing mixed with old Leauen & Basilicon: you ought to vse these vntil the abscesse be growne vnto its full ripenesse and bignesse; but if pre∣sently after the beginning there be great inflammation, with sharpe paine, as it often happeneth, especially when the abscesses be of the kinde of Carbuncles, wee must abstaine from those remedies that are hot and attractiue, and also from these that are verie emplasticke and clammie; be∣cause they doe altogether close the pores of the skinne, or because they doe resolue the thinner part of the col∣lected matter, which if it might remaine would bring the other sooner to suppuration: or else because they may per∣chance draw more quantitie of the hot matter than the part can beare, whereof commeth rather corruption than maturation: and last of all because they encrease the Fea∣uer and paine, which inferreth danger of a Conuulsion or mortall Gangrene. Therefore in such a case it is best to vse cold and temperate locall medicines; as the leaues of Hen∣bane and Sorrell rosted vnder the coles, Galens pultis, and such like. There are manie that for feare of death haue with their owne hands pulled away the Bubo with a paire of Smiths pincers: others haue digged the flesh round a∣bout it, and so gotten it wholly out. And to conclude, o∣thers haue become so madde, that they haue thrust an hot iron into it with their owne hand, that the venome might haue a passage forth: of all which I doe not allow one; for such abscesses doe not come from without, as the bitings of virulent beasts, but from within, and moreouer because paine is by these meanes encreased, and the humor is made more maligne and fierce. Therefore I thinke it sufficient to vse medicines that doe relaxe, open the pores of the skinne, and digest portion of the venome by transpiration, as are these that follow. Take the rootes of Marsh-mal∣lowes and Lillies, of each sixe ounces; of Chamomill and Page 69 Melilote flowers, of each halfe an handfull; of Linne seedes halfe an ounce; of the leaues of Rue halfe an handfull; boile them and straine them, dip spunges in the straining, and there with let the rumor bee fomented a long time. Or, Take the crumme of hot bread, and sprinkle it with Treacle-water, or with Aqud vitae, and Cowes milke or Goates milke, and the yelkes of three egges, put them all on stupes or flaxe, and apply them warme vnto the place. Or, Take of soure Rie leauen foure ounces; of Basilicon two ounces, three yelkes of egges, oile of Lillies two ounces, Treacle one dramme; let it bee receiued on stupes and ap∣plied in like manner. Or, Take of Diachylon and Basilicon, of each two ounces, oile of Lillies one ounce and halfe; let them be melted and mixed together, and let it be applied as is abouesaid. When you see, feele, and know, according to reason, that the Bubo is come to perfect suppuration, it must be opened with an incision knife, or an actuall or potenti∣all Cauterie, but it is best to bee done with a potentiall Cauterie, vnlesse that happely there be great inflammation, because it doth draw the venome from beneath vnto the superficiall parts, and maketh a larger orifice for the mat∣ter that is contained therein: neither must it bee looked for, that nature should open it of her selfe, for then it were danger that lest while nature doth worke slowly a vene∣mous vapour should be stirred vp, which striking the heart by the arteries, the braine by the nerues, and the liuer by the veines, causeth a new encrease of the venemous infecti∣on. For feare whereof there bee some that will not expect the perfect maturation and suppuration, but as it were in the midst of the cruditie and maturitie wil make an orifice for it to passe forth at: yet if it bee done before the tumor bee at his perfect maturitie, paine, a feauer, and all acci∣dents are stirred vp and enraged, whereof commeth a ma∣ligne vlcer that often degenerates into a Gangrene. For the most part about the tenth or eleuenth day the worke of suppuration seemeth perfected and finished; but it may bee sooner or later by reason of the application of medi∣cines, Page 80 the condition of the matter and state of the part▪ when the matter commeth forth, you must yet vse suppura∣tiue and mollifying medicines to maturate the remaines thereof, in the meane while clensing the vicer by putting mundificatiues into it, as wee shall declare in the cure of Carbuncles. But if the tumor seeme to sinke in or hide it selfe againe, it must be reuoked and procured to come forth again, by applying of Cupping-glasses with scarrification, & with sharpe medicines, yea and with Cauteries both actu∣all and potentiall. When the Cauteries are applied it shall bee verie good to apply a vesicatorie a