A defence of the innocencie of the three ceremonies of the Church of England viz. the surplice, crosse after baptisme, and kneeling at the receiuing of the blessed Sacrament. Diuided into two parts: in the former whereof the generall arguments vrged by the non-conformists; and, in the second part, their particular accusations, against these III. ceremonies seuerally, are answered, and refuted. Published by authoritie.
Morton, Thomas, 1564-1659.
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CHAP. III. Our particular defence of the Innocencie of the Third Ceremony, which is the gesture of Knee∣ling, at the receiuing of the holy Communion.


THE Non-conformists inlarge themselues, in this Argument; seeking to oppugne it by all the vehemency, and violence of affection that they can: but, when their Exceptions, and Accusations shall be throughly discussed, they will perceiue (I hope) that they haue not bene more hot in their Zeale, then cold in their Reasons; whereunto I now proceed, according to my former methode, both An∣swering, and Confuting their Accusations, against this Gesture of Kneeling.

SECT. II. The first Accusation, vsed by the Non-conformists, against the Gesture of Kneeling, at the receiuing of the B. Sacrament, is from the example of Christ and his Apostles.

*That which is contrary both to the example of Christ, in the first Institution, and also to the example of the Apostles, and primi∣tiue Church successiuely; and that which is against the intention of Christ, being in it selfe Idolatrous, must needs be abolished, as vnlawfull. But such is the Gesture of Kneeling, in the receiuing of the Eucharist. Ergo, it is to be changed.

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Our Answer.

Here are, almost, tot media, quot verba: and there∣fore you are to be intreated to resolue your confused Prosyllogisme into seuerall parts, for our more plaine and expedite course, in this our dispute. Beginne at the first point, by examples.

SECT. III. Their first Instance in the Example of Christ.

We are to imitate Christ and his Apostles;* but Christ did mini∣ster it sitting at Table. And is it not wicked (saith one) not to imi∣tate his doings, of whom it is said, that he did all things well?

Our Answer.

Christ, doubtlesse, did all things well: but you do not well, by abusing the example of Christ, to proue a ne∣cessity of the imitation thereof. This I make bold to af∣firme, and I hope not without good grounds. First, by Reason.

SECT. IIII. Our first Reason; for Confutation of the Non-conformists former Assertion.

When we come to enquire the strict manner of Christ his Gesture; out of the Euangelists,* we heare S. Mat∣thew saying, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉; and S. Marke,〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉; that is, (as Caluin and Beza render it) discumbentibus illis:* It is not*〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, or 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, that is, Sitting; but 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, which may be as well, Lying downe: and the E∣uangelist S. Iohn, concerning Christ saith, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉,* that is; He fell downe, or (if you will) laid himselfe Page  246 downe, as the same Euangelist (vsing the first word, saith concerning S. Iohn himselfe) 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉,* [recumbens in sinu] lying vpon Christ his breast. Baronius by these phrases is induced to thinke, verisimile esse, Chri∣stum, & Apostolos lectis discubuisse; which phrases of speech Interpreters haue diuersly rendered, not accor∣ding to the very propriety of words of the Euangelists, but according to their different conceits, about his Ge∣sture, which we may not deny to haue bene a kind of Sitting. But yet when we shall aske more precisely the continued manner of the Sitting, whether vpright, or rather somewhat leaning; or what the expresse forme of his Gesture was, it is left by the holy Euangelists in such an vncertainety, that we may iustly collect from thence, that Christ intended not to make his gesture to be an exact patterne of necessary imitation to be conti∣nued in his Church.

SECT. V. Our second Reason of confuting the Non-conformists.

This may be taken à paribus, that is, from diuerse other like circumstances of Christ his practise, wherein the Non-conformists neither do, nor can challenge any right of imitation. This case will be euident, if we shall consult with the Euangelicall Storie, concerning Christ his first institution of the Sacrament: where we obserue related vnto vs both the Example and Precept of Christ; the Example is shewne in his preparation for this Com∣munion; his Precept is specified in the act of Admini∣stration. Concerning his Example of preparation, these diuerse circumstances appeare, the first is of the Persons,Page  247 who were Twelue; or, if you will, but Eleuen disciples: the second, in respect of the Sexe, onely Men: the third is of Place, in a priuate House: the fourth of Time, it was in the Night: the fift of Gesture, which we acknowledge to haue bene a kinde of Sitting: Not to insist vpon the nature of the Bread, nor the mixture of water with Wine, or the like.

Now if the example of the first Institution, in these circumstantiall points, be for perpetuall, and necessary imitation; then farewell, from this Communion, all women, by reason of their sexe; and also men, aboue eleuen or twelue, because of their number; and let vs vse it rather in priuate houses, than in publique Temples, because of the circumstance of place, which was a chamber; and concerning the time, not in the morning, but onely in the night. Is not this then a sin∣gular aduersenesse, in these men, so to impugne the or∣dinance of our Church, by exacting sitting, which is but one onely circumstance of the first institution of this Sacrament, that they do consequently condemne them∣selues, as Preuaricators in almost all the rest?

SECT. VI. Our second grand Confutation, of the Non-conformists, is by their owne Witnesses.

Your owne Witnesses, to wit, M. Beza and Zanchius do willingly confesse,* the one touching vnleauened bread; the other concerning the mixture of water with wine; that we are not bound to an imitation of Christ: And this they conclude, but not without as iust pre∣misses, and good reasons, as can be required;* which will appeare in Answer to your second accusation.

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SECT. VII. Our third grand Confutation of their first Exception, is from the practise of the Non-conformists themselues.

It is true; Christ did administer this Sacrament in a kind of Sitting-gesture, and in the same Gesture did the Apostles of Christ receiue it. The maine question is, whether the Church be bound to the strict imitation of all such circumstances of the first administration? You challenge a precise obseruation thereof; and we desire you to be satisfied from your owne practise: for Christ is found Sitting at one Table with his Disciples, vnto whom he still Sitting distributed the blessed Sacrament, as vnto his Communicants; but you, in the Admini∣stration of this Sacrament, departing from the Table of the Lord, walke from person to person, and deliuer these holy Rites vnto them.

Say now (I pray you) is there any iust resemblance betweene Sitting and Walking; or is not the example of Christ as good a prescription, for Gesture, vnto Ministers how to distribute the Eucharist, as the example of the Apostles can be vnto Laicks, how to receiue it? Where∣fore, the pressing of your first exception was but the shooting an Arrow vp directly into the Sky, without all regard, that, in falling down, it must necessarily light vp∣on your owne heads.

SECT. VIII. Our determination of this first point, concerning the first Accusation, from the Example of Christ.

That we may more accurately determine this whole Page  249 doubt, consider, we pray you, that the Acts of Christ, concerning the institution of this Sacrament, were of two different sorts; some were onely occasionall, and accidentall; and some were truely Sacramentall and Essentiall. I call them Occasionall, which accidentally fell out, by occasion of Christ his celebration of the Passeouer; which, being the Sacrament of the Iewes, was at the same time to expire and die; at what time the Eucharist, the Sacrament of the new Testament, was to take life and breath. Now then, the circumstances of the Passeouer occasioned Christ to institute this Sacra∣ment of the Lords Supper, onely with his owne family; onely with men; onely in a priuate house; onely in the night; as hath bene said: Whereunto some do referre also the circumstances of the bread, that it was Azyme and vnleauened, as then, necessarily required in the cele∣bration of the Passeouer; and of the Cup, that it had a mixture of water in it, to allay the spirit of the wine; ac∣cording to the ordinarie custome of that Country.

But the Acts, that were essentiall, and necessarily to be performed, in this Sacrament, are all vnder that ex∣presse commandement of Christ, saying,* [Do this &c.] beginning first at these words, Christ tooke bread, and when he had blessed it, he brake &c. All which circum∣stances, deliuered by Precept, the Church is tyed to ob∣serue.

Vpon this occasion, it were no great difficulty, to shew how the Church of Rome, at this day, hath dege∣nerated from ancient Rome, by transgressing the com∣mandement of Christ, who said, Do this &c. and by doing contrarily, in diuers weighty & obseruable points, and circumstances, there commanded by Christ: as namely, first, Christ tooke bread, gaue thankes, and blessed Page  250 it; Ergo, the consecration that Christ vsed was in pray∣er, and not in these foure words, This is my body. Second∣ly, Christ taking bread, brake it, and (as is confessed) took diuerse parts out of one loafe; and set not before them (as it were so many breads) diuers wafers. Thirdly, Christ gaue it vnto them, saying, &c. Ergo, they heard what he said; and his words were not vttered, or rather mutte∣red in an vnaudible voice. Fourthly, Christ commanded them, saying, [Take] Ergo, he spake vnto them in a knowne tongue, and not in a language they could not vnderstand. Fiftly, Christ gaue, saying, Take: Ergo, doubtlesse (for the point is confessed from the light of Antiquity) so they tooke it, as he gaue it, namely, with their hands, and had it not put into their mouthes. Sixt∣ly, Christ, that said to them all present [Take] said also [Eate] Ergo, the vse of the Sacrament, was propounded to be eaten, and not to be onely gazed vpon; and per∣sons present were Actors, and not Spectators onely. Seuenthly, Christ likewise tooke the Cup, giuing it vnto them saying, Drinke you all of this: Ergo, the Commu∣nicants did equally participate of both the Elements, as being the pledges of both the Body and bloud of Christ; not dismembring the Seale of the Couenant, nor de∣frauding the faithfull of their complementall right. Last∣ly, Christ expressed the speciall end of the Eucharist, Do it in remembrance of me; which is, as S. Paul doth in∣terprete it, Shewing the Lords death: Ergo, it is vnproper∣ly called a Sacrifice Propitiatory,* seeing that the death of Christ is thereby onely Commemoratiuely shewne, and not operatiuely, and corporally executed herein.

Thus we finde, that how many actions haue bene mentioned, concerning the Institution of Christ, so many preuarications and transgressions haue bene com∣mitted Page  251 by the now Church of Rome, which the ancient mother Romane Church would haue condemned as sa∣crilegious, if they had bene practised by any Church in her time. But you call vpon vs to consider your next Exception.

SECT. XI. The second Accusation, vsed by the Non-conformists, against Kneeling, is from the Intention of Christ; by foure pretences.

Their first pretence is from the nature of a Banquet.

Christ ordained this for a banquet, whereat we are to act the part of the Guests of Christ:* in imitation to resemble our Coheir∣ship with him in his Kingdome: now it suteth not with a Coheire, or Guest, with Christ, to kneele at the Table; and it is contrarie to the Law of Nature, to Kneele at a Banque, twhich is a Gesture of infe∣riority, and abasement: and we may not lose our fellowship with Christ to sit thereat, whereby Christ would represent vnto vs our Banquet in heauen.

Our Answer.

We acknowledge this Sacrament to be the most gra∣tious Banquet, that euer was ordained for the sonnes of men: But how? As a bodily Banquet, trow yee? No, for if our Sauiour had meant to haue furnished out a bodily Banquet, he would haue bene more plentifull in other varieties, than in Bread and Wine. But it is a mysti∣call Banquet, for the replenishing of our soules spiritu∣ally with the body and bloud of Christ; which we feed vp∣on, Non dente sed mente; non per fauces, sed per fidem: that is, Rather with the minde, than with the mouth; as the Fathers speake. And therefore you are not to re∣quire, Page  252 or expect therin the very forme and fashion of an ordinary banquet, where it will become men to talke, eat, and drinke, to inuite, and pledge one another; and how then can you exact of vs the manner of Sitting?

And for any of you so to speake of familiaritie, and holding it vndecent for adopted Coheires with Christ to kneele, as the receiuing of this Sacrament; I thinke it can hardly be heard, euen of some of your owne fellow∣ship, without some horror of mind. For seeing that the Right of our adoption is the same in vs, without the Sa∣crament, which it is in the receiuing thereof; then, by your Argumēt, it must be held an Indecorum in any Chri∣stian to be seene praying any where vnto Christ, the Son of God, vpon his knees.

SECT. X. Their Reply.

