The first part of the elementarie vvhich entreateth chefelie of the right writing of our English tung, set furth by Richard Mulcaster.
Mulcaster, Richard, 1530?-1611.


What e, soundeth in the end, when there be no mo vowells in the syllab, then it self, and that it is somtime silēt, but to good purpos, somtime passant, scarse perceptible, & thē like the quik i, it hath bene tuched allredie. VVeb, neb, eb. Keble, treble. Gréce, pece, flece the right English termination. For, ese with s, altereth, * as these, & exception from ease, seas, cease, where the ods of our writing, tho it seme verie hard, is easilie made euen. for ease is the naturall termination, as please, disease: seas is the natu∣rall plurall number of sea: cease is the naturall enfranchise∣mēt of cesso the latin. Speche, beseche, eche, breche, leche, with the * qualifying e, all the other that be writen without, e, haue a, t, as fetch, stretch, retch, saue ech the common distributiue. Ecle, better with k, as spekle, frekle, bycause of the primiue frek, spek.*Detect, elect, and such be Latin enfranchisements. pekt, chekt, nekt, be English contracts, of pek, pekked, chek, chekked. Tred shred, sled, and with the qualifying e, brede, lede, nede, spede.*Hedge, sedge, ledge, the polysyllabs enfranchised kepe their origi∣nall, as priuilege, college, neither doth the last syllab pitch so hard in anie word of two or mo syllabs, as it doth in a monosyl∣lab, and therefor no maruell if the pitching letter be left out. Medle, nédle. what difference in proportion? as in nedles, the * plurall of nedle, and nedelesse the adiectiue? Bredth of brode.

All the primitiues whose ēding diphthong is, ea, as bread, tread,*weal, heal, steal, in their deriuatiues form lightlie vpon the bare e, as bredth, tredth, welth, helth, stelth.
Thefe, lefe, chefe, befe. Theft, cleft, reft, of cleue, theue, reue. Where besides other notes * the kinred betwene, f, and u. appeareth still, Eg, leg, peg, meg,Page  131 and with the qualifying e. lege, sege. Nek, brek, chek, pek, and with the qualifying, e, meke, cheke, leke, shreke, weke, pekle kekle.* E. falleth somtime hard vpon the l, & then the ll, is dubled, as shell, spell, knell, fell, somtime sharp, as fele, rele, knele, with the qualifying e, sometime light with the, e, passant before, l, as driuel, riuel, sniuel, rauel, which in the like proportion, is the silent e, after l, as wifle, snafle &c. in which words the e, is so quik as I dare not hold them for bissyllabs. Belch. Held, keld.*Elf, shelf, pelf, self. Yelk. Kelk. Elm. VVhelm. Teln, feln. be out worn English words for tell, fell. Else, as bells, fells, nells be deri∣uatiues. Felt, swelt, smelt. Where se the proprietie of our tung, in * the duble sense of smelt, the primitiue of the fish, and the con∣tract smelt for smelled of smell. Welth, stelth noted before. Delue,*shelue. Stem, kem, nem, wem. and with the qualifying, e, steme, seme, deme, eme. Trēble. Hemp. Kemp. tēpt. Tems. E, falleth vpon the, n, somtime full, as Then, ten, when, men, ken, somtime shrill with the qualifying e. as Quene, kene, sene, grene, somtime pas∣sant, where it encreaseth no syllab, in my opinion, as writen, driuē, shriuen, gotē, shoten, threaten. And why maie not so manie letters be spelled together for one syllab, as well as in thwakst? Whence, hence, sence for sithens. Ense with s. is enfranchised, as *sense, fense, spense. End, mend, lend, send. Tench, wench, quench bench, wrench. Henge, reuenge. I find no termination in eng, without e, if anie hereafter fall out, ing, wilbe the leader in proportion, as wing, thing. Pence the plurall number of penie.*Pens the plurall number of pen. Shent, pent, ment. Gentle. Step, skep, & with, e, stepe, kepe, crepe, wepe, depe. Threap, thrept. Steple, peple. Kept, precept. Er, is commonlie the end of such words, as haue mo syllabs then one, where it sounds quik, as thither, hi∣ther. Aker, taker. Falsifyer, cunninger, anger. Er, to go astraie: & with the qualifying e, bere, mere, where, there, here, which be * exceptiōs from the terminatiō in ear, the diphthong. Her the feminine and hir, be so enterchangeable frinds, as theie maie be vsed indifferētlie.
This word enterchāgeable giueth me to make this note, that, g, in hir weak natur with the qualifying, e, after, in cōpositiō or deriuation, kepeth, e, still, onelesse the additiō fol lowing begin either with e, or i, with the which vowells, g, is gentle, as with a. o. u. it is not.
Herb with the h. not herd, ferce,Page  132serch, perch: Berd, ferd, herd, serge. without a. Term, ferm, and * why not lern without a? seing ea, in the deriuatiues fauoreth e, so much, as threap, thrept, lear, lerning? verse, reherse. the prouf by rehersall, perse, herse

Pert, desert, the most of these sorts be bissyllabs or aboue: * besides that, a, dealeth verie much before the r. By deserue, pre∣serue, conserue, it should appear that either we strain the Latin * s, to our sound, or that theie had som sound of the z, expres∣sed by s, as well as we. Which is trew, and appeareth in their deriuatiues from the Greke {is}. Finesse, contract for finenesse, by∣cause nesse is the addition, as in holinesse, sumptuousnesse, glad∣nesse, with the duble ss. bycause the e. sitteth hard vpon the ss. * Besides that we borow the form of the french, tho in the sound of the silent e, we differ from them. Frese, chese, gese. Desk, fresh, flesh. Brest, nest, chest. Nestle, pestle, tresle. Fet, net, let,*whet, and with the qualifying e, fete, strete, lete, nete, mete. Fetch, stretch. Netle, setle, ketle, bétle, bédle. Sleue, reue, greue, yex, vex, next, text, téthe, séthe.