An essay of the meanes hovv to make our trauailes, into forraine countries, the more profitable and honourable
Palmer, Thomas, Sir, 1540-1626., Zwinger, Theodor, 1533-1588. Methodus apodemica.
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AN ESSAY OF the Meanes hovv to make our Trauailes, into forraine Countries, the more pro∣fitable and ho∣nourable.

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At London Imprinted, by H. L. for Mathew Lownes. 1606.

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To the Reader.

HAuing framed this discourse long since for mine owne aduertisement, what might and ought to be done by Trauaile; and now consi∣dering the manifould errors and misprisions, that the greater sort of such as trauaile into forraine Countries, haue heretofore commit∣ted (because these dayes wherein we now liue are no lesse disordered, then when pilgrimages were on foote) and how few haue arriued vnto that perfectiō which was requirable, for the wāt of a Guide or Counsellor, to aduise & aduertise them of the fairer and more readie way, to make their trauailes somewhat more profitable and honorable: I haue been encouraged (worthy Reader) vpō the vertue of the yonger sort of such noble gentlemen as intend so recōmendable a course, to prepare and addresse the same, by way of Essay; the rather also for that, in other languages, I haue suruayed some of like proiect, for other Nations, who I am sure stand not more in neede then wee in this State doe. Protesting (as in the inferiornesse of the stile may well appeare, that neither vanitie of glorie, nor selfe presumption (being of many the most vnworthie to haue enterprised this taske) nor other pri∣uate respect then dutie to my good friends (that haue requested this at my hands) and Zeale to my louing Countriemen, hath made me pub∣lish it. For, considering of all voluntarie Commendable actions, that of trauailing into forraine States (vndertaken and performed Regu∣larly) is the most behoueable & to be regarded in this Common-weale, both for the publike and priuate good thereof, singularly also for that the same is not vndergone with ordinarie charge, care, hazard, or ta∣king of paines, but of most vncertaine issue and commoditie to Tra∣uailers: It seemeth vnto mee (vertuous Reader) a faire dutie (where other worthie men haue beene so long silent, in giuing a per∣fect rule for Trauailing, as it is in vse at this day) to begin the hew∣ing out of one, that by some master workeman, it may hereafter be bet∣ter planted, formed, and tried.

Page  [unnumbered] Moreouer, I thought good, for the informatiō of some Readers, to vn∣couer my intent in sundrie points therin cōtained. And first, that wher∣as diuers other sortes of Trauailers are mentioned thē those Generall Voluntaries, (for whom this discourse was framed) they are honoris gratia, & obiter Salutati; and rather by way of order, then worthie to receiue direction, mentioned. Secondly, that whereas by the found of some words, some people and Nations may thinke they be taxed in cer∣taine points, notwithstanding therein I may say, Nihil iam quod non prius ab omnibus dictum fuit: yet I trust, the honest Reader will perceiue may meaning to bend rather to the rectifying, then preiudi∣cing of any. Thirdly, where any point is obserued by way of secreat or policie, that no other Construction be made thereof, then the literall, to ensample and aduance knowledge. Fourthly, that considering for the priuate respect of the most vnexpert, more Minute Subdiuisions and points are cōtained, then per aduenture will rellish with the taste of some; that such will take for their better stomacke the benefit of those Marginall notes, which for their sakes I haue set downe. Lastly, see∣ing not only we here in England may, as all other Nations in the world doe, account it a shame that there should be so many and such fugitiues (vnworthie of the honourable name of Trauailers) as this Land hath affourde hertofore, who haue not afterwards made conscience of their owne wayes nor of others, but like the most pernitious haue communi∣cated with all euill and mischiefe in their trauailes, to subiect their own Countrie, Princes, State, Parents, friends and all that is held deare in this life; let me discouer so much of my secretest affections vnto thee (discreet Reader) that the preuenting hereof, was one of the first mo∣tiues to vndertake this worke. And so I heartily pray to God to make thee happie in all vertue and godlinesse, and to set to thy helping hand, as much as in thee lyeth, to encounter that imputation to our Countrie: leauing vnto thy discreete iudgement, moreouer, these Tables which are here abstracted for the ease and aide of mens memories. And so I bid thee farwell. From Wingham, the first of Iulie. 1606.

Tho. Pal.

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TO THE MOST Excellent, Illustrious, and vertuous Prince, HENRIE, eldest Sonne to our Soueraigne Lord the King, and Heire apparant to the King∣domes of Great Britaine, &c. ({inverted ⁂})

COnsidering with what libertie and Applause, Princes, in times past, vndertook voluntarie trauaile & aduentures into forraine parts: and how of latter dayes those Illustrious Stemmes of noble∣nesse (I know not now by what custome restrai∣ned of that recreation and renowne) haue not∣withstanding improued their pretious times at home vnto no lesse rent of commoditie & com∣mendablenes, by suffering themselues to be tray∣ned vp and delighted in the faculties and know∣ledge of diuine and humane things: I haue pre∣sumed (most excellent and gratious Prince) hum∣bly to prefer, vnto your rare protectiō and view, Page  [unnumbered] this Essay, of the means how to make the trauailes of other men (who for the good of this kingdom wherein they liue so happily, their better seruice to his Maiestie, and making of themselues more Compleat in all things, haue faire libertie & de∣sire to aduenture trauaile) somewhat more profi∣table and honorable, not only before trauaile, but in the interim of trauaile, and after their returnes. First, because your highnesse is (in all happie pos∣sibilitie) to be a most noble Iudge of all mens de∣serts in this point, rather then to make experience your selfe therin, vnlesse in Martial causes: wherin I know not whether I may account your royall Auncestors (Princes of this State) to bee more happie alwaies in their good successe, or in the faithfulnesse of their voluntarie great traines. Se∣condly, for that the people of great Britaine (of all other famous and glorious Nations separated from the maine Continent of the world) are by so much the more interessed to become Trauai∣lers, by how much the necessitie of euerie seuerall estate of men doth require that, for their better aduancement. Lastly, in regard this subiect hath not worne an English habite hertofore, (from the custom dew to Princes in the Novelty of things) I thought it my dutie (vnder the compasse of my obligation and seruice vnto your Highnesse) to make a present hereof (although but meanly ap∣parelled and suited) and in most humble wise to Page  [unnumbered] beseech the greatnesse of your Excellencie, to fauour & patronize the same. Which gratiousnes I must euer acknowledge (sir) to proceede from the cleare fountain of your generous, ingenuous, and princely disposition vnto all bountie, good∣nesse and vertue: and the world alreadie knowes, that your singular towardlines, to euerie good & perfect thing, is such, that neither can it or is like∣ly to be paralleled of any in the world (so long as your Highnesse continews in these religious ver∣tuous & studious paths, which God graunt) nor circumscribed within the Kings most Ample kingdomes, and States, but is knowen, feared, or admired in forrain parts. The which as it is a most Soueraine and inexpressible blessing vnto all, of these his Maiesties Dominions: So, vnto mee, it shal be the onely studie & care to make expressiō of all dutifull alleageance: And in the meane seafō to pray vnto God cōtinually for your high∣nesse, to continue for euer in health, felicitie and euerlasting glorie, And rest during life

Your HIGHNES most humble and deuoted Seruant, THOMAS PALMER.

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  • Trauai∣ling is ei∣ther
    • 1, Regular: Of Regular Trauailers some be
      • 1. Nonuolun∣taries, Sent out by the prince, & imploy∣ed in mat∣ters of
        • 1. Peace,
          • 1. Honorable
            • 1. Ambassa∣dors
            • 2. Commis∣sioners
            • 3. Messen∣gers
              • 1, To know well
                • 1. From whom they are sent.
                • 2. To whom they are sent.
                • 3. To be perfect in their businesse.
                • 4. Themselues that are sent.
                • 5. The Countreys from whom, and to whom.
              • 2. To pra∣ctise
                • 1. Eloquence to obtaine.
                • 2. Prudence in accusing, excusing, demanding, denying, propoun∣ding, answering &c.
                • 3. Liberalitie.
                • 4. Honestie
                • 5. Humanitie, and Ciuilitie.
                • 6. Faithfulnesse, Care, and
                • 7. Obseruation.
          • 2. not Hono¦rable:
            • 1. Posts are recommendable for speede and faithfulnesse.
            • 2. Intelli∣gencers
              • 1. Base,
              • 2. Honest:
                • 1. To be expert in the Tongues.
                • 2. To resemble all gestures and be∣hauiours.
                • 3. To be well furnished of all ne∣cessaries.
                • 4. To be secret aboue ordinarie.
                • 5. To be able to endure all things.
                • 6. To keepe themselues from being knowen for Intelligencers.
        • 2. Warre.
          • 1. Chieftaines and Cōmanders,
            • 1. To be alwayes prouident and faithfull.
            • 2. Neuer to exceede Commission.
            • 3. To make diligent and true relation.
          • 2. Common Souldiers,
            • 1. To be obseruant to the discipline.
            • 2. To make account of his Armes.
            • 3. Neuer to mutinie.
      • 2. Inuoluntaries,
        • 1. Banished persons
          • 1. By the course of the Law.
          • 2. By the displeasure of the King:
            • 1. Not to murmure for their banishment.
            • 2. To depart the land within the time limited.
            • 3. Not to trauaile into the countrey that is e∣nemie to their Prince, or to God.
            • 4. Alwayes to discouer fruits of allegeance to their Prince and Countrey.
        • 2, Persecuted for a good conscience, must obserue these things:
          • 1. Before trauaile,
            • 1. To be sure that no licencious affect moue them.
            • 2. To be assured that they flie for the trueths sake, and that they imbrace the right re∣ligion
            • 3. To know that they cannot get a tolera∣tion of that right Religion, nor to haue libertie of conscience.
            • 4. To sue for licence of the Magistrate.
            • 5. To resolue to goe into that Countrey where the word of God is preached: or into a free estate and neuter.
          • 2, In Trauaile,
            • 1. To serue God sincerely.
            • 2. To obey the lawes of that Countrey.
            • 3. Not contending for this or that discipline.
            • 4. Not to liue idlely or in excesse.
            • 5. Not to intermeddle with the politick gouern∣ment or State.
            • 6. Neuer treacherous to their owne Prince or State.
          • 3, Being returned from Trauaile,
            • 1. No Busie bodies, Schismatickes, or mouers of Sedition.
            • 2. To liue a quiet, peaceable and god∣ly life.
      • 3, Voluntaries.
    • 2, Irregular. *
    Page  [unnumbered]Page I. B. The rest of the first Part, abstracted.
  • Voluntary Regular Trauailers are consi∣dered,
    • 1, As they are moued accidētally:
      • 1, Principally, that afterwards they may leade a more quiet and contented life, to the glory of God.
      • 2, Secondarily, regarding ends,
        • 1, Publicke: which doe consider
          • 1, What persons are inhibited trauaile:
            • 1, Such as Nature,
              • 1, Infants.
              • 2, Decrepite persons.
            • 2, Such as Imperfectiō,
              • 1, Fooles.
              • 2, Madmen.
              • 3, Lunaticke.
            • 3, Such as the Sexe,
              • Women.
          • 2, What times to trauaile in are
            • 1, Not fitte: When
              • 1, Our Countrey, is ingaged with Ci∣uill warres: or,
              • 2, The same expecteth forraine warres.
            • 2, Fitte:
              • 1, When one may reape most profit in shortest time, for that hee aimeth at.
              • 2, When the Countrey, into which wee would trauaile, holdeth not ours in iealousie.
          • 3, What age is most meete to trauaile in:
            • 1, Not the Nonage.
            • 2, Not Old age.
            • 3, But the Middle age.
        • 2, Priuate.
    • 2, As they consist Es∣sentially:
      • 1. Nobles,
        • 1, Generall: of whom, looke in the second Part. *
        • 2, Special:
          • 1, Diuines,
            • 1, In what Cases they may not trauaile.
              • 1. If there bee preaching of the Gospel in their Countrey.
              • 2, If Licence can not bee obtained of the State.
              • 3, If godly and learned Professors liue in the State.
            • 2, For what pretences they may trauaile, hauing obtained Licence.
              • 1. To a generall Councell approoued by the State.
              • 2, To a famous Librarie.
              • 3, To haue conference with such and such fa∣mous Learned men.
              • 4, To haue conference with such and such Linguists, that are famous for the Hebrew, and Greeke Tongues.
          • 2, Ciuilians,
            • 1, To be well grounded in Religion, and stedfast in the same.
            • 2, To be studious in their obseruations.
            • 3, To take Degrees.
          • 3, Souldiers,
            • 1, Contemplatiue,
            • 2, Actiue are to note these things,
              • 1, Before trauaile,
                • 1, To be expert in the Mathe∣matickes.
                • 2, To remoue discōtentednes.
                • 3, To be assured that they may be spared.
                • 4. To accustome themselues to hardnesse.
                • 5, To serue where the Prince most fauoureth.
                • 6, To serue in those warres, where a man may soonest proue a good Souldier.
              • 2, In Trauaile,
                • 1, To make diligent obseruation of all things.
                • 2, To bee studious in obseruing the discipline.
                • 3, Rather to put vp iniuries, than to offer any.
                • 4, Neither to serue vnder Infi∣dels, nor against professors of the Gospel, or in an vniust war.
                • 5, To vse the warre as no profes∣sion, but to liue in peace the better afterwards.
          • 4, Physicians,
            • 1. To make diligent obseruation of all Common and Accidentall things.
            • 2, To be aswell expert as learned.
            • 3, To be carefull to transplant what may profit their Countrey.
      • 2, Commons,
        • 1, Merchants,
          • 1, Venturers,
          • 2, Of Companies,
            • 1, To know by what Commodities their Countrey may be benefited.
            • 2, Not to transport things prohibited, or to bring in vaine and hurtfull matters.
            • 3, To conceale the secrets of their Princes State, and to obserue of other nations what is meete.
          • 3, Men of Warre,
            • 1, Not to transgresse their Commission.
            • 2, To obserue diligently for Nauigation.
            • 3, To make faithfull relation of things needefull.
        • 2, Machanickes. *
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The first Part.

TRauailing is equiuocable, Regular or Irregular. Of Irregular tra∣uelling,* most men finde by experi∣ence what it is.* The Regular is an honorable or honest action of men (and in speciall cases of wo∣men) into forreine Countries and States, chiefly for a publike good to that Countrie of which such are, and also for a priuate benefit and neces∣sitie in cases necessarie and of commendablenesse. In like sort there are deriued,* from this action of trauel∣ling, two orders of Trauellers, Regular, and Irregular. The Regular are threefould; Non voluntarie, Inuolun∣tarie, or Voluntarie. Of whome foure things may bee considered. First what ought to be the moouing cau∣ses of mens trauell. Secondly, what courses such as are iustly mooued must vndertake before trauell, if they will benefit their Countrie, or themselues. Thirdly, how they ought to spend their times in the interim of trauell. Page  2 Lastly, what commendable carriages and behauiour such are to expresse at their returnes, to the further ho∣nour of themselues, good of the State, and glorie of God.

The first of these according to the ancient diuision of Causes hath fowre head mouers; but it may be imper∣tinent to intreat of aboue two,* at this present, namely of the efficient and finall. For, the formall estee∣med causes (which are pedestriall, equestriall, or nauti∣call) stand either at the disposition of the efficient; or pretend perfection and vse from the finall. In like man∣ner the materiall causes which pertaine either to the bodie or the minde, though in subiect they differ not al∣wayes, yet in consideration of the places and the things in them contained, being obiects to be respected, may either depende vpon the pleasure of the efficient, or from the finall draw their motion and contentation.

There are only three iust efficients (next vnder God,* which is the efficient of all good things in a secret man∣ner) that ought to stirre vp men to trauell from their Countrie (which as a parent tyeth all in duetie to respect it before sorteine parts: and wherein euerie one ought to leade his life godly and soberly, to aduance the Common-weale thereof.) Those are first the plea∣sure of the prince,* or State, or Law vnder which men liue. The second in number, though in order preferable aboue all things in the world, is the maintenance and exercise of true Religion and Godlinesse.* The third is a godly thought to do good in the Church and Common-weale,* grounded either vpon probable rea∣son, or vndertaken for priuate necessitie and respect. Seeing the two former belong either to Non voluntariePage  3 or Inuoluntarie trauellers, it shall bee the more sparing∣ly discoursed of them; in regarde the Voluntarie are the the true subiects of our point in hand.

The Persons,* first occasioned to trauell by the Prin∣ces or States fauour, are either men of peace, or men of warre. Those of peace are either honorable or not, according to the circumstances of places, persons and times to whom and in what times they are sent. The honourable be either Embassadors,* Commissioners, or Messengers with or without credence. The not hono∣rable be Postes and such like Currers necessarie in States to aduertise Princes speedily concerning their mindes, or such as goe vnder the name of Intelligen∣cers.

As cōcerning the honourable, though the prouidence of euerie Prince State make election of meete per∣sonages to vndergoe such charge as is committed vn∣to them; and are euer well instructed concerning prin∣cipall matters and momentall: yet for other mens ob∣seruations,* there are fiue circumstāces required of these principall Trauellers, to bee considered. First, from whom such are sent. Secondly, to whome and to what gouernement. Thirdly, what is their Embassage in spe∣ciall. Fourthly, what they themselues are, so chosen to vndergoe the office of Embassadors, of Commissioners or Messengers. And fiftly, that the States of those Coū∣tries & fashiō of the people, as welfrom whence as vnto which they are sent, be pondered at the time of their le∣gation: which shal enable thē the more to be answerable in all points of cōsequencie; that the Prince sending may be cōpleatly serued & honored; that the State or Prince, to whome, may accordingly admire and haue the Page  4 Embassage and them in recommendation, that the Em∣bassage may take best effect. And lastly, that no reproche chance vnto them either concerning their traines or themselues, but contrariwise commendation & reward. Moreouer it is required of such that they be eloquent,* to obtaine and efect that which they plead for in negoti∣ations: prudent in accusing, excusing, demanding, de∣nying, and such like politicke affaires: liberall, honest, humane, popular, but with respect, ciuile in words and ceremonies, faithfull aboue all, carefull to dispatch af∣faires, and painefull to ripen and prepare them, and last∣ly obseruant in forreine affaires to get intelligēce. These may be sufficient at this present.

As touching the not honorable, though wee might be also silent & passe thē ouer for the reasō aforesaid, yet let these things be remembred.* First, that Postes, whether mediatly, or immediatly, be speedy and faithful to put in execution things committed to their charge. Secondly,* as concerning Intelligencers and Referen∣daries, being persons of notable esteeme to support the policie of the Estate by the knowledge of the secrets of forreine powers and daily occurrences that chaunce in them. Wherby Princes may shew all offices vnto their friends and confederates, and be sufficiently armed with knowledge to resist the malice of their enemies or en∣counter such as are held in iealousie.

These are sent out by the mediation of the Councell in most States, or by some of the principall. Of these In∣telligencers it is required,* first before their vndergoing so dangerous an actiō, To speak singularly the tongues, that may stand them in stead in that Countrey out of which they must gather intelligence, and to imitate the Page  5 common gestures and behauiour of those nations, to cloke their purposes the more artificially. Also to bee well accōmodated of things needefull for their enterpri∣ses: the which being variable and changeable accor∣ding to the alteration of States and times haue no cer∣taine rules. Only this, that such may safest trauell vnder the shewes of those people which that State wherein such must trauel to get intelligence hath the least ielou∣sie of, and are in good friendshippe. Lastly, to keepe the order and manner of their enterprise so secret, as that those which send out such shall not know the plot of all things if so be the same be deuised by the Intelligencers themselues, which is euer least dangerous. Moreouer it is required of such to enure themselues to endure the accidentes of Sea or Land; as stormes, heate, colde, ex∣cesse of meates and drinkes, sickenesse, much riotte of speech, simplicitie and such like. And in a word whe∣ther abroad, or at home, let such be carefull they be not discouered for Intelligencers or had in ouermuch iea∣lousie, but so warily demeane themselues that they may aswell secure their own persons as benefite the State by their intelligence.

There is an other kinde of Intelligencers,* (but base in respect of the former, by reason they assume a liber∣tie to say what they list) who are inquisitors or diuers into the behauiours and affections of men belonging to a State, the carriages of whom are verie insupportable; oftentimes exercising any libertie and licentiousnesse to prie into the hearts of men to know how such stand affected. But being also necessarie euils in a State, I would counsaile such as vnhappily shall haue to deale with this packe of Muches not so fauourablie to suffer Page  6 them to raile vpon the Nobilitie of this Land and dis∣couer faults in the State, to blaspheme and dishonor the Maiestie of God and of their Prince but rather to con∣iure such so, as neuer afterwardes they shall delight in that humorous-carnall-tempting and diuellish profe∣ssion.

The other sort,* which likewise by the Princes or States fauour are made Trauellers, are men of warre or souldi∣ers, seruing on the Land or Sea; whether these be sent to serue vnder other Princes or haue authority committed vnto them to make warre themselues. Now conside∣ring these are either Commanders or common Soul∣diers, there ought to be a distinct consideration. As touching the first, though wee might considerately e∣nough leaue them out heere, being men of action and experiēce,* yet we obserue three general offices of these: First, ere they vndertake their iournie, to be accōmoda∣ted with euerie thing necessarie, both for men, munitiō, victuals and monie, which being the sinewes of euerie enterprise shall preuaile greatly. And in case that any be sent to serue vnder other Princes, it is a thing most re∣quirable, for the honour of their Prince and Country and of themselues, to be much curious that euerie soul∣dier be seemely apparelled,* and orderly sorted with men and armes, and other things necessarie, and to be faithfull vnto their Soueraigne. Secondly, let euery one take heede hee goe not beyond his Commission, but rather in case of his absolute authoritie streighten his owne power, neuer presuming vpon the fauour of the Prince or State that sendeth such an one foorth. For though the same sometimes may sort to a happie end, yet the encroching on the prerogatiue royall is repro∣uable, Page  7 and without reward, though so aduantagious for ones Prince, and Countrie. And as it is the cheefest point of a Commaunder to obserue good discipline to aduance euerie enterprise and designe▪ so especial∣ly in case of seruing vnder forreine Princes and powers, let such be blamelesse and irreproueable: accompli∣shing moreouer with resolution and discretion whatso∣euer is committed to the charge of such, nothing at∣tempting vpon discretion without commaundement of the Prince himselfe vnder whom such serue. And that such be not lauish in rewarding with honour, or too seuere in punishing offenders beyond the discipline then exercised. The third and last consisteth in the making true and diligent relation of euerie accident,* vnto the Prince to whome such belong. VVee shall not neede to dilate on these, they are so common. Nowe as concerning the common souldier in this place of Non Voluntarie trauellers, let it only be exacted of him, To be obedient to the discipline prescribed vn∣to him, to esteeme of his armes as the cognisance of a souldier; and neuer to be tainted with mutinie or murmuring: For such do debarre themselues euermore afterwarde of bearing armes, or of the reputation of Souldiers, though such may pretend great cause. Of o∣ther things let it be sought for in the voluntarie Tra∣uellers.

It nowe remaines wee touch vpon those that Inuo∣luntarily are made Trauailers,* by the displeasure con∣ceaued by the Prince, and by offence committed a∣gainst the law. Those that haue trespassed against the lawe, although in other States in times past they were great personages, as others that lay open to Page  8 such punishments, yet here in England are men of no accompt or reckening: such as being incorrigible per∣sons, good for nothing, euill members, are for euer made proscripts, and turned from the tuition of their naturall friends and Countrie, to liue as runnagates in the wide world.* But as concerning such as stand banished by displeasure and prerogatiue royal of the Prince, they are of two sorts. The first of such are onely for breach of Lawes in Court banished from the Court, and confined to approche no neerer than so many miles, for a cer∣taine space: these are not to our purpose. The other is of such as the Prince vppon iust indignation bani∣sheth the Land for a time certaine or not; wherby such are forced to trauell, and are of the Gentrie or Nobili∣tie alwayes, of whom the Prince hath a greater respect, then of the Commons that sustaine all punishments in their times according to the Lawes. Of whome these Offices are exacted; First,* not to make shew of discon∣tentednesse other then sorrow for the offence done. Se∣condly, to depart the Land, within the time limited. Thirdly, not to trauaile into their Princes enemies Coūtries, or into the Coūtries of miscreants & Infidels, there to make their aboade; (for the one is a breach of Religion, the other of allegeaunce and duetie to their Prince, Soueraigne and Countrie: which yet remaine to such so, during life) either for that they may obtaine fauour to be recalled, or by decease of the Prince that banished them in speciall cases of displeasure be freed to returne from banishment: the benefite whereof they may peraduenture lose if such shal be obserued to spend their times in the enemies Countrie or keepe much fa∣miliaritie with them. So is it to those that trauaile to Page  9 Pagans and Infidels, who although they may be friends with their Prince, yet the office of banished trauellers carrying the badge of Gods displeasure also vpon them may not doe euerie thing that the policie of an Estate shall permit: but in particular let them carrie themselues so, as God their high Prince, who hath a more speciall hand ouer such then ordinarie may be serued also and appeased by obeysance to his word, which restraineth all from voluntary fellowshippe with vnbeleeuers and vn∣godly persons; much more to haue such a communitie with them as being left to their choice they seeke rather after such then the godly, & as it were indenizen them∣selues into their life, Religion and conuersation. Lastly, that wheresoeuer these shall remaine, let them carrie themselues so discreetly during their perigrination, that they may procure themselues to regaine their Prin∣ces fauour to restore them. And also when such shall so fortunately be recalled, to behaue themselues like newe creatures and subiects, abandoning all reprouable acti∣ons that draw downe sodainely GODS displeasure, & consequently the like or greater iudgements. Thus briefly may we conclude the first ranke of Regular and lawfull Trauailers. The second followeth.