It is one thing to be a Coheire, and another thing to act the per∣son of a Coheire;* at other times when we present our selues in suppli∣cation, then take we vpō vs the persons of suters, & so we humble our soules in prayer: but at this Banquet we represent the persons of Co∣heires, as we shall be at the great Supper in heauen, and now it is our office to giue resemblance hereof.

Our Answer.

We haue indeed such kind of Similitudes in Scrip∣ture, to shadow out vnto vs the happie fellowship of the Communion of Saints in heauen; as the calling it a great Supper,* wherein All things are prepared: namely, that either the infinit loue of God would, or the omni∣potencie of the same loue could prouide for the eternall Page  253 enioyment of the faithfull in Christ Iesus; who talketh furthermore of Sitting, eating, and drinking,*in his Kingdome. But to tell vs that this Supper of the Eucha∣rist was propounded, to be an expresse and proper Type and Similitude of the heauenly, is more than, I thinke, a∣ny Ancient learning euer taught.

For the immediate mysticall obiect of this Supper, is the body and blood of Christ; the words of Christ pointing it out, This is my body, and This is the new Testament in my blood: But how? Of his bodie and blood, as glorified in heauen? No, but as Crucified and shed on the Crosse: which is expressed sufficiently by Christ; calling it blood shed for you. And the end of this Sacrament is set downe thus; In remembrance of me. Now Remembrance is not of things to come, but only of things past, to wit, the worke of Redemption by his Passion, in his body and blood; whereof Saint Paul hath made a plaine Comment:*As often as you eate of this bread, and drinke of this Cup, you shew the Lords death till he come. Which Comment was taken from the Analogie of the Sacrament with the thing signified thereby; for the bread broken betoke∣neth his bodie Crucified for vs; the wine powred out, re∣sembleth his blood shed, and separated from his bodie. Can you find in all these any one Type of the Celestiall ioy, which is signified else-where, by the promise of ea∣ting and drinking in the Kingdome of heauen?

Neither can it be to any purpose, to say that in giuing vs his body & blood, in this Sacrament, we haue bequea∣thed vnto vs all the benefits of his death, and passion, and Consequently all the ioyes of immortalitie, which may be prefigured by our eating and drinking at this Table: Page  254 for Signes and Types are resemblances of immediate ob∣iects, and not of obiects remote, and consectarie: as for example;*Baptisme is the Lauer of Regeneration, a Sa∣crament and Signe of our new Birth, whereby we haue entrance into the Kingdome of grace; and so conse∣quently we haue interest in the Kingdome of glory, as Christ teacheth;*Except a man be borne againe by water and the Spirit, he cannot enter into the Kingdome of hea∣uen; signifying, contrarily, that the new borne, shall en∣ter into heauen: yet is not Baptisme a Type of the celesti∣all and triumphant estate of Gods children, but of our new birth, by sanctification, in the Church militant.

This will appeare as clearely in the Sacrament, which we haue in hand; for the benefite of our redemption, by the body and bloud of Christ, hath many dimensions, and euery one of infinite extent. Look downe into the pro∣fundity of the bottomlesse pit, we are redeemed from death, diuell, and the eternall torments of hell: Second∣ly, looke vpon the Latitude, besides, and about vs, in which respect we are redeemed from the thraldome of sin; and both from the morall world of wicked Reprobates, and the materiall world of this earth; the one reserued for the fire of hell, neuer to be consumed; and the other to be consumed with the fire of the last day. Lastly, look vp to the altitude, and height of our Redemption, and it reacheth vnto the euerlasting ioy and glory of Gods Kingdome. All these, in euery degree infinite, be∣nefites are merited for vs, by the royall purchase of Christ, through his passion; yet the bread and wine, are onely the symbols and signes, representing vnto vs his body and bloud; but not those other consequents there∣of: Except you will say, that we haue likewise herein Types of our deliuerance from hell; and separation Page  255 from the world of earth, earthly and carnall men, and so forth. By all which, this your so glosing and specious an Argument of a Type of Coheirship, proueth to be but an Image and Type of a selfe-pleasing conceit.

SECT. XI. Their second Pretence, to proue the inten∣tion of Christ.

That whereupon the Supper is placed is called a Table, 1. Cor. 10.* You cannot be partakers of the Table of the Lord and the ta∣ble of deuils: The Communion booke commandeth vs to prepare our selues for the Lords Table; and Christ noteth this Table to be a resemblance of our heauenly societie, telling his disciples, saying; You shall eate and drinke with me at my Table in my Kingdome. Therefore must we still retaine our prerogatiue of our Coheir∣ship of Sitting, because this is a Table-gesture, according to the Country wherein we liue.

Our Answer.

Your former fancy hath taken that impression in your braynes, that now whatsoeuer you look vpon, doth seeme vnto you to be of the same colour, and to make for the manifestation of your former pretence. And ther∣fore now the Table of Christ must needs inferre the like Table, wheresoeuer the Sacrament is administred; and this Table must inforce a Table-gesture of Sitting; and this Table-gesture must resemble the Coheirship of the faithfull with Christ, in the Kingdome of heauen: and all these you hold to be essentiall points of this Supper. But if I might be suffered to pose you from point to point, according to this our methode, I thinke that you would not be so farre in loue with your owne conceit.

First [A Table.] Christ had an artificiall one; for Page  252〈1 page duplicate〉Page  253〈1 page duplicate〉Page  254〈1 page duplicate〉Page  255〈1 page duplicate〉Page  256 so the Passeouer required, and the place afforded: but let vs suppose the woman driuen into the Desert (as it is in the Apocalyps) that is,* the Church, or any part thereof to be in distresse, in a Wildernesse, where no Table can be had; do you thinke that the Grasse, or ground (as it did in the miraculous Banquet of the feeding of fiue thou∣sand with fiue loaues and two fishes) may not serue the turne?*

Secondly, you exact that there be vsed at this one Ta∣ble a sitting gesture for all the Communicants: as though, without sitting, they could not be Partakers of the Ta∣ble of the Lord: But suppose (which happeneth yearely in many parishes within this Kingdome) that a thou∣sand, and sometimes two thousand Communicants are assembled,* may not I (as Andrew said of the fiue loaues and two fishes, for the satisfying of fiue thousand people) say of one Table, What is this for so many? Can you pre∣pare one Table, to containe thousands to sit one with another; for resemblance of our ioynt communion in heauen? Or if not, will you haue vs thinke that Christ doth exact of his faithfull a circumstance of Impossibi∣lity? Be you rather perswaded, that if the bread and wine, being set on one Table, shall be distributed to some thousands of people, although placed in Seats, se∣parated from the Table; yet is each one of them Par∣taker of the same Table of the Lord. And this is not in∣fringed, but established rather by the Text, which you haue alleaged:*You cannot be partakers of the Table of the Lord, and of the table of diuels. For by the Table of diuels, is meant euery Altar, whereupon there was offered any sacrifice vnto Idols; where the Heathen people were made partakers of those sacrifices, not by sitting at the Altars; but by receiuing part of those sacrifices, Page  257 and Libamina, which were immolated, and offered vpon such Altars.

As for your resemblance of Coheirship, and fellow∣ship with Christ, in his Kingdome, by thus sitting at one Tble, in receiuing of the holy Communion; I haue proued that it is but your priuate and petinacious fig∣ment: And for further euidence, we are to enter into consideration, what person it was that Christ did sustaine, at the celebration of his owne Supper; was it of a Lord, or else of a Seruant? The Tenure of the first Institution runneth thus: He tooke bread, brake it,*and gaue it vnto them.— Likewise he tooke the cup, and gaue it vnto them. These are Acts of Ministration, which he put vpon his Apostles, and all other Ministers of the Word and Sacraments, saying, [Do this &c.] If any could possibly doubt hereof, Christ himselfe would resolue them, who saith a little after,*I am among you as him that serueth. And I trust that you dare not affirme, that CHRIST, in his ministra∣tion of this Supper of Grace, was a Type and Fi∣gure of himselfe, in the estate of his Coheirship, which is in his Kingdome; for so shall you confound things infinitely distant, Ministration, and Dominion; estate Militant, and Triumphant; Lord, and Seruant; Earth and Heauen.

Let vs therefore compose our minds vnto a Chri∣stian moderation, and thinke, that we are at this Feast, both Suters in prayer, for remission of sinnes; and Congratulators, by thanksgiuing, for remis∣sion of our sinnes, and all the Royall Benefites of his Death and Passion: And not to presume too much of such familiaritie with CHRIST,Page  258 which seemeth to thrust out Humility from this Banquet, and Type of Christ his humiliation: But be it sufficient contentment, that we might be but as Ostiarij, Doore∣keepers, in that Celestiall Temple; and not presume that, by vertue of our Coheirship, we must needs set our selues vpon the same Tribunall with Christ, Who is set at the right hand of God in the heauenly places,*farre aboue all Principalitie, and Power, and Might, and Domination, and euery name that is named, not onely in this world, but also in that which is to come.

SECT. XII. Their third Pretence, to proue the Intention of Christ, is from the due disposition of the Receiuer.

*The Disposition of heart, which is required of vs, in our very Act of receiuing, is not so much humility, as assurance of faith and cheerefulnesse; which is much better expressd and shewed by the gesture of Sitting, than of Kneeling.

Our Answer.

You will not thinke, I hope, that Humility doth hin∣der the assurance of faith; or that the difference of out∣ward Gesture must needs set Christian vertues at variāce; but you suppose that faith is more welcome to this Banquet than Humility: and that therefore Faith must be attended with the gesture called Sitting; but Humi∣lity must not be suffered to haue her handmaid, called Kneeling, to waite vpon her. I maruaile who made you Vsher at this feast. But let you these two Vertues alone, and they will walke hand in hand, as louing Sisters, and both haue their seruants attending vpon them, in the Page  259 same actions. To this end I propound vnto you two Theologicall concords.

The first concord is betweene Faith and Humility, in that myrrour, which is set forth by our Sauiour in the Gospell, concerning the great man that said vnto Christ; Lord,*I am not worthy that thou shouldest come vn∣der my Roofe: Thus doth Humility vnueile her selfe: but what said his Faith? Speake thou (to wit, Christ) the word onely, and my seruant shall be whole. This was such an admirable assurance of faith, in the estimation of Christ himselfe, that he said: Verily, I haue not sund such faith, no not in Israel: and yet this Faith and Humility, in this one act, kissed each other.

The second concord is to be seene betweene Humili∣aton and Thankfulnesse, euen in the Gesture of Knee∣ling, as it is often and plainely recorded in holy Writ: for the Prophet Dauid, in a Psalme of Thankfulnesse, doth exhort the true Worshippers thus:*Let vs come before his presence with giuing of thankes: How? By Sit∣ting or Standing? (So peraduenture the presumption of some would say:) but the Prophet, as it were by way of preuention, saith: And worship,*and fall downe before the Lord our Maker. Will you see this acted? One man of ten persons, that were cured of the Leprosie,*returning and glorifying God, fell downe at Christ his feete, giuing him thankes.

And if you shall say, that this Thankfulnesse was not so well expressed, by this gesture of Humility, which is Kneeling; then may you as well impute a peece of Inde∣corum vnto the twenty foure Elders, more then was meet,* when, in their act of yeelding glory and praise, they are said to vse the same gesture of kneeling: and accordingly, you might spy out a lesse seemelinesse in the Angels, who Page  260 are dscribed by a kind of Analogie, and resemblance, to vse their Humiliation by Kneeling,* in worshipping and giuing God thankes. You must seeke out, for your owne reputation sake, some more tollerable reason than this, to proue your pretended Intentin of Christ; or else confesse that you intended nothing, but to wrangle with the Church.

SECT. XIII. Their fourth pretence to proue the Intention of Christ, is from a pretended meannesse of the Element.

*If our Sauiour had intended that the outward Elements should hue beene thus reuerenced, he would not haue made choice of bread and wine, which are so common and base.

Our Answer.