little below it, that there may bee some passage open for the venome while the Eschar is in falling away. For so they that are troubled with the french Poxe, so long as they haue open and flow∣ing vlcers, so long are they void of anie paine that is worth the speaking of; which vlcers being closed and cicatriced, they doc presently complaine of great paine. If you su∣spect that the Bubo is more maligne by reason that it is of a greene, or black, and inflamed colour, as are those that come of a melancholy humor by adustion, turned into a grosse and rebellious melancholy humor, so that by the more co∣pious influxe thereof into the part, there is danger of a Gangrene and mortification; then the places about the abscesse must bee armed with repercussiues, but not the abscesse it selfe: and this may be the forme of the repercus∣siues: Take of the iuice of houseleeke, Purselaine, Sorrell, Nightshade, of each two ounces; of Vineger one ounce; the whites of three egges; of oyle of Roses and water-Lillies, of each two ounces and a halfe; stirre them together, and apply it about the Bubo, and renew it often: or boile a Pomegranat in Vineger, beate it with Vnguentum Rosatum, or Populeen newely made, and applied as is aforesaid. If these things doe not stop the influxe of other humors, the abscesse it selfe and the places round about it must be scar∣rified round about, if the part will permit it; that the part exonerated of portion of the venome may not stand in dan∣ger of the extinction of the proper and naturall heate, by Page 81 the greater quantitie and malignitie of the humors that flow vnto it. In scarrifying you must haue care of the great vessels for feare of an irrepugnable fluxe of bloud, which in this case is very hard to be staied or resisted; both because the part it selfe is greatly inflamed, and the humor verie fierce; for the expulsion whereof, nature, carefull for the preseruation of the part and all the bodie besides, see∣meth to labour and worke. But yet you must suffer so much of the bloud and humor to flow out as the Patient is able to abide without the losse of his strength. Moreouer you may spend forth the superfluous portion of the maligni∣ty, with relaxing, mollifying, and resoluing fomentations: as, Take the roots of Marsh Mallowes, Lillies and Elecam∣pane, of each one pound, of Linseeds and Faenigreek, of each one ounce, of Fennell-seeds and Annifeeds, of each halfe an ounce, of the leaues of Rue, Sage, Rosemary, of each one handfull, of Chamomill and Melilote flowers, of each three handfulls; boyle them altogether, and make thereof a decoction for a fomentation; vse it with a sponge according to Art. Also after the aforesaid scarrification, we may put Hens, or Turkies that lay eggs (which there∣fore haue their fundaments more wide and open, and for the same purpose put a little salt into their fundaments) vp∣on the sharpe toppe of the Bubo, that by shutting their bills at seuerall times they may draw & sucke the venom into their bodies, farre more strongly and better then cupping glasses, because they are endewed with a naturall property against poyson, for they eate and concoct Toades, Efts, and such like virulent beasts: when one hen is killed with the poyson that she hath drawne into her body you must apply another, and then the third, fourth, fift and sixt within the space of halfe an hower. There be some that will rather cut them, or else whelps in the mid∣dest, and apply them warme vnto the place, that by the heate of the creature that is yet scarce dead, portion of the venom may be dissipated and exhaled. But if neuer thelesse there be any feare of a Gangren at hand, you must Page 72 cut the flesh with a deeper scarrification, not onely anoy∣ding the greater vessells, but also the nerues for feare of conuulsion: and after the scarrification and a sufficient flux of blood, you must wash it with Aegyptiacum, Treacle and Mithridate dissolued in sea-water, Aquavita and Vineger. For such a lotion hath vertue to stay putrefacti∣on, repell the venom, and prohibite the bloud from con∣cretion: but if the Gangren cannot be auoyded so, cau∣teries may be applyed to the part: especially actuall, be∣cause they doe more effectually repell the force of the poyson and strengthen the part. Presently after the impres∣sion of the hot iron, the eschar must bee cut away euen vnto the quicke flesh, that the venemous vapours, and the humors may haue a free passage forth, for it is not to be looked for that they will come forth of themselues. With these iniunctions they are wont to hasten the falling away of the Eschar. Take of the mucilage of Marsh-mal∣lowes and Linseedes, of each 2 ounces, fresh Butter or Hogs-grease one ounce, the