2 Which are also of the Crue of Inuoluntaries:* being moued to traueil for the maintenance only and preseruation of their Religion, which vppon assured grounds they know to be the true and only sauing pro∣fession whereby they serue God aright according to his word, and prepare themselues for a more diuine & excellent mansion then can be found or conceipted heere on earth: the which thing may, of all other things in the world held in estimation, prescribe against and Page  10 free them from the opposition of lawes humane, and their allegeance; in such sort that whether men trauell without commission or licence of the Prince and State to whom they belong, or whether contrarie to the ex∣presse cōmandemēt of the State,* their callings are iusti∣fiable & honorable without the titles of fugitiues or re∣bels; so such demeane themselues, in sort according to godlines, & as good subiects, before they put themselues to trauel, & during their perigrination. For if it be gene∣rally held that faith is to be perswaded not compelled; & that no man hath power of Religiō, seeing that it pro∣ceedes from the minde and will, the libertie whereof re∣steth in the hands of God only, to dispose of: then of all men those are most free that ground their Religion vpō the word of God, which only is able to enfranchise and giue an assured hope of standing, vnto the sincere pro∣fessors thereof; making mens actions holy and warran∣table euerie where. Hence, the subiects of a nation that persecuteth the Gospell of Christ, & establisheth lawes derogatorie from the true worship of God cōmanded onely in the holy scriptures, haue their Supersedeas au∣thenticall. For which cause hath God, least his seruants should make shipwracke of their faith and conscience, whom he hath not fitted to be Martyrs, made a way in the hearts of Princes that they may trauell into other Nations peaceably, and there abide till the Lord shall remooue the rodde of persecution from his Church. Of which wee haue singular testimonies both in the dayes of Queene Marie; and contrariewise in the bles∣sed reigne of Queene ELIZABETH: Who granted to seuerall Nations within her Dominions freely to exercise their Religion, and that in distinct Page  11 formes, in their seuerall tongues, for the better enter∣tainement of their consciences. Nowe to auoyde the inconueniences of this libertie, that many vpon blinde zeale and offended consciences may pretend; such Tra∣uailers must obserue these Rules following, or the like. First,* that all subiects before they enterprise trauaile in this kind are to consider with themselues, whether there be not some other licentious affectes that spurre them forward. For,* though men vpon other grounds of af∣fectes haue libertie to trauaile by licence or flight, yet is their iournying altogether displeasing to God and dis∣parageable with men: much more in the case of religiō. For it is made changeable and turneth soone into hypo∣crisie. Secondly,* such are to ponder well whether the Religiō, which they professe and would gladly exercise, be that which by Christ was instituted and by his Pro∣phets and Apostles; contained in the Canonicall scrip∣tures: wherein all ceremoniall and olde blind sacrificing worshippe, all humane traditions that consent not with the faith and to edification; all idolatrie and politi∣call gouernement that derogateth from GODS glorie, is forbiden, as thinges damnable. From hence are all perigrinations and pilgrimages to a∣ny place for the performance of vowes, or sacri∣ficings for sinnes, impious and vaine. Thirdly, howbeit, for the nourishment of that true and righte Religion, men maye bee iustly mooued to trauaile, yet it is the office of all so trauailing to weighe and consider with themselues, first, whether the same bee not professed alreadie in their Coun∣trie,* or libertie permitted for such to exercise the same.

Page  12 For, if there be an exercise thereof there, or a toleratiō though in a priuate sort, a subiect only for this ought not to trauell nor forsake his owne Land, Countrie, pa∣rents, brethren, and that Church whereof he is a mem∣ber, for any other vaine perswasion or fancie▪ Fourthly, if so be ther be neither publike exercise not priuate to∣leration; and in case ther bee Lawes prohibitiue for trauelling,* it is the dutie of euerie subiect to mooue the Prince or Magistrare, to whom authoritie is comit∣ted, to grant licence: the which if it can not bee obtai∣ned it is better to venture flight and shunne persecution then to abide it; vnlesse such an one can find in his hart the motions of strength and courage to suffer persecu∣tion for the truth of the Gospell, without wauering. Yet of the two it is better to flie from persecution, then be∣ing come into it, to saint, & so leaue their hope & faith in ieopardie. Lastly, let not such stand indifferent whe∣ther they goe, so they may be prouided for: for if there be any choice, the best is euermore to be elected. And therfore considering in outward shew that is best where the Gospell is flourishing,* yet in other cases dāgerous; I presuppose three kind of places to trauaile into for this kinde of people, and only one free from danger. The first, a State which is enemie to their Countrie. The second, a State neerely linked in many respects to their Countrie. The third, a State, which is indifferent: I meane such a State as is neither fast friend, nor appa∣rant enimie. To peece out our discouse about these it is needelesse, being apparant vnto all men, that the newter or free state is least dāgerous to be trauailed in∣to for this kind of people. Their offices now in trauaile offer themselues. First,* considering they are now be∣come Page  13 separates from the world, their courses must be so much the more spirituall, that the prouident hand of God may not be remooued from them, and that hee may receaue them as members of his Church into fa∣uour againe.* Wherefore let them serue God truely in those places wherein they shall be dispersed; that they may cause euerie nation fearing God to tender their estates and to relieue their necessities. Secondly, let them demeane themselues euerie one according to his estate and abilitie answerable to the Lawes & customes of those places wherein they shall happily abide,* that no hatred or mislike befall on such. And in case the number of those shall be so great as to make a congre∣gatiō by themselues, hauing humbly obtained the same of the Prince or Magistrate in a place conuenient, it be∣houeth such a Congregation to institute that Order of discipline which may best sort with the Magistrats plea∣sure: that no iarres or dissension arise therein: or other policie be established then that which consenteth with other godly Churches, vnlesse it shall be left vnto their owne election to sample their discipline after the most reformed and esteemed Churches:* about which if con∣trouersie arise, let the appointment thereof be referred to the Magistrate or Prince of the State. And in case the same be thus once considerately established, wherein no iust offence to any may arise (though in euerie poli∣ticke bodie there are some weake members that are scandaled at things indifferent) the same ought to bee continued without alteration; least dissension and dis∣pleasure creep in, a thing most displeasing in the church of God; and to strangers, in a strange Nation most dan∣gerous. But in case the numbers of such be so small, and Page  14 the place will not permit a distinct Church, then ought such to be conformable vnto the discipline of that place, auoyding also all publike and priuate mislike of the discipline, or gouernement there vsed. Ad though that State retaine in their policie many things,* which were better left out, then commaunded, yet strangers are to followe the doctrine and not externall things, as Ceremonies and orders. For, the intermeddling therewith sauoureth not of Christianitie and know∣ledge.

Thirdly, in case such be depriued of maintenance,* or if the custome of that place wherein they liue doe accompt it requisite, let euerie one in his calling bend himselfe to some honest Science or mechanicall trade, that they may not only get their liuings honestly, but may bee also reputed good members of that Com∣mon Weale. Moreouer,* if wealth abound, let not such spend that lauishly,wantonly, or carelesly. For that benefiteth not any; much lesse strangers, in a strange Nation, especiall the religious, the same be∣ing a scandall to their profession.

So in matters and affaires of the ciuill State,* let them not entermeddle nor be curious searchers into the se∣crets therof. For, being placed in a State only for zeale of Religion, they must giue continuall shew of vertue, and shunne euerie thing that may breed iealousie; least that State into which they are receiued hold them ra∣ther for Spies, then for Religious professors. Neither let such bee noted for fayneants and idle per∣sons: for such corrupt an Estate.* And let them bee euer kinde and respectiue to the people with whome they are suffered to liue amongst; rather sufferers of Page  15 iniuries then offerers of any wrong to them; neuer ac∣cepting Duello, but by the permission of the Magi∣strate for capitall wrong. Lastly, that thorough no perswasion of their friends at home,* or of enemies a∣broad, or of their owne tempting affections, they goe about treacherously, or rebelliously, to practise or rise against their natiue Soueraigne, in any sort, howe vniust or vngodly soeuer their Prince be: but rather seeke vnto God to turne his heart, and to giue a peace∣able returne home vnto them.

The last point we will briefly handle concerning their offices when they happily shal be recalled,* or per∣mitted to returne, in two obseruations. First, that how∣soeuer the State stands affected, it being permitted to them to haue libertie of conscience and priuate ex∣ercise of Religion,* Not to attempt or consent vnto any commotion, insurrection, or any such treasonable action, but to carry loyall hearts towards the Prince and State, not once publikely speaking or writing a∣gainst the Ecclesiastical policie, nor be strict and o∣uer-precise in things externall and indifferent: but carrie respect vnto the times, and late standing of things; vsing all things to the glorie of God with∣out offence or breach of conscience. And conside∣ring that there is of most things a ciuill and super∣fluous vse, let such retaine the Ciuill, and construe euerie thing rather to the best and to edificati∣on, then to preiudice the conscience of one another, leauing the superstitious vseage to those that vppon good knowledge doe vse thē. That other is the sociable & peaceable carriage of euerie one to his neighbour,* seeking al occasiōs to encrease loue and mutul societie. Page  16 As concerning other things required in Trauellers,* let it be sough for in the Voluntarie trauellers which now offer themselues to be discoursed on, being the proper subiect of our point in hand.

3 Before wee enter into the listes of this matter,* there are some things considerable: for there be some that go vnder the name of voluntarie trauellers moued out of their parents pleasure and will. The callings of which may seeme equally lawfull no doubte, so their parents performe their offices and haue them well gui∣ded & instructed, in the interim of their iourny (for tra∣uell to some bodies are as new birthes; that beare them, of dull mindes and sowre, good quicke and sweete con∣uersing spirits and inclinations: yea amendeth many imperfections of nature); so as the lawfulnesse of the parents ende and purpose haue a lawfull pretence also. Thus may the efficient and finall causes come foule one of another:* for the clearing of which confusion, I iudge it needefull to consider a few words of the endes in ge∣nerall; that when the particular kindes of trauailers shall be mentioned, their endes by implication may ap∣peare. Of endes lawfull,* there are two heades: one Prime and principal; the other Congruent and Secon∣darie.

The prime is diuine and spirituall,* That afterwards we may leade a more quiet, contented and peaceable life, to the honor and glorie of God, with knowledge and vnderstanding. And this no doubt ought to bee the first marke, for euerie man to shoote at in this life, that by doing the reuealed will of God, euerie one may seek vnto himselfe the assurance of heauenly happinesse, which is incomprehensible and eternall. That other, Page  17 Congruent and Secondarie, is agreeable also and fitting the calling of euerie particular;* being of two sorts: Publike or Priuate. The Publike is most ho∣norable, and should stirre vp euerie man with delight to vndertake trauaile for the good of ones Countrie. Neither is the Priuate discommendable, considering it giueth satisfaction or at the least sufficiencie to liue well and happily according to the humor of the world, whereby it may be apparant that the motiues and ends of some are all one.

Moreouer, seeing it may be doubted whether all persons may be included vnder the third ranke of Re∣gular Trauellers: and also whether all times be fitting for these to vndertake Trauaile: And lastly, whether euery age be congruent with these: let vs in order cleare these three points. To the first, I obserue three Oppo∣sers: to wit Nature, which prohibiteth Infants and de∣crepit persons, whose defect of vnderstanding and do∣ting age pleadeth insufficiencie. Imperfection, others as fooles, madde men and furious persons whose disa∣bilities of minde are such as no hope can be expected for the one or other. Lastly, the Sex in most Coun∣tries prohibiteth women, who are rather for the house then the fielde; and to remaine at home, then trauaile into other Nations, but in speciall cases. As touching the second,* what times are fittest for the voluntarie tra∣uellers to goe in, we must obserue a duple season, ei∣ther of their owne Countrie or of those whereinto they would trauaile. Touching the first, let none tra∣uaile at those times when their Countrey is engaged with Ciuill, or expecteth warres. For, to leaue the same in time of necessitie, were vnnaturall and dan∣gerous: Page  18 in the one case it being disparageable, to leaue the Countrie when enemies inuade the same; in the o∣ther case it may proue perilous to such, many sundrie wayes. And therfore that time is best, whē ones Coun∣trie is in peace and tranquilitie.

Touching the second, that the seasons also of such Countries where into such trauaile ought to be regar∣ded, it belongeth to euery particular to make ob∣seruance, When he may reape most profit thereby in the shortest time: namely the souldier when there are warres: the Ciuilian or Lawyer, when great matters are debated in Parliaments, Vniuersities or disputations, concerning points of equitie, prerogatiue, iurisdiction and such like: The Diuine, when any Generall or Na∣tionall Councel is heald touching their profession: The Mechanicke, when such and such Artes and trades doe singularly florish &c. Yet euerie man so trauailing must take heede, how he goe into a Countrie that is iea∣lous of his Prince, and subiects; which chaunceth e∣uermore when Princes are enimies or when they haue intestine warres and factions that vse any policie to ad∣uantage their partie.

Now the third and last is,* whether any age be con∣gruent for these voluntaries. This is a harde thing to resolue vpon; for there may be reasons on both sides, that commend youth, and other reasons that preferre the middle age. But seeing the reasons for youth profit but in speciall cases and but few persons: I rather insist vpon the middle age. For, the nonage of men is vnca∣pable either to apprehend or comprehend things im∣portant, for the State of which they are, or for thēselues: Or else transported with many turbulent affections that Page  19 hinder their quiet ingenious vnderstādings, and rather gather corruption thē commendablenesse, which ouer∣waigh such good parts as they happily in longe time with paines haue collected. Wherefore the Divine Plato by implication forbade men to trauell in this kind till they came to fortie yeares of age. But our age and climate now perfecteth sooner: and therefore wee will take the meaning of his wordes, which implyeth thus much; That age to be fittest for trauaile in which a man in shortest time may make most profitte, and bee in least daunger to be corrupted, by his owne swaying affections, or by the stie perswasions of others: The which chāceth in our Climate after twentie fiue yeres in most bodies; and therefore the Phylosopher addeth, Such might trauell till 50 yeares. By which words I col∣lect two things: one, that men shold not make too short a returne, and so be little bettred by their trauaile. The other that when men grow aged and declining, trauai∣ling shold be left off (considering that age is laboursom enough without trauaile, and it argueth incōsideratnes) but in speciall cases. So as the middle age frō thirtie or therabouts vnto fortie is the most gathering, for such as will be publike members of a Common-weale, to learne obserue and collect so many things as are requireable in all worthy and compleat Trauailers. Nowe to our point in hand: the persons thus voluntarily prest out are either of the Nobilitie or of the Commons.* The Nobi∣litie are either general or speciall. The Nobilitie general are such as haue no profession singular: The speciall are such as before trauel make some professiō wherof I cō∣ceaue fower distinct kinds: Diuines, Souldiers,* Ciuill Lawers, Physitiās; of which we will cōsider after we haue grated vpō the Cōmons: who are either Mechanicks or Marchants.

Page  20 The Marchants are of two sorts here meant,* such as are knowen to the State, and such as goe vnder the name of warre, vnknown to the State otherwise then by letters of marke and permission: who are chiefly to take heed they transgresse not the boundes of their Commission. And therefore before they trauaile by Sea,* let them learne well, who may be made prises▪ and what; east the State be troubled for the abuse of such, and they them∣selues shent and lose their voiage. Moreouer, let them be carefull to set downe in their seuerall Sea Charts, e∣uerie thing of speciall note; as Countries, Hauens, Creekes, Iles, Rockes, Gulfes, Shooles, Sands, Shelues and such like: whereby others after them may make vse thereof, to the profit of the Common-weale. And when these shall returne, to make a true relation (if they be demaunded) of euerie accident during their voyage, and of such aduertisements as may stand the Sate in vse, of which they are.

But those other knowen Marchants, for that their Trauailes are knowen to be profitable, and of honest esteeme, they haue speciall priuiledges which to no o∣ther voluntarie Trauailer chanceth; namely to passe and repasse with safe conduct, themselues and their substances, vnlesse in times of warre, &c. In regarde whereof they are tyed vnto these duties; First,* First, by a prudent, deligent, and faithfull care to obserue by what things the State may be most benefited; and to haue perseuerance where such Marchandize that the State most vseth and desireth may be had with greatest ease,* least charge, and without inconuenience to his Coun∣trey: Where there may be a likelihoode of continu∣ance without mislike of their Princes, whose affaires Page  21 are much managed by Marchants. And though the disposition of these things belongs to the Prince, yet the disquisition appertaineth to the calling of Mar∣chants; who, when they haue excogitated a thing to the benefit of the State by Marchandize or new trades, referre the discussion to the Counsaile of the Prince whether the same be aduantagious or no. Secondly, let them in any case not transport any thing pro∣hibited;* or vnto their Countries enemies, nor suffer their Factors to send ouer such as may be displeasing or vnprofitable to their Prince, Lawes, or Countrie. Thirdly,* let all of this kinde conceale the secrets and outward state of their Countrie with faithfulnesse and respect: and be verie circumspect to prie into the se∣crets of other Countries where they come, least they be held for spies and no Marchants; a thing most dan∣gerous to those people.

Lastly, forasmuch as most of this kinde of Trauai∣lers are of singular iudgement and vnderstanding, to make prudent obseruation of things beneficiall to the State: Let thē if so they be demanded relate how things stand abroad, and in case they know any thing of mo∣ment the concealement whereof may incommodate the State, it is their duetie to discouer the same when they retourne, with the greatest secrecie and speed vnto such as are knowne to bee priuie Councellers, and to none other. For, oftentimes passing thorough many mouthes, the importances of good newes and intelli∣gence are much impaired.

The other sort of the Commons,* to witte, Mecha∣nickes (whose trauaile may also accommodate an Estate with many things to set the poorer sort to worke Page  22 and as it were plant in their Countrie the cōmodities & peculiar trades of other nations) now resteth to behād∣led. The chiefe trades wherof are by Marchāts brought for the most part into States, and by them ordered till long vse disperse thē throughout, to the benefit generall. Now, in regard with vs there are many Artes, not in that perfection as in other Coūtries, or such as the rarer sort of those be, which are set vp and vpheld by strangers to the preiudice of the Realme (yet not so much as in case there were none at all) it is a thing verie requisite for these kind of Trauellers and for the State, in case they cannot be attained vnto at home. Moreouer we see in o∣ther Countries few, apprentises, aboue three yeares for one trade; which giueth much encouragement to such as couet the same. And there is nothing more benefici∣all for a State to vphold the same then the vsing of these Occupations and trades which set many hands to worke and haue many dependants. Wherefore in times past there were reckoned but vii. Mechanicke Artes, because a State could not want either, and in regard they are the generall heads vpon which all other depend. Hence in our State husbandrie and Clothing are the nerues of the weale publike, the failing whereof must needs turne the cote of the State. Insomuch as it is a hard matter to dis∣cerne whether Woll or Corne accōmodate this State more: though expresly Tillage carrie the greater sway then breeding of Sheepe and grasing. But to our pur∣pose.

Let such trauailers first, hauing libertie to trauaile,* sur∣uey the best places, where those Arts are to be learned; as in Germanie all manner of Formers, Potters or figu∣lists are to be found in perfection. In Italy Architecture, Page  23 Limming, Painting, Engrauing, Imagerie, Textorie, and weauing, and Artes ingenious may be learned. So ac∣cording to euerie Countries seuerall commodities se∣uerall and peculiar Artes do flourish. Lastly, let them spend their times so diligently as commoditie and esti∣mation be their reward.

The Nobilitie as was said were generall or speciall.* The special were of fower sorts, Diuines, Souldiers, Ciuil Lawyers, & Physiciās: which are so called special Trauai∣lers not in regard such be more excellent or honorable thē others, but for that such prescribe vnto thē a speciall thing to be attaind vnto as wel for perfectiō as satisfactiō. Of these in order. First, the Diuines be such as make pro∣fession of Diuinitie outwardly in the State, wherby they may be imployed in the Ministrie and seruice of God. And although all men must account it a chiefe honour vnto them contemplatiuely to make profession thereof:* yet such may not trauaile but in speciall cases as before hath been alleadged, on the pretence of knowledge; the same being to be attained vnto within their own Coun∣trie: wheras the outward professors, that haue the calling of Ministers, haue in some cases better warrant.

Howbeit, by our pofitiue law Clearkes are forbid to trauaile, for this pretence. For in case such may be satis∣fied and endoctrined in the points they doubt of within their owne Princes Dominions, of godly and learned professors, I see not how their Trauailes can be lawfull. But in case where the Gospel and truth is not preached, I iudge it a most happy thing for any whosoeuer to serch the word in other nations:* but not without licence of the State. For no man ought to dispose of himselfe so, as his Prince should lose the benefit of his person, the which is Page  24 dispensable in the case of God onely and in case of per∣secution, wherein God is interessed. Moreouer, it is from the office of Ministers that haue the cure of soules, to goe into voluntarie Trauaile, for any ordinarie pre∣tense, and leaue the same without a right good shepheard; and in many cases not then, though he leaue in his roome a carefull pastor. For, this function and vocation is more to be respected then others, it being singularly dedicated to the seruice of God.* Then of such Diuines as may trauaile we obserue foure preten∣ses: two generall, and two speciall. The generall are either of a generall Councell or Nationall:* or of some famous Librarie. But in case such Councels bee not compounded of worthie and knowen men, of learning and iudgement & approued by the State whereof men are, the profit will be so little as the pretence must cease. So is it of the other generall pretence,* namely the view of some famous Librarie, which containeth such fa∣mous printed bookes or manuscripts as faithfully dis∣cusse of points not yet concluded, nor to bee had and procured other where. For, in case by transscripts or any assured collections men may attaine vnto the pith of those points, this pretense should also cease. The two pretences are either to haue conference with such famous men, whose learning may satisfie & endoctrine; or else with those naturall Iewes and Grecians whose learning may for the furtherāce of those diuine tongues giue much helpe to the vnderstanding of the Scriptures. Yet if so the Gospell flourish already, in their owne Countrie, and that there be learned men to bee reue∣renced, in all things to be doubted of; if such choose rather to trauaile then to conferre, and aske to be resol∣ued Page  25 of those their Countriemen, the pretence of them must also cease. For, it is a contempt to the Church whereof they are members, to trauaile for instruction, when men may be well instructed at home without in∣conuenience, especially where there are Vniuersities, & publike professors of thē. It is needlesse to prescribe rules for these in trauailing: for the most are sage and prudent men; and therefore we will passe to the second sort: to weet Ciuilians.

Ciuile Lawyers haue a lawfull pretence,* so be it the Ciuile Law be in request in the State whereof such are, and cannot be attained in so singular a manner, as in those Vniuersities that wholly consist therof, and where that law flowrisheth most. And although the Law may in some sort, by reading and conference in the Vniuer∣sities, be for Theorie and iudgement sufficiently gotten in ones owne Countrie, yet the liuely expression and Elocution thereof I iudge in other Nations for the common vse may adorne counsaile in the best manner. Wherefore as it is the office of Diuines aboue all things to take heed in their trauaile they be not corrupted with false doctrine,* wherwith other people of other Nations striue to tempt Schollers at this day: so let it be the first office of these Ciuilians (men for the most part indued with great vnderstanding & faculties) to be well groun∣ded in their Religion before, and consequently faithfull,* secret & honest to their Coūtrie, hauing a vigdant eye, that they be not misseled by the subtilties of other Nati∣ons, & many of their vnsound positiōs in their law Ca∣non, frō the sinceritie of their Religiō & the Gospell: the which shall adorne them when they returne, more then all their learning and obseruations. For, by how much Page  26 men of wit and vnderstanding stand firme in the truth, & puritie of Religion, by so much shal their learnings and honesties be had in recommendation, with whom they conuerse afterwards; the same in Trauailers volunta∣rie being a rare matter. Moreouer,* let them be careful to make obseruance for the rights, customes, statutes, ordi∣nances, proclamations, decrees, particular lawes and pri∣uiledges, liberties & prerogatiues of places and persons where happily they shal come. Lastly, whensoeuer they trauaile into forreine States where there are Vniuersities and where there are degrees to be taken,* let them labour to attaine to the same. For, to men of desert it is reputed a dishonor, to returne without them, in case they freely may be attained vnto. For, otherwise the pretence of their trauaile wil in the mindes of men cease, the degree being the Crowne of their vocatiō, which to professors is most necessarie. For other things we referre them to such ob∣seruations as to the generall Voluntaries are prescribed, afterwards. The Souldiers follow.