It seemeth then, by this Obiection, that you fancie Ambrosia, Nectar, Manna, or some such other Element of a more perfect nature, which may in your opinion, deserue such a Reuerence: Whereas the Sacraments of bread and wine are by you esteemed but base. I cannot, for my part, but blush in your behalfe, to heare such Turkish and Hethenish language, proceed from any Professour of Christianitie. Haue you not yet taken out S. Peters lesson,*That which God hath sanctified, let no man call common? If he could speake thus much of ordinarie meates, what an impiety must it be, to abase these Ele∣ments, which are consecrated vnto a Sacramentall vse, to be Seales of the Couenant of grace; and are most fit, of all other creatures, to expresse our vnion with Christ, and communion with all faithfull Christians?

This I vrge not, as perswaded that you can be so irreli∣giously minded, as your words may import; but to let Page  261 you vnderstand that you haue bin so far transported with preiudice, as that when you spake against due reuerence, in receiuing this blessed Sacrament, you could not but speake irreuerently.

SECT. XIIII. Their fift Pretnce, to prooue the Intention of Christ, a∣gainst Kneeling, is from the example of the Apostles.

It were great Hypocrisie in vs to pretend greater Reuerence and Deuotion in rciuing of it, then was in the Apostles;* nay if it were fit for vs, to vse Kneeling, it was much more fit for the Apostles, in e∣gard of Christ his corporall presnce among them.

Our Answer.

This Consequence is a non sequitur, and that in di∣uers respects; first, in respect of the purpose of Christ, who then made himselfe familiar with his disciples, that he might the better instruct them, whilest he was yet in the forme of an ordinary man; in so much that at the time of the institution of this Sacrament, he rose from Table, and would needs wash his disciples feet: to what end?*I haue giuen you an example (saith Christ) that as I your Lord and master haue washed your feet, you also ought to wash one anothers feet: And further professeth himselfe to haue bene amongst them, not so much as one that sat at Table, as one that was seruant vnto them.* But after his Ascention and glorification, the precept was laid vp∣on All, that All Knees should bow vnto him:* which ge∣sture, if it ought to haue bene performed at the sight of his presence in the flesh, then must they haue bene al∣wayes Kneeling.

Page  262Secondly, in respect of the Apostles themselues, who were the first choice and immediate Embasadours for Christ, and instruments of reconciliation of the world, by meanes of that most Royall Embassage, which they receiued from Christ, the King of glory; and not so only, but also who were indued with all kind of graces of Gods Spirit, as well of gifts called gratū facientia, as grae∣tis data. But we, who are exceedingly inferiour vnto those golden vessels, that were so excellently indued and sanctified, ought to thinke it our dutie, that the lesse wee are in our selues, for gifts and graces, the more we should contend to excell them (and true humilitie is voyde of hypocrisie) in humiliation.

Thirdly, the Consequence of this your owne Con∣sequence, may teach you to recant and reuoke your Conclusion; seeing that it must follow, that forasmuch as we haue no example (as I remember) of any A∣postle, that did, vpon any occasion, vse the precise gesture of kneeling vnto Christ; it must therefore follow, by your learning, that we ought not to kneele in our ordi∣nary prayers, which we make vnto Christ. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉! For it is no lesse.

Finally, you may not impute this to ignorance, or arro∣gancy in our Church; as though she either knew not the Institution of Christ, as well as other Churches; or that, knowing it, she thought her selfe wiser than the Apostles in the alteration of their gesture: for things indifferent haue their alterations and Changes, as Ships haue their diuers motions and turnings, according as their Pilots, in their discretion, shall by varietie of accidents, as it were diuersitie of winds, be occasioned to turne or returne them.

Page  263

SCT. XV. Our generall Confutations of all the Non-conformists pretences, shewing; That it was not the Intenti∣on of Christ to bind his Church to the Ge∣sture of Sitting, in receiuing the Sacrament of the Lords Supper.

Our first Confutation.

Our former distinction betweene the Ceremonies, v∣sed by Christ, at the time of the Institution of this Sacra∣ment, whereof some were onely accidentall, (which fell out by occasion of the Celebration of the Passeouer, and other Circumstances of that time;) and some essentiall, which were such as were comprised within the Lists of Christ his Precept of, Doe this, &c. doth fully discharge as well vs, in respect of the Ceremonie of ge∣sture, in itting; as it doth our Opposites, in respect of the Circumstances of time, place, number of Persons, and of the Non-conformists manner of Administration, in the Celebration of this Sacrament; as hath bene al∣ready euinced from such speciall Euidence,* which it will be sufficient in this place onely to haue pointed at.

SECT. XVI. Our second Confutation, concerning the Intention of Christ, from their owne Witnesses, acknowled∣ging, that the Intention of Christ was not to bind men vnto an imitation, in the Circumstantiall points of the Sacrament.

Two Witnesses may be as good as two-score, for the Page  264 Clearing of this point, especially beeing in the iudge∣ment of the Non-conformists so iudicious and Ortho∣doxe.*Zanchie. These things onely (saith he) that Christ commanded at his last Supper, blong to the substance throf: for he gaue two precepts, the one in these words [hoc facite] D this: in saying [this] he commndeth two things; [pr∣mum vt totum; secundum, t tantm faciamus, quod ips fcit:] so that nothng must b added or diminishd. The next prcept is in those words of doing [In remembrance of me] saith Christ, which, in respect of vs that reciue it, be∣longeth to the essence of the sacrament. But if we shall alter any thing, which is not cōmanded of God, or adde that which is not essentiall, but onely accidentall; and that not as neces∣sarie, but as indifferent, or decent, or for order, or edification; it followeth not that the worship instituted by Christ, is any whit changed. As for example, Christ instituted this Sa∣crament in the night; but the Apostles exrcised it after∣wards in the morning, shall this be accounted a detracting from the institution of Christ? No, for Christ commanded not that it should be celebrated in the night, but onely that we should Do [Quod, non quo tempore] What, and not in what time, he did it. The same may we say of [Vinum dilu∣tum] the mixture of wine with water, vsed in the Church in the dayes of Iustin Martyr, according as Christ (which is probable) did. Adde vnto this, that the ancient Bishops, in the Administration of the Supper, changed their vestures; which did not appertaine to the altering of the Supper: but that, which is either taken away from the institution, or ad∣ded thereunto, as necessary, that doth corrupt the Lords Insti∣tution.*The Apostles did not imitate Christ, in putting off their garments, and washing of others feet, as Christ did, be∣cause this belonged not vnto the essence of the Sacrament. The essentialls are comprehended vnder those words of Page  265 Christ, [hoc facite, Do this] which he spake concerning wa∣shing of feete.

Our second Witnesse is M. Beza,* who writing his resolution, concerning another question, viz. whether the people might receiue the Sacramentall bread, from the hands of the Priest, with their mouthes onely, and not with their hands? doth determine as followeth; Christ com∣mandeth vs to take it, and the receiuing with the mouth, is a kind of taking; not but that it were better to receiue it ac∣cording to the first example, both with hand and mouth: but that which is better, is not alwayes absolutely necessary. You will say that Christ commanded the other, in saying, [Take] I grant it, but so, as to vnderstand that [primaria intentio Christ] his primarie intendment was to preserue the forme of the Sacrament, and not to stand too strictly vpon that, which is not absolutely necessarie. Christ commanded vs to Baptize, signifying immersion; shall we therefore say that Aspersion is no right Baptisme? so then, [ipsa sumptio, non sumendi modus praecisè praescribitur,] but you will say,* we are commanded neither to adde, nor detract any thing from the institution of Christ; I grant it, but the question is who are to be said to adde, or detract, &c.

I cannot forget, that this aberration of Popery hath bene condemned by me, as a transgression of the pre∣cept and practise of Christ, who, as he gaue the Sacra∣ment into the hands of his Disciples, so did hee also or∣daine, that it should bee obserued; that being one of the Circumstances, whereof he commanded, saying, [Do this:] so that the contrary Doing of the Papists, in putting the Sacrament into the mouthes of the peo∣ple, by iudging them too profane, to touch such Ho∣ly Mysteries with their hands; (as if a Christian mans lippes were more hallowed than his fingers) Page  266 this I must still hold to be a notable peece of Superstiti∣on. And although, with M. Beza, I acknowledge that it doth not detract from the substance of the Sacrament it selfe, yet doth it derogate from the precept of Christ his Institution thereof.

M. Beza doth else-where discusse the nature of Cir∣cumstantiall and accidentall points in another instance. We may not contend (saith he) about the bread, whether it be vnleauened or leauened,*albeit we thinke that common bread is more conuenient vnto the ordinance of Christ; for why did Christ vse Azymes, but onely becase at that time there was no other bread, to be had? How could these wit∣nesses haue spoken more pertinently, or fully, to prooue that it was not the Intention of Christ to bind vs more necessarily to an imitation of the gesture of Sitting, at the Celebration of this Communion; then it doth to other circumstances of time, places, persons, sexes, and the like?

SECT. XVII. Our third Confutation of the Non-conformists, con∣cerning the intention of Christ, is taken from the Non-conformists themselues, by their owne confession of the liber∣tie of Sitting.

*You your selues multiply many Testimonies, telling vs that M. Bullinger maketh it an indifferent thing, whe∣ther the Church receiue it sitting, or comming to the Table, but the most agreeable to the Institution (saith he) is Sit∣ting.*And M. Fox, speaking of the Primitiue Church, saith, that the Communion was administred, either sitting at Supper, or else standing after Supper: and in Eusebius, Page  267 Dionysius, Bishop of Alexandria, Anno 157. writeth of the manner of one, that stood at the Communion-Table: also,*Do∣ctor Fulke affirmeth out of Gregory Nazianzen, Anno 380. who saith of the Communion Table, that it was set that men might come round about: Lastly,*M. Iewell writeth that in Basil, in his time, euery man was bound to take the Communion standing.

This, which you vse, in your bookes, as an Obiection against vs, we make bold to returne, as an euident Con∣uiction against your selues: because now you cannot but see your feet in that stocks, which is called a Dilemma. For if that we, as you haue said, are bound to the gesture of Sitting, by the example of Christ, how commeth it to passe that you now allow of a bond of the Primitiue Church, for the gesture of standing? Can you so easily suffer standing to shoulder sitting out of his due place? But if that you can so willingly admit of standing, why were you already so instant in pressing vpon vs the neces∣sitie of sitting? or are you now so vehement, in excluding all indifferency of kneeling? Consider, I pray you, whe∣ther there be not the like Analogie, betweene kneeling and sitting▪ as there can be betweene sitting and standing. This Argument we haue drawne, as was said, from your owne Obiection; and so are you out-shot in your owne Bowe.

SECT. XVIII. Their third Accusation against the gesture of Kneeling, at the receiuing of the holy Communion, from the example of the Primitiue Church.

The Primitiue Churches, for sundry hundred yeeres,* vsed to re∣ceiue it standing; for Tert. (who liued Anno 180,) reporteth thus, as the Custome of his time, and Tradition receiued from the Apostles, Page  268 that it was vnlawfull to Kneele vpon the Lords day, or vpon any other day betweene Easter and Pentecost; and Anno 127. it was decreed in the Councell of Nice, that none might pray kneeling vpon the Lords day; the reason is commended out of the Canon Law; be∣cause on this day is celebrated the ioyfull remembrance of the Lords resurrection.

Our Answer.

This Custome of the Primitiue Church, in standing at the time of publike prayer, for the testifying of their faith in the Article of the Resurrection, was then held most requisite, when as yet that Fundamentall Article of Christian faith was generally impugned, and gain say∣ed by some Iewes; by diuers Heretiks; & by all Pagans: which occasioned the Primitiue Fathers, in those ages, to ordaine, that all Christians, for the better manifesting of euery mans professiō herein, should vse that publike ge∣sture of standing. But afterwards, when the faith of the re∣surrection had generally taken root in the hearts of men, thē this Ceremony of standing in prayer did, by little & lit∣tle, vanish in some places, together with the cause therof.