yelks of three eggs, incorpo∣rate them together and make thereof an ointment: Butter, Swines-grease, oyle of roses, with the yelks of eggs, performe the selfe same thing. When the Eschar is fallen away, we must vse digestiues. As, Take of the iuice of Plantane water, Betonie, and Smallage, of each three ounces, Honey of Roses foure ounces, Venice Turpentine fiue ounces, Barly flower three drames, Aloes two drams, oile of Roses foure ounces, Treacle halfe a dram, make a mundificatiue according to Arte. Or, Take Venice Tur∣pentine foure ounces, Syrup of dryed Roses and Worme∣wood of each one ounce, of the powder of Aloes, Mastick, Myrrhe, Barly flower, of each one dram, of Mithridate halfe an ounce, incorporate them together. This vnguent that followeth is very meete for putrified and corroding vlcers, Take red Orpiment one ounce, of vnquencht Lime, burnt Alome, Pomegrante pills, of each six drams, of Olibanus, Galls, of each two drams, of Waxe and Oile as much as shall suffice, make thereof an vnguent. This Page 83 doth mundifie strongly, consume putrefied flesh, and dry vp virulent humidities that engender Gangrens. But there is not a more excellent vnguent then Aegyptiacum encreased in strength, for besides many other vertues that it hath, it doth consume and wast the proud flesh, for there is neyther oyle nor waxe that goeth into the com∣position thereof, with which things the vertue of sharpe medicines conuenient for such vlcers is delayed, and as it were dulled and hindered from their perfect operation so long as the vlcer is kept open. There are many that be∣ing disseased with this dissease, who haue had much mat∣ter and venemous filth come out at their abscesses, so that it seemeth sufficient, and they haue beene thought well recouered, yet haue died sodainly. In the meane while when these things are in doing cordiall medicines are not to be omitted to strengthen the heart. And pur∣gations must be renewed at certaine seasons, that nature may be euery way vnloaded of the burthen of the ve∣nenate humors.
Of the Nature, Causes and Signes of a pestilent Carbuncle.
A Pestilent Carbuncle is a small tumor, or rather a maligne pustle, hot and raging, consisting of blood vi∣tiated by the corruption of the proper substance. It often commeth to passe through the occasion of this vntameable malignitie, that the Carbuncle cannot be gouerned or con∣tained within the dominion of nature. In the beginning it is scarce so bigge as a seede or graine of Millet or a Pease, sticking firmely vnto the part and vnmouable, so that the skinne cannot be pulled from the flesh; but shortly after it encreaseth like vnto a Bubo vnto a round and sharpe head, with great heate, pricking paine, as if it were with needles, Page 84 burn ing and intolerable, especially a little before night, and while the meate is in concocting, more than when it is perfectly concocted. In the middest thereof appeareth a bladder puffed vp and filled with sanious matter. If you cut this bladder you shall finde the flesh vnder it parched, burned, and blacke, as if there had beene a burning cole layed there, whereby it seemeth that it tooke the name of Carbuncle; but the flesh that is about the place is like a Raine-bow, of diuers colours, as redde, darke, greene, pur∣ple, liuide, and blacke; but yet alwaies with a shining blacknesse, like vnto stone pitch, or like vnto the true pre∣cious stone which they call a Carbuncle, whereof some al∣so say it took the name. Some call it a Naile, because it infer∣reth like paine as a naile driuen into the flesh. There are manie Carbuncles which take their beginning with a cru∣stie vlcer without a pustle, like to the burning of an hote iron: and these are of a black colour, they encrease quick∣ly, according to the condition of the matter whereof they are made. All pestilent Carbuncles haue a Feauer ioined with them, and the greeued part seemeth to be so heauie, as if it were couered or pressed with lead tied hard with a ligature: there commeth mortall swoundings, faintings, tossing, turning, idle talking, raging, Gangrenes, and mor∣tifications, not onely to the part, but also to the whole bo∣die, by reason (as I thinke) of the oppression of the spirits of the part, and the suffocation of the naturall heate, as we see also in manie that haue a pestilent Bubo. For a Bubo and Carbuncle are tumors of a neere affinitie, so that the one doth scarce come without the other, consisting of one kinde of matter, vnlesse that which maketh the Bubo is more grosse and clammie, and that which causeth the Carbuncle more sharpe, burning, and raging, by reason of its greater subtlety, so that it maketh an Eschar on the place where it is, as we noted before.
