A direct answer vnto the scandalous exceptions, which Theophilus Higgons hath lately obiected against D. Morton In the which there is principally discussed, two of the most notorious obiections vsed by the Romanists, viz. 1. M. Luthers conference with the diuell, and 2. The sence of the article of Christ his descension into hell.
Morton, Thomas, 1564-1659.
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T. H.

§. 2. How D. Morton defendeth Caluin from the note of Iouinianisme.

1 AMongst sundrie errours of Iouinian (a Father of Pro∣testants; whence *Luther saith,

that Hierome wrote pestilent bookes against Iouinian, but he, at that time, had more learning and iudgement in his little finger, then Hierome in all his bodie
) this was one; A man cannot sinne after baptisme, if he were truly baptized: that is to say, if he truly receiued faith, and grace. This errour is imputed by *Bellarmine → vn∣to Caluin; and the reason is, because Caluin teacheth, that true faith (which, in his opinion, is inseparable from grace,) can ne∣uer be lost. For though Caluin doth not, by way of position, de∣fend, that a faithfull man cannot sinne, yet the question is now, whether it follow out of the aforesaid principle, by way of necessa∣rie deduction. Bellarmine → affirmeth it, *D. Morton deni∣eth it; and pretendeth, that this Iouinianisme may be imputed as well vnto Augustine or Campian, as vnto Caluin.

2 The sentence which he produceth out of *S. Augustine, is this. Horum fides, quae per dilectionem operatur, aut omnino non deficit, aut reparatur, priusquàm haec vita fi∣niatur. I grant that S. Augustine saith so; but what is this vn∣to Caluin? For first, S. Augustine doth not teach, that faith cannot be seuered from grace. Secondly, he doth not affirme, that a man can neuer fall from faith, or grace. Thirdly, he doth Page  13 not teach, that onely the elect can haue these gifts, but he sheweth the contrarie in that place; & who knoweth not that many haue lost both faith, and grace? Lasily, S. Augustine doth there di∣stinguish betwixt the elect, & reprobate; & teacheth that the faith of*elect, which worketh by Charitie, either doth not faile at all; or if it do [as sometimes it doth] yet it is repaired againe, before their departure; but in the reprobate, the case is verie different; for they may haue faith, and grace, but faith and grace endure not in them with perseuerance, a gift proper onely vnto the elect.

3 Wherfore, there is no correspondencie betwixt S. Augustine and Caluin in this point. For Caluin annexing grace inseparably vnto faith, and auerring, that faith can neuer be lost; must in∣euitably thence inferre, that a faithfull man doth neuer lose grace also, and consequently he doth neuer sinne mortally, be∣cause a mortall sinne excludeth * grace from the soule.

4 The sentence of Campian is cited in these words: Nisi Diui è coelo deturbentur, cadere ego nunquam potero; and here your Doctor pretendeth that Campian, euen as Caluin himselfe, did beleeue constantly, that he could neuer fall from faith, but was certaine of his saluation. Which if it were so, then iudge of the soundnesse of your Diuinitie, according to the prin∣ciples whereof, Campian, a resolute Papist and opposite vnto your Religion, might be infallibly secure of his saluation: and the like all sectaries may (as many do) apply vnto themselues with a supposed certaintie of perseuerance. But as F. Campian doth * elsewhere particularly reproue this conceit, and taxeth your Caluin precisely for the same, so in this place he is farre from that imagination, howsoeuer it pleaseth D. Morton to propose his words by the halfe, and to peruert his meaning in the whole. For that blessed Martyr hauing yeelded a reason of his confi∣dence (which he deriueth from all kinds of witnesses in hea∣uen, earth, and hell it selfe) non diffiteor, (saith he) anima∣tus sum, & incensus ad conflictum; IN QVO, nisi Diui de coelo deturbentur, & superbus Lucifer coelum recuperet, cadere nunquam potero.

5 Now I remit me vnto your ingenuitie, and conscience, Page  14 whether D. Morton did not with voluntarie, and determinate malice (as I said before) abridge the sentence, and violate the in∣tention* of Campian, to deceiue the Reader, with, and against his knowledge. For what doth F. Campian affirme? but onely this; since I haue these testimonies of my religion, it is not possible that, relying thereupon, I should euer causâ cadere, be vanqui∣shed in that combat which I do seriously desire.