The profession of these voluntarie Trauailers is armes and warrefare,* athing much approued of euerie Com∣mon weale. And although none should so binde himself to that vocation, as all his life time to liue by the same, but rather in peace and tranquillitie afterwardes, yet the pretence of young men & of able bodies, to endure hard∣nesse for the aduancement of their Countries weale and discipline, is honorable, carying a more sensible le liking of the State thē the former two. And although, by reading, conference and such like consideratiōs vpon other mens experiences, many are made good Theoristes & Coun∣sellers in warre to direct orderly & warily before battel or skirmish, yet no man can be a compleat soldier with∣out Page  27〈…〉tion, & almost continuall exercise in armes. For w〈…〉 encounters chance, self-eye-seeing experience shal be a readier preuentresse of accidēts & infinite occurren∣ces that chance, to assure the victorie.* Yet are there thus two compleate kinds of Soldiers in their seuerall kindes; Such as be experienced themselues & men of action: and those whose singular contemplation on the experiences of others, are able in meete time to giue good direction and counsaile. For, as there are some whose experience only haue made them learned to encounter actions and accidēts, & in the incountring are right circumspect and valorous, yet can not such in Counsaile giue the best di∣rection, for the generall encountering of inconuenien∣ces: so there are others on the contrarie, whose prudent care to prouide for euerie occurrence; that to the vnder∣standing at first and before action is represented, is such as if euerie thing should fall out according to their deli∣beration, no doubt would assure victorie:but, comming to ioyne, faile on the sodaine what to resolue of. But when the spectacles of the one are ioyned with the eyes of the other, in that souldier doubtlesse compleatnesse and perfection dwelleth. For,as glasses artificiall,* con∣cording with the nature of each sight, aide and pre∣serue much the sight of euerie eye; so Arte ioyned with experience, in warre especially, giueth an assurance of perfection, aswell to preuent the worst, as to pro∣uide for the best, and that vppon an instant; which beareth great swaie in battailes. Wherefore, in the first place as for those that are minded to bee Tra∣uailers in this kind,* they had need to learn the grounds of the Arte of warre before hand, that such may make the best vse of their times; namely, Arithmeticke, Page  28 Geometrie and other Mathematicke sciences, that may happily traine them vp to more iudgement in one yeare (if so they also passe some time in historie) then others in fiue. Secondly, being thus prepared, let them consider with themselues that no one discontentment wage them forwarde,* but to enable thēselues for to do their Coun∣trie good, and Prince seruice, when occasion shall bee profered. For, such as go otherwise cannot be assured of Gods protection, blessing or fauour: for want wher∣of we see how vainly the greater part of these Trauellers spend their times. Thirdly,* they are to ponder whether at such time as they would trauaile, their Prince and Countrie shall not neede to imploy their seruice either at home or abroad: For, in such cases it cannot but ar∣gue vanitie to trauaile, when as their Prince or Countrie shall haue speciall vse of them. Fourthly, to accustome themselues to endure extreamities,* of heate and cold, of paines of body and minde, of bodily trauaile in swift and slowe motions, and to be able to manage euery sort of armes offensiue or defensiue vsed on horsebacke or on foote:that, when such shal come to serue in the warres of any Prince, estimation attend on them. For, none can be iustly reputed for his particular a cōpleat soldier in acti∣on, but he that is able to serue in all attempts in any kind of seruice with iudgement and resolution.* Fiftly, let such bend their trauels into those Coūtries, either wher their Prince maketh war or fauoreth; or go vnder the conduct of such Princes, as are neerest friends vnto their Prince & Countrie. For, it is vnseemely that any should choose to serue rather vnder strangers then friends. Lastly, to this must be annexed, that such trauaile for their greater be∣nefit into those Countries where best seruice and disci∣pline Page  29 is to be learned:* for that maketh a Soldier to be vnder good discipline & to see good seruice; which is in duple respect, either of the enemie against whom, or in the Countrie wherein such serue. The enemie against whō men serue, doth aduāce the seruice if he be stirring, & alwayes plotting of some matter against his enemies, whether hee keepe the fielde or lie in Garrison: In lie sort may the seruice be bettered by those vnder whom men serue.* The consideration of the Countrie is tri∣ple, that maketh the seruice good, which in the ende shall perfect a Souldier: the first is, where the Countrie is champaine, & that either of Moūtains or of Valleyes: the seruice wherein makes men alwayes to stand vp∣on their guard, and to be well accompanied in euerie designe. The second in couert Countries, marishie and boggie; which are the aptest for stratagemes and surprizes, making men watchfull & prouident euermore to suspect the worst, wheresoeuer they come. The third and last, are the fortifications of Countries, or those Countries that stand most vpon them, which employ the spirits and ingenious parts of Souldiers, after an ex∣traordinarie manner.

The first Nauarre and Sauoy are apt for, and the Lowe Countries that bee wasted: The seconde, Ireland will furnish men with: And, in the worlde for the third, a man cannot haue better experience then in the Lowe Countries. So as when such Trauailers haue gotten experience in one, if they desire perfection, let them trauaile for the other: For in few Countries & wars shall men finde all.

Then,* being arriued into the Armie or Garrison and entred into the seruice, first, with great diligence euerie [ 1] Page  30 thing of speciall make contained either in discipline of seruice ought to be obserued: and for euerie mans better vnderstanding, let them discourse thereof and question. [ 2] Secondly, let such be verie studious to be obserue all lawes and ordinances of that discipline; as also to obey euerie speciall Commandement of their Cōmanders: for them consisteth the honor of a soldier. And though the disci∣plin permit much libertie of idlenes, (wherby many are entised to gaming, vnholy & vnprofitable exercises). Let such, being strangers especially, abstain frō those childish recreations, and either confer about things they are igno∣rant of, or reade such books of warre & historie, that may sharpen and giue knowledge continually to them; or with company follow the managing of Armes offensiue or defensiue, wherin men cannot be too skilful: or the ex∣ercise of vaulting, leaping, swimming, darting, shooting, & such other of the arme as gather strength & nimblenes [ 3] to the body, which in wars are of no small proofe. Third∣ly, aboue all things let strangers feare to motimie, or ac∣cept of quarrels, but rather put vp iniuries then offer any. For there is a ciuill and honorable redresse of wrongs, in war, to be expected from the General, Mareschall, & Cō∣manders of the Armie, whose sentence ought to be expe∣cted in all things of the same nature, yea in accepting of Combates for the honor of ones Prince and Countrie a∣gainst the enemies, if occasion be offered.

Moreouer, let such take heede, they neuer offer to ac∣cept of Combate,* for the honour of another Nation, if any of the same serue in the same place: for that is an in∣iurie [ 4] to that Nation. Fourthly, as none may serue vnder infidels, in case there be wars in Christendom: and as none may go and serue vnder such as are doubtfull friends vnto Page  31 their Countrie or Enimies; so are all to be carefull to serue, where the right is most apparant, and where the Gospell is preached in the armie, that God may giue thē best successe So in case there be no wars in Christēdom, let such trauaile to other nations (after licence obtained of their Prince) and seeke seruice of such Princes that neither warre against Christians, nor haue an ill quarrell in hand. For, as it is a shame for any to take part with e∣nemies or with infidels against ones own Coūtrie: so it is requisite on the other side that they serue in those wars amongst infidels, whose cause and quarrel is iust & good in the sight of men. Lastly, let all those who will make [ 5] their pretence good in the opinion of men, carry them∣selues so strictly in these and other common duties per∣taining to souldiers, as that they make not profession thereof, but to establish peace and tranquillitie, when happily they shal returne home to their Countrie, as good Bees with wax and honey, to their hiue of the Common-weale, and demeane themselues so in times of peace, as they giue ensample to gowned men, of peaceable and orderly liuing; neither in riot nor in ambi∣tion, or pride, which keepe reuell roupt in the dereigled crue of Trauailers. Now, as concerning the last or∣der of Voluntarie speciall Trauailers: namely of Physi∣cians.

By the word Physician, is meant first such as haue the lawfull calling;* and either haue alreadie or intende to take degrees, that they may giue countenance to their knowledge. Moreouer, by the name I conceit such as haue the facultie, and naturall knowledge of euerie thing, concerning diseases or wounds in the bodie or minde of man.

Page  32 For,* the remedying of all which, there are two things requirable; namely, the simple knowledge of euerie li∣uing and inanimate thing, whether of Mineralls, Vege∣tables, sensible Animalles, or of man and the experi∣ence how each of these in seuerall Countries and bodies haue their certaine operations. And seeing without doubt God hath planted, in the world, meanes (either of simples or of Compounds) to remedie any sickenesse or cure any wound, although the knowledge or meanes be not alwaies blessed; wee may collect the lawfulnesse of Physiciās trauaile also. And though God haue fitted eue∣rie Climate and Countrie with meanes to relieue the common distresses and grieueances of men, yet wee see for want of knowledge in Physicians either how to vse the simples in their owne Countries or how to com∣pound them aright according to the Dose of euery body natural, they are enforced to search into other Countries for aide.

For, though we haue, as other Countries, many sin∣gular things to remedie the decay or disquiets of nature: yet seeing the simples of other Countries, for some par∣ticular bodies and griefes, are more naturall then many compounds of our own, & the skil is lesse to apply them, why shold not necessitie make Physicians trauel for know¦ledge as the old wife for neede. We see the artificiall Be∣zar stone to be lesse profitable for some bodies then the natural; the fained Sanguis Draconis thē the right which is brought frō Africa: & so of such like adulterous resem∣blāces, which necessitie, & mens gains haue laboured & arted. In the Vniuersities of learned men, that science, and store of bookes of all things in the world for sim∣ples and compoundes according to their natures, Page  33 and vertues are better described then any one by his own trauaile can amend: (For in Trauaile there must ne∣cessarily bee much time spent, and little practise had at home: and practise is no doubt the best thing that ma∣keth a good Physician) neuerthelesse for some diseases a man shall happily learne more by trauaile, then by all these at home.

For,* there are many of our capitall diseases easily cu∣red in other Countries. Now then, hee that will make good of his pretence, must labour into the grounds of Astronomie and Astrologie, as of proportiō. For, with∣out these, such wander without a guide in the wildernes of nature. Moreouer, during their trauaile (after licence obtained) let them make vse of euerie thing they shall see; aswell of things knowne as of the vnknowne. For the difference of Climates and soyles, alter much the na∣ture of euerie thing.

In like sort must such obserue the persons in euerie Countrie,* so particularly as they can, and marke their common and accidentall diseases, & to take knowledge of their cures. So if there be any speciall Bathes, Wa∣ters, Pooles, Spawes, or Springs, the operation whereof may cure any maladie, to learne their ver∣tues.

And lastly to frequent the most famous places and companies of learned men, whereby such may better their knowledge, & increase their discourse: which is no small thing, in a Physician, to be well mannered, ciuill, wittie, and pleasant, and of able disposition to delight his patiēts by discourse. Moreouer, if such light vpō simples, which are either of a strāge nature or that excell ours, let them bee carefull to transplant them; hauing a care Page  34 to the soile, climate, and growing of such, that Arte here may repaire the naturall defect of the Countrey. But considering many, when they returne home, are tainted with the humor of most trauailers, namely selfe conceipt,* and better thinking of themselues then is con∣uenient, let them be as respectiue to relieue the poore & the needie as the rich. For many Physicians will not go out of the doores to saue a poore mans life. Moreouer, let them be carefull to administer noe desperate or vn∣knowen thing vnto any: for such, as in the former case, are no lesse then murtherers before God, if their pati∣ents proue not well vnder them. Neither let couetous∣nes ouer-rule them, as those Physicians and Surge∣ons that dallie with mens bodies to get much monie: but let euerie one accoumpt it his duetie to do good to any. And in so doing they shall finde God their Physi∣cian not only of their bodyes but of their soules: wher∣as otherwise the saying of our Nation may be applyed fitly vnto them, Physicians cure your selues. Thus farre of the speciall Voluntarie Trauailers.

The ende of the first part.
Page  [unnumbered]Page  [unnumbered]
    Page 35. A. The second part, in part, abstracted.
  • We haue de∣scribed volū∣tary regular Trauailers to be Nobles & Commons: and the No∣bles to be
    • 1, Generall: of whom it is to bee considered what they are to vn∣dergoe,
      • 1, Before trauaile,
        • 1, To put on the pretence of benefiting the Common weale, and to shun
          • 1, Ambition.
          • 2, Sensualitie.
          • 3, Vaine-glory.
          • 4, Couetousnesse.
          • 5, Vanitie of knowledge.
        • 2, To suruay their Abilities in Iudgement and Knowledge.
        • 3, To bee sufficiently instructed in the knowledge of
          • 1, Matters belong∣ing to them∣selues,
            • 1, Qualities,
              • 1, Necessary,
                • 1, To Speake, or
                • 2, Vnderstād the language of that Countrey, into which men trauaile.
              • 2, For orna∣tion,
                • 1, Skill in managing of Armes.
                • 2, Skill in Musicke.
                • 3, Skill in Dauncing.
                • 4, Skill in Portraying.
            • 2, Vertues Morall and Diuine.
            • 3, Sciences,
              • 1, Astronomie.
              • 2, Astrologie.
              • 3, Cosmographie.
              • 4, Geographie.
              • 5, Geometrie.
              • 6, Hydrography.
              • 7, Arithmeticke.
              • 8, Architectury.
          • 2, Matters belonging to the Countrey into which they trauaile.
        • 4, To be well accommodated for trauaile with things needfull.
        • 5, To resolue to trauaile into such Countries, as may afford least offence and most profit.
        • 6, To demand licence of God, of Prince, and Parents.
      • 2, In trauaile. Looke the next Table. *
      • , Being Returned:
        • 1, To manifest the sound∣nes of their Religion by
          • 1, Diligent and orderly seruing of God.
          • 2, Wise and faithfull Conuersation: which is discouered by
            • 1, Silence.
            • 2, Incuriositie.
            • 3, Sprightfulnes.
            • 4, Prudence.
            • 5, Bountie.
            • 6, Faithfulnesse.
        • 2, To preferre Honestie before Policie.
        • 3, To be knowen by vertuous Endeuours.
        • 4, To be stored of a worthy friend.
        • 5, To be Constant to his Honourable friend without ambition.
        • 6, To bee studious for forraine aduertisements: but not ignorant of home-matters.
    • 2, Speciall: Of whom before we haue abbridged. *
    Page  [unnumbered]Page 35. B. The rest of the second part, abstracted.
  • We haue ab∣stracted Vo∣luntary Tra∣uailers gene∣ral, to consi∣der points before and after trauell: let vs nowe here abbre∣uiate what is meete in the interim of trauaile: namely,
    • 1, To attempt nothing without a good conscience, and to make supplications to God daly.
    • 2, To prouide for the health of their bodies,
      • 1, By Diet,
      • 2, By trauaile,
        • 1, To haue faithfull guides and compainons.
        • 2, To chuse the least dangerous way.
        • 3, To be otherwise well accommodated.
        • 4, To be defeded against th'intemperatnesse of the aire.
        • 5, To be Armed against accidences on the way.
        • 6, To arriue timely in the Inne, &c.
      • 3, By moderationi of passions,
    • 3, To be Humane and courteous towards all.
    • 4, To applie themselues vnto the Customes and maners of the countrey that are not per se Mala.
    • 5, To put in practice the qualities for ornation, which are,
      • 1, Armes.
      • 2, Musicke.
      • 3, Poetry.
      • 4, Dancing.
      • 5, Portraying.
      • 6, Vaulting.
      • 7, Running.
      • , Dexteritie.
    • 6, Singularly to gain the knowledge of
      • 1. The Tongue: which consisteth
        • 1, In right vnderstandig the same.
        • 2, I proper speaking and reading it.
        • 3, In true writing, &c.
      • 2, The Nature of the people to be discouered,
        • 1, In Ciuilitie, or Barbarousnesse.
        • 2, In freedome, or Seruilenesse.
        • 3, In Religiousnesse, or Profanenesse.
        • 4, In Warlike, or Esseminatenesse.
        • 5, In Constitution of body and mind.
      • 3, The Countrey to be suruayed,
        • 1, In the name.
        • 2, In the populousnesse, or scarcitie of the people.
        • 3, In the situation.
        • 4, In the quatititie.
        • 5, In the Commo dities which are
          • 1, Naturall:
            • 1, The temperatnesse of the ayre.
            • 2, The fruitfulnesse of the foyle.
            • 3, The plenty of Rituers and Ports.
            • 4, Baths, and medicinable things.
          • 2, Artisiciall:
            • 1, Buildings, ad fortitfications, &c.
            • 2, Trades, or Sciences Mechanicke.
        • 6, In the discommodities that doe consist of
          • 1, Impersections.
          • 2. Wants.
      • 4, The Lawe: and Customes may bee discerned,
        • 1, Generally &c.
        • 2, Particularly &c.
          • 1, In Matters Ecclesicasticall,
          • 2, In matters Temporall.
          • 3, In matters Regall, or of Prerogatiue.
      • 5, The Gouernments,
        • 1, Interior. *
        • 2, Exterior, descrying
          • 1, The persons gouerning:
            • 1, The Monarke.
            • 2, The Nobles.
            • 3, The Popularitie.
          • 2, The people gouerned doe consist
            • 1, Of Husbandmen.
            • 2, Of Handi-crafts men and Labourers.
            • 3, Of Merchants.
            • 4, Of the Nobilitie and Gentrie.
            • 5, Of stipendary Souldiers.
            • 6, Of Ecclesiasticall persons.
          • 3, The Instruments whereby men gouerne, and be gouerned, are looked into,
            • 1, By their goodnesse or euilnesse.
            • 2, By the timely precuenting or neglecting of matters.
            • 3, B the execution, or not, of lawes in force.
      • 6, The se∣cress,
        • 1, Common, regardeth
          • 1, Intelligence of forraine Friends, Neuters, or Enemies:
            • 1, In Populousnesse.
            • 2, In Scarcitie of people.
            • 3, In well disciplining them.
            • 4, In permitting a liberty from Martiall dis∣cipline.
            • 5, Whether Religious or Profane.
            • 6, Whether Warlike or Esteminate.
            • 7, Whether Free or Seruile.
          • 2, Kowledge of the ordinary strength of the State.
            • 1, For sufficiencie of people:
            • 2, For store of Comodities:
            • 3, For plentie of Munition.
            • 4, For the Treasure
              • 2, How in∣creased
                • 1, By Reuenues.
                • 2, By Conquests.
                • 3, By Gifts.
                • 4, By Tributes.
                • 5, By Traficke.
                • 6, By Merchandise.
                • 7, By Taxations.
              • 2, How dis∣pended
                • 1, On Almes-houses.
                • 2, On Housekeeping.
                • 3, On Building.
                • 4, On Payments.
                • 5, On Gifts to strangers.
                • 6, On Donatiues politicke.
        • 2, Accidentall, are to be sought out
          • 1, In the persons gouerning by
            • 1, Election.
            • 2, Inheritance generall or speciall.
            • 3, Any other hope.
          • 2, In persons gouerned:
            • 1, Addicted to ouer-much libertie.
            • 2, How standing affected to the Prince or gouernment.
            • 3, Whether wiser then their generation requireth.
            • 4, How affected in rumors.
            • 5, Who be popular beyond Custome.
          • 3, In the instruments, &c.
    • 7, To aduertise some of the Councel, of things important and needfull.
    • 8, To dee all the honour he may vnto the Ambassadors of his Prince, in cafe there be any in that trauaile.
Page  [unnumbered]Page  35

The second part.

THese Generall Voluntarie Trauai∣lers are of the temporall Nobilitie of the Land,* whether superior or inferior: and before they vnder∣take Trauaile, if they will be bette∣red thereby, are to vndergoe sixe dueties. The first is to counsaile and deliberate with themselues, whether they bee mooued with the iust pretence of doing good to the Common weale, whereof they are, and for the enabling of them∣selues, with such knowledges as appertaine to their se∣uerall callings; or whether their owne lusts and affecti∣ons pricke them not forward. For oft men are deceiued for want of due consideration thereof, which turneth the plots of men topsieturuie. And though it be hard to reslue on this with humane strength and reason, (for that reason, which by nature is in man, is feeble and dif∣fereth Page  36 little from that of brute beasts) yet there is another reason in man, or the same at the least enlightned and sanctified by God, the which through faith and know∣ledge of his reuealed wil, teacheth man to do that which is good and pleasing in his sight. Wherefore, as this rea∣son is pure & of an holy vnderstāding nature, so must the resolutiōs of men (if they would be approued and crow∣ned with blessing) be shaped accordingly. And there∣fore all particular affects, rising from the disordinate ap∣petite of man corrupt and vnsauorie (as Ambition, Sen∣sualitie,* vaine glorie, couetousnes, vanitie of knowledge, & such like) must die in these honorable kind of Trauai∣lers; and in lieu of them the rootes of all vertuous affe∣ctions must be planted, to the glorie of God, the good of themselues, their Prince & Countrie. For, consi∣dering these are principally the select members ordeined to trauaile, by the appointing hand of God, to helpe the motion and gouernement of the helme in tempo∣rall & ciuill causes oftentimes, let such take heede those vaine and gadding humors plucke not downe the iudge∣ment of God, to presse such to trauaile for punishment of their wayes; whereby none can seale vnto themselues the assurance of life, or prosperitie, during their trauaile or afterwards.

Now,* in the second place it is required that such ex∣amine themselues before trauaile, whether they haue capable parts answerable to the callings of these Trauai∣lers. The capable parts of Trauailers consist in know∣ledge and iudgement of those things that may best pro∣fit them in trauaile,* and furnish them of things needeful, by which men are fitted to accomplish so honorable an enterprise.

Page  37 By Iudgement is meant the vnderstanding age, seeing into the affaires of their natiue Countrie: Knowledge, it is of the wants which are naturally in vs; the which are to be supplyed and repaired, by learning and experi∣ence.

For, as without iudgement men cannot gather the best things in trauaile,* that may fitte iumpest with the State of their Countrie and themselues: so without knowledge things cannot bee performed well.* And therefore it behoueth euerie one, so intending to tra∣uaile, to be endued with learning and discretion: for by learning knowledge is atchieued, and discretiō enableth the iudgement to discerne what things and Policies are to be receiued what reiected. And vnlesse men put on before trauaile these Armours, they cannot winne the forte of their desires. For, he that trauaileth to see expe∣riences in other Nations, and hath not power to dis∣cerne,* what are needefull to bee gathered, commeth home as a bodie to the graue without a soule. In which plight we see daily experience in this Land: for many trauaile young that want both: others of more vnderstan∣ding that want iudgement and others whose iudgemēts are actiue, yet faile in learning. So as many when they come home proue too subtill, & without conscience, in their resolutions, and consequently dangerous to be con∣uersed with; others new fangled hobby horses, & of smal vnderstanding, or little the better to be conuersed with.

From hence the third dutie springeth,* namely Instru∣ction in knowledge fit for trauailers: the which is either of things appertaining to the Country where such trauel, or to thēselues.* First, as concerning things belonging to thēselues, they are three; qualities, vertues and sciences. Page  38 The qualities are duple; either for necessitie,* or for Or∣nation. The necessarie is the speaking or the vnderstan∣ding of the tongues of those Countries into which such trauaile: for these are the instruments of knowledge and experience; without which men shall consume great time vnprofitably in other Countries, whiles they are learning the tongue. And therefore let such practise the tongues before they trauaile, that they make not a sha∣dowe of their knowledge as many doe: who trauailing into other Countries attaine to nothing, saue the spea∣king of their languages.* The qualities for Ornation, are practise in managing of Armes and weapons, skill in Musicke and daunsing and drawing the counterfeites of any thing: The estimation of all which are so approued that they neede no confirmation; For euerie man liuing in the Courts of Princes shall bee honoured by them. The second point of knowledge are vertues,* which must be the Councellors of such in euerie Action, to make them esteemed, and make them right Cour∣tiers at the first entrance, in euerie forreine State. And therefore let them inhabite euerie diuine and morall vertue, that traineth men vp to humanitie & ciuile con∣uersation: without which it is a vaine thing to trauaile and expect any good ende.

The last and third point of knowledge is Science or the knowledge in naturall and mathematicall Artes: that is to say, an insight in the grounds of Astronomie, Astro∣logy, Cosmographie, Geographie, Hydrographie, Geo∣metrie, Arithmeticke and Architecture: all which who∣soeuer trauaileth shall employ, and without which ma∣ny things of note shall be foreslowen, and left vnper∣fectly knowen. For, the better men are grounded in Page  39 these, the more profite shall they make of their times. In so much as if a skilfull fortifier or Architectist doe but lay his eyes vpon the modell of any Towne or fortifica∣tion, he will deliuer the true plot, strength or weakenes naturall or artificiall that it containes, or ghesse verie neere; the which an ignorant person can neuer doo, but by chaunce. So it is of those which excell in Corogra∣phy or Geographie; who but riding poste through a Countrie will make a particular description of euerie thing seated on the earth, in proportion or neere, aswell of Townes, Fortes, Houses, as of Riuers, Hilles, Dales, Woddes, Plaines and Wayes, or any thing else that lies within the kenning of their eies, or by necessarie col∣lection. And therefore we finde recorded that in times of war messengers of the enemie were wont to be blin∣ded, when they approched neere the fortifications or Campes, and so carried backe till they were out of kenning. The which may be saide of the rest: For these Artes are instruments to settle and fixe in the memorie obiects that fall to the senses,* but especially to the eye: euen as wee see the practicke Musicians will instantly play whatsoeuer chaunceth in harmonies sound to their eare. I consideratly left out Musicke among the Mathe∣maticall Artes, though it be an excellent Science: yet in a Trauailer or Gentleman let it be rather a qualitie, as we haue saide to grace him in conuenient times,* and places to be sociable, then a Science whereof men make pro∣fession. For, a Gentleman may haue the qualitie to play well vpon gentlemanlike instruments, without the Science or Arte of any grounds of musicke; euen as there may be excellent Musicians that can not strike one true stroke of any instrument, and yet both concluded Page  40 vnder one name. For the theorie & practicke in Musicke are two; & the one seemely for gentlemē of other means, namely the practicke: although it cānot be but a singular commendation for any that excell in both, so that hin∣der not other more necessarie sciences. As touching the knowledge of the Countrie wherein men trauaile, wee haue in other places prescribed sufficient rules to make prouision, and to remooue inconueniences, so as for breuitie the same may be omitted here.

The fourth duetie is of Charitie. For,* hauing got∣ten licence of their Prince, & friends to whom such owe subiection (otherwise their pretēce will seeme Irregular) they must accommodate themselues of all things need∣full for their trauaile;* the chiefe whereof is only proui∣sion of monie: which by billes of exchange, is the safest and most profitable way, the course also being com∣mon. Onely this, let such take order they may haue sufficient of Marchants wheresoeuer they shall come: for want breedeth many inconueniences. And there∣fore let such proportion their estate with the largest be∣fore trauaile: the which must bee according to euerie ones course, estate and retinewe. For, some Countries are verie chargeable generally; where either dearth, much riotte, or troubles reigne. Moreouer, of what State soeuer a man be, it is not good to trauaile with a greater traine,* then neede requires. For, it is vnpossi∣ble that such an one shall attaine vnto the light of many things and secrets: which more priuate men may. Nei∣ther can it quit cost, since the voluntarie action of any subiect (vnlesse in some publike seruice of their Prince and Countrie) ought to bee contented with meane pompe. For, such in a strange Countrie are subiect to Page  41 scoffes; and in an Enemies or a Neuters Countrey, Iealousie and publique eyes will bee looking on such.