What Prognostickes may be made in pestilent Buboes and Carbuncles.
SOme hauing the Pestilence haue but one Carbuncle, and some more in diuers parts of their bodie. And in many it happeneth that they haue the Bubo & Carbuncle before they haue any Feauer; which giueth better hope of health, if there bee no other maligne accident therewith: for it is a signe that nature is the victor, and hath gotten the vpper hand, which excluded the pestilent venome before it could come to assault the heart. But if a Carbuncle and Bubo come after the Feauer, it is mortall; for it is a token that the heart is affected, moued, and incensed with the furious rage of the venome; whereof presently commeth a feaue∣rish heate or burning, and corruption of the humors, sent as it were from the centre vnto the superficies of the bodie. It is a good signe when the patients minde is not troubled from the beginning vntill the seuenth day; but when the Bubo or Carbuncle finketh downe againe shortly after that it is risen, it is a mortall signe, especially if ill accidents fol∣low it. If after they are brought to suppuration they pre∣sently waxe dry without any reason thereof, it is an ill signe: Those Carbuncles that are generated of bloud haue a greater Eschar than those that are made of cholor, because that bloud is of a more grosse consistence, and therefore oc∣cupieth a greater roome in the flesh: contrariwise a cholo∣ricke humor is more small in quantity and thy nne, and it ta∣keth little roome in the vpper part of the flesh only, as you may see in an Erysipelas. And I haue seene Carbuncles whose Eichars were as broad and as large as halfe the backe: also I haue seene others, which going vp by the shoulders to the throate, did so eate away the flesh that was vnder them, that the rough artery or winde-pipe might be seene bare, when the Eschar was fallen away: I had once a Carbuncle which Page 86 was in the middest of my belly, so that when the Eschar was fallen away, I might very plainly see the Peritonaum or Rim: and the cicatrice that remaineth is as broad as my hand: but they doe not spread themselues so farre without the great danger or death of the patient. There are also some Carbuncles which beginning at the parts vnder the chyn, disperse themselues by little & little vnto the pattell bones, and so strangle the patient. So in many, the Buboes in the groine arise aboue a great part of the muscles of the Epiga∣strium. Truly of those abscesses that are so large and great in quantity, and so terrible to be seene, there is great danger of death to the patient, or at least to the greeued part. For after the consolidation the part remaineth as if it were le∣prous, which abolisheth the action of the part, as I haue seene in many. Oftentimes also the corruption of the matter is so great, that the flesh leaueth the bones bare: but Car∣buncles often leaue the ioynts and ligaments quite resolued through the occasion of the moisture that is soaked and sunke in vnto them; for they often cast out putrefied and virulent sanious matter: whereby eating and creeping vl∣cers are bred, many blisters and pustles arising vp in the parts round about it; which shortly breaking into one, make a great vlcer. These doe come very seldome and slow∣ly vnto suppuration, or at least to cast out laudible matter, especially if they haue their originall of choler, because the matter is sooner burned with heate, than suppurated. There∣fore then, if they can bee brought to suppuration by no me∣dicines, if the tumor still remaine blacke, if when they are opened nothing at all, or else a very little sharpe moisture doth come forth, they are altogether mortall: and there is scarce one of a thousand who hath these accidents that re∣couereth their health: dispersed small blisters comming of vapours stirred vp by the matter that is vnder the skinne, and are there staied and kept from passage forth, doe not ne∣cessarily