First then, in this example of the Primitiue Church, we see a gesture of standing, as a Ceremony Ecclesiasticall: Se∣condly, the end thereof, for a ioyfull remembrance of the Lords Resurrection, which maketh the Ceremonie to be sig∣nificant: Thirdly, that this was applyed to Gods publicke worship. These considerations may serue for an ample Confutation of your former generall Positions, wherby you condemned our Three Ceremonies, to wit; Surplice, Crosse, and Kneeling, because, forsooth they are Ceremo∣nies of humaine inuention, of mysticall signification, and ap∣propriated to the seruice of God. Now therefore, if you al∣low of the foresaid practise of the Primitiue Church, why haue you formerly impugned it? If you do not approue thereof, why do you now obiect it? But more of this hereafter.

Page  269Our second Inference needeth no dilatation, which is briefly this; that the example of the Primitiue Church, in changing the gesture of Sitting into Standing, doth demonstrate the liberty that the Church hath, in altering and changing all such kind of Rytes.

SECT. XIX. Their fourth Accusation, against the Gesture of Kneeling, at the receiuing of the Sacrament, is from the opinion of the necessity thereof; as well by the learned, as by the vnlearned.

1. Of the vnlearned.

Many people in the Land thinke that this gesture of Kneeling is necessarie.*

Our Answer.

The errour of the people, if there be any such, is to be imputed vnto two sorts of Ministers; the one kinde are too idle, or too ignorant; that they either cannot, or else care not to instruct their people, in these points: the other sort are too busie, who falsly impose vpon the Church an erronious opinion of the necessity of these Ceremonies, which she, in their owne knowledge, hath alwaies abhorred in the Romish Professors; and disclai∣med and renounced among her owne. But, it may be, the principall errour is the iealousie of the Accusers, who vse to suspect an errour in many, in stead of a few; or (for ought that I know) of any, that holdeth this ge∣stures as essentiall vnto the Communion.

Page  270

SECT. XX. Their taxation of the Learned.

*Yea and the learned, as it is in the Communion booke of King Edward the sixt, say, that the vse of kneeling is to auoide profana∣tion.

Our Answer.

Are you then of opinion, either that Sacraments cannot be prophaned; or that the Church had not rea∣son to preuent, or auoide, the prophanation of this Sa∣crament of the Eucharist? If that the Sacraments were not subiect to profanation, then should they not be Sa∣craments. For Gods most glorious Name is subiect to mans blasphemy; Mans holy life, to infamy; Godlines, to scorne; Truth, to slander; and all sacred things, vn∣to the prophanenesse of godlesse men: otherwise, nei∣ther things could be said to be Sacred, nor godlesse men profane.

As for the wisedome of our Church, in this case; she, perceiuing the blasphemous mouthes of the Papists to vilifie the Sacrament of our Lord Iesus, administred in our Church, with the ignominious names of Bakers Bread, Vintners Wine, prophane Elements, Ale-cakes, and such like reproachfull termes; did hold it fit, that we, by our outward reuerence in the manner of receiuing of the Eucharist, might testifie our due estimation of such holy Rytes (which are consecrated to so blessed an vse, as is communion of the body and bloud of Christ,) and that thereby we might repell the staine and ignominie, which such virulent and vnhallowed tongues did cast vpon them.

Be you contented, by the way, to be put in mind of your owne ignorance, by confounding an Accidentall,Page  271 and an Esentiall necessity together; whereas you ought to haue distinguished them, and acknowledged, that as it is necessary for the Patint to take some receipts of physicke, not as essentiall, as his daily food; but acciden∣tall, because of his present infirmitie: So may we say, that the Gesture of Kneeling is not prescribed, as a ne∣cessarie forme of receiuing the Communion; for then should we condemne not onely the present, but also the primitiue Churches; but yet as necessarie for the refor∣ming of the prophane, and irreligious behauiour of ma∣ny, in these wrtched dayes wherein we liue.

SECT. XXI. Their fift Accusation, against the Gesture of Knee∣lng, at the receiuing of the Sacrament, is from the fist Inuention thereof; as being Antichristian.

The vse of Kneeling in receiuing the Sacrament,* grew first from the perswasion of the reall presence, and Transubstantiation; being neuer inioyned to any Church till Antichrist grew to the full height, there being no action in all his seruice so Idolatrous as this. It was appointed by Honorius the third, anno 1220.

Our Answer.

There are three things considerable, in our custome; the first is a gesture of outward Adoration; the second is this kind of gesture, which is Kneeling; the third is to know, whereunto the Adoration is directed. First there∣fore, that, in the daies of ancient Fathers, there was vsed an outward Adoration, at the receiuing of holy Sa∣craments, by bowing of the body, is so knowne a truth, that the Non-conformists themselues will acknowledge it: otherwise I should haue alleaged, to this purpose, Page  272Cyril of Ierusalem Catech. mystagog. 5. ad recens baptiza∣ts,*pag. 546. Ambrose lib. 3. desp. S. c. 12. Greg. Naz. de obit. Greg. August. in Psalm. 98. Nemo carnem illam man∣ducat, priusquam adorauerit; & Chrysost. ad Pop. Antioch. hom 61. Adora, & Communica.

Which Testimonies, although they do not all iustifie the Popish manner of Adoration, whereby the Papists adore (in an opinion of Transubstantiation) the Element of bread, as the very person of the Son of God; yet do they euince an outward Humiliation of the body to God, and vnto Christ, at the receiuing of these pledges, as from the hands of Christ: which the words of Cyril, in the place aboue cited, do explaine, who speaking of ta∣king the Cup, saith; 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. Bowing thy selfe, after a manner of Adoration,*and worship saying, Amen. Here you haue a gesture of Adoration, I say not to the Cup; but, at the re∣ceiuing of the Cup, vnto Christ, by relation of a gift, from a Giuer: I say againe vnto Christ; for that Adora∣tion was directed vnto him, vnto whom the oration and prayer was due, in saying, Amen.

In the next place, after we haue learned that there was a gesture of Adoration vsed, we are to enquire con∣cerning this gesture of Kneeling. Is not this a gesture of Adoration, which is often both commended and com∣manded in holy Scripture? If then the Adoration of Christ, in receiuing of this gift be lawfull; Shall the more humble gesture make the act of Adoration lesse lawfull?

The third point remaineth, which is to vnderstand aright, whereunto, or to whom this Adoration is to be directed, without danger of Idolatry. This is taught vs by our Liturgie; according herein, with the most Page  273 ancient Liturgies of the Primitiue Church: Sursum corda, Lift vp your hearts, to wit, vnto the Father of our Lord Iesus Christ, that gaue his Sonne; and vnto Christ himselfe, the Lambe of God, that sitteth vpon the Throne, that gaue himselfe for our redemption, by his body and bloud.

Now, to come to the point, and, for the present, to grant that some wicked Pope had inuented Adoration, by Kneeling; yet are wee notwithstanding discreetly to distinguish of colours, lest that, for want of due cir∣cumspection, we call Blacke white, and white blacke.

To this purpose, I shall expedite this doubt, by cer∣taine demands. I aske then, first, whether euery Inuen∣tin is to be condemned, because the Authour thereof was some euill Pope? He that should affirme this, must consquently deny the vse of a Gunne; because the In∣uentor thereof was a Fryar: or the wearing of a Coate, because the Taylor happily was a Theefe.

Secondly, I aske, shall we condemne the gesture it selfe, because it is Kneeling? To affirme this, were con∣sequently to condemne, not so much the Inuention of man, as the Ordinance of God; who often requireth in his worship the act of Kneeling.

Thirdly, I aske, must we therefore refuse this gesture because it is for Adoration? To affirme this, were con∣sequently to disallow the ancient custome of bowing the body, for that was a gesture of Adoration.

Fourthly, I aske, ought we to abhorre this gesture of Kneeling, onely as it was applyed by the Pope, for a Di∣uine Adoration of the Hoast it selfe? This we confesse to be indeed, a Popish Inuention, and as execrable an Idola∣try as Christendome hath euer seene; and to condemne this onely, is fully to iustifie our Church, which doth as Page  274 much detest that abhomination, as any Aduersarie of that Romish Synagogue.

As for Honorius, whom you fancy to haue bene the first Inuentor of the foresaid manner of Adoration by Kneeling, it is more then my bookes do teach me; sure I am, that you will witnesse Zepperus saith: Honorius de∣creuit,*vt cum eleutur h••tia slutaris, qusque se reueren∣ter inclinet: Which words [to incline reuerenth] do no∣tifie vnto vs rather the bowing of the body, that the ben∣ding of the knee: albeit I will not contend about the fist Authour of this Adoration, whether Honorius, or In∣nocentius; for it is not materiall.

SECT. XXII. Their sixt Accusation, against the gesture of Knee∣ling, is taken from the Popish Abuse thereof.

The gesture of kneeling in the act of receiuing, is notoriosy knowne to haue bene of old,* and to be still abused to Idolatry by Papists, by whom it is dily vsed in the wor••ip of their breaden god: ad that vpon an I••latrous intent, that the bread is become God: yea and one of their strongest Arguments, to iustifie that their Ido∣latrous, conceit of Transubstantiation, is, because else the Church ••ould commit Idolatry, in kneeling before the Elements.

Our Answer.

And it is as well knowne, that Protestants, in Kneeling at the receiuing of the consecrated Elements, do not buse them to Idolatry; but do as much hate the Romish Moloch, to wit, that their breaden god, as doth any Non-conformist: knowing and professing that truth, which Theodoret a thousand two hundred yeares since, pub∣lished in expresse termes, saying; that Bread, after the Page  275 words of Consecration, doth remaine still bread,*both in forme, in figure, and in substance. Whereby the infatua∣tion of the Romanists appeareth to be palpably grosse; the rather because they can haue no colour of euasion, as I haue shewed else-where.

SECT. XXIII. The seuenth and last Accusation, vsed by the Non-conformists, against the gesture of Knee∣ling, is a pretence of Idolatry.

This gesture is used as a part of Gods worship,* becuse it is hel〈◊〉 a reliious A••ration by all men.

Our Answer.

If you could demonstrate, that this gesture is either vsed as a proper part of Gods worship, or else that it re∣ceiueth from vs that Popish Adoration, which you pre∣tend; then might you with one breath iustifie your op∣position against the Church, and condemne her im∣position of such Rytes vpon you: but that, in proofe, this, as likewise the rest of our Ceremonies, are not maintained or obserued in our Church, as essentiall parts of worship, but onely as circumstantiall, and conue∣nient adiuncts, and appendices; we haue already be∣stowed an whole Chapter.* And as for our manner of Kneeling, heere questioned, we make no doubt to vin∣dicate it from all crime of Idolatry; yea, or the least sus∣pition thereof.

Page  276

SECT. XXIIII. The first Reason of the Non-conformists to proue our manner of Kneeling Idolatrous, because, before a Creature.

*To adore God in, or before any creature, without warrant of the word of God, is Idolatry.

Our Answer.

This Position may not run current, without all ex∣ception; for to exclude, from the act of the Adoration of God, or of Christ, all these Prepositions of by, in, be∣fore, onely in respect of the creatures; were consequent∣ly to forbid vs to pray by, or, with our tongues, the In∣struments of Adoration: or, In the Temple, the house of God, and the place of the solemne Adoration; or yet either directly against vs, Before the Table of this sa∣cred Banquet, and Supper, called the Lords Table; or else vpwards Before the heauens aboue, towards the Ce∣lestiall seate and Sanctuary of God. Therefore except you will compell vs to Adore God, with our lippes and eyes shut, you must admit of some limitation; and, by some distinction, shew, when, or how a man may adore, by, in or before a creature, without Idolatry: where∣of we are to say more in the Sections following.

SECT. XXV. Their second Reason, to proue our fore-said Gesture of Kneeling Idolatrous, because there is in it a Relatiue worship.

*Because all relatiue Adoration of God, before a creature, with respect vnto it, is Idolatry. But the reuerence vsed in the re∣ceiuing Page  277 of the Sacrament, is a relatiue adoration of Christ, with re∣spect vnto the Sacrament; for they say, they do reuerence to the Sa∣crament, which is Idolatrous.

Our Answer.