In the fift place it is required,* that they resolue to goe into such Countreys, the state of which may best like the State of which they are, and which may af∣ford them best gaine of knowledge and experience; either to reforme in them defects of nature,* or to benefite most their Common weale. And though the enemies policie auaileth most vnto the State of ones Countrey, yet when such that haue made their abode there, shall returne, it is doubtfull, how accep∣table that may bee. For commonly, great suspicion tendeth on such long after, vnlesse in the interim of their trauailes they carrie themselues with risenti∣ment and respect. The Enemies of euery State are two,* such as stand out in Religion, and contrary opi∣nion, in the seruice of God: and such as iniustice, ei∣ther of not due reuerēce exhibited, or of defamation, or of preiudice, in goods or persons really, or collate∣rally, dayly worketh amongst Princes.* But of Coun∣tries to be trauailed into, there is a double considera∣tion, whose friendships are auaileable to the Com∣mon weale: to weet, Those that neighborhood, Re∣ligion, aliance, perpetuall vnitie, and such like natural and ciuill bonds, haue conioyned in loue, league, and confederacie: and, Those which merchandise, mu∣tuall commerce, and such like foraine policie to be∣nefit each others Land, haue linked in amitie: Which also are by so much the more fast tied,* by how much one standeth in neede of another, how farre soeuer they bee distant off. In these, Trauailers shall reape Page  42 most profit & contentation for their Common weale. For as he that would learne any facultie, had neede to studie the best books that write thereof; so a Trauailer that laboreth for the good of his Countrey, must fre∣quent those places, that afford most points of needfull knowledge and experience. And though a wise man may collect, out of euery Coūtrie he abideth in, some profitable obseruations, yet the neighbour countreys of this Iland yeeld more requisite considerations than others. Hereof it commeth, that by the motions of France, Spaine, Germany, the Lowe Countreys, Bur∣gundie, and Denmarke, this Realme is in action, & made sensible, either of trouble, detriment, or quiet; whereas the troubles of Muscouie, the free Townes, high Ger∣many, Italy, Barbary, the dominions of the Turke and Persian, incommodate this nation little, but by diuer∣ting of the trade of merchants another way. But as touching those Countreys, which afford particular gaine of knowledge and information of maners and ciuill cariage, these Trauailers shal find in euery good and orderly gouernment thorow Christendome, but singularly here at home, & in the Courts of France, & Vniuersities of Germany, Spaine, and Burgundie. And though Italie haue the common prayse for these, yet the inconueniences and corruptions, that are mixed with the ciuilitie of that Countrey, may other wayes perswade men of iudgement. And since I seeme to contrary the opinions of many worthy Gentlemen, let it not be impertinent here to consider some speci∣all things cōcerning that State. For,*Italy moueth most of our Trauailers to go and visit, of any other State in the world: And not without cause, it being an an∣cient Page  43 nurcerie and shop of libertie, the which to the affects of men is precious and estimable. Moreouer, I find amongst an infinite number of licencious mo∣uers, fiue seemly halers of men thither,* hardly found otherwhere all together. The first is the temperatnesse [ 1] of the aire, and fruitfulnesse of the soyle, with answera∣ble delights, from, and in the Countrey. Yet we see how slender a thing that is to drawe honourable personages, vnlesse necessitie for health sake presse them. The second is the speaking of the tongue and [ 2] residencing in the notable Vniuersities there found. As concerning the tongue, although it bee an ex∣cellent and eloquent speach, of many other it may bee to vs least estimable. Neuerthelesse, in vaine it is to goe so farre for that, which at home with small paines may singularly bee attained vnto. Moreo∣uer, the Vniuersities there are little beneficiall for a Generalist, such as these Trauailers not vnworthily arrogate. The third is the variable manners and in∣clinations [ 3] of the people, to ciuilitie and humanitie, the which by right of prescription belongeth to that nation of all the world.* Yet considering the Court of England at this day is the most compleat in all things and vnto all people of other nations & Courts in the world, and that which can make men (if they be as stu∣dious therin, as abroad, to enforme themselues) per∣fect in ciuility & good maners, & obseruant enough; both for that the puritie of Religion (which is the best Ciuilian) and the long continuance thereof with vs, hath framed our Nobilitie in fashion, and our Prince in State, to recommend the Court of England aboue anie that I could euer heare of, in all points that are Page  44 honorable and commendable: This is but in shew a [ 4] fond entiser. The fourth, is the multiplex and diffe∣rent gouernments, and sundrie policies there found; namely, of Rome, of Venice, of Naples, of Florence, of Millane, of Genoa, of Mantoa, of Ferrara, of Placen∣tia and Parma, of Vrbine, and others. But these be∣ing different gouernments from ours, and better de∣scribed already, than any one Trauailer is able to pen downe: though this bee of the fiue the principall, yet how little it booteth our Sate, I leaue to Politici∣ans [ 5] to resolue. The fift and last, is the speciall gallerie of monuments and olde aged memorials of histo∣ries, records of persons and things to bee seene tho∣rowout the Countrey. But this being a fantasticall attracter, and a glutton-feeder of the appetite, rather than of necessarie knowledge, I will mention no fur∣ther thereof. Notwithstanding,* all these together are auaileable, were it not for the infinite corrupti∣ons, almost ineuitable, that inuest Trauailers after small abode there; as it is reported, I know not vpon what ground, of the Realme of Ireland. Wherefore, let these honorable Trauailers frequuent the best pla∣ces: and if so bee they must needes goe thither, let them beware of Rome,* the Forge of euery policie, that setteth Princes at oddes, or that continueth them in debates, little or much: the tempter of Subiects to ciuil dissensions, & the seller of all wickednes and hea∣thenish impieties, or the machediuell of euill policies and practises, that are vnmeete subiects for these wor∣thy Trauailers to spend their time about. As for any good thing, which that State can benefit a Trauailer by, I haue not heard of, otherwise than the loathing Page  45 of the same afterwards: for which pretence no man hath warrant to trauaile thither, or other-where.

Now in the last and sixt place it is required of all Trauailers,* that they demaund licence and fauour at the hands of God, vpon these grounds to protect and blesse them in their iourney; and not without the good leaue of their Prince and parents. For if it be a commendable point and duetie for a man to aske his Parents, Tutor, Master, and Prince leaue to tra∣uaile, then is it the office of a man, to desire the same at the hands of God,* who is the Souereigne of all those. For without his pleasure and consent alasse where are our motions to any good acte, or the meanes by which they are aduanced or preserued? So that though this be the last considered of vs, yet is it the first and best of all things to be respected and performed. For since knowledge, learning, experi∣ence, honour, health, prosperitie, and all other bles∣sings, be the mediate or immediate gifts of God, it is a foolishnes for any to perswade, and blesse their owne actions without consulting with God the eternall reason, that guideth all things to their proper endes; yea, the dereigled Trauailers to labour in vaine, and for a punishment to returne home no better, than when they went foorth; and peraduenture in many things worse. For, as the obseruance of his reuealed will encourageth man to goe forward in all godli∣nesse, and commendable actions; so the neglect there∣of maketh him taste of his secret iudgements, prepa∣red for the carelesse and wilfull breakers of his com∣maund and will. Hitherto concerning the generall dueties before trauaile.

Page  46 In the interim of trauaile,* there likewise resteth sixe generall obseruations of these Trauailers for the ad∣uancement of their peregrination: Whereof the first is to attempt nothing without consulting with their conscience,* and imploring the fauour of God, that euery action may haue a promise of blessing, and ac∣ceptation aswell among those with whom such shall liue, as of their owne Prince and Countrey, when happily they shall returne. The neglect whereof o∣peneth the gate to infinite dangers and euils. For, the feare of God, which is an adiunct to this duetie, serueth for a curbe to restraine all improuident & vio∣lent courses, that carie men into inconueniences, and for a guide to aduise them of all things warrantable, honourable and pleasing in the sight of God & men: and therefore it is requirable, that these diligently e∣uery day priuately conferre and consult with God in their spirits and prayers made vnto him. The first thus regarding the stay of the soule;* so the second of∣fice respecteth the good health of the bodie, where∣of Trauailers are not to be carelesse & improuident: for he that dependeth on fortune, exposeth himselfe to many deceits, perils, & losse of time. I therfore ob∣serue three preuenters of mischiefes,* & inconuenien∣ces to the safety & health of Trauailers, namely, Diet, Trauailing or Exercise, and moderation of Passions.

First,* let the diet of euery man be so moderate, as neither the ayre wherein such liue afflict them, either with exceeding heate or cold, the which in some countreys Trauailers shal meete with, but by little and little accustome their bodies to endure the hardnes of the Countrey clime, which to contrary bodies is very Page  47 dangerous suddainly. For which cause, Auicen the no∣table naturalist auouched, that if a Scythian should vi∣olētly, & in a very short space be trāsported into India, either he would suddainly fall sicke or die: the which he would not necessarily bee, so be it he tooke time in trauaile by land or sea. Neither let any continue long in those places, where the aire is pestiferous, vn∣lesse their bodies can away therwith. For which cause the Cynicke Diogenes reioyced after his banishment, that he made a good change to be exiled from Sinope (a most piercing and sharpe ayre about the confines of the Euxine sea) to liue afterwards in Greece. And lastly, let the diet of all men, for eating, drinking, slee∣ping, clothing, and such like, be answerable to euery ones nature, that such may alwaies keep themselues in one temper, if possibly, Winter and Summer; the which is the greatest preseruatiue of mans health.

The second preuenter of inconuenience of health is trauailing from place to place, and dayly exercise,* when such are abiding in any place, with moderati∣on and respect. For, ouer-much labour distill the vitall and animal spirits, which is most dangerous. For the trauailing from place to place,* sixe things are to bee regarded. First, to haue in iourneying (if neede require) faithfull and honest guides and [ 1] companions: and in speciall cases, let such change rayment with their guides. Secondly, let them of [ 2] two wayes take the least dangerous, and most passe∣able: so as alwayes the neerest way is not the best to bee chosen. Hereof the Germanes haue a say∣ing, Gut vneg vnih vnar nie krumb: and wee haue a Prouerbe not much vnlike, The farther Page  48 [ 3] way about, the neerer way home. Thirdly, in long iourneys to be prouided of meat and drinke, and such like prouisions. Therefore those that passe thorow the deserts of Arabia, Tartarie, Persia, Scythia, and the Carouans of Swecia and Muscouie, make large proui∣sions: and for some passages, as in the sea of Sande in Africa, and other places, men are guided by the Compasse, standing in need of Pilots for the passage. [ 4] Fourthly, to make prouision against the extreamities of heate and colde, that in some places are outragi∣ous, in which the seasons of the yeere are to be respe∣cted. Wherefore he that will trauaile thorow Swecia, and Muscouie on sleddes, vnlesse he shall rub his no∣sthrils with the snowe and yee, to recall and settle his motiue spirits, he shall be in extreame danger to lose them thorow the excesse of colde. And in the yeere 1498, of seuenty thousand Turkes that made an in∣rode into Muscouie, fourtie thousand suddenly were frozen to death. Whereupon the Turkes verily be∣leeue, that the Polonians and Muscouites are defen∣ced by the celestiall powers. No person is able to trauell out of doores in the Troglodites land, with∣out shooes, the ground is so scalding hote: insomuch that they roste their meat, by putting the same into a brasse vessell, and setting it in the Sunne. And in the kingdom of Naples and Champain, the heat is so great, and ayre so pestiferous, during Iune, Iuly, and Au∣gust, till the first raine of September, that the better sort will not trauaile, though the King commaund them, from home. Let these suffice for Trauailers to beware thereof, vnlesse vpon vrgent necessitie, and [ 5] with good respect. Fiftly, to be prouided against the Page  49 rage of wilde beastes, and of robbers, the which by good companie is the safest way alwayes. Lastly, to [ 6] arriue early at their Inne or baite, and to looke that the chamber where such lodge be well seated and de∣fended: to haue in their chamber a Tinder boxe to light fire or candle; and finally, vnlesse need require, to dissemble departure from the Inne. Of this last, a man cannot bee too carefull.

The third and last preuenter of sickenesse,* and censurer of health is passion, which is quadruplex (according to the foure complexions generall of men) namely, Mirth, Sorow, Anger, and Patience: the which remedie or continue euery distemperature of the mind. And as, per antiperistasin, bodily discords are tuned and appeased, so it is of the mind. For Mirth is a cordiall to sorowfull and melancholicke bodies; wheras sorow so much continueth that humor, as de∣speratnesse, or frensie, or both is to be feared. Sorow, in meane, maketh sanguine bodies, and merrily disposed, wise, & full of respect. But of these two, mirth is euer∣more to be cōmended, so it be not ouer-light & vnci∣uil. So chollerick bodies, seeing they are fretting & an∣gry at light occasiōs, let them cure their imperfectiōs of nature by patience: for such are otherwise vnsocia∣ble & dangerous to be cōuersed with, as endangering themselues. For I neuer saw so cholericke a man, but hee hath met with his match: and this of strangers is reproueable. So those of flegmaticke spirits that pati∣ence hath enfeebled, that such want the harts of men, as ordained to suffer all things, though this be a ciuill & singular vertue in Trauailers, yet let none be in ex∣treamity so patient, as it make himself a sot & a foole, Page  50 to heare his God, and his Prince & Country, and his honor wronged, whē as honestly and fitly he may, & ought to make resistance or apprehension. Finally, as the tyrannizing of these, subiect many to incurable e∣uils,* bringing to consumption the vitall and animall spirits: so ought euery worthy Trauailer to preuent these inward mischiefs by godly and timely counsell, that those slie passions frustrate not his enterprise.

Now in the third place,* let euery Trauailer bee of such honest and seemely carriage, towards all with whom they conuerse, for ciuilitie and humanity, as neither contempt, derision, irrision, pertinacitie in dis∣course, bitternesse, or no respect be vsed. For these be dissoluers of friendship, and daungerous perturba∣tions for anie stranger, in the Countrey of an other.

Fourthly,* it is the duetie of all men to fit and ap∣plie themselues, not onely to their maners and cu∣stomes with whom they liue; but singularly to haue an eye of diligent watch to their particular affaires as well for knowledge and encrease of experience, as for the retention of a sound and holy conscience. As touching the first branch, let no man loose the raigns of his owne lust and fancie amongst strangers, so that he expose himselfe to reproche & scandall. And con∣sidering many nations are apt to deceiue, a man must liue warily with them, taking heed he giue no offence. And though the customes of other nations, where a man liueth, are to be followed, yet in the case of God, or of a mans own conscience, ther ought to be a scru∣ple. For as it becommeth none to leaue the truth, or to exercise any wicked actiō there; so neither let any fol∣low the beastly guises, or wicked customs of the coū∣trey, Page  51 wherby honesty & good maners may be corrup∣ted:* but in euery State to obserue thē, as Diet, Appa∣rell, Gesture, Curtesie, and such like, which in some places are precisely to be obserued. But as cōcerning that other branch, let men auoid to sacrifice or do re∣uerence to any Idole or Hobgoblin. For though ma∣ny haue so large a cōscience, that they perswade thē∣selues, so they keepe their hearts to God, they may bend their knee, and bow themselues before such trash without hurt at all, yet God will not forget the hypocrisie of such. For whoso vseth any out∣ward reuerence to any Idole or diuel, incurreth the wrath of God, and is thereby made subiect to all im∣perfections and euils. And if in ciuil matters many be wonderful respectiue, that they will not come in pre∣sence, when they know for certaintie, that they shall see or heare their Mstris, Prince, or friend dishono∣red, how much more ought al men in the case of God to be precise; not only to shun the sight & hearing of their God blasphemed, and dishonored by their Mas∣ses, and estimation of reliques & images, but to seeke to right the same if it lay in their powers?

But cōsidering no stranger hath warrant, at this day,* to oppose himselfe against them in their owne coun∣trey, let him rather abiure so heathenish a place, where he cannot liue freely, than endure the sight thereof: yea, though some thinke themselues dis∣chargeable, if they trauaile, and not both see & heare them. If there be any such, let them imitate that wor∣thy Themistocles: who hauing, in the vaine yeeres of his youth, accustomed himselfe to learn an endure the sight of many things, which in nature hee abhorred, Page  52 which gaue him the smacke of an excellent memory, yet in the better time of his yeeres he did spend more time, to learne to forget things vnnecessarie and euill; than in learning that which was honorable; & found it more difficult & hard for him. For, the knowledge of much euill tempteth man ful oft, & withdraweth the hart more out of the way, than the strength of natu∣rall reason can set him aright againe long after.

Fiftly,* let euery one, in his calling, exercise such or∣nate and seemely qualities of the body, that both may inable them for ciuill conuersation, as also for auaile in things requireable in Nobilitie and Gentlemen. And of the nobler sort it is required alwayes, that they discouer spirited bodies, and more actiue minds than other Gentlemen, labouring to perfect them by much industry.* The things to be exercised, are, horse∣manship, managing of all sorts of weapons, musicke, dancing, Poetrie, limming and portraiting, vaulting, running, & practising the fiue strengths of the arme, namely, griping, lifting, thrusting and holding out at the armes end, pulling and drawing, and throwing or darting. These by practise wil giue vigor to the defect of nature: for by nature it is impossible to be strong in all, the one being contrary to the other: the bene∣fit wherof is so great, that little men shall haue no dis∣aduantage, by the greatest persons in the world, in ex∣ercising, or single encountring, so the one practise and the other neuer. But these, being recreations, may not hinder more necessary studies, though to excell in them be honorable, and right excellent.

The sixt and last generall duetie,* which is the ve∣ry point which euery Trauailer ought to lay his Page  53 witts about, To get knowledge for the bettering of him∣selfe and his Countrie: This, being the obiect of their Countries defects and the subiect of Trauailers,* in a word containeth Six generall heads, to be learned and vnderstood: namely, the tongue, the Nature of the peo∣ple, the Countrey, the Customes; the Gouernment of the State; & the secrets of the same: the which are to be sought out wheresoeuer these shall come. And though some one of these inuest many with the honorable title of Trauailers,* yet in how much any shall be found de∣fectiue in any of these, by so farre is hee short of the compleatnesse and true estimation that apprertaineth to Trauailers Regular and honorable. These things are the vtensils, and materialls of States men, concerning forraine matters: the which many actiue mindes though sitting at home are well read in: and except it bee for the secrets and other occurrences, alteratiōs & changes, the difference is not much betweene the home States man, not hauing spent some time in trauaile, & the com∣pleate Trauailer, for forraine matters. Yet, herein hath a Trauailer the start of a home States man, which is fed by aduertisements only, and is ledde by other mens eyes: Euen as a Soldier in Action may presume of better euēt, then the Theorist, whose booke rules, in accidentall things, faile many times as in particular motions. For, the eye hath a more perfect sense in iudgement then the eare, if the same be rightly considered by iudge∣ment.

Of these sixe the tongue is the first by right to be dis∣coursed of:* the right knowledge whereof is somewhat more then wee required such to learne before they vn∣dertooke trauaile. For, now in the interim of trauaile Page  54 it is requisite, that Trauailers grow in perfection: other∣wise such as stay at home may ranke with them, which is reproachfull. The perfection wherof consisteth in three things,* namely, in vnderstanding, speaking, and writing the same.

To vnderstand a tongue perfectly,* is not barely to vn∣derstand what is read or heard pronounced, but to ob∣serue the peculiar phrase, idiom & constructiō of words, and singularly to note whereof the tongue hath his spe∣ciall deriuation if it be a deriuatiue, or his composition: wherin Trauailers cānot be too good Grāmarians. For, in these dayes there is the true confusion of Babell and languages,* through the world either deriuatiuely, or compositiuely, or both. And though at all times the like might be auouched, howsoeuer there was generally held many ancient Tongues, as the Hebrue, the Chal∣dean or Assyrian, the Arabian, and the Egyptian; yet by their characters and composition it is euident that they were all confounded, or perished, sauing the Hebrue, which was the most auncient of all the rest; and the spring from which the rest deriuatiuely or compositiue∣ly are descended; necessitie and imitation, being the parent of these and succeeding languages. For, A∣dam the good Grammarian of the Hebrue tongue, ap∣propriated words, not ad placitum, but according to the nature of things; and framed a certaine idiome of speach which in his dayes was generally spoken till the confusi∣on of Languages.

So, since, other Monarches of the world haue exco∣gitated words according to the light of nature, and ope∣ration of things vnknowne, to perfect their deriued lan∣guages by composition and meere inuention.

Page  55 Now,* as we see the simple and vncorrupt Hebrue Tongue was the originall, to other Languages, and sin∣gularly to the Phoenician, Chaldean, & Assyrian, (these two only differing in that the Assyrian had the purer dialect and rellish of the Hebrue) so euerie Monarchie haue arrogated the deriuation and composition of the Tongues subiected vnto them. Hereof it comes, that the foure Monarchiall tongues are accompted originals, by vsurpatiō, and not of proprietie: namely, the Chaldean or Assyrian, which in the first Monarchie was famous, & to particular States subiected gaue words and manners of speach: Howbeit, the Armenian, and Arabian langua∣ges held their own though in some wordes and phrases they might be by commerce cōfounded, as we see other neighbour Countries through the world borrowe and search from others to appropriate their tongues.* So was it of the second Monarchie, the Persian, when not onely the Chaldean becāe corrupted, but that Language also was driuen to search after the phrases and words of the Persian, till the third Monarchie came vp by Alex∣ander, namely,* the Grecian: the singularitie of which tongue for proprietie of words hath deriued it selfe into the veines of all Ciuil Countries, but singularly of States tributary; making the fourth Monarchie glorious, name∣ly the Romaine. And this Monarchie stretched it self far and neere.* We see the generall esteeme of the Latine tongue, through Europe; giuing as it were deriuation, vnto the Italian and Spanish tongues, with many proper and apt words; making also France, Germanie, England and other Iles & Coūtries fertile by the proper idiom of that tong, as tributary States to the same, especially wher Colonies or gouernmēts be established. Herof it coms to Page  56 passe that our English tongue hath a smacke of the Bri∣tanish (which is a deriuatiue from the Grecian or Na∣tolian tongue) of the Latine,* of the Scottish, and Pictish, of the Danish, Gothish, Vandalish and Norwegian, of the Norman and French tongues; and also of the Fle∣mish and Wallonish: which though not by conquest, yet since the reigne of Henrie the first, by permissiō haue inhabited this Land whereof our tongue rellisheth also: as in these dayes (through commerce and affaires) of the Italian and Spanish and Irish tongues, howbeit we hold that the Brittish tongue is one of the Eleuen mother tongues in Europe. In like sort stāds the French tongue, the Italian, Spanish, Scottish, and Dutch (though of others the most pure) being fallats and good gallimau∣fries of others tongues according either as they haue beene conquered and gouerned by strangers, or thorow comemerce stand in neede of one anothers wordes and phrases.

Wherof it may be concluded, that euerie language in his owne Countrey is most honorable, and equally ancient, though it be a a deriuatiue, quoad tempus, but not quoad perfectionem. Neuerthelesse, we see some Languages more general then other, & more esteemed here in Europe,* and that for two causes. One through situatiō of the Coūtrie, which maketh other neighbour Nations of necessitie acquaint themselues with one an∣others Language (the which chanceth to few Ilands) that they may trafficke and haue commerce. Hence the French, the high Duch, and the Sclavonian tongues are generall tongues, passing through many kingdomes and States. The like may also bee alleaged for some o∣ther States within the Continent that haue been at any Page  57 time great, and enforced others to seeke to them. The other cause is thorow the perfection of the tongue, as of copiousnes & learning cōtained therin, the which also make the same generally to bee regarded for ne∣cessitie of knowledge, or for perfecting their owne barbarisme. Hence the Greeke and Latine tongues are so generally taught and learned, thorow the grea∣test parts of the whole world: the words and phrases whereof are so well knowen, that the Princes of Eu∣rope negotiate and contract in writing in the Latine,* as the Turke with Christian Princes in the Greeke, as also for that princes Soueraigne will not yeeld at this day the honour to other Kings than to those that are indifferent, and cannot bee challenged of any people. And hence haue the French and Itali∣ans gotten the starte of vs, in that their tongue was sooner refined, and cast into bookes of many arts and histories and points of knowledge: though at this day the English tongue draweth neere to the glory of the best of them. Lastly, hence it commeth,* that the yong Gentlemen of England affect so much the Italian tongue; For that containeth spirit of inuenti∣on good phrase, vtterance, and delightfull matter to their appetites.

But to returne to our point, let Trauailers (hauing made obseruance of these things,* concerning the state of the tongue of that countrey wherein they trauaile) moreouer take paines in the speaking, ac∣cording to the naturall accent and tune of the coun∣trey. And as, by much reading and labour, a man shall attaine to the vnderstanding, and consequently, by a diligent obseruation, to the writing; so by confe∣rence Page  58 and much parley the speaking of the tongue will be soone attained vnto. And in speaking of the Tongues, euery Countreys accent, time and tune is best without affectation: Hence wee see those that speake the high Dutch, do striue to vtter their words highly, and with spirit, not hudling as the French, but distinctly, as the Italian & Spaniard, yet not with that chaunting manner. Likewise in speaking the Latine there is a more ciuill elocution and cariage of the mouth, than in speaking the high Dutch, or Sclauo∣nish, & with greater tēperance,* yet with some affecta∣tion like the Italian & Spaniard: euen so in writing e∣legantly, euery tongue in effect hauing peculiar Cha∣racters, men must follow the most esteemed fashion both in framing the letters & sentences, according to the Orthography of the country. I meane, hauing oc∣casion to write letters, let such vse that kind of hand most common and commendable, and those phrases which in letters almost euery nation hath peculiar, as in sub. and superscriptiōs. For, the least error in these, may either offer wrong to the party written vnto, or discouer weaknes & imperfectiō reproueable in Tra∣uailers. Lastly, as the vnderstāding of a tongue is gottē by good Authors, principles, & common conference with men: so to speake the tongue well it behoueth a Trauailer to frequēt those places & persons, where & amongst whō the tongue best flourisheth. And as the Court & Citie excel in the dialect, and fine phrase; so the Countrey phrase & words are of no lesse esteeme and regard: in so much as no man can be accounted worthily excellent in any tongue, that wants discreti∣on to speake Court-like and Country-like, when, and where it is requisite. Moreouer, considering the ma∣nifold Page  59 Countries that Trauailers may come into, it may be demanded here (although we haue long plod∣ded vpō the tongue already)* whether euery tongue be of equal importāce, to be perfectly vnderstood & spo∣ken of these Trauailers? For answere wherof, I presup∣pose two rules: first, it is impossible for any man to be an obseruer of things required in these Trauailers, & an excellent linguist in al tongues, considering the in∣finite time such an one must spend in the gaining of thē. Secondly, there is no such necessity for a Trauai∣ler to learn them all; wherfore let him busie himselfe about such only as may stand his State & Country in best auaile,* if so be he shal happily come to prefermēt. This resteth in the iudgemēt of Trauailers chiefly, To make election: for sometimes the state of things alter, that necessitate a State to haue in recōmendation the general speakers of such and such tongues. But for this Coūtry, no one rule of certainty can perpetually hold to all men, considering many Trauailers prescribe vn∣to thē diuers ends: as some the knowledge only of the tongues; others trauaile for knowledge contēplatiue, to whō the Hebrue, Greek, Latine, Chaldie, & Syriack tongues are most precious, wherin all ancient monu∣ments of things past to bee knowen, are treasured vp; which rauish more the mind, then the knowledge of things present, by how much they prognosticate fu∣ture euents. But for these honourable Trauailers (in regard of their pretence) the Latine,* the French, and the Spanish tongues are most necessary, and like to hold. So the alteration of things causeth a necessity for a season to trauaile in the Italian, as at this time the Germane and the Lowe Countrey language, that of Denmarke, Muscouie, and such like confrontire Page  60 tongues: The which let Trauailers busie themselues about, more then other tongues, that for illustration and contemplatiue knowledge, and learning, are to bee respected, whensoeuer it is requisite. Let these things suffice for the first point to bee respected of Trauailers Voluntary.