fore-shew death in Carbuncles. But if the part bee swollen or puffed vp, if it bee of a greene or blacke colour, and if it feele neither pricking nor burning, it is a signe of a Page 87 mortall Gangren. Buboes or Carbuncles seldome or neuer come without a feuer: but the feuer is more vehement when they are in the emunctories, or neruous parts, than when they are in the fleshy parts, yet it is lesse, and all Symp∣tomes are lesse and more tolerable in a man that is strong and of a good temperature: Carbuncles doe not only affect the outward but also the inward parts, and oftentimes both together. If the heart bee vexed in such sort with a Car∣buncle that nothing thereof appeareth forth on the super∣ficiall parts, all hope of life is past, and those dye sodainly, eating, drinking, or walking, and not thinking any thing of death. If the Carbuncle bee in the middriffe or lungs they are soone suffocated: If it bee in the braine the patient be∣commeth franticke, and so dyeth. If it bee in the parts ap∣pointed for the passage of the vrine, they dye of the suppres∣sion of their water, as it happened in the Queene mothers waiting maide at the Castle of Rossilion, of whom I spake before. If it bee in the stomacke it inferreth the accidents that are shewed in this history following. While I was Sur∣gion in the Hospitall of Paris, a young and strong Monke of the order of S. Victor being ouerseer of the women that kept the sicke people of that place, fell into a continuall fe∣uer very sodainly with his tongue blacke, dry, rough, (by reason of the putrefied and corrupted humors, and the va∣pours rising from the whole body vnto that place) and hanging out like vnto an houndes, with vnquenchable thirst, oftensounding and desire to vomit. Hee had conuulsi∣ons ouer all his body through the vehemency and maligni∣ty of the dissease, and so hee dyed the third day, wherefore those that kept the sicke people in the Hospitall thought that hee had beene poysoned, for the certaine knowledge whereof, the gouernours of the Hospitall commanded his body to bee opened.
I therefore calling to mee a Physition and Surgion, wee found in the bottome of his stomack a print or impression, as if it had been made with an hote Iron or potentiall Cau∣terie, with an Eschar or crust as broad as ones naile, all the Page 88 rest of his stomacke was greatly contracted and shrunke vp together, and as it were hornie; which wee considering, and especially the Eschar which was deepe in the substance of the stomacke, we all said with one voice that he was poi∣soned with Sublimate or Arsnicke. But behold while I was sowing vp his belly I perceiued manie blacke spots disper∣sed diuerfly throughout the skinne: then I asked my com∣panie what they thought of those spots; truely (said I) it seemeth vnto mee that they are like vnto the purple spots or markes that are in the Pestilence. The Physition and the Chirurgion denied it, and said that they were the bitings of fleas. But I perswaded them to consider the number of them ouer all the whole bodie, and also their great depth and depression into the flesh; for when wee had thrust nee∣dles deep into the flesh in the middest of them, and so cut a∣way the flesh about the needle, we found the flesh about the needle to be blacke: moreouer his nostrels, nailes, and eares were liuide, and all the constitution of his bodie was con∣trarie and farre vnlike to the bodies of those that died of other sickenesses or diseases. Also it was credibly reported vnto vs by those that kept him, that his face was alte∣red a little before hee died that his familier friends could hardly know him. We, so perswaded by these proofes, re∣uoked our former opinion and sentence, and made a certi∣ficate to bee sent vnto the Gouernours and Masters of the Hospitall, setting our hands and seales vnto it, to certifie them that he died of a pestistent Carbuncle.
Of the cure of a pestilent Carbuncle.