We expected that you would at least haue endeuored to proue, in our manner of Kneeling, a Popish kind of rela∣tiue worship, which is (as in their Cucifixe) to fastn our diuine Adoraton vpon the Creature, that it may so, by a representatiue relaton, be conueied vnto the Creator; whereof we are to speake in the Section following. But, in stead of worship, by representatiue relation to Christ, you speake onely of a Relation from God vnto the Cra∣ture, telling vs of a relatiue Adoration of Christ, with res∣pect vnto the Sacrament, which is extremely different, as you may iudge by your owne Actions.

For do not you your selues allow a relatiue Reuerence (and that iustly) in reading the word of God; a Reue∣rence in praying vnto God; a Reuerence in religious hal∣lowing of the Lords day; a Reuerence in entring into the solemne place of Gods worship, which is the house of God? and haue not all these a relatiue respect betweene God and his Creatures? for the Scriptures, which are but lines of Incke, are Creatures, yet such as are called holy Scriptures; and are Signes exprssing vnto vs the Truth of God. The words of mans voice are such Creatures, which by ancient learning are called 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉; that is, the Signes of things signified thereby; and being v∣sed in prayer vnto God, do present our Humilitie, thanke∣fulnesse, and Adoration vnto him. The Sabbaoth day is, as all other dayes, a Creature of God, and yet is set apart, and appropriated by GOD vnto his Adoration; and Page  278 commanded, in that regard, to be hallowed of vs, which is in a respect that we haue from God vnto it. The so∣lemne place of Gods worship, where-soeuer it bee, is a Creature of God, and hath reference vnto God, as an house to the owner thereof. Now shall these be vsed with a Religious Reuerence, and with a relatiue respect, and shall onely the blessed Sacrament of our Lord Iesus Christ bee Celebrated without any such Reuerence? Procul hinc, pro∣cul este—.

But I know you cannot be so profanely-minded to∣ward this Sacrament, because you are not ignorant, that this is the whole Argument of tht Chapter of S. Paul, 1. Cor. 11. telling them of the visible Iudgements of God vpon many of the Corinthians,* thus, Many of you are sicke, and many are asleepe,* (that is dead,) but why? [ob hanc causam,] for this cause, saith the Apostle, to wit, because they came so profanely vnto it, as if they had come to the heathenish Bacchanals, or to their owne Domesticall Tables. For thus he saith; Haue you not houses to eate and drinke in?*but you come hither, not discerning the Lords bo∣die? As if he had said, do you come so homely vnto this spirituall Banquet, ordained for the refreshing and reple∣nishing of your soules, which you are to partake of, with hope of remission of your sinnes, in this life; and of a blessednesse both of your bodies and soules, in the Re∣surrection of the iust, through the vertue and price of your redemption, by the death of Christ, in his body Crucified, and blood shed for you?

Page  279

SECT. XXVI. Their first Confirmation of the aforesaid pretended I∣dolatry, by relatiue worship, in Kneeling.

Yea there hat bene fun in a•• age, the roote of Idolatry (if not grosse Idolatry it selfe) to iue to the signe that shew of outward Re∣uerence and Aoration, which is du to the thing signified,* and to the giuer himslfe.

Our Answer.

What a sinister supposition is this? as though that the Reuerence, due to Chist, were giuen vnto the Sacra∣ment of Christ? this, we confesse, were true Idolatry.

You may not thinke much, if our Church do now sharpen her Censures and Corections against you, who thus multiply your Caluniations against her, es∣pecially in this branding her with no lesse heynous a Crime than Idolatry, which is (as being the most vile of all other) called in holy writ, not onely abominable, but also abomination it selfe. It will therefore concerne you to make good your godlesse aspersion, by some manner of reason; for this, which you deliuered in the last place, is rather a reproofe of your supposed guiltines, than any proofe thereof.

SCT. XXVII. Their scond Confirmation of the pretended rela∣tiue Idolatrous worshp.

Else why is it not vsd in Baptisme, as well as at this Sacrament,* excpt that, with the Idolatrous Papists, we wil say that it is of grea∣ter dignitie thn the Sacrament of Baptisme?

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Our Answer.

Nay rather seeing that you know the doctrine of the Church to esteeme both the Sacraments of equall digni∣tie (for as much as they proceede from the same autho∣ritie of our Sauiour, and are ordained for the same end, euen to be seales of faith, concerning the promises of saluation vnto vs) Why do you make such an odious obiection; and not rather thinke that this Reuerence is inioyned, without any Papisticall intent? Cannot this sa∣tisfie you, but you will stil exclaime and say, Why is this reuerence done at the receiuing of the Eucharist, except it be with the Idolatrous Papists? I tell you, this is done, not to consent with the Idolatrous Papists, but absolutely to confute them, who cannot but acknowledge, that our Sacrament of Baptisme is a very perfect Baptisme, accor∣ding both to the essentiall matter, and manner, which Christ himselfe ordained. But as for our Sacrament of the Eucharist,* they do (as hath bene shewen) vilifie it as common and ordinarie bread and wine. The difference then, as you see, is, not in an opinion, that the Eucharist is of greater dignitie than Baptisme with vs; but because it is of lesse esteeme among the Papists.

Notwithstanding be not offended with me, if that I cannot thinke any of you so irreligious, as not to be wil∣ling to kneele reuerently in holy prayer vnto God, in the time of the Celebration of Baptisme; especially when prayer is vsed to God, to blesse his owne ordinance in the behalfe of the child. Which manner of worship, is so farre from Idolatrie, that the very Infant baptized, if it could speake, would say, that the Adoration, there, is not directed vnto the Element of the water, but vnto God, for his grace vpon the child.

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SCT. XXVIII. Their third Confutation of the pretended Idolatry, by Relatiue woship.

Or why do we not condemne te Papists,* for Kneeling and praying before a Crucifixe? This Bellarmine → doth inferre vpon the opinion of them that hold, that Christ, although he be not corporally present, may be adored in the Sacrament; then, saith he, it is not Idolatry to Kneele bfore an Image. And indeed thus the Papists answer: Wee (say they) do not worship vnto the Image, but vnto God that is re∣presented thereby.

Our Answer.

There is, in the place alledged,* obiected against Prote∣stants a Testimony out of Nazianzen; in the same place P. Martyrs Answer to that Testimony is fully related; then followeth the Reply of Bellarmine → , vpon that An∣swer of P. Martyr; and now our Non-conformists bring in their reference from Bellarmines Reply. So that this play consisteth necessarily of foure parts; Nazianzen the speaker, P. Martyr, the expounder, Bellarmine → the Re∣plyer, and the Non-conformist, the Applyers of Bellarmins conceit. It will not displease our Reader, to see each par∣tie Act his owne part.

First, Nazianzens Testimony is this; Super Altare coli Christum: Christ is Adored vpon the Altar. Whence the Papists collect, that men must adore, with diuine wor∣ship, the Sacrament that is vpon the Altar. Secondly, P. Martyr Answereth; Coli quidem Christum, sed coli in Symbolo, sicut in symbolo significatur: That is, Christ is worshipped in the signe, is he is signified therby.

Thirdly, Bllarmine replyeth; Then (saith he) may it be lawfull to fall downe before the signe, and to Adore Christ there, although absent frō thence; & consequenly is it lawfull Page  282 to fall downe, and worship the Eucharist, and Images of Christ; neither is this Idolatry, as Protestants exclaime.

Fourthly, hence our Non-conformists follow Bellar∣mine, and borrow of that good fellow his staffe, to knock their fellow brethren: but leaue P. Martyr, now defen∣ding the common Cause of all Protestants; as if they had conspired, to betray their owne Adoration into the hands of a common Aduersarie.

But we must in part excuse them; because they dealt not thus in malice, against his person; but in ignorance of his iudgement: for P. Martyr, discussing the same Ar∣gument else-where, doth fully expresse his owne mea∣ning.*Adoration (saith he) consisteth in Inuocation, con∣fession, and giuing of thankes, all which are due vnto God, and vnto Christ, wheresoeuer they do manifest themselues vnto vs; which is done three manner of wayes; First, by the inward thought of the heart moued by the Spirit of God, in our earnest apprehension of God, and of Christ: then fol∣loweth our Adoration of them, by inuocating, Confession, and giuing of thankes. Secondly, they declare themselues some∣times by externall words, as by holy Scriptures, & godly Ser∣mons. And thirdly, by outward signes, as in the Arke of the Couenant, and in our Sacraments; yet so, that Adorati∣on be not fixed vpon the symbols, or signes, but, in Spirit and in Truth, vpon Christ sitting on the right hand of God in Heauen. Notwithstanding, because the simple people, by reason of the errour of Transubstantiation, rooted in them, cannot so easily vnderstand this, I should thinke, that men should abstaine from outward prostrating themselues in kneeling, vntill they bee better instructed. I confesse that many do godlily kneele, and Adore at the hearing of these words, [Et verbum caro factum est,] where notwithstanding not the words, but the things are adored: euen so the signes Page  283 in the Sacrament are not adored.

Wherein P. Martyr could haue no other meaning, than, by a significatiue relation, from the signe, to the thing signified. For a man, in Kneeling at the Sacrament, should vpon the sight thereof abstract his thoughts from the sensible obiect, and lifting vp both his eyes and his heart vnto heauen, should Adore, that is (as he saith) inuocate, confesse, and giue thankes vnto God, and vnto Christ.

But how shall this Answer iustifie the Popish manner of worship; Kneeling before, and to an Image; sometimes inuocating the Image it selfe, and fixing their thoughts vpon it; or at least vsing to Adore Christ, with it? as we shall proue. Whereas, contrariwise, this our Adoration of Christ, arising from the sight of the Sacrament, is no more, in the iudgement of P. Martyr, than when at the hearing of the sensible words of the Scripture, or of a godly Sermon, our thoughts are not fixed vpon the E∣lements of words and syllables, but by them are eleua∣ted and drawne vnto Inuocation, and thanksgiuing vnto God. According to this meaning, P. Martyr (you see) alloweth Kneeling, at the receiuing of the Sacrament, to a peple instructed. Now if, after three-score yeeres prea∣ching, our people haue not bene sufficiently instructed, the cause must be imputed either to the ignorance, or negligence of their Teachers; except you will haue vs thinke, that they are past instruction. Hitherto of our particular Answer.

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SECT. XXIX. Our more generall Confutation of the Non-conformists, prouing both that a Reuerence is due, at the recei∣uing of the blessed Sacrament; and that the Reuerence, by Kneeling, hath not Affinity with Romish Idolatry, first, by Rea∣son, and the grounds thereof.

As differences of Colours are best discerned, when they are compared together; so may we most easily di∣stinguish the diuers opinions, both of our Protestants from Papists, and of Papists, among themselues, concer∣ning Relatiue, or Respectiue worship, by onely relating of their different obiects; especially in these termes, con∣cerning Reuerence. We shall therefore first discouer the errour of Poperie herein: and so will the truth of our Re∣uerence be better discerned.

SECT. XXX. Our first ground of Confutation is, by discouering of the Romish superstition, in her maner of worship, whether Relatiue, or Absolute, or ioyntly both.

The Relatiue maner of Worship, (as it is professed in the Church of Rome) appeareth to be of two sorts, according to the two different opinions of her professors.

SECT. XXXI. The first opinion of Romish Relatiue worship, and our difference from it.

Some Romanists are produced, by Bell. to hold only this Page  285 respect in their worship, by an Image; namely,* to fall downe Before it, and By it, and In it, to honour the person that is represented thereby: which opinion he attributeth vnto Alexander, Durand, and Aphosus de Castro: vnto whom Suarez the Iesuit adioyneth Hel••t,* and Picus Mi∣randula. Amongst these, Durand may speake for the rest. This kind of woship of an Image (saith e) is but improper∣ly and abusiuely so called, because, by the image, we haue a re∣membrance of the person; whch is worshpped as well in the presence of the Imge, s if he wre realy present.

This opinion, among many other intollerable con∣ceits of the Papists, about their relatiue worship, seemeth most tollerable; and yet I may aske any ingenuous man, whether he euer heard (I do not say our Church, but) any pproued Doctor therin, teach, that we do, or ought to Kneele before the Sacrament; that By it, or In it, we may personally worship Christ, as if he were relly present.