6 This may be a sufficient instruction for you; and by it alone, you may perceiue, whether his heart be single, and syncere in his impugnation of the Catholicke faith; which he laboureth to extinguish by these miserable inuentions. But it will flourish much more, euen for his sake. God, of his infinite mercie, will ei∣ther mollifie his affection, or cohibite his purpose. And now (kind Master S.) I might ease my selfe, and you from any more paine in this kind, if one more vast vntruth thē all the rest, did not cōpell me to proceed yet a little farther; the matter being of great importance, and, for many respects, not to be passed ouer in silence.

The Answer.

I wish to breath onely so long as that the Catholicke faith may flourish by me. As for my Affections, I thanke God, they are such, that if I had a window in my heart, I would open it for M. Higgons, or any Aduersarie to looke in and see as much as I can my selfe; and then, am I sure, they could not iudge me either deceitfull, or malicious. But to the point, first,

The state of the question, shewing the slander which Car∣dinall Bellarmine → committeth against Caluin.

The first heresie of Iouinian is, (saith the Cardinall) that man cannot sinne after Baptisme: which is the heresie of Caluin, who saith that true faith can neuer be lost. The falshood of this accusation is not obscurely o cōuinced by the Iesuit Maldonate, who discussing that heresie, durst not impute it vnto Caluin: secondly, by Caluinsp acknowledged sen∣tences, wherein he requireth repentance as necessary in all Page  15 that haue bene baptized, that they may be iustified. But M. Higgons would couer the Cardinals nakednesse with a mantle of Deduction, thus: Because Caluin annexeth grace inseparably vnto faith, and anerreth that faith can neuer be lost, it must ineuitably inferre, that a faithfull man doth neuer lose grace also, and consequently doth neuer sinne mortally, because a mortall sinne doth exclude grace from the soule. This M. Hig∣gons his Inference telleth me that he was neuer yet rightly catechized in the rudiments of faith: which I must be per∣swaded of, vntill he make this consequence good, A man cannot lose a iustifying faith after Baptisme: Ergo he cannot sin after Baptisme. Can this be enforced either from the do∣ctrine of Caluin▪ or else of all the Romanists? Caluin tea∣cheth that the iustified mans good actions are polluted with sinne, and some of the Romanists haue acknow∣ledged, in effect, as much (as I there q proued;) whom their Iesuite confesseth to haue bene rgraue and godly Ca∣tholicke Doctors, who taught that all sinnes are in their nature mortall, albeit those sinnes which are called veniall, by the mercy of God, do not dissolue the fauour of God: but may consist toge∣ther with inherent Grace, as not imputed vnto vs for our e∣ternall punishment. Here we see sinnes in their nature mor∣tall, and iustifying Grace to be coincident in one man after Baptisme. But what need we any longer dispute? let M. Higgons, or any other man shew where any Romanist (ex∣cept Bellarmine) laid vnto Caluins charge this heresie of Io∣uinian, which is thus expressed by s Alphonsus à Castro: Iouinian held that a man, who once was iustified by Grace, could not sinne any more. But Caluin taught such a faith, which af∣ter Baptisme obtaineth remission of sinne. After, Alphon∣sus maketh the heresie of the Begwardi to be neare of kin to the former errours of Iouinian, who taught, that A man may attaine vnto that perfection in this life, that he cannot sinne. Hath Caluin any alliance with this hereticke? But I am chargeable to yeeld

Page  16
A iustification of my selfe.

After that I had infringed the consequence, which Bel∣larmine inferred vpon Caluins Assertion, it belonged vnto me onely to maintaine the termes of Caluin his propositi∣tion, viz. True faith cannot be lost. And doth not S. Augu∣stine so distinguish, as supposing▪ that some mens faith either doth not faile at all, or not finally? and yet he neuer doubted but that the most perfect man is guiltie of sinne, as his own t confession doth at large demonstrate. Which is all that concerned me to proue, whereby to acquit Caluin from the imputation of the heresie of Iouinian, who without all u distinction of sinne said, that the once baptized, could ne∣uer after sinne.

That which he obiecteth out of the testimonie of M. Campian, is so silly a flie, that this his so greedie catching at it argueth, that my Aduersarie is not of the Eagles kind. It is true that M. Campian meant that he should not fall in his cause; but doth not M. Higgons see in that testimonie an Ego? [I (saith he) shall neuer fall;] which might giue me an apprehension of his personall constancie in his cause: which sounded to me like the voice of S. Peter, saying, Master, though all forsake thee, yet will not I. For I did not imagine that M. Campians owne defence could consist without a defender, or that his confidence in the mainte∣nance of the cause of Faith had not bene founded vpon an assurance of his owne perseuerance in Faith. And other vnderstāding hereof then this (if there be any truth in me) I had none: so farre was I from violating his intention.

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