The hope of health wherin is conteined a goodlie regimente of life: as medicine, good diet and the goodlie vertues of sonderie herbes, doen by Philip Moore.
Moore, Philip, fl. 1564-1573.

¶The .xiii. Chapiter.

❧Of the vse and commodities of pour∣ging and bloudletting.

MOte that if the bodie of man doe abounde with humours, whiche are ready to oppresse nature, then whether ther be Page  lii sicknes in the body present by meanes of them, or if there be but daūger of sick∣nes, those humours must bee euacuate out of the bodie, either by bloudletting or by pourging, or by vomite, swetting, or bathes, or by some other kinde of eua∣cuation. But I wil speake here onely of euacuation by bloudletting and pour∣ging. And first of bloudletting. There be diuerse thinges to be cōsidered before bloudletting.* The age of the patient, the complexion, the time of the yeare, the region, the custome, the strengthe, & the vehemencie of the disease. The age must be considered, because children vn∣der 14. yeares of age, and old folke may not be let bloud without great necessitie require it. The complexion is to be no∣ted, because a hote complexiō hath large vaines, and aboūdeth with much bloud. And therfore they may forbeare a good deale of bloud. But coole complexions haue narrowe vaines and little bloude, and therfore their euacuation must bee small.* The time of the yeare must bee Page  [unnumbered] marked that the weather be not to hote nor to colde. And therfore the springtime is moste apte time for bloud letting, be∣cause it is temperate.

The region and countrée is rehersed,* because it is to be noted that if the regiō be very hote, or very colde, it is not good to let bloud: a temperate region is mea∣test for it. Custome is not to be neglec∣ted, for thereby we may know that they that haue ben accustomed to blede, may better suffer bloud letting thē those that neuer were letten bloud. The strengthe of the persone must be regarded, for if there be great weakenes, it is very daū∣gerous to let bloud at all, except extreme necessitée compelleth. Also the vehemē∣cie of the disease is worthie to bee mar∣ked: for if it be a vehement disease, you must let bloud streight, if the former cir∣cumstaunces doe suffer it.

These thinges considered, if thei wil permitte bloud letting, and if it bee in a necessarie cause, it shalbe good and expe∣dient to knowe in what signe the moone Page  liij is, for you must take hede that she be not in the signe that gouerneth that mem∣ber,* wherein you entende to open the vaine, and also forsee that she be in soche a signe as is good to let bloud in, which the table in the ende of this booke, wyll teache you. The vses and commodities of bloudletting, are as foloweth. First, this is a general rule, that bloudletting is a very good and moste conuenient re∣medy for all diseases that bee engendred of aboundaunce, flowing or eruption of bloud, as be chiefly the feuers called Sy∣nochi. Also the phrenesie, squinancie, pleurisi, peripneumony, opthalmie, & a∣gainst al inflammations, and impostu∣mations, engendred of bloud in the ly∣uer, the splene, the raynes, the wombe, the share, the armeholes, the armes, the legges: to conclude in al inward or out∣warde partes, wheresoeuer the infla∣mation bee, bloudletting is good for it, whether it be nowe present, or that ther be daunger that it will shortely engen∣der. Also bloudletting is good in feuers, Page  [unnumbered] whether they be continual or intermit∣tent, if so bee the obstructions and stop∣pinges of the vaines, be caused of immo¦derate repletion of humours.

And note that bloudletting, dothe emptie and enuacuate from the bodie, all humours alike, as wel good as bad. And therefore it is chiefly to bee vsed,* when there is to great an aboundaunce in the bodie of bloud & other humours, whiche do straine and stuffe the vaines, that there is a great daunger and ieo∣perdie and breaking of some vaine, or bruysing out of some flure of bloud or of choking, and ertinguish natural heate. And therfore in soche cases you must let bloud with all spede, although sicknes be not already present. For by lettinge bloud in due season, the superfluous ful∣nes of y vaines, is brought into a meane state againe, the paines that came of ful∣nes and stretching of the vessels bee ea∣sed: The heauines that was felt in the bodie is taken awaye, and the bodie is lightened, and made more quicke and Page  liiij nimble to doe all soche actions as na∣ture hath ordained it to doe. Also it cau∣seth natural heat to haue a larger scope, and a free passage by opening and emp∣tiyng the straightwayes & passages of the vaines and arteries. Last of all if it be done in time, it preuenteth diseases, into the whiche the bodie was ready to haue fallen.