BY the forenamed signes of a pestilent Carbuncle, and especialy by the bitternesse of the paine, malignitie of the venemous matter, and by the burning feauer that is therewithall annexed I thinke it manifest, that very hote, emplastick, and drawing medicines should not be applied Page 89 to this kind of tumor; because they prohibite or hinder the exhalation, or wasting forth of the venenate malignitie; because that by stopping the pores of the skinne, they en∣crease and cause a greater heate in the part than there was before. Therefore it is better to vse resoluing medicines, which may asswage heate, and resolue the pores of the skinne. Therefore first the place must be fomented with water and oyle mixed together, wherein a little Treacle hath beene dissolued, leauing thereon stupes wet therein: you may also vse the decoction of Mallowes, the rootes of Lillies, Linseedes, Figges, with oile of Hypericon for to make the skinnethinne, and to draw forth the matter; and the day following you must apply the Cataplasme following. Take the leaues of Sorrell and Henbane, rost them vnder the hote ashes; afterwards beate them with foure yelkes of egges, two drammes of Treacle, oyle of Lillies three oun∣ces, Barly meale as much as shall suffice; make thereof a Cataplasme in the forme of a liquid pultis; this asswages heate & furthers suppuration. Or, Take the roots of Marsh∣mallowes & Lillies, of each foure ounces, Linseeds halfe an ounce, boile them, beat them, and then strain them through a searse, adding thereto of fresh butter one ounce and an halfe, of Mithridate one dramme, of Barly-meale as much as shall suffice; make thereof a Cataplasme according to Arte: those Cataplasmes that follow are most effectuall to draw the venemous matter forth, and to make a perfect suppuration, especially when the fluxe of the matter is not so great but that the part may beare it. Take the rootes of white Lillies, Onions, Leauen, of each halfe an ounce; Mu∣stard-seedes, Pigeons dung, Sope, of each one dram; sixe Snailes in their shels; of fine Sugar, Treacle, and Mithridate, of each halfe a dramme, beate them altogether, and incor∣porate them with the yelkes of egges, make thereof a Ca∣taplasme, and apply it warme. Or, Take the yelkes of sixe egges; of salte poudered one ounce; of oyle of Lillies and Treacle, of each halfe a dramme; Barly-meale as much as shall suffice; make thereof a Cataplasme. Take of ordi∣narie Page 90Diachylon foure ounces; of Vnguentum Basilicon two ounces, oyle of Violets halfe an ounce; make thereof a me∣dicine. Manie ancient Professors greatly commend Sca∣bious ground or braied betweene two stones, and mixed with old Hogges-grease, the yelkes of egges and a little salt; for it will cause suppuration in Carbuncles: also an egge it selfe beeing mixed with Barly-meale, and oyle of Violets doth mitigate paine and suppurate. A Raddish roote cut in slices, and so the slices laied one after one vnto a Carbuncle or pestilent tumor, doth mightily draw out the poison. The iuice of Colts foote doth extinguish the heate of Carbuncles: the herbe called Diuels-bit, being bruised, worketh the like effect: I haue often vsed the medicine following vnto the heate of Carbuncles with verie good successe; it doth also asswage paine and cause suppuration. Take of the soot scraped from a chimney foure ounces, of common salte two ounces, beate them into small powder, adding thereto the yelkes of two egges, and stirre them well together vntill it come to haue the consistence of a pultis, and let it bee applied warme vnto the Carbuncle. In the beginning the point or head of the Carbuncle must be burned, if it be blacke, by dropping thereinto scalding hot oyle, or Aquafortis: for by such a burning the venome is suffocated as touched by lightening, and the paine is much lessened, as I haue proued oftentimes: neither is it to be feared lest that this burning should be too painfull, for it toucheth nothing but the point of the carbuncle, which by reason of the eschar that is there, is voide of sense. After this burning, you must goe forward with the former de∣scribed medicines, vntill the eschar seemeth to separate it selfe from the flesh round about it, which is a token of the patients recouery, for it signifieth that nature is strong and able to resist the poison. After the fall of the Eschar you must vse gentle mundificatiues, as those which wee haue prescribed in a pestilent Bubo, not omitting sometimes the vse of suppuratiue and mollifying medicines, that while the grosse matter is cleansed, that which is as yet rude may Page 91 be brought to suppuration; for then the indication is two∣fold, the one to suppurate that which remaineth as yet crude and raw in the part, and the other to cleanse that which remaineth concocted and perfectly digested in the vicer.
How to cure Infants and Children taken with the Plague.