But you peraduenture will aske me, what is then the respect, that we haue to Christ in this receiuing? Haue patience a while, vntill we shall come to this point; & be not too hasty to vrge vs, to deliuer all at once. It is a dan∣gerous thing for men to gallop in rough & rocky waies.*

For the present, be content to know, that whereas the Papist doth directly prostrate himselfe to the Crucifix or Image, with an opinion of holines and efficacy in that ob∣iect, to make his prayers more acceptable; and therefore hath some cōfidence In-it, & by-it, to be more easily heard of God: this cannot but be exceedingly superstitious. But our Kneeling is not so directed, that either In hc ob∣iecto, vel per illud, we may be more acceptable, but we vse it, tanquàm obiectum à quo, that vpon sight of this Sa∣crament, as a visible Word, (euen as at the hearing of the audible words of Gods booke) our hearts may be Page  286 moued to a spirituall contemplation of God, and of Christ, vnto whom we pray. The Papists adoration is somewhat Inhaesiuè in obiecto, or adhaesiuè per obiectum; but ours is, abstractiuè, ab obiecto. Thus much of the first manner of Relatiue Worship.

SECT. XXXII. The second Romish Opinion of Relatiue worship, and our difference from it.

You haue obiected, against vs, the Papists in generall; and by name haue called in Bellarmine → for your Proctor: We are desirous to heare him speake, and deliuer vnto vs that opinion, which he himselfe holdeth, and defen∣deth, as the generall doctrine of the Romish Church. And it standeth thus. Images are to be worshipped with the same honour,*wherewith the person represented is honoured, although improperly, and accidentally. How like you this peece of learning? I know, you abhorre it, and our Church (you know) doth as much detest it, as your selues.

Yet is this the man, forsooth, from whom you lear∣ned to compare the Romish worship of a Crucifixe, with our worshipping of Christ, in receiuing of the Lords Sacrament. That therefore you may be confuted (as the Schoole speaketh) euen Interminis, I shall entreate your Proctor to expresse the meaning of his former proposition, in their manner of worship of the Crucifixe; Euen as (saith he) when the Preacher saith vn∣to the Crucifixe, [Tu redemisti nos] this is spoken to the Cru∣cifix, not as it is an Image, or as it is wood; but as it is taken in stead of Christ himselfe: that is, they are spoken to Christ himselfe, whom it doth represent.

Page  287I returne to the proposition, as it is deliuered by Sua∣rez, a principall Iesuit.*The Image is and ought to be ado∣red with the same worship, wherewith the person signified is honoured. Which he laboureth to proue by the Coun∣cell of Trent; where it is thus decreed:*By Images which we kisse, and before which we fall downe [Christum ado∣ramus, — & Sanctos veneramur] that is, We adore Christ, and reuerence the Saints. Whereupon the Iesuit maketh this Comment: Per [adoramus] latria; & per [venera∣mur] dulia significatur. By [adore] is signified [latria:] meaning the worship, which, they say, is proper vnto God (so they professe to adore Christ in worshipping an Image:) and by [reuerence] is signified Dulia, which is that worship wherewith they say, in worshipping of the Ima∣ges of Saints, they honour the Saints.

And consult both with Bellarmine → and Suarez, and the whole Schoole of Iesuites, reporting vnto vs the doctrine of the Church of Rome at this day; and they all conclude, that the Image of Christ or of God, is ho∣noured Eodem actu latriae; with the same act of Latria, which they call Diuine worship; Quamuis modo quodam inferiori. Are not these excellent Chimists, who can extract a Degree of worship Inferiour to that which is Diuine, from an Act of worship which is properly Diuine? Which if they could; yet how shall they make their peo∣ple so metaphysicall?

But what will you say to all this? do not your con∣sciences tell you, that the Religion of our Church hath catechised you, from your infancy, to execrate and condemne all such sacrilegious Relation of the Worship of signes, as this is; wherein they professe in the very same act of Adoration (which they call Latria, that is, a worship proper to the Diuine Maiestie) to adore both the crea∣ture, Page  288 and the Creator; yet (as they will make vs beleeue) to the one modo quodam inferiori, which is a Metaphysi∣call conceit, apprehending a difference of manner in the Identitie of action, whereof their people (in whom Ignorance is the Mother of Deuotion) are no doubt very capable. For how can they, in an act of Latria to an (according to the ancient acceptation of the word) Idoll, free themselues of all Idolatrie? Thus much of the Romish manner of Relatiue worship.

SECT. XXXIII. The Romish Decree and absolute manner of worship both of an Image, and of the Sacrament. First concerning an Image.

Their profession heerein is to worship the Image (tan∣quam obiectum quod colitur,) euen that which they see, and kneele before; this Bellarmine → discouereth in two proposi∣tions. The first; The Images of Christ and of the Saints are to be worshipped not onely improperly,*by themselues, and not as they do represent any person, so that the Images them∣selues terminate (I may render it, possesse) that worship, as they are considered in themselues, and not as they represent any person. And he addeth saying; If that Images were not to be worshipped, but onely improperly; as signes, before which; or, by which; or, in which the person represented is honoured: thē may we deny (saith he) that any are to be worshipped at al.

Now that you haue heard your Proctor speak, & tell you that the Romish Church alloweth a worship of Ima∣ges without relation vnto any person, whose Images they be: You are chargeable to shew that this superstition may be iustly imputed vnto vs. It is manifest that you cannot: for the worship, which you call into question, is onely relatiue; and this of Bellarmine → is professedly giuen to Images, and to signes, without any relation at all.

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SECT. XXXIIII. The second absolute, and direct Romish worship of the Sacrament, Idolatrously.

It is the Romish profession, to adore the Sacrament (name∣ly the corporall substance contained therein) as the very person of the Son of God, in the proper substance of his bodily presence; which we iudge Idolatrous, not onely by an Accidentall possibility, but by an absolute infallibility.

For first, that the worshippers do adore the bread with diuine honour, in stead of Christ himselfe (which possi∣bility the Doctors of the Romish Church do cōfesse) may happen to their Adoration of the Eucharist, by reason of many possible accidents: as if he that consecrateth haue not had a true Ordination; or,* in consecrating of the Sa∣crament, haue not a right Intention; or, in vttering the words of Consecration, faile in his syllabicall pronuncia∣tion; or, if the formes of the Sacraments themselues, by vnfit admixtion, or putrifaction, lose their perfection. In all these (for euerie one of them is possible) possibilities it may fall out that the Romish worshippers do adore with Diuine honour the element of bread, in stead of the Son of God: which what is it but, at least, an Accidentall Ido∣latry; but yet true Idolatry?

They haue, in this case, no other colour of euasion, than to tell vs, that when they kneele downe to adore this Sacrament, they do it with an implicite and inward con∣ceit of the minde, saying; If Christ be present, then I adore thee &c. But this is a most miserable shift, to make Adora∣tion (which is the highest honour, & homage, which man oweth properly to God) vnto an Hypothetical beleefe [if Christ be there.] The truth of God telleth vs, that who∣soeuer cōmeth to God, He must beleeue that God is, that is, Page  290 honour him with a Diuine faith, that he is wheresoeuer he is adored: But in Ifs and Ands, that is, in fallibilities, there can be no Diuine faith. Ergo, this Suppositiue faith is meerely supposititious; because it is impossible, that the Ielousie of God should admit of a doctrine, or Religion, whereby it must necessarily happen sometime, that the creature should be worshipped with honour, properly due vnto the Creator himselfe. This be spoken of the possibility.

How much more Idolatrous must they appeare to be, when as, by necessary consequences from Scripture, iudgement of ancient Fathers, and the aduocation of the perfectest Senses of man, it may be infallibly proued, that that which they adore, as Christ himselfe, remaineth still in figure, forme, and substance, the same Bread, that it was before Consecration? This inferreth such an infal∣libilitie of their Idolatry, that it is impossible, but the Po∣pish Adoration of this Sacrament must be Idolatrous. From which kind of Idolatry, whether possible, or infal∣lible, you will free vs, before we conclude this cause.

Hitherto haue we shewne what kinde of worship, in receiuing the Sacrament, ours is not; namely, not Po∣pish; whether you consider the Relatiue kinde of wor∣ship, by making the Sacrament an obiect of Adoration, In quo, or per quod: or else the absolute manner of Ado∣ration, by worshipping the Sacrament, tanquam obie∣ctum, quod adoratur. We are now to shew, what is the obiect of our Reuerence, in receiuing the Sacrament.

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SECT. XXXV. The Relatiue Reuerence, which is vsed in our Church, in respect of the Sacrament, is without note of Idolatry.

First, if our Relation be made from the Signe to Christ, the thing signified; then, is the Sacrament, ob∣iectum à quo significatiuè: the Signe mouing vs to that [Sursum corda] to lift vp our mindes, from the earthly obiect of Sense, Bread &c. to the body of Christ, the spirituall obiect of faith, vpon his Tribunall Seate in Heauen.* Wherein (as hath bene proued out of your owne Witnesse) there can be no shadow of any Idola∣trous Adoration.

Or secondly, our relation may be taken from Christ, to the Sacrament, as betweene a giuer and his gift; and so, in Kneeling downe, we take this holy Sacrament, as the mysticall pledge and seale of the body and bloud of Christ, the price of our Redemption, apprehended by faith. Whereas therefore the deuout Communicant is vpon his Knees, praying to the blessed Trinitie, to be made a welcome partaker of so heauenly a Feast; and praysing the supreme Deity for these Royall tokens of his grace; this respect and relation, being a reuerent ta∣king of this so inestimable a gift, as from the hands of Christ, according to his owne Ordinance, cannot come within the least suspicion of Idolatry.

SECT. XXXVI. This our former relation of Reuerence, betweene a Giuer and his Gift, is illustrated by a Similitude.

We were ready to illustrate our former Reuerence, Page  292 by the comparison of receiuing a gift, from the hand of earthly Maiestie; but we perceiue that the Non-confor∣mists are ready to preoccupate.

SECT. XXXVII. The Non-conformists preuention, vnto our Comparison.

*There is no proportion betweene the Ciuill reuerence, giuen to a King, or to the gift which we rceiue from him, and this religious reuerence to these bodily things; for there is far more danger of Ido∣latry here, then there.

Our Answer.

This obiection noteth onely a danger of Idolatry: but this is to feare where no feare is; for although there be not a Proportion of equality, betweene a Ciuill and Religious reuerence; yet is there a proportion of similitude, and the one doth singularly illustrate the other, in this case. For as a Ciuill gift ought to be taken with a Ciuil reue∣rence, from the hand of an earthly Soueraigne: so must a Spirituall gift, and the Instruments thereof, be receiued with a Spirituall and Religious Reuerence; as from the Maiestie of Christ, who instituted, and ordained it for vs. And as the Ciuill reuerence, vsed in receiuing the gift of the King, doth not derogate from the dignity of the King, but rather establish it; because the whole reuerence redoundeth to the King: so this our religious receiuing of holy Rytes, doth magnifie the Author, but no way deifie the gift. And doubtlesse, none can be so simple, as seeing any Subiect, reuerently taking any grant, or es∣pecially gift, from the hand of an earthly King, by the token of a Ring, or, if you will be a rush; as to imagine that worship to be derogatiue to the Royaltie, or Maie∣sty of the King.

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SECT. XXXVIII. Our second ground of Confutation is taken from the Testimonies of their owne Witnesses, requiring of Communicants Reuerence, in receiuing any such Ordinances of God.

We are not ignorant, that many Protestant Authors are most frequent in condemning the gesture of Kneeling, at the receiuing of the holy Communion; but how? as it is vsed Idolatrously of Papists, in a sacriligious opinion, that the Element of bread, which they adore, is the very person of Christ: but not as it may be vsed religiously, by Orthodoxe and godly professors. For better demonstra∣tion whereof, it will be our office to produce their owne choicest Witnesses; all of thē exacting of Cōmunicants an outward reuerence; and some allowing also of this kind of Reuerence, which is by Kneeling.