Many more commodities might here be rehersed of bloudletting,* whiche is done when it ought, and as it oughte to be done, but to conclude (omitting all o∣ther) note for a generall rule, that bloud letting is good against all kinde of di∣seases whiche be caused and engendred of bloud, not onely when the diseases ar present, but also it is good letting bloud to preuente any soche diseases if they be forséen or feared, alwayes obseruinge that there be none of these impedimētes aforesaid, whiche prohibite and forbidde bloud letting, except it be in great ne∣cessitie and extremitie, for then as the prouerbe is, Necessitas non habet legē,Page  [unnumbered] that is: necessitie hath no lawe.

Here woulde I leaue of to speake of bloudletting, but that there commeth to my mynde the common opinion of the ignorante people, which dooe certainly beleue that if any persone be let bloud one yeare, he muste bee lette bloud li∣kewyse euery yeare,* or els he is in (I can not tell) howe great daunger, whiche fonde opinion of theirs, whereof soeuer it sprong at the firste, is no more like to be true, then I should saie, when a man hath a great wounde by chaunce in any part of his body, wherby he loseth moch bloud, after it is healed he must nedes haue the like woūde again the next yeare to auoyde as moche bloud, or els he is in daunger of great sickenes or of deathe. Whiche opinion if I did affirme it to be true (although it bee moste false) yet I might vse the like reason and autoritee to defende it, that the common people vse for theirs: for they can saye nothing if they be asked why they thinke so, but that they haue hearde manye saye soo. Page  lv Therefore I would wishe that no man should credite any longer this foolishe opinion, being moste false, onle she can shewe good reason for it, whiche I am sure no manne can dooe. Mary this I thinke that like as bloud letting is not good against al diseases, so also it is not good in all persones, but onely in those that will be content to vse afterwarde a moderate,* and conuenient diet. Those therefore that doe abounde with bloude & wilbe let bloud to preserue themselfes from the daunger of any disease, that is like shortly to ensue and moleste them. They must longtime after be contente to vse a moderate and conuenient diet, for those whiche be vntemperate & glut∣tonous in meates or great drinkers, and wyne bibbers, they do not only receiue no commoditie at all by bloud lotting, but also often times they catche more hurte by it then they should haue hadde without it, for in three or foure dayes space after, they fill & stuffe them selues with more rawe iuyces and humours, Page  [unnumbered] (by meanes of vnmeasurable diet) then thei had before, and often times thei dye through conuulcion.* And therefore note that there is soche force & vertue in mo∣derate diete to eschue & decline diseases, that without the obseruatiō of it, bloud∣letting is to no purpose. And therefore if the commō saiyng of the people be true in any body, that they must be let bloud often, if thei be ones let bloud, it is onely true in soche as kepe an immoderate di∣et streight after bloud letting, and ther∣fore I counsaile all men to beware of ex∣cesse in eating and drinking after bloud lettyng. Also note yt after bloud letting, none ought to walke apace or to runne, or to vse any vehement exercise, but let him be quiet and reste him self vntill his spirites berefreshed and quieted againe. Note also, that none ought to slepe im∣mediatly after bloudletting, but let him kepe himselfe quiet & watche, auoydyng all contention and exercise of bodie and mynde. About twoo houres after bloud letting, there may a little foode be taken, Page  lvj but let it be soche as wil make good iuice and nourishe a pace, within .iiij. howers after bloud letting or somewhat afore, it may be permitted to the patient to slepe, so that it be prouided for and taken hede of, that he turne him not vpon the arme where the vain was opened, nor that he doe not loosen the bande, and so lette the bloud flowe out again. Afterward lette him vse a straight and sparing diet, dai∣ly encreasing it by little and little, vntill you be come to your accustomed diet.