2 The second is the nature of the people of that Nation,* in which they trauaile; which is the generall inclination, sway, maners, and fashion of thē in euery common motion, or action, whereby may be disco∣uered imperfection in things euil, or apprehension of that which is good: by the ensample whereof other Nations may generally reforme things amisse, and establish their policie, euen as Trauailers in particu∣lar may fashion themselues for all seasons, places and persons to be compleat, in ciuill conuersation in the iudgement of the world. Now that Trauailers may discouer this amongst the people of a Nation or State,* let them consider fiue things: First, whether the people bee ciuill or barbarous. Secondly, whe∣ther they be free or seruile. Thirdly, whether religi∣ous or profane. Fourthly, whether warlike or effe∣minate. And fiftly, of what condition of bodie, and disposition of mind. These containe the maners, na∣ture, and inclination of all people in a generalitie; of which we will discourse in order.* And first, therefore, let Trauailers consider, whether the people in gene∣rall be ciuill or barbarous; and that whether by disci∣pline (the best Ciuilian Master)* or by naturall tempe∣rature of bodies. Such are the Grecians, and those of the Iles of Iapan and Chios: as on the contrary side, the people of Africa, America, Magellanica, and those Page  61 of Northeast Europe and Asia, by nature barbarists. The vse of which obseruation, for the Common∣weale, may appeare by these two rules; First that ciuill* nations, gouerned by lawes diuine and humane writ∣ten, may either be feared for enemies, or trusted for friends in case they be neighbours, and of the same Religion and of good abilitie. Secondly, that barba∣rous people are neuer good faithfull friends, but for their profit, being euer wauering and treacherous, nor if enemies other than mortall; yet if their power be not ouer-great, are easily vanquished.

But the priuate vse that Trauailers must make to themselues hereby,* is to chase away such barbarous∣nesse and rudenesse as possesseth them, to establish a more humane and sociable carriage. For better dis∣couerie of these, let Trauailers marke the gesture, ap∣parell,* decencie, conuersation, diet, feeding, giuing of honour, and all other actions of the people of a coun∣trey, one towards another; regarding. or contemning all moral vices, with better iudgement than those fan∣tastickes, which bring home with them some apish ceremonies of curtesie, and strange fashions of appa∣rell, but nothing else, to giue them commendations at their returnes. It may not be vnknowen moreouer, that there is no nation in the world but may be redu∣ced to ciuilitie, and forced in time to put off barba∣rousnesse, seeing in all people God hath sowen the seedes of that which is good,* within the furrowes and fieldes of euery ones heart: which groweth more or lesse according to the pleasure of the seedeman, ma∣nifested in the proportioning of nature, whereof eue∣ry climate hath a seuerall stroke, as being an instru∣ment Page  62 whereby God frameth capabilitie more or lesse to comprehend the same. Hence we see, those that in∣habite vnder the intemperate Zones hot or cold bee more brutish, simple, and sauage than others between the Tropicks, and in the temperate. So also it is to be vnderstood, that no nation in the world, how Court∣like soeuer, but hath the dregs and lees of barbarous inciuility; and that many heathen people, by the light of nature meerly inscribed in their hearts, rest for en∣samples and reproofes to many ciuill nations gouer∣ned by a diuiner knowledge, in points of ciuil actions & conuersation. For proofe whereof,* behold how the English, Scottish, French, Italians, & Spanish which are the most reformed & courtlike people, are tainted with some blemish of barbarousnesse, the which of o∣ther heathen nations they might learne to reforme.* And though of all ciuill nations we here may iustly chalenge preeminence, yet how barbarous are we in many things? namely, the Commons of this land, in the entertainement of strangers, pursuing them with the vncharitablenesse of hatred and despight, like the Lithuanians, that vse neither faith nor ciuility to them. Neither are we alone: for the Commons of France and Spaine carie as hard a hand toward strangers; whereas the African heathen Negros, are so charita∣ble to strangers, that nothing shall be denied them, if it rest in their powers to relieue their distresse and wants. In like sort are the people of the East India, so respectiue of strangers, that the State deputeth certain persons to supplie them with all things requisite: and in case a stranger chance to die, the merchants of their countrey shall haue deliuered vnto them their Page  63 goods. And verely of al reformed States, ther is none, I iudge, more humane toward strangers at this day, than are the Nobilitie of England, & of Polonia. What vnciuisitie of manners and policie doth the Pope in most of his regiments vse, forbidding marriage to Priests? that which the Ethiopians, vpon the same in∣conuenience politicke, permitted notwithstanding; rather hazarding the incōuenience of remisnes & co∣uetousnes, than the mischiefe of many more horrible sins. How vnseemly is the custome of the Frenchmen toward their King, and ancients in nobility & yeers? Short of that the Arabians attributed to euery ancient in yeeres. Behold what great respect the Turkes, Tar∣tarians, and Persians giue to their Princes: in which point the French come shortest. All men know how sauage the Italians are toward their wiues by impriso∣ning, cooping vp, & locking vp al, thorow the heat of their ielous harts, though themselues are the most Li∣bertines thorow the world: And yet the Parthian hea∣then are so courteous, ciuill & kind to their wiues, as without manifest proofes, they wil not be ouer ielous or suspicious. From whom I suppose the French haue learned not a little renowne in that point, not trauai∣ling to presse down that, which like ye Palme tree, the more it increaseth. Be not the Dutchmen most slouē∣ly and sluttish in their apparell, & feeding? wheras the Africans detest the same, accounting bodily cleanli∣nesse and honestie a point of dutie. And though the Turks and Indians, & other Barbarians of Africk, and the sauage out-lawes of many nations, eat their meat on the ground, yet are they more neat & cleanly, than those Dutchmen or our Irish. So the barbarousnesse Page  64 which of all other Nations possesseth those Dutch∣men except the Tartarians or Hell-hounds, which e∣qually account it an honour to be drunke) to eate, to drinke, and become more vnciuill than beasts.

It is not reprehended in the Scythians, that cruell natiō: none daring to drink any wine, but such as the King shall drinke vnto, and giue vnto; which is com∣monly to those onely, that in times of watre haue kil∣led most of their enemies, and shed most blood. For amongst them none are reputed valiant, but such as haue caroused the blood of men. Doe not the Egyp∣tians refraine to eate or drinke more than sufficeth nature? and that for good cause, seeing superfluitie of meate breedeth all diseases, and many incurable. The reparation of which abuse nature teacheth in the Schoole of brute beastes. Hath not that enemie of reason of those Dutchmen and Tartars infected the greater number of our gallants, and those of ciuill nations, since their conuerse in the Lowe Countreys? In so much that at ordinary assemblies some striue to be first and most drunke: others are compelled to the like, against nature and manners, whereof many bit∣ter incouueniences haue growen: insomuch as I see not why it should be a lesse matter for any that com∣pels another to drinke against his will, and thereby mscarieth in health, than in forcing any to eate or drinke poyson. And it is knowen, that vnder the raigne of heathen Monarchs it was a law, at feasts not to bee compelled to drinke more than euery man pleased.

The Italian, although in conuersation hee be not offensiue, but obedient and humble to his superiour, Page  65 to his equall obseruant, to his inferior gentill and cour∣teous, amiable to strangers and swimming in com∣plements and louing tearmes, yet the least occasion di∣ssolueth auncient bonds of loue; so vnsteadie and inconstant are they in ciuill offices noe lesse important then the other. As it fareth with those that frequent our Ordinaries, such as be gamesters, the least crossing of whom, though great friends and companions other waies, looseth the simmond of frendship compounded in many places, and many yeares, at an instant. For, such would haue the world know, the ciuilitie that is in them cannot brooke vnciuilitie profered, without risentiment in the highest nature. And, as in pic∣king of quarrells so in managing them, I thinke no na∣tion hath beene so rude in generall: For, whether cause be proffered or no, or whether it stands men vp∣on to make iust risentiment and seeke reparation for iniurie, or indignitie, or whether such be in the right or wrong, euerie man according to his fancie proceedeth, or as the stare standes humorous. What Gothishe barbarousnesse possesseth the Italians, in the pursuite of their lust? What vnciuilitie and alluringnesse to lust, do their Curtizans in gesture and apparell vse? And, though the Tarnassariās (a people in habiting the Cost of Bengala) neuer marrie women, before some white Christian or Mawhometan haue cropped their Vir∣ginities, yet afterwardes doe they carrie themselues so ciuilly that the least inconstancie bringeth death on such; not vnlike to an olde custome that the No∣bilitie of Scotland vsed in times past to leuie the Vir∣ginitie of all such Maides as held of their Mannors: and in case such were married before homage Vir∣gineall Page  66 done, to their Lords they were subiect to great fines. So by the like barbarous custome the chiefe sa∣crificing Priest of Calecut, before the King would mar∣rie his Ladie, was enioyned to take the Assaie of the Queene, and trie her Virginitie: for which acte the king alwayes rewarded him with an hundred Crownes. Yet wee see how detestable that barbarousnesse is a∣mongst other heathen people, that death is thought to good for any Adulterer, or fornicator, or deflowrer of Virgines. Moreouer, what inconstant luxuriousnesse and superfluitie of vnciuilitie, in fashions and apparell, toucheth the French; The which, except of vs Eng∣lish, is reproued of most Nations in the world.

And amongst many barbarousnesses of manners, how strange is that of the French mens dissimulati∣on to their verie friends? The which is left also he∣reditarie from the Lumbards to the Italians that haue any education.

I feare me, other Nations trauailing thither will say that we beginne to smell of that disease. Lastly, what fencerlike and gladiatorious behauiour bemaddeth the Germanes? What corruption of mannes generaly reigne in the Italians? Insomuch that other lesse accort Countries then ours haue this cōmon prouerbe, wher∣of it shall suffice to touch that of the Germanes;

Multi Germani rustici
In Italiam proficiscuntur angeli;
Redeunt diaboli vrbani.
What inconstant countenance, do these Italians sauor of? What arrogancie and insolencie discouereth the Spaniard to his superior and equall; what insupporra∣blenesse Page  67 to his inferior and subiect? What falsehoods may men finde in the Gelderlanders? whereas Turkes being Heathens are keepers of promise. What cruel∣tie and tyrannie do the Spaniards and Irish discouer to their enemies? What pride of the French? What per∣tinacitie generally do Schollers, Courtiers, and Soul∣diers discouer? What inhospitalitie do the Germanes keepe? What anger and hastinesse of the Irish? yea of the poorest kerne.

Thus, by these examples, may a Trauailer suruey the ciuilitie and barbarousnesse of Nations, in euerie vertue actiue or morall;* chiefly in the Court and Citties. For the Countrie people rellish of rudenesse euermore; though in some points they may serue for samplers of great ciuilitie, and true carriages, of the which a trauailer must in particular make obseruance. But considering, that which is Ciuilitie in one Nati∣on is vnaccustomed and reiected in other State; it may be doubted how a Trauailer shall demeane himselfe to be compleat,* and know which to retaine. The an∣swere is easie: for it is euer presupposed, that it is no breach of office or of ciuilitie being in another Nation to obserue the fashions, guises and customes, of the same, in things indifferent and ceremoniall, al∣though they grate on barbarisme; as superfluitie of complements and words, such as the French and Ita∣lians vse, the manner of eating and drinking, whe∣ther vppon the ground lying along, as in Turkie and Africke, or standing: The manner of saluting with the hatte on without bending of the knee, without bow∣ing of the bodie, without imbracing, without profering of the hand, without conioyning, without kissing Page  67 and such like externall customes of indifferencie, becomming well enough the boundes of euerie Coun∣trie. For, though it be a rule with vs that those ceremo∣nies, and ciuill vses come neérest to the point of true cariage, and consequently most commendable, that ex∣presse humilitie, and curtesie, and encrease affection of most kindnesse and humanitie (hence comes our salu∣tations bareheaded, and hand kissing, bowed bodies and knees, embracings, conioyning and shaking of the hand, peculiar to great personages; hence the Italians and French haue gotten probatum of their humilious phrases and kind complements of kissing their hands; the Spaniardes of humbly kissing the hands of those they respect and conuerse with, men as women, the Dutch in their carrowsing in like sort as we vse, in con∣tracts by imposition of hands and afterwards by kissing them) yet we see the nature of the Italians cānot brooke kissing openly of women, nor the French being long bareheaded; and in like expressions other Nations are as precise. Notwithstanding, in the expressions of moral vertues and vices, a Trauailer must be so curious and graue, that hee not only beware to committe sinne and do as the people do, but cleaue wholly to the vertue and meane of things, abhorring blasphe∣ming, swearing, rayling, malreporting, and such like vices of the tongue, as of all other actions and customes of wickednesse which are euill in their owne nature, without circumstances. And these Trauailers haue prerogatiue of other Nations to prescribe against many though indifferent and against all euill customes, that swarue from the rule of Nature & humanitie. Thus hauing long stayed vpon this haunt Page  69 of the first discouerer of the nature of people,* the se∣cond offereth it self, for the Trauailer to know; Whe∣ther the people be Free or Seruile. For al people con∣sidered as Subiects are one of these two.* And though by nature largely cōsidered, one man is equally so free as another; none more seruile (for seruitude is poli∣ticke) yet we see some people politickly seruile as free, some more, some lesse, according to the alteration of times and things. By the words seruile & free then are meant, not the naturall (since all by nature are seruile to sinne and vnrighteousnesse, and are equally free from miserie and subiection) but the politicall, which maketh some people free, in regard of misery and ser∣uitude, and other seruile to slauery, miserie, and sub∣iection. Now seeing all people of a State are vnder subiection in generalitie, in this place the nature of a people must bee sought out of such as are free from slauery and miserie,* and of those that are seruiled vn∣to them. Of people free in this sense, there be some by prescription enfranchised,* the gouernment of whose States by good lawes haue made them free from long miserie or slauery: Such are the Commons and Nobilitie of this land, whose freedome is such, as they enioy their owne things so freely as the Prince. The like may be sayd of the States of France and Ger∣manie, and of other well ordered Common wealths. Moreouer, such freedome generally reigneth in France, as with vs here in Kent, that what slaue or bondman shal but land in France, is immediatly made free: and whosoeuer abideth one yeere in Kent, shall be euer after enfranchised. Moreouer, there be others free by arrogation,* who according to the state of Page  70 times and things licentiously vse their libertie. Such in times past were the people of Denmarke: whose force was their law, in so much that their Prince held his royaltie at their placitum. For, if at any time they misliked any of his actions he was instantly deposed, and an other set in his place. Such at this day is the freedome of the Venetians, that they seeme to beare a hard hand ouer their Dukes. And such is the com∣mon nature of euery Democracie and Aristocracie. Lastly,* there bee some whose policie and state haue continued them in much freedome from miserie and slauerie, as euer striuing against seruitude. Such were the Sclauonians, the Switzers, and the Lumbards, the Neapolitanes, in the Romane gouernement: in so much as these people being euer confederates with that mightie Empire, yet durst they giue suc∣cour to the banished from Rome. Such were the Hun∣garians against the Turke.

Such generally are the Nobility of most Christian States, who as Libertines are euer out of tyranny, be∣fore the Cōmons. Such are the Spaniards that chuse rather to die than to be made slaues. And such is the naturall affect of those that either haue enioyed long freedom, or feele sensibly the hard yoke of bondage. In a word,* such are the people of Ireland, who not be∣ing accustomed to ciuility and obeisance, spurne so much against the same: For, the Nobility spurn against subiection; & the Cōmons folow their Lords & Lea∣ders, thorow want of ciuility & Christian knowledge that keepeth euery man in officio. The markes of liber∣ty and freedome of people are riches & ease; both pe∣culiar to the Grecians and English; the Germanes a∣bound Page  71 in ease: the Venetians procure their liberty by their riches.

These things cōcerning the freenesse of people. The like in effect be considered of those people which are seruile; namely,* whether they be seruiled thorow ty∣ranny & oppression, or thorow depression & keeping vnder violently; both sorts being subiects of misery & calamitie. Of the first sort,* we heare of the Tartariās vnder their Cam; for the whole State of all they haue standeth at his fancie to dispose of: the word of whose mouth serueth for a sword to reuenge him of rebels, and yet they reioyce thereat; neither dare any man say, This is mine, or anothers: neither can any man dwell other-where than his Lord assigneth him. The Liuonians vnder the Duke of Muscouie are so seruile, that they dare not but call him Tzar, or King; where none other nations doe the same. Moreouer, so ser∣uile are the Muscouites, that they call themselues the slaues of the Duke: neither dare they sell anything, before the Dukes officers haue surueyed the same. A∣like seruile are the people of Lithuania, in so much as the officers of the Countrey may enter into any mans house, and take their pleasure of any thing; where no farmer dare come in the presence of this Lord, without gifts or bribes. So the Commons of Sweuia in times past were in great misery vpheld by their Princes and Nobilitie: For, all commodities passed and repassed thorowe their fingers. Lastly, such are those people, whose ouer-rulers are Tyrants, as the Turke gene∣rally thorow his Dominions; the Pope ouer the Cleargie, and many temporall States. Nowe of the second sort of Seruile,* wee find the husbandmen Page  72 and tenants of Italie, who liue hardly and poorely to vphold the Gentlemen their Land-lords. So liue the Boores vnder the Germane Nobilitie, in greater mi∣serie and subiection, than the poorest person in this land. Such are moreouer the Commons of a Nation where either ciuill warres, or omission of good and holesome lawes reigne. Such of late time were the Boores of the Low Countries, and Pesants of France: so finally are al those Commons whose Nobility like Solons great flies breake thorow the net of the Lawe, and where the Prince is remisse in gouernment.

Now the markes of seruile people are hereby ga∣thered,* namely, Pouertie and Want, and excessiue paines-taking and moyling to gaine their liuing. Such were the Irish: such are the Moores.

It now remaines to shew what vse a Trauailer shall make hereby. First,* by these, the loyaltie and vn∣steadinesse of Subiects are discouered: then their con∣stancie and reuolting humor vpon occasions profe∣red. And lastly, who are to be trusted for friends, and who feared for enemies: These being instruments for the Politician to plot vpon; and therefore I will be sparing in the discourse.

The third thing that discouereth the nature of the people is for our Trauailer to consider,* whether the people of a Nation or State bee Religious,* or Pro∣fane. These wordes must be restrained; considering Religiousnesse is properly taken for the godly exer∣cise of that profession, without Idolatrie or superstiti∣on, the which is true Religion. All other shewes are shadowes irreligious, and not substantiall professions. In like sort may it be said of Profanenesse: which is of Page  73 those people who leauing the pathe of mans dutie to∣ward God wander in the field or wildernesse of error, either through ignorance, presumption, or imperfectiō. Wherefore, that our Trauailer may not bee put to plunge, the words in this place implie a larger vnder∣standing. For, by religious people is meant,* such as are passing deuoute and zealous in religion, be they Chri∣stian, Heathen, or Antichistian. So likewise by pro∣phane people I conceiue Libertines, Atheistes, and po∣liticke religious people, who oppose themselues against the superstitious and deuout practise of godlinesse: as temporizers aud epicureall worldlings. In this first sense most Nations in the world at this day are & haue been euer deuoute and religious: some in the truth, as the true people of Israell, and all such Christian people as of the certaintie of the Scriptures and worde of God do serue the Lord as hee commaundeth, reiecting humane traditions and superstitiousnesse, as prophane∣nesse politique and damnable. Heereupon rose that worthie custome of the Nobilitie of Poland, whenso∣euer the Gospell was a reading in their Churches, To draw out their swords, signifying, that they were readie to defend the truth thereof, if any durst oppugne the same.

And hence no doubt at the first sprang our custome heere in England, of standing on our feete and rising vp, when the Articles of our faith either are a rea∣ding, or during the reading of the Gospell; thereby expressing that by this wee will stand and abide against the world and other like ceremonies, which superstitiō I feare hath corrupted. Heereupon, are the Saxons noted to bee verie deuout, but withall opinionatiue. Page  74 So are the Bohemians deuout and zealous withall.

Moreouer,* some are religious in idolatrie: as were the Egyptians, the Assyrians, Philistines, and those vn∣circumcised people that worshipped strange GODS. Such are at this day the barbarous people of the East and West Indies, that worship the vgly shapes of Di∣uels, of the Sunne, Moone, Starres, of the Elements & of other Creatures. Others there are deuout in superstitiō: as the Turkes and Persians, who with much deuotion are trained vp vnder the policie of their Prophets Ma∣homet and Haly. Lastly, there are some blinded won∣derfully in Idolatrie & superstition: such are the Pope∣lings and those that goe vnder the name of Catho∣lickes, but abusiuely. The which religious proceeding is so hatefull to those that follow the Greeke Church, but singularly to the Muscouites, that if any of their Nation bee but reputed to haue spoken with a La∣tine or Romane, it behooueth him to bee purged, before hee shall bee intertained and receiued to par∣take of the Communion: for they accompt such pol∣luted.

The verie like may a Trauailer consider of the peo∣ple, which be profane: such as the Epicures and Tem∣porizers are that florish singularly in Italie. And accor∣ding as it hath beene reported of the Normans in times past, that they cared little for any of Gods seruice: So, the Romanes profanenesse, and contempt of vertue e∣uerie Nation is full of; Like as it hath beene spoken of the Cicilians, that they regard no man whilest they themselues are in prosperitie.

Thus a Trauailer may referre vnto his proper head the nature of the people concerning religiousnesse or Page  75 profanenesse, the which may in generalitie and in par∣ticular stand him in much stead. Moreouer, I suppose it also very needfull for a Trauailer,* to consider whether the people Religious or Profane so stand, by the omission or want of lawes, or by the seueritie of Lawes or customes. For, though religion cannot be constrained, yet it may bee restrained by ordinan∣ces, so as a Trauailer shall hardly discerne it. Hence wee see the Nobilitie of France passing deuoute of Custome, the Gascoignes religious without super∣stition, our Commons in times past verie supersti∣tious: as generally are all that bee newly weaned from poperie. Thus much as concerning the religiousnesse or profanenesse of people.* The fourth resteth to be considered: whether the people of a Nation bee Warlike or Effeminate: Whereof let a Trauailer ground his obseruation vnder these three heads: name∣ly, whether the people be effeminate or warlike through naturall complexion. Hence wee diuine all phlegma∣tickes and sanguinistes effeminate by nature; as all me∣lancholickes and cholerickes warlike. Secondly, whe∣ther the people be effeminate for want of good disci∣pline, as commonly those are where either vices, or great excesse abound; these being great withdraw∣ers of mens courages, weakening and poisoning the powers of soule and body, so as without discipline such men are vnapt for the warres altogether. Lastly, whether the people be warlike through the feare of Ty∣rannie, or by good discipline. For as discipline ma∣keth some that naturally are cowardes and phlegma∣tickes good soldiers in time: so want of discipline we see giues the reignes of exces to breed vices & corruptiō of Page  76 hearts, and enfeebling of mindes otherwise of good temper for the warres: such are the sanguinistes. And as the excesse of commodities in a land make men idle, so the barrennesse enforceth others to be industrious, which is one of the best discouerers of a warlike people. Hereof it came to passe, that the Sicilians haue been no∣ted for cowards and effeminate; whereas the inhabitants of the mountains and Alpes, haue euer carried the name of hardie & warlike. The like some haue obserued in the Lowe Countrie people, till discipline and feare of tyrannie procured them some choler. Wee reade of the Lithuanians for want of good discipline to be so ef∣feminate and cowardly, that they neuer goe to the warres willingly: and oftentimes being prest giue great summes of money to be released from the seruice. So in times past (as Eusebius reciteth) were the people of A∣fricke so effeminate and faineants that the women did euerie thing abroad for marchandize and husbandrie: as it hath been reported of the men of Holland that were wont to carrie their fardels on their heads, whereas the women did carrie their burdens vnder their Armes. Yet so warlike were, by the same ground, the Denmarks, that going to the warres the souldiers would neuer a∣bandon their leaders, but die in the field rather then flie so long as their Leaders liued: it being moreouer an in∣famie reputed for souldiers to die in their beddes, or of other sickenesses then that which commeth by warres. Herby also we finde the valiancie of the Switzers accor∣ding to their discipline: whereas the Arabians and Asiaticques are tainted with cowardize. The English likewise are feared of all men for their valiancie, euen as the Hungarians are reputed hardie and stoute. In so Page  77 much that they haue beene branded for grayhoundes & wolues in regard of other Nations but Hares and Fox∣es; Whereas the people of little Britaine haue been esteemed timorous, especially where they bee opposed by the English: in like sort were those of Picardie.

Lastly, do not all men see heere in England, in Scot∣land, in France, in Italie, Spaine, and Germanie, that these things do alter the people from warlikenesse to ef∣feminatenes: and contrariwise good & long discipline are meanes to recouer their ancient glorie? whereby a Trauailer shall not only discouer the present estate of things, but be able with the politician to diuine into what chaunces such people may fall.