First, M. Caluin, chalking out, as it were, the right line of true Decencie, saith; Sed operaepretium est, &c.*It will be worth our labour, to define what is to be vnderstood by that decorum and Decencie, which Paul commendeth. In∣deed, the end of Decencie is, partly that whilest such Rites, which are vsed, may gaine veneration or reuerence vnto sa∣cred things, we may be thereby holpen and exercised vnto Deuotion; partly that also modestie and grauitie (which ought in all actions to be especially regarded) may most shine in them. But that must we account to be decency, which shalbe so fit for the reuerence of holy mysteries; as is meet for the ex∣ercise of godlines, or els cōuenient for ornament; nor can this be without profit, but will serue for the admonishing of men, with what modestie, religiousnesse, and reuerence they ought to handle holy things.

Page  294To this end we are forbid, by the Apostle, to mingle our profane drinkings with the holy Supper of the Lord; that women come not without the couers of their heads; and ma∣ny other things we vse, as namely, our praying vpon our Knes, with our heads bare; and we administer the Sacra∣ments of the Lord not sordidly, [sed cum aliqua dignitate,] but with a kind of Dignitie. You that haue excepted a∣gainst vs, for Kneeling to auoide profanation, do you see how instantly and vrgently M. Caluin requireth an out∣ward Reuerence, in the handling of such sacred Rites.

*Secondly, Bshop Iewell, falling vpon the same subiect, saith; Neither do we onely adore Christ, as very God, but also reuerence the Sacrament, and holy mystery of Christ his bo∣dy and blood, and, as Saint Ambrose teacheth [Baptismum Christ vbicunque est veneramur,] That is, we worship Bap∣tisme wheresoeuer it is had; and according to the Councell of Athanasius, [Dominica verba attentè audiant, & fideli∣ter adorent,] Let men diligently heare, and faithfully reue∣rence the words of God. Briefly, we worship all other like things in such religious wise vnto Christ belonging; but these things we reuerence as holy, and as appointed, and com∣mended by Christ: but we adore them not with any diuine honour, as Christ himselfe. Doe you not now see a Reue∣rence due vnto the Sacrament, without Adoration; that is to say, a Religion void of Idolatrous superstition? name∣ly, by Relation from the giuer to the receiuing of the gift.

*Thirdly Zanchie, labouring likewise to remoue two contrary Vices; as the deadly enemies of Gods wor∣ship, the one is 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, that is, Contempt or neglect of due worship; the second is 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, false and supersti∣tious worship; to the end he might establish that golden meane, called 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, which is the true sincere worship of Page  295 God: He, against the former Monster of Contempt of holy worship (out of the Apostles doctrine, 1. Cor. 11. whereby were condemned the vnreuerent commers to the Euchaist) collecteth, saying, The Sacramets are to be vsed with outward Signes & Tokens of honor & reuerence,*not in regrd of themselues, but in respect of Christ, by whom they are instituted: for God himselfe, when he forbad in his Law, the worship of any Images of mens making, yet taught he that his owne Images, to wit, his Sacraments, the signes of heauenly things should not be handled without some honour and reuerence. For as the word of God,*although it must not be adored, yet ought it to be handled, and hearkened vnto with Reuerence: so are the Sacraments worthy of Reuerence; which the Apostle perswadeth vnto, when he teacheth that men must eate the Sacrament of the Lords Supper [Dignè] worthily. For although this worthinesse consisteth in the mind of a man, which is indewed with faith and Charitie, yet may it be also referred to an externall Reuerence, seeing that they among the Corinthians, that came irreuerently vn∣to the holy Supper, were grieuously chastned of the Lord, as the Apostle teacheth in the same place.

Fourthly, M. Beza is alledged,* as although commen∣ding both inward & outward adoration, when these feare∣full Ceremonies are celebrated: yet that, for the auoiding of danger or else suspition of Idolatrie, he held it dangerous to vse the Gestre of Kneeling in the Act of receiuing. It is true, and so it may be very requisite in those places and times, whereof he spake: and his exception is onely that it might be dangerous by some Consequence. But M. Beza saith not that the gesture of Kneeling, in the act of the receiuing the Sacrament, is Idolatrous in it selfe; No, but the flat contrary. Genculatio denique cum Symbola accipiuntur, Speciem quidem habet piae & Christianae ve∣nerations,*Page  299ac proinde olim potuit cum fructu vsurpari. Do you not obserue that he condemneth not the gesture in it selfe, which (saith he) might haue bene profitably vsed in former times; namely, before that it was Idolatrously abused in the Popish Chuch? Which Testimonie as it cannot preiudice our Church which is now so seuered from Poperie, euen in this point of Adoration, that Papists themselues do know and confesse it; so doth it iustly condemne your condemnation of the act of Kneeling, by iudging it to be in it selfe directly Idolatrous. If you shall persist to tell vs, that Beza was of your Iudgement, then must you grant, that with the same breath, he de∣fended a commendable Idolatry; seeing that he iudgeth the act of Kneeling to be in it selfe a profitable gesture, euen in the receiuing of the Sacrament.

Fiftly, to the same purpose, and somewhat more ex∣presly P. Martyr,*I do not contend (saith he) that Cere∣monies should be euery where the same, but yet we ought to prouide, that they be not against the word of God; yea they should as much as may be, be reduced vnto edification and decencie. Therefore it is no matter of difference, whether we receiue the Sacraments sitting, or standing, or Kneeling, so that the Institution of Christ it selfe be preferred, and occa∣sion of superstition remoued.

This his Position conteineth in it, these two suppositi∣ons, the first is, that Kneeling at the receiuing of the Communion is not an act of superstition it selfe: Second∣ly, that it may possibly be vsed now without danger of Superstition. And is not this also a plaine contradiction vnto your former assertions? I make no quetion but all other the Authors, who haue spoken absolutely for out∣ward Reuerence, in the vse of sacred Mysteries, would not haue bene more vehement in condemning the Idolatry,Page  297 and sacrilegious manner of Kneeling of the Papists, then they would haue bene (at the least) equall and indiffe∣rent, to admit of our custome of Kneeling, if that they had beheld the decent integritie that is vsed therein. All this while we haue kept aloofe off; we come at last to parly with the Non-conformists themselues.

SECT. XXXIX. Our third Confutation of the Non-conformists, and iustifica∣tion of Our selues, is from the confession of Bellarmine → , excu∣sing Protestants from the suspition of Adorati∣on; euen because they hold the matter of the Sacrament to remaine Bread.

This our Iustification, I confesse, is against their will, for it issueth out of an obiection, which the Non-con∣formists haue made to accuse, and condemne our Church.

The Non-conformists Obiection.

And Bellarmine → hauing said that we,* (whom he calleth Cal∣uinists, and Sacramentaries) do not adore the Sacrament; neither, saith he, should any man maruell at that, seeing they do not beleeue that Christ is really present, but that the bead in the Eucharist is indeed nothing else but the bread that came out of the Ouen.

Our Answer.

Do you not remember Iosephs Cloke, which his Mi∣stresse caught hold of, to draw him to her lustfull bed? who notwithstanding afterwards, in a complaint vnto her husband, turned the same Cloke as a witnesse a∣gainst Page  298Ioseph, to conuince him of folly; notwithstanding it was, indeed, and in truth, a full demonstration of her owne filthinesse, and dishonesty. And see you not how wittily you do imitate that fact of Iosephs Mistris, by ob∣iecting to the Church of England the speech of Bellar∣mine, which in true construction may be a sound and e∣uident Argument for her iustification: Seeing, that Bel∣larmine, so great an Aduersary, confessing that Prote∣stants do not adore the bread, euen because they beleeue it to be bread; doth consequently acknowledge, that they, by their receiuing of this Sacrament, cannot possibly be guilty of the Romish maner of Adoration of the out∣ward Elements. What needeth therefore so great an outcry in the eares of simple people, to the slander of the true Church of Christ, by associating her, as afterwards ye do, with the Synagogue of Antichrist, in an Idola∣trous reuerence?

I alwayes expected, that, as often as you take from the mouth of Bellarmine such kind of speeches as this, obiecting that we thinke the Sacrament to bee nothing else but bread, that came out of the Ouen; you should haue shewne your selues zealous Aduocats for the common cause, by controlling the Iesuits impudencie: according as M. Iewell might haue instructed you, in his Answer a∣gainst the like scoffe of M. Harding, in vilifying of our Sacrament.*Whereas M. Harding (saith he) vniustly de∣fameth vs as reckoning the Sacraments of Christ nothing else but Tokens, let him vnderstand that we both thinke and speake reuerently of Christ his Sacraments, as knowing them to be the Testimonies of Gods promises, and instruments of the holy Ghost: and as we make not the Sacrament of Baptis∣me bare water, notwithstanding the nature and substance of water remaineth the same still; so we make not the Sacra∣ment Page  299 of Christ his body and blood, bare bread and wine: for, as Saint Augustine saith, [Videndum est, non quid sint, sed quid significent] We must not regard so much what they are, (namely in substance) as what they signifie, to wit, ac∣cording to the new nature that they haue of a Diuine Sa∣crament.

SECT. XL. Our fourth Confutation of the Non-conformists, and Iustification of our selues, issueth from the Non-conformists owne Practise.

First, by their Intentionall Reuerence.

You would account it an extreme iniurie, to be cen∣sured as contemners, or profaners of these holy myste∣ries; or not to celebrate and receiue them reuerently, with the truely religious affections of your hearts and mindes: which you professe will be the dutie of euery worthy Communicant, that shall rightly discerne in this Sacrament the Lords body.* This being granted (which without impietie cannot be denyed) it ministreth vnto vs an Argument, whereby you may bee confuted (as I suppose) without all contradiction.

Fist, I may reason thus: That manner of Reue∣rence, which it is lawfull for a Christian to conceiue in his mind, the same is as lawfull for him (the case of Scan∣dall excepted) to expresse in his outward gesture of bodie. But it is lawfull for a Christian to conceiue such a Relatiue Reuerence; as from the sight of the Sacrament (being Obiectum àquo) to raise his thoughts to a con∣templation of the mysticall and spirituall obiect of faith, signified thereby: and vpon the vnderstanding of the mysticall, euen the body and blood of Christ really (al∣beit Page  300 not corporally) exhibited vnto vs in this Sacra∣ment, to receiue these visible pledges of our redemption, by the death of Christ, (as the Obiectum propter quod) with all holy and reuerent deuotion of heart and mind. Therefore, it is lawfull to performe a sensible and bo∣dily reuerence at our outward receiuing thereof.

The infallibilitie of this Consequence ariseth frō the difference which is betweene the inward, and outward Reuerence: for the inward reuerence is the formall part and very soule of reuerence, and farre exceedeth the bo∣dily, which is but onely the materiall. Where therefore the materiall and bodily forme of Reuerence is acoun∣ted Idolatrous, there the Intentionall and formall much more; because the worship is in it selfe and Act indiffe∣rent, and so may become either religious, or superstiti∣ous, by the vse, or abuse thereof, according to the inten∣tion and mind of the Agent: euen as we may discerne in this one word, Aue, vsed in salutation; for many came to Christ, and said Aue; O haile Master, and did honour him; the Iewes also bowed to him, & said Aue; & dishono∣ed him. The difference of these two consisted not in the out ward gesture, which was the same (both sorts Salu∣ters) but from the diuerse Intentions, the one kinde per∣forming their salutations in ciuilitie, but the other in mockery. Euen so the gesture of Kneeling is an act in∣different in it selfe, being vsed as wel of Children to their Parents, as of either religious persons to God; or sacri∣legious vnto Idols: but the formall distinction of each one proceedeth from the mind and affection of the Ac∣tor; for that, which is in childrē pietie, & in subiects loy∣altie, the same is in the truely religious deuotion, and in the superstitious and sacrilegious Idolatrie.