IF that it happen that sucking or weaned children be in∣fected with the pestilence, they must bee cured after a∣nother order then is yet described. The Nurse of the suck∣ing childe must gouerne her selfe so in dyet and the vse of medicines as shee were infected with the pestilence her selfe: Her dyet consisteth in the vse of the six things not na∣turall. Therefore let it bee moderate, for the fruit or profit of that moderation in dyet cannot chuse but come vnto the nurses milke, and so vnto the infant who liueth onely by the milke. And the infant it selfe must keepe the same dyet as neere as he can in sleepe, waking, and expulsion, or auoiding of superfluous humors and excrements of the body. Let the nurse bee fed with those things that doe mitigate the vio∣lence of the feuerish heate: as cooling brothes, cooling herbs, and meats of a moderate temperature: shee must wholly abstaine from wine, and annoint her nipples, as often as shee giueth the infant sucke, with water, or iuice of sorrell tempered with sugar of roses. But the in∣fants heart must be fortified against the violence of the en∣creasing venom, by giuing it one scruple of treacle in the nurses milke, the broth of a pullet or some other cordiall water. It is also very necessary to annoint the region of the heart, the emunctories and both the wrests with the same medicine: neither were it vnprofitable to smell often vnto Treacle dissolued in rose water, vineger of roses and a little Aquavita, that so nature may bee strengthened against the Page 92 malignity of the venom. When the children are weaned and somewhat well growne, they may take medicines by the mouth, for when they are able to concoct and turne in∣to bloud meates that are more grosse and firme than milke, they may easily actiuate a gentle medicine. Therefore a po¦tion must bee prepared for them of twelue graines of trea∣cle dissolued with a little of the syrupe of succory in some cordiall water, or the broth of a capon: vnlesse that any had rather giue it with conserue of roses in forme of a bole: but treacle must bee giuen to children in very small quanti∣ty, for if it be taken in any large quantity there is great dan∣ger lest that by inflamming the humors it inferre a feuer. Furthermore broth may bee prepared to bee taken often, made of a capon seasoned with sorrell, lettuce, purslane, and cooling seedes, adding thereto bole armenicke and terrae si∣gillata, of each one ounce, being tyed in a ragge and sometimes pressed out from the decoction. For bole armenicke, whe∣ther it bee by its maruellous facultie of drying, or by some hidden property, hath this vertue, that being drunken (ac∣cording as Galen witnesseth) it cureth those that are infe∣cted with the pestilence, if so bee that they may bee cured by physicke: so that those that cannot bee cured with bole armenicke, cannot be preserued by any other medicines. But because the bodies of children are warme, moist and va∣porous, they are easily deliuered of some portion of the ve∣nenate matter through the pores of the skinne by prouo∣king sweat, with a decoction of parsly seedes, prunes, figs, and the rootes of sorrell, with a little of the powder of harts horne, or Iuory. But that the sweat may bee more aboundant and copious, apply sponges dipped and pressed out in the decoction of sage, rosemary, lauender, bayes, chamomyle, melilote and mallowes; or else swines bladders halfe filled with the same decoction, to the arme-holes, and to the groines. In the time that they sweate let their faces bee fanned to coole them. Also let a nodule of Treacle dissol∣ued in vineger and water of Roses bee applied to the no∣strels, but alwaies vse a moderation in sweating, because Page 93 that children are of a substance that is easie to bee dissipa∣ted and resolued: so that oftentimes although they do not sweate, yet they feele the commodities of sweating, the matter of the venome beeing dissipated by the force of the heate through the pores of the skinne, But in the sweating while the face is fanned, and sweete and cordiall things applied to the nostrels, nature must be recreated and streng∣thened, which otherwise would bee debilitated through sweating, that it may bee better able to expell the venome. After that the sweat is wiped away it is verie profitable to take a potion of conserue of Roses, with the pouder of an Harts horne or of Iuorie dissolued in the waters of Buglosse and Sorrell, the better to coole and defend the heart. If there appeare anie tumor vnder the arme-holes or in the groine, let it be brought to maturation with a mollifying, relaxing, drawing, and then with a suppuratiue fomentati∣on, or Cataplasme; alwaies vsing and handling it as gently as you may, considering the tender age of the infant. If you haue neede to purge the patient, the purgation follow∣ing may be prescribed with great profite. Take of Rubarbe in pouder one dramme, infuse it in the watet of Carduus Be∣nedictus, with one scruple of Cinamon, in the straining dis∣solue two drams of Diaratholicon, of syrup of Roses laxatiue three drams; make thereof a small potion. This is the cure of the Pestilence and of the pestilent Feuer, as farre as I could learne from the most learned Physitions, and haue obserued my selfe by manifold experience by the grace and permission of God: of whom alone, as the author of all good things that mortall men enioy, the true and certaine pre∣seruatiues against the Pestilence are to bee desired and ho∣ped for.