The fift and last discouerer of the nature now remai∣neth,* for a Trauailer to make obseruation, namely: of what Condition of bodie and Disposition of minde the people be of.

As touching the condition of bodie,* Three things are to be respected: First, the Stature; whe∣ther tall, lowe, or of meane size of person, Se∣condly, [ 1] of what complexion: whether faire, browne, [ 2] blacke, tawnie, fatte, leane, slender, or well limmed; whether deformed or mōstrous in nature, hauing more or lesse limmes, then the common sort of people and such like: which for breuitie sake by examples I passe ouer. Thirdly, whether the people bee long [ 3] or short liued, and whether healthie or sickelie, and whether great feeders and drinkers, or not: The vses whereof being common, I passe them ouer. In like sort for the inclination and disposition of the peo∣ples mindes,* foure things are to be considered. First, whether the people bee giuen to idlenesse or paines Page  78 taking; then, to what occupations and trades they are accustomed. Thirdly, whether they bee addicted to letters, or otherwise incurious of learning: Lastly, what vices and vertues the people are most giuen vnto; and that whether by defect or administration of lawes, or by their own temperatures. The least of these are of moment to be vnderstood. For besides the particular profit that euerie Trauailer shal reape thereby, there is a publike and multiplex of stuffe for such (if so they hap∣pily afterward step to the helm and be called to aide the motion therof) to worke vpon, either to reforme euils in their own Common-weale, or to mooue commotion or pacification twixt forraine Powers and nations. Which, for that these are the materials of politicians, I omit to explane how and in what sort. And forasmuch as the nature of people in this point may be the better discouered in particular, I propounde foure Censures, which open the verie affects of the heart, vnto such as couet to know in particular the secrets of euerie ones minde,* in common actions expressing vertue or vice; They are the exercises, the diet, the apparel, and the con∣uersation of men: of which, if we may not offend, we will consider a little, how & in what manner they may stand a Trauailer in stead either to establish peace, or to enter∣taine war, in case of imployment. First then, of exercises some be honorable,* others for pastime and recreation. Such as follow the honorable, whether warlike or of learning, discouer good instruments of peace or warre. For, as by the exercises of warre men shew couragi∣ous and high mindes, spirited and strong bodies: so by exercising points of learning and knowledge, ho∣nest and settled mindes are bewraied; and consequently Page  79 meete persons, the one for peace the other for warres. Those, that exercise for pastime and delight only, are marked for corrupt, and weake members in a State, ei∣the for peace or warre: yet rather affecting peace then warre.

The second Censure is the diet of men. Diet,* it is either of meate, of drinke, or of sleepe. Those that be Epicures in any of these three, are to be taxed for the most part for slouthfull, vitious and effeminate bodies. Those that be temperate in these three, and accustome their bodies to endure hardnesse, may be ob∣serued for men of action and employment: and as these may prooue good instruments for warre, so the other are scarce good for either.

The apparell reuealeth like affections; which con∣sisteth either in the fashion,* or stuffe, or colour. Those that keepe the fashion which is approued in the Court, if they be Courtiers, shew discretion and constancie. Where, on the other side, they bewraie lightnesse and ficklenesse, vnlesse in speciall cases. So doe all those that affect vneasie and vnhandsome fashions. Those moreouer are not euer the wisest that are first in the newe fashion, but such rather that come in the taile; if they doe it in this respect, to see first whe∣ther the same bee better and more necessarie then the olde. But seeing fewe Nations in the World be va∣riable in fashions but wee and the French, I will shut vp this point, that there is a meete fashion for Cour∣tiers, for souldiers, and for other people, necessarily distinct. For, the Courtier respecteth comelinesse, the soldier ease and warmth, the rest are variable; accor∣ding as they stand in yeares, or humors, or necessitie. Page  80 As concerning the state of apparell: Whosoeuer wea∣reth not good apparel, being a Courtier, and in Court, beseeming this Estate and being young, discouers his discontentment or want of meanes: so they that goe more costly then the guise of the place or their ha∣bilitie can beare withall, or not respecting times, pla∣ces and persons, reuealeth vanitie and hautie Ambiti∣on. The like affections are bewraied by the third, to weet the Colour; it being for the most part generally through the world respected for a Concordance ac∣cording to the fitnesse of yeares, of persons, of times, & places; the which are circumstances reuealing the af∣fections or imperfections of men in the colours of their apparell.

The last Censurer is the Conuersation of men,* with the vertuous or vitious; whereby the secret carriages of the minde be discouered. For, as those that keepe euill companie bewray imperfect mindes: so such as con∣uerse with the vertuous may be obserued for honest and trustie men to be imployed in the affaires of their com∣mon-wealth, either for peace or warre, if other things concurre withall. In which conuersation an eye must be had of such to discerne, what wisedome, valour, temperancie, liberalitie, vprightnesse, couragiousnesse of minde euerie one of the nobler sort in his actions discouers: and contrariwise of the vices and capitall e∣uils that reigne in them. But of these wee haue ope∣ned enough: and also concerning the nature of the peo∣ple:* it now remaineth to speake of the thirde point of knowledge about which a Trauailer must busie him∣selfe, in the interim of his Trauaile: namely, in the suruey of the Countrie wherein he shall trauaile. But Page  81 seeing the consideration hereof is multiplex, it would be to many very tedious to handle euery species and subdiuision largely. Wherefore we will but make a discouerie, & touch onely the most necessary things to be vnderstood.

Of the Countrey there is a sixefold consideration:* as first of the name, to weet; wherof the Countries or Cōmon-weales name hath his deriuation;* how ma∣ny sundry names it hath had since the first habitation thereof; and finally how long it hath continued in each name, & what were the causes of alteration. The which things forasmuch as frō records they may be collected, we wil not insist vpon them: adding only by way of implicatiō one vse hereof, That such Cōmon-weales as neuer haue altered their names, will hardly be subdued, or brought vnder the yoke of an absolute Conquerer: whereas those that haue been accusto∣med to change their names, may easily by Conque∣rers be perswaded to suffer a change. The second consideration is of the populousnesse or scarcitie of people;* the knowledge whereof is so auaileable, as a Politician cannot well plot, without good certifi∣cate thereof from time to time: for a multitude of people cannot well indure without much trafficke, without many friends; and in case of penurie, death, and want, not well without disorder. Neither are a few people to be feared for great enemies, or to be trusted for constant friends,* and such like. Thirdly, of the situation of the Countrie, in regard of the earth and seas, as of the heauens; namely, vnder what Cli∣mate it lieth, and what signe doth patronize the same. But these things, being they may be attained vnto by Page  82 reading & perusing of Mappes and sea Charts, let it be sufficient to vs to haue remembred them.* Fourthly, the quantitie (which is either of the length, breadth, circuit, or figure of the Countrey) is to bee conside∣red. The which also wee omitte to enlarge by dis∣course, considering by the rules of Geometrie and Cosmographie, any may easily attaine to the same. Onely let this not bee impertinent to be superadded, how the marches of the countrey (if it be part of the Continent) is confronted with naturall defence or artificiall; how it borders on other Countreys, and what quarter there is kept ordinarily, whereof in the sixt and last generall point of knowledge, name∣ly, in the secrets of the State wee shall haue cause to treate.* The fift consideration is to bee made of the commodities to bee found in the Countrey: And the sixt likewise of the discommodities. Of these two last we will dilate a little. First, a Trauailer shall obserue the commodities of a Countrey, either as they stand naturally or artificially.

The naturall commodities are foure: namely,* the goodnesse or temperatenesse of the Ayre, the Fruit∣fulnesse of the soyle, the plenty of Riuers and Ports (if the same coast the sea): And lastly, the Springs, Lakes, Baths, Spawes, or Pooles, that haue any singular vertue in them.

Touching the first,* let not a Trauailer weigh the goodnesse or temperatenesse of the ayre by his own constitution of body, that peraduenture can away well with the same, (as wee see some of our English bodies can away well enough in colde Moscouia, o∣thers in hot Morea) but by the generall well-faring Page  83 of the inhabitants without pestiferous diseases and accidents, that seldome chaunce to that Land and people, but extraordinarily. For, by the secret worke of God, there is no Nation so temperate, but is subiect to corruption of Ayre, when his secret will shall bee displeased therewith, and that by the reuolution of the heauens, and of things ingendred and conteined in them.

Touching the second,* which is the Fruitfulnesse of the soyle, there is a triple consideration; either of such as mooue and growe vpon the superficies of the Land (as Vegetables, and liuing sensible things) or of such things as are hid in the wombe and veines of the earth, or of the molde it selfe. Touching the first of these, let Trauailers obserue what store there is found of irrationall Animals, either wilde or do∣mesticke, seruing for the vse of man; and especially whether the Countrey doe yeeld a superfluitie; and whereof. As in generalitie, Africk yeeldeth the best Mules; Europe the best Lions, as Herodotus and Pli∣nie make report, onely to bee found betweene the riuers Nestus and Achelous; the one coasting Ab∣dera, a Citie of Thrace; the other, being a flood of Epyrus, separateth Acarnania from Aetolia. So in particular, wee finde England yeeldeth the greatest store of good Sheepe and Wooll: Muscouia the best Bees; yeelding Honie and Wake in plentie; and the best Furres. Moreouer, let a Trauailer obserue what store of Vegetables, either of Woods, Trees for fruite, or plants the Countrey yeeldeth. For, euery Countrey hath his seuerall Commodities, and singularitie of them, fitted by the prouidence of God: Page  84 as we reade of, in Asia, singular Cedars and Pine trees: so wee haue experience, that for Firre trees and ship∣masts, Denmarke and the New found land is notori∣ous; for Vines, France; for Apples and such ordinary fruit England; for Orenges, Limons, Pomegranates and such like, Spaine and other hot Countries; for oyle and Oliues, Candia, &c. As concerning the second, which is of things hid in the veines and wombe of the earth (for what shall we need to enlarge the dis∣course with the huge woods to be found in Germany and Bohemia, or with the notorious Vegetables of o∣ther Nations) namely, the Mines of mettals and Fossiles whereof there are such sundrie species, as it may seeme impertinent of vs to be further touched, considering so soone as they are discouered, they bee committed to writing. Now the last of those three is the fruitfulnesse of the molde, yeelding vnto the in∣dustry of such people as Till and manure the same, abundance of all things: the which also we wil referre to the artificiall consideration of the Countries com∣modities.

The third naturall commodities of a countrey are the plentie of Riuers and Ports:* whereof these things fall to the obseruation of a Trauailer; From whence they haue their springs & thorowfare if they be riuers nauigable, whether they be replenished with fish, of what kindes, and whether potable and commodious for the vse of man, how these doe accommodate the Country; and lastly where they haue bridges, foords, ferries, or may bee waded ouer. But if the Countrey be maretine, and ioyning to the sea, what, and what store of fish the coast aboundeth with; how the sea Page  85 ebbeth and floweth in euery Port and Creeke, where there is good riding for shippes or boates; what shal∣lowes, sands and flattes; and lastly, what good and dangerous landing; whereof in the secrets and last part of the Trauailers knowledge we shall haue oc∣casion to enlarge. But a Trauailer must be so prudent in searching out these things, that he haue not a ma∣licious or suspicious eye cast on him; for it is one of the conuictors of Spies.* Now the last of the naturall commodities, as wee haue sayd, are Springs, Baths, Spawes, Lakes, Pooles, or other things of goodnesse and medicineable vertue and commoditie: the which are to be sought out in seuen things, namely, in their heat, as Baths and Spawes: in their tastes and sauours, as Plinie reporteth of a certaine Lake amongst the Troglodites, which thrise a day and thrise a night, for a season, was euer bitter and salt, and at other times sweete. Thirdly, in their colour, as Diodorus repor∣teth, in Egypt there was a Poole, the colour of whose water was vermilion, which being drunke would make men bewray secrets. Fourthly, in their odour or smel, as that fountaine in the Citie Leuca, of a most horrible smel, spoken of by Strabo. Fiftly, in the mo∣tion, at what time they are rising: as that fountaine besides Haslea which neuer riseth but early in the mor∣ning, at high noone, and at the shutting in of the eue∣ning: And if therein any euill thing bee cast that may corrupt the same, Theodorus Zuingerus mentio∣neth, that for certaine dayes after it will not rise at all. Sixtly, in their effects, as that fountaine of Salmac in the countrey of Caria; which, as Strabo writeth, ma∣keth men effeminate & lither. That of Aphrodisium in Page  86Pyrrhea, that causeth barrennesse, as Plinie noteth, and such like. And lastly, what commoditie either of them yeelde vnto the Countrey, the which chiefly is to be considered, of those nauigable Lakes that lie in the heart of the Land.

Hitherto concerning the naturall:* the Artificiall commodities now offer themselues; which a Tra∣uailer shall find chiefly in two things, namely, in Buil∣dings or in Trades & Sciēces Mechanick. And though the liberall Arts may seeme to bee of the number; yet properly they are not the commodities of a Land or State. Because by the word Commodities is meant, things that may be transported from State to State, & caried out of one country into another: which the li∣berall Sciences well cannot saue in bookes: For the operatiō of the liberal Sciēces seem to be Spiritual or Mathematical; wheras that of Mechanical arts shew∣eth to be corporal. But to our point,* of Buildings there may be a triple cōsideration: First, what are the most cōmon buildings & houses of the country wherin the common people inhabite, and of what stuffe they are made. For almost euery countrey differ therin. But whersoeuer great defects are of these, as in Ireland, Muscouie & other places, it is a note of pouerty & bar∣barousnes. Secondly, what manner of buildings are those of Towns & Cities, & of the nobler sort of peo∣ple: for these euermore draw neerest to ciuility, and be freest from pouerty. Lastly, what is the Archite∣cturie of Forts, Townes, Sconces, Cittadels, Castles, Towers, and of places fortified in the land, about the discouery whereof a trauailer shall finde much vse of his Mathematickes, learned before trauaile. But Page  87 before wee make discouery of places fortified, let it not bee impertinent to consider seuen points briefly in Cities or Townes: as first of the Quantities,* Fi∣gures and Circuits as well of the Cities themselues, as of their suburbes. Secondly, of their situation and strength, and how they stand commodated by sea or land, or discommodated. Thirdly, of the manner and matter of their buildings. Fourthly, of their pla∣ces and things of speciall note, as Gates, Fountaines Bridges, Churches, Streets, Religous houses, palaces Arsenals, Store houses Market places, Rialtos, publike Ambulatories, Schooles, Libraries, Colledges, Vni∣uersities, and such like. Moreouer, of Vniuersities it must be considered, whether they bee of Physicke, of the Lawe, or of any other speciall studie and pro∣fession, or mixt of all liberall Sciences together, what number of Students, what companies of stran∣gers, their orders, priuiledges, and such like: lastly, what famous men in learning flourish in them. Fift∣ly, the number of the people of the Cities & Townes are to be learned so neere as may be. Sixtly, the po∣licie of them is to be regarded: which resteth either in the Ecclesiasticall, Scholastical, Oeconomical, or po∣liticall gouernment: whereof the politicall is most behooueful, and therfore we will insist only vpon the same; and that in one word to discerne the maner and disposition of the peoples liuing, whether in idlenesse and pleasure, as the Nobilitie of this Land, and of France, or in trades and merchandise, as the No∣bility of the Venetian and Genoa States. Moreouer, with whom they vent that which is superfluous in their Towne, from what other places they ordinarily Page  88 bring such things as they want and stand in need of: and whether they be driuen to carie out their owne commodities, or are sought vnto by forreine parts; Let these things suffice, till the gouernement of the State in generall shall offer it selfe to be handled in the fift part, to which we do referre Trauailers that make doubt of any thing considerable in Townes or Cities. The seuenth and last consideration then of Cities is of the priuiledges, immunities, liberties, and free∣domes of them: whether Colonies, Municipials, Prefectures, Cities confederate, assemblies, and such like. Now the other part of Artificiall buildings re∣steth to our Trauailer,* namely, of fortifications. Of which, forasmuch as the true suruey of them is in many States very daungerous, we haue obserued, for the better ease and securitie of Trauailers, three safe wayes to prie into the secrets of them if accesse bee inhibited: First, to learne what are fortified holdes within the land, and what front and coast the sea, and where seated. Moreouer, within the land, whether they stand vpon riuers, or waters, or were built for o∣ther purposes than for the warres, and naturall de∣fence of the land: whereof in most States there haue been diuerserected, as by the Nobilitie of England and Ireland for their priuate vses, and for ciuill warres fortified, & singularly in France, where the Noblesses for their priuate safegard, haue many strong holdes: as other Nations that a long season haue either fea∣red enemies,* or sought freedome from subiection. Whereof wee haue of late time experience, by the fortifications of the Lowe Countrey people. The se∣cond considereth the naturall and artificiall strength Page  89 of them: The naturall attribute defence vnto a place in regard of situation: which may be cōsidered in hils, rockes, or waters that make the same vnaccessable or defenceable, wherof we haue a wonderful example in the Isle of Sarke in our Brutish sea, which is by nature so fortified, as one man may defend the same Isle a∣gainst the greatest Army that is able to come against it. Of like defence is in some respect the castle of Garn∣sey, & for a land Army the city of Venice, and of Mexi∣co in West India. Moreouer, let it be considered, whe∣ther equally in all places as the aforenamed, or but on some sides that defence groweth, as that of Douer, ca∣stle to the sea-ward, and towards the towne. Likewise what other naturall strengths be within, as plenty of ground to preserue victuall, good springs that cannot be withdrawen or corrupted, & such like, which natu∣rally doe fortifie places greatly in times of besiegings. Now th'artificial strēgths of Forts cōsisteth in ye Mat∣ter or Forme and figure, whether without or within. Touching the matter & substāce of euery particular, let it be questioned whether they be of old or new e∣rectiō: for the olde in times past were made of stone, bricke, or such like hard stuffe, which now in the perfe∣ctiō of artillery are more easie to be battered thā Forts of earth, & are foūd more hurtful to the friend within, & fauorable to the enemy; yet in speciall cases where Artillery cannot come to batter, are notwithstanding momentable: the which if it be well considered, sel∣dome shall men find old fortifications, but they were euen seated so, as Artillery could not play vpon them. In like sort are those new fortifications to be conside∣red, of what matter (for of earth ther is diuers sorts to Page  90 make good fortifications) of what greatnes, largenes, thicknes, depth, and height are the members of them: as wals, vammures, ramparts, curtins, cauallirs, para∣pets, counterscarfes, mounts, platforms, trenches, dit∣ches, &c, and how replenished with water, what slu∣ces, what Saleis, what droit and oblique passages are to the same: the which, discreet questioning, & good indgement of the eye, shall enforme a Trauailer of. Touching the formes and figures of Forts, that is ei∣ther regular or irregular. The regular be either Ro∣tunds, Quadrats, Pentagonons, Hexagonons, &c. accor∣ding to the quantity of the Fort, euery part answering in correspondencie. The irregular retain those formes which most naturally may helpe the weaknes of the place, yet answerable one to another, according to the rules of fortifications: wherof we had a notable piece of work for example, in that in Ostend in Flanders. And for better iudgement herein, let it not be grieuous to any Trauailer, if so he happen into the warres, to ob∣serue the notable means is taken in the field by good Souldiers for the fortifying of their Campes daily af∣ter this irregular distribution. Now the last of these 3, that prie into the fortifications of Countries, is to vn∣derstād what Captains & souldiers ordinarily belong to them; their munitions, their paies, & finally their ordinances & priuiledges. Let these things suffice for the first of the artifical commodities of the Country.

The second is that of Trades,* and Mechanical Sci∣ences; the which are fashioners and finishers of han∣dicraft works made through mans inuention, & are in number sixe, for a Trauailer to consider of; thorow which al commodities passe and repasse, namely, Hus∣bandry, Page  91 Clothing, Masonry, Carpentry, Smithery, & En∣gining: these are generall heads, whereunto all other trades of necessary obseruation may be referred, that accommodate a Land. Let vs take Husbandry for an example, vnder which is comprised the sciences of gardening, of planting and grafting, of manuring, of grasing, of breeding and cherishing of Vegetables, Plants, beasts, and such like fostering sciences, for the nourishment of the creatures, but singularly of man: Vpon which also other infinite trades depend, wherof we will omit to speake.* But to our point in hand; a Trauailer shal discerne the husbandry of each coun∣trey in three points: first, by obseruing what corne and graine the countrey yeeldeth generally, and that with what paines and meanes the land is tilled and manured, what vsuall increase the land yeeldeth, and such like: whereof there is such difference as is almost incredible, yea, between setting and sowing. Second∣ly, what cattell are vsually bred there for the state aswell of the Land as of other Countries. As in Mus∣couie and Poland, Bees; in the Lowe Countries, Kine; in England, Sheepe, and such like. Lastly, what fruits the countrie yeeldeth: as Grapes, Wine, Oile, Apples, Peares, Plummes, Orenges, Limons, Nuts, and such like: and lastly, with what fuell the Land most a∣boundeth.

Touching the second Mechanicall trade,* namely, Clothing, a Trauailer must note what speciall stuffe that Countrey yeeldeth for the same: whether of Le∣ther, Furres, beasts skins, haire, flaxe, wooll, barks of trees, bombasie, silke, gold, siluer, or such like: and also how the same is imployed, for garmēts or otherwise.

Page  92 So the third,* which is Masonry, requireth the know∣ledge of such as are workers of stone, brick, or morter & their artificiall compositions and symmetries. The fourth,* which is Carpentrie is displayed in wood Car∣uers, Ioyners, Carpenters, or builders of houses, ship∣wrights, and in all other dependances. The fift, to wit, Smitherie,* is as variable as any of the former to bee sought into: whether for varietie of metals to bee wrought vpon, as Gold and Siluer-smithes, Copper∣smiths, Brasiers, Tinkers, Pewterers, Founders, blacke and white smithes, & all such like: or for infinite kind of tooles and Vtensils, for the necessaries of man, the which are more excellent in some places than other, euen by so much as the matter and the Arts-men tend to perfection.* The sixt and last is Engining, which being an extract from the grounds of Mathematicall knowledge, is also much the more to bee considered well of Trauailers, in how much there may arise ma∣ny singular commodities to ones Countrey, both in times of peace & warre. Wherin let Trauailers make obseruatiō who be the most famous workers, & what admirable things they worke & bring to passe, either by conueyance of water by scrues, by pullies, by weights, by causing vacuums or reinforcing of spirits together in narrowe straights and Cylinders, and by such other draughts of nature, kept secret from the vulgar sort: the which in the warres are so neces∣sary, as in the citie for ciuill and necessarie vses. In∣somuch as if any man trauailing shal grow therby ex∣cellent, he is worthy the name of honor & estimation, though in other points he be found a weake obseruer. This thing being of such singular proofe and vse Page  93 euerie where, may seeme to priuiledge Trauailers a∣boue any one point of knowledge besides. About the consideration of which although wee could not dwell too long (for of it selfe it requireth a volume) yet other manifould points vntouched doe craue our discourse now.

Only for discouerie let this be added, that whatsoe∣uer by naturall conclusions and (as wee say) by sleight, with small adoe effecteth great things (as to moue bo∣dies contrarie to nature violently, and swiftly; to make powerfull any weake thing, and to discouer things vnto the senses afar off out of their kēning, or to penetrate any thing resistable) may be contained vnder the arte or sci∣ence of Engining. Hitherto concerning the com∣modities of the Countrie:

The Discommodities now may easily be ex opposito collected from the former,* to enlighten the sixt and last point, concerning the Countrie. Notwithstanding, we wil for better vnderstanding to some as it were make repetition. The discommodities then of Countries are either imperfectious, or wants. The imperfections na∣turall, are either intemperatenesse and vnholesome aire or extream barennesse of the Soile yeelding little or no commodities, or aboundance of cruel beastes: of which our Trauailer must haue a care, to vnderstand whether the same be not for want of good husbandrie in the people of the Countrie. The artificiall discommodi∣ties are likewise two, Buildings, and trades. The defect of the one hindereth a Countrie from well peopling, of the other from well and orderly liuing. For it is a maxi∣me in policie, that no Countrie can be euer ciuile and orderly where there be not good trades planted for set∣ting Page  94 the Commons to worke, for the husbanding all such commodities as their Countrie yeelds, and of such as are brought vnto the same frō forrain parts: the which to a Countrie much peopled is most needfull al∣so. Thus much concerning imperfections. The wants are of those things properly, that other Coun∣tries abound with: which necessarily ciuill Estates doe want daiely, & must expect them from other places to furnish them. For though there bee many Ilands in the World, that content themselues and liue with∣out the commodities of other places; neither haue they other then a certaine naturall kinde of prouision, distributed well and orderly alike to all Nations for the naturall support thereof: Yet being once brought vnto ciuilitie, and to the taste of the World, either to be equall with others, or to be engreatned; there is no Natiō or Countrie, but standeth in necessarie neede and want of forraine things: the which being once ta∣sted of generally, it is almost impossible to be left and forgotten. The conclusion then of this point, for our Trauailer may be, That he obserue what speciall thing the Countrie standeth in neede of, the which is either of clothing or of victuall: For, these two a Nation that is ciuile and well ordered cannot long want. As concer∣ning clothing let it be sufficient which we haue touched alreadie, in the Commodities: for out of the same may be gathered the discommodities è conuerso. In like sort may it be saide forvictuals: Only let a Trauailer make obseruation what liuing Creatures hee shall finde that cannot liue or bee found in the Countrie: As our The∣odore Zuingerus reporteth of Africk that neuer Hart or wilde Boare was found there. And Plinie mentio∣neth Page  95 that in Arabia no Swine liueth. So in the Ilands of Nea there are bred no Patridges, nor being thither brought will liue. So some report of Ireland, that in it liueth no venemous beast; for the Climate worketh all vpon the people; a strange Constellation, for want of of good Religion.