Vpon these Premises wee inferre this conclusi∣on; Page  301 that if there bee in you an inward, relatiue reuerence of soule, in the receiuing of this blessed Sacra∣ment, from a respect had betwixt the Doner, God, and this holy Sacrament, being so precious a pledge of our saluation: then can it not be vnlawfull, to giue some expression of this your religious intention, by the same visible reuerence, in one, or other outward gesture of the body; especially being to participate of the Sacra∣ment, the seale of mans redemption, both body and soule. And indeed the bodily parts of man are nothing else but the Organs and Instruments of the affections of his soule. If therefore that godly Indignation, which the Publican had against his sinnes,* be shrewing (as it were) his owne heart, commanded his hands to Knock on his breast:* If Hope lifteth vp pure hands in prayer vnto hea∣uen, in confidence of Gods promises: If holy Faith moued the womans hand to pull Christ by the hemme of his garment,* in beleefe to be healed by some vertue from him: If Charitie stretched out the Samaritans hand,* to Bynd vp the wounds of the distressed man, that lay halfe dead by the way: If Deuotion towards God in Lydia,* charged her eares to giue Attention to Gods word: If Contrition for sin powred out of Peters eyes bitter teares of repentance; shall not the vertue of Humilitie,* haue some power to make demonstration of it selfe, in an ac∣knowledgement of so vndeserued mercy, as is to be partaker, by faith, of the body and bloud of our Lord Ie∣sus, by some significant gesture of bowing the body at the receiuing thereof, answerable to the religious affe∣ction of your mindes? Thus much of the Intentionall Reuerence.

Page  302

SECT. XLI. The second Practise of the Non-conformists, for our iustification, is Bodily: And this is either Ac∣cidentall, in respect of the Communicants; or Proper, in the manner of com∣municating.

The Accidentall is their Bodily presence, communi∣cating with vs in this Sacrament, notwith∣standing our manner of Reuerence.

This shall be my Reason: Idolatry is set downe, in the booke of God, as a necessary cause of Separation from all Idolatrous worshippers: for what affinity is there betweene God and Belial? Which one cause, although it were onely, might iustifie our departure out of the Romish Babylon. To this purpose, your Witnesse Zanchie giueth this Thesis.*Idololatriae crimine inuoluuntur, qui cum Idololatris, ipsorum Idololatrijs communicant. Contrary∣wise; the materiall breaking of bread, that is, the com∣municating in the blessed Sacament, is a principall note of Vnion in one Faith and Religion, seeing that this Sacrament it selfe is a mysticall signe of the vnion of the faithfull among themselues; from which it hath recei∣ued the Appellation to be called the Communion. Not∣withstanding, you haue the grace to abide in the womb of our Church, and to liue in one Brotherhood with vs, in a publique profession of one doctrine and wor∣ship of God, in Prayers and Psalmes, and in the Com∣munion it selfe. And now deliberate with your selues (I beseech you) whether you, by this your manner of calumniating, and traducing of the Churches practise, to call it Idolatrous, haue not bene the Authours of SchismePage  303 to the Separatists, and Apostates of these times; vnto whom you haue giuen their first bane (euen this suspi∣cion of Superstitious worship in our Church) whereby their hearts are so poysoned, and their braynes intoxica∣ted, that now no Antidote of your making, can be able to cure them.

Take therefore vnto you the mindes of discreete and Christian hearts, either to be that you seeme, or to seeme to be that you are; as glorifiers of God with vs in our Church, so for our Church; that therefore you do not dishonour her that is your Glory and your Crowne, seeking (as she hath done many worthy Martyrs of Christ, and holy Saints) to breed and bring you vp, in the syncere faith of Christ, vnto your assured hope of eternall glory. Thus much of our iustification, by your Accidentall practise of consent, in Communion with vs, in this Sacrament.

SECT. XLII. The third Practise of the Non-conformists, is from their Bodily Reuerence, at the receiuing of their food, both Corporall and Sacramentall.

First of their Corporall.

You your selues are knowne to be so reuerent in pray∣ing vnto God, as that, in saying grace before meate, you vse to vncouer your heads, and you do well: but look now to the act, is it not an act of Reuerence? Why else are you vncouered? And is it not an act of Spirituall worship; wherefore else do you pray? And is not the out∣ward obiect, whereupon you look, meate, euen the crea∣ture of God? how else can you desire God to blesse These Page  304 his creatures? And is not this your Adoration of God, re∣latiue and respectiue, arising betweene the Gift, and the Giuer? otherwise why should you haue reference in prayer vnto God, for his blessing vpon your meates? And lastly, will you say (for this Interrogatiue must needs conuince your consciences) that this your Adoration is according to the Popish opinion, by a personall represen∣tation, in giuing any part thereof to the creature; by ado∣ring either It, or In it, or By it? How then should you iustly condemne that Romish Church of Superstition? Nay do you not acknowledge, that the respect, which you haue from the meate to God, is as from the gift vnto the Giuer; and that Gods gift is an obiect, propter quod; for which you pray, and render praise vnto him? And why then do you infame our Church, as if she were Idolatrous, which teacheth you, in these, and all other points of Adoration, how to auoide all Idola∣try? Surely he that cannot distinguish betweene these two, to wit, Reuerence to God, at the receiuing of his Sa∣crament; and reuerence to God, in the Sacrament receiued, may, when he would warme him at the fire, burne him∣selfe in the fire. Thus much of your practise in Reuerence, at receiuing your corporall food.

SECT. XLIII. Our fift Confutation of the Non-conformists, and iustifica∣tion of our selues, is from the proper practise of the Non-conformists, in their outward Re∣uerence, at the receiuing of this Sacrament.

You may remember the whole passages, and very paces, we haue gone, that we might perswade you to Page  305 allow, and imbrace our outward gesture of reuerence, in receiuing of the blessed Sacrament: some taken from Reasons; from Confessions of your owne Witnesses; from your owne Practises not onely Intentionall, but also Reall; and this both Accidentall and Proper: and this, as in an outward and visible reuerence, in receiuing as well Corpo∣rall, as Sacramentall food. All these foure hauing bene manifested; it remaineth onely that we proue the last, concerning the bodily Reuerence perfomed by your selues, at the receiuing of the Sacrament it selfe.

I need not vse many words; you receiue this Sacrament with your heads vncouered, and would (I thinke) hold it a prophanenes, not to giue some outward semblance of vncouering your heads at the receiuing thereof. This be∣ing your generall practise, I do not see how you may iustifie your owne heads, and condemne your knees; by whatsoeuer pretence you can make. Will you say that (kneeling, & vncouering being both practised about the same act) the one gesture can be more subiect to Idolatry then the other? I appeale to your owne Witnesse, who cōdemning the peoples adoration of Images, doth ioynt∣ly abandon these three gestures; Genuflectionem,*Capitis apertionem & Corporis inclinationem: Kneeling on the knee, vncouering of the head, and bowing of the body; where and whensoeuer they are applyed vnto a false adoration: as being contrarie to the second commandement, [Thou shalt not worship &c.]

Or will you hold it reasonable to say, as some are thought to answer, that you, in the celebration of this Sacrament, beginning with prayer and thankes-giuing, were vncouered; and that now it is but continuata actio, a continuing of the same gesture, at the administration and participation thereof; either because of the publique Psalmes, then vsed in the Church, or for that you are ex∣rcised Page  306 in a diuine meditation, about the Analogie be∣tween the elements of bread and wine, and the body and bloud of Christ, signified thereby; by as reall an applying of the same body and bloud of Christ to your soules, for the nourishment thereof, as you haue a reall and substan∣tiall incorporation of the bread and wine into your bo∣dies; & that you are presently ready to proceed in other prayers: so that, being vncouered, you cannot be said, so much to put off, as to keep off your hats; nor to be made kneele, but to be found kneeling, at the receiuing of this Sacrament.

He that condemneth, in his own conscience, an other mans direct vncouering of the head, at the receiuing of the holy Sacrament, as superstitious, being himselfe vnco∣uered; and shall notwithstanding excuse his owne gesture, because of the former pretence of a continued action, or spirituall meditation: This man shall be but (as S. Iames calleth him) a Paralogizer,* and deluder of his owne soule: because no act is called goo, nisi ex integra causa, that is, whn it is good in euery part; but it is euill, ex quouis de∣fectu, that is, vpon any one defect. Therefore the conti∣nuance of the same gesture cānot mae that action good, wherein any part thereof, in respect of the obiect, is con∣demnable in it selfe; because if the reuerence at the recei∣uing be vnlawfull, I ought, in my behauiour, as well to haue declined that which ought not; as to haue practised that which ought to haue beene performed; especially where (for God is a iealous God) there could be the least iealousie of Idolatry.

The nature of due reuerence will more clearely appeare, by a sight of the contrary. If any Tenants, seeing their Lord riding, with his seruants, some before, and some behind, yet but meanely furnished for their attendance, should be disposed to laugh and iest at them; & exercise Page  307 the same scoffe vpon their Lord approaching; would it be any tollerable satisfaction, to say (when they should be called in question) that they did but onely continue their laughing and iesting?

Or will you hereupon suspect, that you haue erred, in being vncouered, and hereafter make amends with coue∣ring your heads? This would be but an hiddie, and giddie retractation, by which you must needs contradict the cu∣stome (as I suppose) of all the reformed Churches in Christendom: whereof one of your own choicest Wit∣nesses testifieth, saying;*De hc membro inter omnes pios constat, reipsa enim hc comprobant, cùm ad Sacramentorum participationem reuerentèr, apertó{que} Capite accedunt; hàc ra∣tione protestantes, aquam illam Baptismi, panem & vinum Coenae non amplius esse res profanas, sed sacras, per quas Chri∣stus seipsum, suam{que} gratiam cōmunicat; eó{que} esse reuerentia dignas &c. It is a thing granted (saith he) of all godly men, and indeed testified and approued of them, by their comming to the participation of the Sacraments, Reuerently, with their heads vncouered, protesting thereby that the water of Bap∣tisme, and the bread and wine in the Lords Supper are no cō∣mon, but sacred things; whereby Christ doth communicate himselfe and his graces vnto vs, and that therefore they are worthy of this reuerence. Euen as (saith he) the word prea∣ched, although it is not to be adored, yet must it be reuerent∣ly handled, is the word not of men, but of God: and so like∣wise the Sacraments, in the administration of them, ae worthy of reuerence, whereunto appertaineth the saying of the Apostle, commanding vs to eat and drink that cup 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, worthily; which worthinesse and dignity, although it doth properly consist in the minde indued with faith an loue, yet may we not without cause referre it vnto the externall reue∣rence, whereupon it was that they, that came to the Lords Supper irreuerently, were seuerely chastned by the hand of Page  [unnumbered] God. 1. Cor. 11. You see how exactly this your choice and venerable Witnesse hath pleaded for an externall gesture of reuerence, by vncouering the head, at the receiuing of such holy Rytes; which he maketh to be the same, in the case of worship, with the bowing of the knee.

You will peraduenture reply; if the case standeth so, concerning vncouering our heads, why are we then con∣demned for irreuerence, and why is Kneeling required? Shall I tell you? I can conceiue but three reasons here∣of: the first is, because diuers of you are thought to be vncouered, not with any intention to expresse your reue∣rence, at the receiuing of this Sacrament, because you condemne those that performe any reuerence by knee∣ling; therefore yee are vrged to kneele, that thereby you may manifest your vnanimity of one iudgement with our Church. Secondly, the order of kneeling hauing bene established by the Church, and being (as hath bene proued) a Ceremony indifferent, it is lawfully exacted, and ought to be performed by you, for expression of vnifor∣mitie. Lastly, because that women also (who because of their sex may not be vncouered) might shew the deuoti∣on of their soules, by their bodily representation of knee∣ling; this gesture is required for an vniuersality of Con∣formitie.

To conclude, be you exhorted but to permit your in∣ternall reuerence, to become visible, by bodily gesture; or suffer your knees to be answerable to your heads, in out∣ward reuerence: and then may we all ioyne the hands of true fellowship and godly vnion, in the participation of this holy Communion; and a more acceptable Thankes∣giuing in the Eucharist vnto the Trinity, in one indiuisi∣ble Vnitie, whereunto be ascribed all glory and prayse for euer. Amen.

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