Let these things suffice touching the 3 generall points of knowledge respecting the Countrie.* The fourth now offereth it selfe to our consideration: which is of the Lawes and Customes that be vsed in the Countrey:* the knowledge whereof may well reforme the weedy affections of Trauailers, and redresse distemperatures growen in their Countrie, and lastly, open the doore of many policies, into which a Politician wil soone enter. But first concerning the word Law, in the intendiment there is a double respect to be had thereof. For,* all ho∣nest lawes haue their deriuation and spring-head from the eternall fountaine of reason of the will of God: in which respect they in substance are all diuine. Notwith∣standing in regard of the diuersitie of people, as of sundrie causes for which they haue beene reuealed and promulgated, they are also humane and multiplex. Wherefore, in the first respect, the Lawe is an ope∣ning of the Diuine and eternall will, whereby GOD teacheth and commaundeth what shall bee done and left vndone, of men, ordained for his owne glorie, chiefly then for the publike & priuate vse of men. Now, since the reuelation of that diuine will of God hath not beene manifested in one and the same manner al∣waies to all people, therefore in this respect the lawe is distributed into three kinds properly: Into the Law of GOD,* into the Law of NATVRE, and into the Page  96Humane or Lawe of Men. Touching the law of God, wee obserue the same either written or not written.* The not written the learned call that which before the fall, and afterwards,* was exercised till the Law by Moses was deliuered to the people of Israell inscribed in Tables of stone, and since of Christ himselfe, the Prophets, & Apostles, enlarged, expounded, confirmed, & set forth: the which was either Morall and perpetuall, or Iudicial and politicall. But as concerning the written Law, cō∣mitted wholly to the Israelites, lette it bee obserued first that there were Lawes Morall contained vnder the Decalogue or ten Commandements, perpetuall to all people and Nations: though for a season the Gen∣tiles were gouerned by another consenting Law there∣with, namely, the Law of Nature. Secondly, that there were Lawes Politicall and Iudiciall peculiar to the Common-weale of Israell; and lastly Lawes Ceremo∣niall, which being meerely politicall also were tempo∣rall and to be abrogated by the perfecter, namely, by Christ by whom all the Ceremoniall and infantiue Lawes were disannuled and vtterly cancelled. Moreo∣uer it may not be forgotten, that vnder that vnwritten Law of God is contained the Law of the spirit and of life, which is peculiar to the Church of Christ, that quickeneth the vnsanctified and weake Law of Nature inscribed in the hearts of men, imprinting the will of God in their hearts: whereby men by many degrees steppe forwarde in the true knowledge of God & ser∣uing of him, at an instant as it were, through the effica∣cie thereof, more then euer by the Law of nature they are able to do. These things thus briefly exposed vnto Trauailers, let it not seeme tedious to any to consider Page  97 well thereof. For without an exact knowledge of the Law of God, there can be no sound iudgement of the rest. And as our Sauiour Christ soundly reproued Ni∣codemus the Pharisie, for that he was a iudge in Israel and knewe not things of such excellencie and of so great importance:* so might a Trauailer bee censured for a shallow and ignorant person, that trauiling into the lawes of Nations and peoples, is neuerthelesse to be found ignorant in the Lawes of God, & of their deriua∣tions, which properly be the fountaines of all natu∣rall and humane lawes that be good & honest through the world.

But touching the Law of Nature,* there is some controuersie amongst the learned. For the Lawyers define the Law of Nature to be that which teacheth all Animall liuing things. But the Scholist Diuines say the law of Nature, that to be, which is common to all people, and that by instinct not by constitution, restraining the same only to men. Wherefore, to make the same more euident, by fauourable interpreta∣tion of both, wee distribute the Lawe of Nature into Common and Proper. The Common is that which equally is common to other liuing Creatures aswell as vnto men, that is to say, to defend themselues against violēce, to preserue and maintain their liues and States, to propagate, procreate, nourish & instruct their owne, to eate, drinke, sleepe, rest, mooue and such like things, euerie species according to his being and kinde. The Proper is that lawe which is only peculiar vnto men, be∣ing the will of God and diuine reason inscribed im∣mediately by God in the hearts of all men; wherby ge∣nerally they know what is good and euill, and conse∣quently Page  98 what is to be followed and auoyded: the law of conscience, by which the heathen and such as haue not the law of God written shall be iudged. The effect of which law is displaied in the knowledge of God and in the worshippe of him; and also in the conserua∣tion of mutuall loue and societie betwixt mankinde: From which not only the law of Nations hath a name of substance, but the humane and positiue lawes their descent and speciall deriuation, as from the spring of right and reason.

Moreouer, this law is not equally or so effectually planted in the hearts of all men alike, but in some more plentifully then in others, according to the secret and wonderfull dispensation of the good pleasure of God in the gouernement of the world: From whence there ariseth such strange worshipping of God amongst the Heathen, almost euerie Nation in a variable sorte. Thus wee may see furthermore, that the law of Na∣ture and of Nations strictly and in the proper sense taken may well bee confounded, for one and the same, concerning actions: though after the common sense they are distinguishable.* For, the law of Nations is a certaine right and equall reason that naturally bursteth out of men and Nations, for the necessarie vse and conseruation of mankinde and for societie; the which is also perpetuall, and arguing the con∣science, if it dissent from the same. From whence the Lawes of Armes concerning prisoners taken in the warres; the entertainement of messengers and forraine Ambassadors, as all manner of contractes twixt person and person, State and State, haue their authoritie and reason, and doe in speciall manner Page  99 giue a name to the law of Nations, to the lawe of Na∣ture: which offereth to our Trauailer these three cō∣siderations. First,* that in the Courts of Princes as o∣therwhere hee obserue, what order and manner of entertainement and respect is giuen to Ambassadors, and Messengers of forraine States. Secondly, if such an one chance to arriue in the warres of other Princes and States, to note the carriage of one aduersarie to an∣other in matters of right, and of Prisoners and Cap∣tiues especially as of Combattes, In a word to get their discipline.

Lastly, to note amongst heathen people, what order in buying, and selling, exchanging, lending, borrowing, mortgaging, pawning and keeping of so∣cietie. For, happily from thence hee shall descrie a more equall carriage and behauiour in them by the law of Nature only guided, then many of our Ciuile States do by all their meanes of knowledge in the laws of God,* of Nature, and of men: the which we might easily prooue. But to our Point now concerning the Lawes Humane.

Those are called the Lawes Humane, which frō the ca∣pacities of men are conceited & by men are promulga∣ted and authorised: whether they depend vppon the Law of God and of Nature,* or vpon their owne fancies: Wherof, there are two rankes, Honest and Iust, or Ty∣rannicall and vniust. The honest and iust do flow frō the general springs and Maximes of the diuine and naturall law ordained for the publike good of the Church and Cōmō-weale; Wheras the Tyrānical & vniust, issue out either of the vsurping breasts of vnlawfull authoritie that haue no power to make lawes: or from such as Page  100 hauing power do after their own carnall mindes, make ordinances for their owne proper commoditie and be∣hoofe: whereunto the traditions of men, yea and euery superstitious ordinance and euill custome may be re∣ferred. Wherefore whensoeuer a Trauailer shall looke into the body of the lawes of any Countrie or people, let his iudgement be neither partiall nor weake,* but grounded vpon the sound rules and eternall reason of the diuine and Naturall Law. Moreouer by the word Lawes humane, is meant in this place the writ∣ten positiue and politicall Lawes: For in substance they are all one and conuertible, yea and for the profitte of each Nation commutable, so as they neuer contra∣rie the lawes diuine or naturall. By reason whereof we finde that some honest lawes in qualitie differ, ei∣ther in punishing, or rewarding, or in inciting to that which is good, or restraining from that which is euill: the which is meerely a politicall promulgation conso∣nant to some States for a season, and verie needefull in speciall cases.

Neuerthelesse there bee many verie pertinax in this opinion, that Though a State shall inflict for good causes a greater punishment on malefactors for such and such crimes, then the lawes of God or of Nature doo, yet they are ignorāt by what warrāt of like policie, any State may abbridge the rigor of the law of God in capitall offenses. For such lawes say they are both iudiciall and eternal, by which policie no doubt States may bee best gouerned: for proofe whereof the abbridgers (say they) of such laws are, by the heathē peo∣ple that haue not the written law of God, conuinced & taught how to rule in like cases.

Page  101 Of humane and positiue lawes there is a variable consideration,* according to the vse and titles that euery Countrie and State holdeth peculiarly almost. As ge∣nerally heere in England wee tearme our law by the name of Common law, it being a peculiar law to this State and members. So the Romans in times past cal∣led their law the Ciuile law. Though indeed all good lawes (as Iustinian himselfe confesseth) may wel en∣ough be tearmed Ciuile lawes; yet for distinction sake, let it bee taken heere whensoeuer wee shal name Ci∣uile lawes, for those that were refined by the Emperor Iustinian, and set foorth by him: the which at this day are vsed in most of the ciuile States and Nations of Eu∣rope, either in part or altogether. From whence let Tra∣uailers make this obseruation, Whether the lawes of the Countrie wherein they trauaile, be lawes preroga∣tiue or positiue. For there are some Countries gouer∣ned by lawes meerely prerogatiue:* of which wee will first expound, to such as intende for to tra∣uaile.

These kinde of Lawes be for the most part vnwrit∣ten; and therefore require the more care to be searched out and into, for their vncertaintie. Moreouer, let Tra∣uailers obserue how farre the prerogatiue of Princes and States doth stretch ouer their Subiects. For, there are some so absolute and sole tyrannous, that all things are gouerned according to the will of the Prince: and euerie commoditie of the Countrie stands at the Prin∣ces pleasure. Such is the Tartarian and great Cam. O∣thers there are halfe tyrannous, whose displeasure and will hath no law to curbe the vnrulinesse there∣of: such is the Turke, the Muscouian, and the Pope.

Page  102 Others there are, according as they are, religious and fearers of the true God, and Princes of ciuile and reli∣gious States, whose prerogatiue is much, but yet in ci∣uile and honest actions: being free themselues from pu∣nishment of their lawes in some sorte; and may from time to time dispense with and chaunge their lawes, constituting new as is expedient for the good of the Common-weale.

Neuerthelesse, some there are that haue, of these also, greater prerogatiue then others, according to their go∣uernment and state of policie. For better discouerie, the law prerogatiue is to be searched either in the person of the Prince,* or in the Magistracie which hath his power from the Prince on State. The Prince (or State if it bee an Aristocracie) hath absolute power, & not controul∣able, to command anything, action, or person, whatso∣euer carrieth semblance of good to the State, or that cōtrarieth not the law of God & of Nature. Moreouer, to forbid & controule anything, persō, or actiō what∣soeuer of like nature, whether by word of mouth, whe∣ther by letters, proclamatiōs, edictes or such like means as Princes or States vse. And lastly by cōmission to au∣thorize other to reward and punish, according to the offence done, euerie fault that is not encountred by the Law positiue alreadie; perseruing the life, members, and speciall liuelyhood of the delinquents.

The prerogatiue of the Magistracie may be discer∣ned as in our Countrie, in the high Court of Parli∣ament, in the authoritie of the Councell, in that of the Starre Chamber, in the Lord Chancellor, Lorde Treasurer, Lord high Counstable, Lord Mareschall, Lord Admirall▪ in the principal Secretarie, in the chiefe Page  103 Iustices and iudges of the Land, in each Maior and Towne Corporate, and lastly in euerie high Commissi∣oner and speciall Officer that the Prince of this Land deputeth to vndergoe any charge at home or abroad. So is it in all other States and Countries. The which being cōsidered by Trauailers, they shal be able to dis∣cerne the authoritie royall of the Prince and State, as well in Politicall as in Ecclesiasticall giuing & making of Lawes. Touching the lawes Positiue, they bee either Political or Ecclesiastical.* The Political are either anci∣ent & Maximes of perpetuall obseruāce, or Modern & mutable. The ancient are such as the Romanes called the Ciuile lawes in speciall; such as the French their law Salique, & such as we the Common law. The Mo∣derne are all those lawes which goe vnder the name of Statutes, Decrees, Ordinances, Edicts and such like, be∣ing in all Ciuile States put into print: the which are by so much the easier to bee attained vnto by Trauailers, wherin they may at leasure discouer euerie thing as in a glasse, either cōcerning the nature of the people, or the State of the Countrie, The Politicall lawes are change∣able, according to the standing of things; that the State may grow to perfection. The Ecclesiasticall are tradicions lawfull or vnlawfull.* The vnlawfull bee such as are contrarie to the lawe of God, and tha in no sort tend vnto edification: of which crue a Trauailer shall meete, within most States. But let him bee carefull to collect the best wheresoeuer: the which hee shall discerne by their coates; namely▪ if they crosse not Gods word or destroy not more then they edifie. The lawfull tradicions be rules or Ca∣nons of doctrine, of manners, of rites and Ceremonies Page  104 pertaining to godlines, that consent with the holy word of God and tend to edification. Touching the rules of doctrin, the Apostles inspired with the holy Ghost haue left many: the generall and prouinciall Synodes of godly and honest minded men haue set foorth others, the which are for the vnderstanding of the holy Scrip∣tures verie profitable. And lastly, euerie lawfull State and Church hath absolute power, without the consent of the Pope or any other forraine approbation, to doe the like; gathering euermore their constitutions & rules form the word of God. Touching those of manners and of Ceremonies, euerie lawfull State and Church hath absolute power to decree that which shall be most agreeable with the nature of the State: yet so as all those Constitutions tend to edification, and bee so neerely drawen from the holy Scriptures and the best discipline of other Churches, as neere may be. These bee the exacte rules for to make discouerie; wherby three com∣modities shall redound to Trauailers. First, they shall be able to iudge whether the Countries leane by their lawes to this or that religion: Secondly, whether the people be nourished in the right or wrong: and lastly, they may gather thereby the most sincere and vpright orders for the perfecting of their owne Countrie and informing themselues. For when such are well seene into the lawes of other Countries and expert in those of their owne Nation, they haue well purchased a good∣ly Mannor and trench of Land to build policies vpon. Moreouer, it is verie expedient for Trauailers to marke not only how many distinct kinds of Lawes the Coun∣trie vseth to gouerne their people by; but in speciall, what are ge••••ll, what particular lawes pertaining to Page  105 seuerall diuisions of the Countrey, as those of shires and Seigniories of townes, places and persons, &c. And lastly, if, in regard of the time of trauailing, such be able to take degrees for the approbation of their knowledge in the Vniuersities, no doubt the honour and the commodity wil be very great. For, the title of a degree so atchieued, wil celebrate more their worth than any other meanes, by getting credite to their learning and iudgement, and making them capable of preferment, hauing authoritie to be imployed in the seruice of the Common-weale. Thus much con∣cerning the lawes: the which a Trauailer may referre vnto three heads, if he please; To Things, to Persons, to Actions. The Customes now follow.

Customes, they are certaine vses of the Prince, State,* or people of the countrie, vnwrittē for the most part, that doe prescribe, or stand in force as lawes, chiefly if they bee good and profitable for the Common∣weale; whereof there are three ••nkes, that Trauailers must consider them in: Generall, Particular,* and Re∣gall. By the Generall Customes are meant the anci∣ent vse and ordering of all things according to the an∣cient nature thereof. Of which let Trauailers first note their alterations. These may be discerned in the giuing of Lawes: in ensample whereof, wee haue, at this day, a more exact and ful order of the three states, concerning forme, than in former times. Secondly, in the Princes priuate State and houshold: Lastly, in Religion, in diet, in apparell, and in the externall or∣der of things and persons. In all which Customes, most Common-weales differ. Whereof we will en∣sample onely, to our Trauailer, the Princes priuate Page  106 estate and houshold which we cal the Court. Where∣in what ordinary attendants and dependants, and what ceremonies, orders, and customes are appertai∣ning to the person of the Prince, or to the place it selfe wheresoeuer the Court shalbe, or to the Nobility, are the rather to be learned of Trauailers, that they may not be ignorāt of the proper cariage of euery Court, to enforme themselues of behauiour. In Tartarie this custome is vsed, that no stranger of what quality or degree soeuer, dare put himselfe in the Kings pre∣sence, to negotiate with him, before hee hath beene purged with their fire. Neither is it permitted to any stranger, to set his foote on the threshold of the Cams lodging, or where any of his Princes or Lieu∣tenants dwell, on paine of death. And in our ciuill States we see, no forreiner dare present himselfe to the presence of the Prince, but by permission, or in speciall cases, and at special times. Hence moreouer ariseth our great respect to our Princes, in honou∣ring and saluting them; whereas the French are little vncouered, and nothing so respectiue. Some coun∣trey people do kneele in the presence of their Prince, others gaze in their faces onely: others cast downe their heads and lookes; and some (as the inhabitants of Baccalaos, or of the new Land fish) haue a custome when they reuerence their King, in his presence to rub their noses, and stroking their forehead with their hand vnto the necke; the which the King accepteth as an honest and due office and seruice, turning his head eftsoones, to his left shoulder, which is a note of singular fauour, and gratefulnesse of the King to ho∣nour his Subiect. The which customes, or the like, Page  107 though they be strange and not regular, yet doe they become well enough the bounds of euery nati∣on. In like sort, the customary phrase of writing and speaking, of action, of body, of reuerencing, and such such like, are so to be pondered of Trauailers that they introduce not them into their owne Country, vnlesse those customes be of a more ciuill carriage, then such as their Countrey vseth. For, that is a fowle and ir∣regular tricke of common Trauailers, to innouate new fangles of fashions in their Countrey, when they returne, though they iudge thē to be of better esteem. This is a common staine, and delight of Ilands. But as it is a shame for ciuill States to be variable in the cu∣stome of diuersitie of fashions, wondring at the customes of other lesse ciuill graces and behauiours, so as needes those must bee put in practise by them; so a Trauailer that innouateth forreine peculiar cu∣stoms of other Courts in his Countrey, where either more ciuill, or as good are vsed, swarueth from the guise of completenesse in Trauailers requirable.

The Particular Customes concerne the members of the State,* as Countreys, Dukedomes, Principali∣ties, Counties, Seigniories, Domaines, Cities, Towns, Corporations, Castles, Cittadels, Fortes, and such like: which require also in regard of their excel∣lencie to bee looked into, so farre foorth as by dis∣course and discreete wayes may bee of Trauailers followed after. The third and last Customes are Regall, which properly are the maiesticke preroga∣tiue of the Countrey,* of the Prince, and Nobilitie, as∣well within their precinct as in and vnder the iu∣risdiction of another power. Whereof first let it Page  108 bee regarded, what preeminence the Countrey claimes to haue, in and ouer other Countreys not tri∣butary or subiect to the same. Secondly, as concer∣ning the Prince, let it be noted what titles, of Custome, he is inuested with: as the French King to be the most Christian King, which in those dayes was well arro∣gated from other nations: As the King of Spaine to bee called, the most Catholike King; which title in those dayes was proper to him (I speake as a Romist) for he was Maximus bellator & professor Romanae Ca∣tholicae ecclesiae: And as our Souereigne King of Great Britaine, by like custome now, and with better title, may most rightfully challenge to be the greatest and sincerest Defender of the faith of Christ thorow the world; euen so was it a title in those dayes when it was reassumed and acknowledged of his Ancestor of proper attribution (though the Pope had another slie and slouenly meaning and fetch of policie,* in the be∣quest). For, within a little after, that most vndanted King Henry the eight (whom for perpetuall honor sake I thought good to name) by the good pleasure of God, became the onely stout Defender of the faith of Christ singularly, in shaking off the Popes suprema∣cie, and withstanding his displeasure. Whereunto al∣so let a Trauailer learne, what place, of Custome, the Prince hath amongst other Princes: and how farre the souereigntie of Princes stretcheth, and of States. The which souereignty is discernable in foure points: The first is to haue power absolute to giue lawes to al in generall and in particular, without controlment; as Priuiledges, Liberties, Franchisedomes,* Honors, and such like regalities to places or persons. The second Page  109 note of Souereigntie is to decree warre or peace, or to enter into treaties concerning them. The third is to institute and ordaine principal officers. The fourth is to haue the last Appeale, which is one of the true markes of Souereigntie, vnder which dependeth the power to grant pardon to the condemned by course of law in fauour to redresse the rigor of the lawe, and formall proceedings of Magistrates, whether concer∣ning life, goods, honor, banishment or libertie. In all which, Trauailers shal find in most States great de∣fect; in fewe, all absolutely. For concerning the first, what honourable Prince (not naming the Pope, the Turke, the Tartarian, and such like tyrants) of himself, without associates, decreeth lawes? And not with∣out good cause: for it noteth iustice, and desire to go∣uerne aright, knitting the Subiects to their Prince. Neuerthelesse, we see that in former times the Princes of this Land, and of France, as of òther States, did con∣stitute of themselues many good lawes in force at this day. So touching the second, there be some States that by custome and willingnes to complease their subiects, will seldome make warre, or entertain peace, without priuate consent of their Councell, or general debating of the Parliament. Likewise of the third there is amongst States and gouernements, a great di∣uersitie, in the instituting and ratifying of principall officers: which custome hath been brought from the Prince or State no doubt, for the shew of the Com∣mon-weales good; so the same be not transported to forraine States, as the Pope arrogateth in Ecclesiasti∣call promotions. And touching the last point we see also how great Princes are stripped of their Soue∣reignty, Page  110 reigntie, by the Pope in matters of appeale, of giuing pardons and such like regalities to subiects, and great offenders against their Prince and countrey. Thus in these let Trauailers euerie where make obserua∣tion how of custome either the States doe hold their Souereigntie, or howe by like Custome they haue abbridged or lost their marks of absolutenesse. Lastly, let it be considered of the customes and preroga∣tiues of the Nobilitie of a nation; the chiefe whereof resteth in their superioritie and preheminence in sitting,* going, talking, eating, washing, subscribing, arrogating peculiar phrases, and order of stile in wri∣ting, and such like. All which are to be considered by times, places, and persons, that thus and by a custo∣marie dutie and respect honour each other. Wherein if Trauailers wilbe verie iudiciall, they had neede to be good heralds and studious in the customarie lawe and discipline of Armes of that nation. Hitherto con∣cerning the lawes and customes of a nation, so briefly as we could, to the vnexpert in the affaires of the countrey. The fift point of knowledge now offereth it selfe, which is concerning the gouernment of the countrey.

5 The Gouernment hath a twofold managing ther∣of:* the one exterior and discernable, the other interi∣or, secret and priuate onely, in a wise State, to the Counsel thereof, or onely lodged in the breast of the Prince, which to a wise Prince is a high pointe of politicke gouernment. Of this interior we will giue Trauailers a secret taste in the last part, namely, in the Secrets. For, the obiect of a Trauailer is proper∣ly the publike and reuealed gouernment. In this Go∣uernment Page  111 three things concurre. First,* the persons gouerning; secondly, the people gouerned; lastly, the common and speciall policie, or instruments, that subsist for the establishing of a cōmon good towards all men; by the vertue wherof, life, health, peace, pro∣speritie and happinesse without interruption is con∣ueyed vnto the bodie politick: Wheras the defect and vicious ordering of things, soon corrodeth, or putteth the same into a consumptiō irreuocable.* Concerning the persons gouerning, we obiect to Trauailers a tri∣ple consideration according to the three-fold diuersi∣tie of Cōmon-weales. For, by the persons gouerning we meane also those simple variable three formes of gouernment,* namely, the Monarchial: which is when the Soueraignty and supreme authority, without con∣trolment, resteth in one person or Prince, as in our King of Great Britaine. The Aristocraticall is when as the lesser part of the people, or of the Nobilitie haue the Souereigntie in body, giuing lawes to the rest of people in generall and particular, as the Seigniorie of Venice, and the State of the vnited Prouinces in the Lowe Countreys. And the Democraticall or popular Estate: which is when as the whole people, or greater part thereof in bodie, hath the Souereigne authoritie. Which had neede to bee well conside∣red of Trauailers, by so much the more as they see great learned men confounded or deceiued in the iudgements of them. For, neither the qualities of persons can change the nature or number of them; nor can there bee any mixt State of forme and continuance, but either by Graunt, Permissi∣on, Communication, Association, or Assignation Page  112 of the Souereigne power, to the members subiect. But lest Trauailers might be misseled by the opinions of others, let them obserue diligently, in what persons and in which of these, those foure markes of Soue∣reigntie (before spoken of in the Customes of the Countrey) doe reigne; which here for breuitie I o∣mit, especially the ordering of officers, the decreeing of peace and warre, and taking of Appeales. But for the publishing of lawes, the most ciuill States for the better securitie of them, and content of the people are euer assisted in Monarchies with the three Estates. And in some States also for the better dispatch of things, many of the other three markes are commit∣ted, but yet restrictiuely, and vnder controulement. Wherefore let Trauailers consider now these things aright, and proue the censures of other men, by those markes of Souereigntie which inuest the formes with supreme power. Moreouer, in the second place let Trauailers note, what principall officers are in the commitment ordained to helpe the motion and go∣uernment of the helme of the State. And lastly, how farre their seuerall offices doe extend. For the better insight into which, there may bee gathered a triple consideration of officers, namely; first, such as stand by ancient right and Custome, as those which we cal Officers at the Common Lawe: Secondly, such as haue their authoritie by Commission, and that from the prerogatiues of the Prince or State Souereigne: Lastly, such as are ordained by the positiue lawes of the land to vndergo any businesse for the good of the Common-weale. Finally, let Trauailers be carefull to obserue the maner and order of making & publishing Page  113 of lawes there vsed; the course of entertaining warres; the ordinarie policie vsed in time of peace, concerning preparation for warres defensiue and offensiue; the com∣mon course of proceeding in iustice and iudgement, the places, and times, and ministers; the fashion of pu∣nishing & rewarding of all sorts of people acording to their deserts, and such like appurtenances & appendices of the gouernment. Let these suffice for the persons gouerning.

The People gouerned, wee cast into sixe moulds,* namely into that of Husbandmen, of Handicrafts men, and Labourers; of Marchants, of the Nobilitie and Gentrie, of stipendarie Souldiers, and of Ecclesiasti∣call persons. As touching the three first of these, the lawes of most States will discouer howe they bee go∣uerned. But as concerning the Nobilitie and Eccle∣siasticall persons, they assume in most States much li∣bertie: Of whome let it be sufficient for our Trauailer to note, how they liue and what they are enclined vnto.

And as concerning Stipendarie Souldiers (if the State afford any) let it be considered, how they are disciplined, and by whom, their number, their priuiled∣ges, and lastly their entertainment.

Now,* the last point to be considered in the gouern∣ment concerneth the common and speciall policie or instruments, whereby the gouernors conuey nourish∣ment vnto the gouerned to vphold the cōmon health of the State,* or to plucke the same vpon the knees. These speciall policies or instruments may be surueyed of Trauailers in three things.

First, in the goodnesse or illnesse of the Coūtries laws, Page  114 and customes. Secondly, in the accidents that moue the soueraigne Power, for the presēt standing of things, to cōstitute and decree timely, and broche such policies as may encounter cure and remoue any disease, surfaite or distemperature growen, or growing in the bodie politick, till by a law those inconueniences may be pre∣uented. The contrarie will chaunce where such defect reigneth. Lastly, in the due execution of such lawes as are enacted and in force: the which vnite or disioyne the bodie, most firmely, or in piecemeales; so as there cannot but arise from the one a sweet and tuneable har∣monie of gouernment, and from the other all iarres and discordes: the which shall minister to Trauailers plentie of matter to plot policies vpon. Thus much of the policies.

The sixt and last point of knowledge now remai∣neth:* which is of the Secretes of the State where men trauaile; The singular point that ennobleth a Trauai∣ler aboue the home-politician & the foundatiōs of mo∣mentall policies.

The Secrets are those things which are neither noted nor learned of the vulgar sort of people: they are not∣withstanding common and accidentall, the which doe oft change one into another. The Common Secretes* rest in two points in the intelligence of such as are forreine friends, newters or enimies to the Countrie wherin one trauaileth: And in the knowledge of the ordinarie strength of the State of the Countrie in which men tra∣uaile. The first of these considereth friends,* newters, and enimies: Out of which though there be seuerall secrets to be extracted, yet we will for breuitie giue our Trauai∣ler a release of them in the discouerie of friends; since Page  115 the rest may either è diuerso or conuer so be displaied.* Of friends therefore in this kind, namely political, there is a triple regard. First, by bloud and neerenesse of kinne: Secondly, by religion and profession of one and the same faith; Lastly, by meere politicall coniunction of friendship, confedracie, alliance and league, to settle & secure &c. each others State in peace, & safetie. Now, since all these friends in matters of State are euer neerest to themselues, running the straightest course for the good of their owne estates, few can be found so honest & firme as their friendships are neuer disioynable. How∣beit we might see a rare example twixt France and Scot∣land, in times past. And thoughe Religion bee the streightest conioyner of States: yet when Ambition or couetousnesse or selfe-loue inuade a body politicke, sildome the friendshippe of such continue longer then they will aide and cherish those greedie appetites; Enuy and feare of ouermuch greatnesse making the one an hypocrite to hunt with the hounde, and runne with the hare, according to the prouerbe. From the politicall cōiunction of friendship,* we gather two sorts of friends to euerie State: namely the pleasurable, who for com∣modities & marchandise are chiefly retained for friends, to enrich their States in times of peace & accommodate them with things needefull mutually. Hence we behold the lawfulnesse of Christian States to traffick with Pa∣gans and Infidels.

For, contractes of peace and entercourse of com∣modities may be betweene any Nations, since the par∣tition wall is broken down; it being a rule of charity for one State now to entertain & relieue another, with such commodities as the one either standeth in neede of, or Page  116 excelleth the other in. Neuerthelesse, in leagues, alli∣ances and confederacies, for war, it standeth otherwise twixt Christian and Pagan Princes. That other sort of friends are the profitable, who for the politicall defence and offence are collegued and allianced or cōfederated with, either to be relieued for iniurie and wrong recei∣ued, or to be defended against oppression and violence, or in policie only for feare of sensiblenesse and feare of the worst. Moreouer, it is not sufficient for a Trauailer to note thus, who be pleasurable & profitable friends to that Countrie wherein he trauaileth, but to weighe al∣so by all meanes the power and strength or weakenesse of those friends,* Newters or enimies, to that Countrie. The which may be discouered to our Trauailer in foure points. As first in the populousnesse of them, or de∣fect of people, and in the well disciplining of them; or sufferance to liue ad libitum, and without any Martiall gouernment. For, from hence ariseth one maine secreat to our Trauailer, That those Coūtries so strengthened may be presumed vpon for great friends: and contra∣riwise. So the second resteth in the neere neighbour∣hood or fitnesse of such friends to impeach an enimie.

The third may bee noted in the commodities of those friends to aide and succour that State in cases of necessitie, with victuall, munition, Armes, horses, ship∣ping and money; which are the arteries, veines, sinews and muscles of bodies politicke, in forreine troubles. Of which this secret riseth; That such friendes so well furnished must euermore bee well and euenly dealt with: considering they are daungerous ene∣mies or neuters; the rather in regard, before a State can be sensible of their enimitie, they can suddainly Page  117 offend. Neuerthelesse, let Trauailers in this point consider what care those States take, to reteine from trafficke, munition offensiue: For it is a weaknesse and danger to tolerate the trafficke of munition of∣fensiue, to friend or neurer, the which in time may beard ones selfe, and speake terrour in the eares of the first owners. The fourth and last con∣cerning the strength of friendes remaineth: that Trauailers prie into the reuolution of those States in three things: as, in the Religion of those States; in their Warlikenesse; and in their Freedome.* Of these briefly. And first let vs treate of their religion; whe∣ther those friends hold the same religiō that the State whereof they are friends doth, or whether of a con∣trarie profession; the one yeelding euer a more steady loue, than the other. And in case of contrary religion, such friends are soone lost, and soone presse a people to be mortall enemies. From whence flowe infinite secrets of this kinde, familiar to good States-men.

Touching the warlikenesse of friends, that may be considered either in their good discipline at home,* or the employment of their people abroad in forraine warres. Out of which let a Trauailer note this secret, that such are strong friends and to bee put in trust: whereas those States that bee so exceedingly desi∣rous of peace, that they neglect the ordinary disci∣pline of warre, are either weake and impotent friends, or vnsteady and wauering. Moreouer, from whence an other maine secret ariseth: that populous and rich States, which chuse rather to yeeld to seruitude, by paying tribute, taxes and other intolerable burdens, then to defend their liberties (vnlesse in special cases) Page  118 are neither trustie friends, nor great enimies, to bee feared. For, that State which preferreth not his owne libertie, cannot be sensible of anothers, in such sort as is requireable.

Lastly, concerning the freedome of friends, there is a diuers standing: namely,* from miserie, and from sub∣iection. Of freedom from misery we see most States of Europe at this day, vnlesse where vsurpers or ty∣rants rule, and dominiere. Of freedom from subie∣ction there is a proper & improper constitutiō. Those States are properly free, whose policie hangeth not vpon any forrain power, acknowledging no other su∣periour than God, either in Temporal or Ecclesiasti∣call matters; nor that are tributary, or homagial to a∣ny forreine State. Such at this day is England, Moscouy, Turkie, Persia, & Tartaria, and that of Prester Iean, who of the rest vanteth, that his Nation was neuer conque∣red; or acknowledged any other forreine Prince. Those that improperly are free, are such States as ei∣ther acknowledge other superiour, or equall Lord or Lords, in Ecclesiasticall or Temporall matters, than God, & their politicall Lord or Lords, or are tributary or homagiall in any respect to forreine powers. Such in the first sense at this day are France, Spaine, the Em∣pire, Italy, Denmarke, and all those States that hold of the Pope or Emperour. So, such of the second clause are those States thorow the world, that pay and yeeld a certain taxe, homage, or tribute, for acknowledging and respecting their subiection. Hence it may bee in∣ferred, that those friends can doe a State little profit, that are in distresse themselues, as ingaged with inte∣stine, & ciuil distemperatures; or afflicted by an equal Page  119 or greater enemie, as iealous of some great and immi∣nent danger themselues: or that be not well discipli∣ned, or not at libertie to dispose of themselues with∣out those States to whom they are subiect: or in case any of their possessions bee in question, as belonging to an other equall or greater Power. All which, in a word, may Trauailers cōfirme to themselues, in those States ouer which the Pope hath any stroke; who arrogating a power to disioyne the members from the head, and to set the Subiects against their Prince, can also make debate twixt Prince and Prince, State and State. Thus much of the first poynt of forreine friends, &c. to the Countrey, into which men tra∣uaile.

Now touching the second,* which we named, to consist in the knowledge of the ordinarie strength of the State of the Country in which men trauaile,* there are 4 things cōsiderable; the Sufficiēcie of the people; Store of commodities,* not only to nourish the people within the land, but to make & procure friendship in speciall cases; plenty of Munition, either offensiue or defensiue; and the fulnesse of Treasure,* Reuenue, and Domaine.* Of these foure we haue handled the three former thorowout our Treatise, sufficiently for a Tra∣uailer. But the fourth, that is to say, the Domaine or Treasure, wee had neede to touch a little. First, let it be considered therefore, that in Monarchies there is a priuate and a publike reuenue and treasure: the pub∣like* being dispended for the good of the Common-weale; whereas the priuate patrimonie of Princes are dispendable on their necessities priuate: yet these are oft confounded. But the first that chaunceth to Page  120 the consideratiō of Trauailers, is to note what summe those ioyntly or seuerally doe amount vnto. Where∣by they shall be able to discerne the riches and pouer∣tie of States, computatis computandis. This maine se∣cret brocheth three considerations; First, how and on what the summe is gathered: secondly, how that is disposed: thirdly whether there be not alwayes a re∣seruation of treasure, for the suddaine and needfull vse of those States.

Touching the first of these,* we obserue from poli∣ticians seuen wayes that amasse publike treasure and reuenew, honourably. First, by reuenue which wee tearm here in Englād the profits of the Crown-lands, of Wards, Mariages, of Reliefs, of Eschetes, of Fines, of Forfeitures, of Amercemēts, of Iurisdictions ordi∣nary as extraordinarie,* and such like. Secondly, by conquest vpō the enemie. Thirdly,* by gifts of friends and wel wishers to the State and Crowne.* Fourth∣ly by pension and tribute of subiected States and Al∣lies. Fiftly,* by trafficke: the which to some States is very gainefull. Sixtly,* by Merchandise and trade of strangers or subiects, frō whence ariseth the Impostes & Customs vpon euery commoditie brought in or caried out of States.* Lastly, in case of necessity the se∣uēth may be added: wherof in some driuē States there is ordinarie and extraordinarie (as for casuall they be included in the former).* The ordinarie are such as we call Subsides, Lones, Tenths, Fifteenths, stipends, and asseasments for Souldiers prest. The extraordi∣narie, are taxes, tallages, gabels, and beneuolences, either imposed vpon particulars, or in speciall cases vpon the most in generall. Out of all which let Tra∣uailers Page  121 note, what and how much of either and in what order the same are rated, leauied and assembled into the treasurie. From whence they may collect this and such like secrets, That vnlawfull and great impositions and taxes in a free State do oft cause a heart-burning of the Commons, and openeth the passage of sedi∣tion, vnlesse in especiall cases, in which there ought to bee a publike ouerture for the same as for the ex∣pense.

Moreouer, that may not be ouerslipped, Whether the the Princes or States where men trauaile, are en∣forced vppon important accidentes to take vp money by imprestes and borrowinges, or by mortgages or at interest. For, as amongst priuate persons, so in publike States more sodainely there groweth a great defect, and bankeruptnesse, which is subiect to daun∣gers.

Now, as touching the maine secret of employing the treasure and reuenewe of the State in the second place wee finde sixe honorable causes to dispend the same (out of which a Trauailer may cull seuerall se∣crets: as the good and orderly gouernement,* or contra∣riwise, of the Prince or State, his or their vertues or vi∣ces &c.) namely Almeshouses and publike reliefe and prouision for the poore of the Realme;* whereby is dis∣couered a religious and charitable care of such as stand in neede.

Secondly,* vpon the honorable and necessarie support of the house-hold and publike Court of the Prince or State: which, being well husbanded, argueth maiestie, bountie and wisedome.

Page  122 Thirdly,* vpon reparations and edifications of forti∣fications and buildings; of building ships and shipping, and such like publike matters of the State, which deser∣ueth a publike and peculiar regard of subiects & State, and taketh away the hatred of taxes and impositions by rendering the same back againe to the hands of par∣ticulars and States good, wherby profit, honour and securitie ariseth.

Fourthly,* vpon the due payment of Souldiers and men of Martiall affaires; the which argueth discretion and high care to encounter infinite occasions of euills, both growing in the Commanders as common souldi∣ers, whereof a prying care must be had.

Fiftly,* vppon strangers, as Embassadors and such of forraine Nobilitie as are therby retained in loue and office to bee tenderers of the honour and weale of those States, of visiting Princes, and also vpon Officers and men of good deserte within the State. Lastly,* vpon the policie of the State it self, for retaining of friends or procuring thē by donatiues politicke, & lendinges: out of which arise many secreates, according to the seuerall motions or actions of a Prince or State in vertuous or vitious dispending the same.

The last point of this common secreat, is to note what ordinarie and extraordinarie treasure is euermore reserued in the State. And as it is a daungerous thing in times of warre and troubles to vndertake businesse vppon borrowings or vsurie, vnlesse in speciall cases; so also it is perilous to assemble a greater treasure, then is meete: for that causeth subiectes oft to murmur if the same come from them, or inuiteth other States Page  123 to picke quarrelles to be nibbling therewith. Lastly, whether there be such niggardlinesse of the Prince see∣king to spare treasure, as hee diminish much the digni∣tie of his household and also the Maiestie of his per∣son.

Whereof wee read, that King Lewis the Eleuenth of France (whome Philip de Comines so much extol∣leth) so farre diminished his houshold as hee forbad his Nobles to followe him in Court (at the least at their owne charges) as that hee was faine to employ his Taylor for his Heralde at Armes, his Barbar for an Ambassadour, and his Physician for Chauncellor. And for his person, hee was so respectlesse, as hee continually ware an olde course cloth Cappe, and leauing a recorde for buying a paire of meane sleeues to an olde plaine doublet of his. And also in his ac∣comptes was obserued to pay xv. pence for so much dripping to grease his bootes. Thus much concer∣ning the common Secreats. Quaere tamen si sit fru∣galitatis causa, & propter Reip. bonum.

The Accidentall follow; which are such as chance daiely in or without a State,* and that so diuersely as that we can but giue an assaie or taste of thē to Trauai∣lers in this treatise. For, euerie action of the State wherin one trauaileth, or of other forraine States vn∣fould secreates and are meete materialles to diuine of future things▪ which now in the interim is to be requi∣red of Trauailers.* Those accidentall secrets are to bee sought in three thinges: namely, in the persons gouerning; in the persons gouerned: and in the in∣strumēts. From the persons gouerning I obserue these points; First,* what be the negotiations and contractes Page  124 the State or Prince offereth and maketh with other States frō time to time: the which although they seeme hard to come by, yet discreet carriage and liberalitie will purchase them. Secondly,* what order euerie prin∣cipalitie hath in the succession of their gouernour, whe∣ther by election or by inheritance. The first ordai∣ning of a Prince by election was good, to auoyde all such wants and imperfections, as raigne ordinarily in Princes hereditarie: yet such corruption inuadeth this age, that sildome soueraigne Princes will constitute their vicegerent, or elect Prince of an other State, a man popular, or that is wiser then themselues. And sildome wil subiects, that are few in number to make election, elect men of more spirit, wisedome & worthinesse then thēselues, vnlesse in special cases: wherof the Colledge of the Cardinalls and the Electors of the Emperor find ease and profitte. Those Countries that are by succes∣sion of inheritance, are likewise of two sorts, generall and speciall. Moreouer, vnder this maine secret, depen∣deth the insight into the Lawes concerning the dispo∣sing of the Crowne; and the Wils, testaments and de∣uises that are made by Princes, to bequeath the same, so farre forth as they in right may be stretched.

Thirdly,* concerning States that go by inheritance, let it be considered who be the next apparant heires to the State, either by the law of the Countrie, or the law of Nature, or other pretences. Vnder which also let it be noted, how, where, and after what order those infants are brought vp, and what hope there is of them. Fourth∣ly,* what wisedome and discretion the Prince is of: whether hee be wise enough to discerne the aduise of his Councell, subtile enough to perceiue whether his Page  125 Councell plot more for their owne particulars then for the publike good and honour of their Soueraigne: or whether he rule not all things at his wil without con∣sult of his Councell: what spirit he is of, how stu∣dious to warre and peace: what care and order the Prince taketh to see good iustice done to euerie one; and so of all other vertues that crowne Princes with honor, and establish their gouernment: the like a∣rise of the Magistrates. But the contrarie must bee gathered from the imperfections & vices of the Prince and Magistrates, mutatis mutandis. Lastly, what choise of persons the Prince hath about him for fauourites, and whether hee carrieth an euen hand amongst them. By which secrette the inclination of the PRINCE and his abilitie and weakenesse maye bee conclu∣ded.

Concerning the persons gouerned,* our assaie re∣steth in sixe Considerations; First, whether the people bee giuen to much libertie and so suffered to conti∣nue, as in the State of Venice and through Italie: Se∣condly, howe they stand affected to their Prince and gouernment. Thirdly, whether the Commons sup∣pose not they see much into gouernment, and think themselues wiser then the Councell of State: the which is dangerous, whether the same be deriued from pre∣sumptiō of Nature, or frō the inspectiō the people haue into the gouernours cariage conuerting all things to priuate commoditie.

Fourthly, how the people stand affected in rumors of warre, & like accidents. Fiftly, who are the persons in greatest fauor and estimation amongst the people, be∣sides the Prince.

Page  126 Lastly, whether the Nobilitie contemne not the Commons and Citizens, and whether the Commons hate and enuie not the Nobles in outward shew; the which breedeth a great thirst after alteration, either of religion or of policie: the one springing from zeale, the other from malcontednesse and factious∣nesse.

The Instruments follow,* which likewise be the sub∣iects of many secrets and may be included vnder eight heads, namely, vnder Dearth of the commodities of the land▪ Secondly,* vnder Mortalitie of men, and the heauie hand of God on the people. Thirdly,* vnder the Losse of shipping,* of Munition and Dominions. Fourthly,* vnder the Want of Iustice and good disci∣pline. Fiftly,* vnder the extraordinarie cause of Ex∣pense, or the lauishe spending of the treasure. Sixt∣ly,* vnder the strange Impositions and exactions on sub∣iectes. Seauenthly,* vnder the apprehension of that which most impouerisheth or enricheth a State: Lastly,* vnder the knowledge of such Weake places vpon the borders & confines and costes of the Coun∣trie, as also within the Land; wherein I would aduise Trauailers to bee verie studious: for so much as this point only is of great moment to bee well sought into. Out of which there arise contrarie secreates, mutatis mutandis: Whereof, Trauailers cannot be ignorant, being so common and familiar. Finally, about these or any other, let not Trauailers omitte, to procure with their purse, what by discretion, obseruation, and friends, cannot be attained vnto. Thus much concer∣ning those sixe pointes of generall knowledge, that accomplish the peregrination of men, and make them Page  127 compleate in knowledge of thinges.

It now remaineth to handle briefly, the behauiour of our Trauailer when he shall returne home, to liue af∣terwards wel cōtented & happily: the which we see fewe do. But afore wee can obserue the offices he must vnder goe, when he commeth home; there are certain points, of him to be performed before, to fit himself against his returne, if so be he expect speciall grace and prefermēt afterwards: which, being an honorable colour & spurre of vertue, may neither bee neglected of Trauailers nor indecided of vs. These rest chiefly in two points. First,* in aduertising, frō time to time by Letters during their trauaile, some one of the priuie Councell, and none o∣ther of the Countrie to which they belong, of such oc∣currences and things as chance worthie to be sent and committed to consultation and viewe.

Wherein, let Trauailers bee prouident to whom they giue aduertisement: For, otherwise their labour may bee lost, or crost with ingratitude and vnthanke∣fulnesse. Neither, is it necessarie that such a Coun∣cellor should take knowledge of them before their Trauaile: for this action will be get acquaintance, and tie that Councellor afterwards to yeelde such an one due respect. Neither is it conuenient for Trauailers to aduertise any other whatsoeuer of those matters they send to a Councellor, nor to aduertise many Coun∣cellors of things: the one arguing lightnesse, the other hazardeth the respect of those Councellors: vnlesse it be apparant, that the Trauailer is many wayes tied to those Councellors, in their owne knowledge. Wherein also, hauing occasion to write of diuerse matters, let him diuide those matters amongst them with discretion. Page  128 Moreouer, let our Trauailer take heede to aduertise an vntruth for certaintie: but as touching reportes and ru∣mors, let him handle them discreetly; and touching di∣uinings, probabilities and consequences, let thē be spa∣ringly or not at all set downe to Councellers whose wisedome ought to haue the reference and collection of them. But vnto other persons and friends they are sensible and plausible enough. Lastly, in the sending and dispatching of such letters to Councellers, wherein are supposed to be importances, let our Trauailer bee verie circumspect: for it were better for him not to write at all, then by writing either to hazard himselfe or bewraie imperfections. And therfore let him take heede to aduertise any thing that is treasonable, or offensiue to the State in which he remaineth: Vnlesse such light vpon good and sound Messengers,* or vnlesse it concerne the life and safetie of his Prince and Countrie: wherein only hee ought to hazard his life: especially if his Prince haue no Ambassadour in that State at the pre∣sent.

Hence springeth that second office to bee perfour∣med of our Trauailer, That hee make oft repaire to the Ambassadour of his Prince (in case there remaine any there) aduertising him of such importances as shall chaunce vnto him in that Countrey, where hee abideth with the Ambassadour, before hee committe the same in writing to any Counceller at home: For that seemes to derogate from the Ambassador (from whom all im∣portances are expected besides negotiations) and argu∣eth no good carriage of such a Trauailer, vnlesse in spe∣ciall cases; namely, where the cause vrgeth haste to giue aduertisement, which by distance from the Ambassador Page  129 can not so competently bee dispatched, if the same should be first giuen vnto him; and where the Am∣bassadour is no friend of that Trauailer. For it is the office of euery Subiect thus trauailing, whether hee goe out of the Land, with his Princes Ambassa∣dour, or be in trauaile before, or trauaile afterwards, to giue attendance on his Princes Ambassador, espe∣cially going to the Court. For that is an honour to his Nation and Prince, and a point of ciuilitie belon∣ging to the person of an Ambassador; that equalleth, during his legation, any Subiect in the worlde, if so such an one be resident, or neere his person. Of which humanitie an Ambassadour cannot be vnsensible, no more than the Councellor written vnto, but is tied to haue his discretion and wisedome in recommendati∣on: which oft turneth to the good of Trauailers, when they returne home to their Countrey.

Thus hauing brought home our Trauailer,* there rest onely sixe offices to be vnder gone of him, where∣by he shall reape contentment, honour, and estimati∣on. The first is, that he manifest vnto all men his vn∣corrupt and vnspotted Religion,* and zeale therein; Not onely in the due and orderly going to Church, and seruing of God, but making expression therof by the fruits of all vertues, demeanours, and actions, and that singularly in sixe habilities and vertues: namely, Silence; which vseth few words, but fitly, and to pur∣pose. Incuriositie; which banisheth all affectations, and apish trickes, and fashions of other nations, that are not more estimable then those of ones owne Countreys Customs and vses. Spirit; which shall free them from reproche, quarrels, and putting vp of dis∣honourable Page  130 iniuries; making him equally sensible with the Italianated Duellist, but farre more iudiciall to take iust acception, and make risentiment. Prudence, which being a discreet Councellor, shal direct all his words and actions according to reason, and to their proper ends. Bounty, which strippeth him of coue∣tousnesse: which in Trauailers is hateful, and rellisheth of dishonesty. Lastly, Faithfulnesse, and sociablenesse; which shall enable him for all companies, to be both honestly thought of and regarded: the which is free from offering wrong, from Lust and Sensualitie, that dissolue loue and societie.* The second office is, that he preferre not policie before honestie, or equall with it, either in matters affecting Honour, Wealth, or Re∣uenge; whereof the Conscience must be a director and a Counsellor.* The third is, that he make himselfe knowen to the Prince and Councell, by commenda∣ble means onely, in whose hands rest preferment, and are to be supposed to esteeme men according to their worth and merit.* The fourth is in the choice such an one must make, to procure him an honorable friend, as is able to haue him in recōmendation to his Prince: such an one as is not of a couetous minde, but loueth vertue, and that hath credence with the Prince, & that is magnanimous, and more feared for his vprightnes, thā hated for his policie according to Machiauel. Fift∣ly,* being thus known vnto the Councel, that he couet not special fauor, after the guise of a sycophāt, or after an ambitious maner of any other persons; but that he make shew of a constant and an vnderstanding Gen∣tlemen. Moreouer, though it be requisite, to be thus generally knowen of all: yet let such take heede, to in∣trude Page  131 into the friendship of any, but with great re∣spect, and for good cause: vsing modestie and spa∣ringnesse euermore in reuealing of any thing obser∣ued in trauaile, vnlesse vpon demands, and in vrgent causes; and seldome any thing of a strange and incre∣dible nature, but to familiars, and in priuate. Lastly, in our sixt point, let our Trauailer from time to time procure of other Trauailers, Merchants, and others,* such things as they haue obserued (for it is a thing im∣possible for one man to obserue all things fully in a small time, required in trauailing to be knowen, as we haue considered in the sixe generall points of know∣ledge) comparing them with his owne; as with such bookes as happily haue discoursed of them. Finally, let him plot to haue dayly intelligence (if so be hee liue from the Court retired) of euery accident forreine and domesticke in the Court, Land, and Citie: by the which the obseruations made in trauaile, shal be kept in continuall tilthe; and being well husbanded, shall occasion, at the least, sweete contentment (the onely pleasure in the world, which no worldling can ob∣taine) if not aduancement in the State to doe more good than priuate persons in the Church and Com∣mon-weale, which is the godly and proper ende of our trauaile and pilgrimage here on earth, that there∣by God may be singularly glorified, the Prince ser∣ued, the Common-weale and Church benefited, and our selues prepared for a greater happinesse, then can bee represented in any contentment in this life. The which I hartily wish to be respected of all that intend trauaile, and to all, in all perfection.