And note that the morning is the me∣test tyme for blood lettyng,* when euery digestiō is perfectly finished, and the su∣perfluities and excrementes of eche of them auoided out, whiche must be fore∣seen that thei bee so. Or at the leaste in a time of necessitie the next apt time to let bloud is, when the stomake is somwhat emptie, that is, sixe or eight houres after meate. Thus moche for bloudletting. Nowe for pourging, whose vse and cō∣modities I promised to declare.

It is to be noted, that euery kinde of Page  [unnumbered] purgation hath that secrete vertue and propertie in it self, that when it is recei∣ued in a mans body and is prouoked to exercise, the vertue that it hath by natu∣rall heate labouring to digeste it, then it draweth vnto it soche humour as it hath power and vertue to pourge. And ther∣fore a pourgation is an euacuatiō of vi∣tious & corrupt humours, whiche trou∣ble and moleste the bodie, but not of all corrupte humours alike. For eche pour¦ging medicine doth draw vnto it one pe∣culier & propre humour, (that is) either fleme or choler, or melancholie, or wate∣rie humours.* And therefore those that be perfectly in health, ought not to take a purgation, since they doe not abounde with corrupt humours, wherefore in those when the medicine findeth no soch superfluous humours as it hath vertue to drawe, it consumeth and wasteth the bloud and the fleshe. And for that cause, hole folkes are not pourged by pour∣gations, but rather consumed & wasted, for it is manifest hereby, that pourga∣tions Page  lvij be very perillous to them that bée in perfect health, whiche thinge is testi∣fied also of Hippocrates in the .xxxvij. Aphorisme, of his seconde booke, where he saieth after this sorte.*Qui corpore bene se habent hos purgare periculosum est, (that is) it is daungerous pourging of those that be in perfect health. Also be cause eche pourging medicine hath ver∣tue to drawe one peculier humour, there is good hede to be takē that soche a me∣dicine bee ministred as hathe vertue to drawe the humour abounding, and no other, or els instede of moch good which it would do if it were conueniently mi∣nistred, it may contrariwyse doe moche hurte. According to the saiyng of Hipo∣crates in the last Aphorisme of his firste booke, in this maner. Si qua lia oportet purgari purgentur, confert, & facile fe∣ruut,*sicontra, difficulter, that is, if soche thinges be pourged as ought to be, it pro¦fiteth, and may easely be suffered, but if it be contrariwyse, it hurteth and may scarsely be borne, wherefore ther ought Page  [unnumbered] diligent hede to be takē in the receiuing of a purgation, that it be ministred by a skilfull Phisicion, that hathe certainly founde out what humour it is that ha∣boundeth. But alas the greatest noum∣ber of the common people, doe holde an opinion that if they may haue a medi∣cine for a little money, whiche wil pro∣uoke them often to the stoole, what hu∣mour soeuer it pourgeth out, they are safe enough:* howebeit, I would wishe thē hereafter alwayes to haue in minde this saiyng of the moste excellent, Phi∣sicion Hipocrates in the xxiij. Aphoris∣me of the first booke, Deiectionas non multitudine sunt estimande, sed fi talia deijciantur, qualia conueniunt, that is: egestions are not to be estemed for their great quantitie, but if soche humours be pourged out as ought to be (that is) soch vitious and corrupt humours as doe a∣bounde and be superfluous in mannes body. There be diuerse thinges to be cō¦sidered of a Phisition before he minister purgation, as the qualitie of the hu∣mour, Page  lviij the strengthe of the sicke, the age, the time of the yeare, & the disease. The qualitie of the humoure is to be conside∣red, that he may knowe what kinde of humour is to be euacuate, and pourged out, for it must be onely that which trou∣bleth the bodie with superfluous aboū∣daunce thereof.* As if fleme doe abeunde and trouble the bodie, he must minister a medicen, whiche purgeth fleme, and so likewise for other humours abounding The minister of medicen ought to haue respecte to the strengthe of the sicke, for if he be very weak and feble, there oughte no purgation to be ministred vnto him,* because all purgations doe weaken na∣nure and diminishe strengthe, and the stronger they be, the more they weiken. Let all men therfore beware of vehemēt and strong purgatiōs, lest they put their life in hasarde and daunger. By the age of the patient, the Phisicion is put in minde that children and old men ought not to receiue purgations, except great necessitie require it. The tyme of the Page  [unnumbered] yeare is not to be neglected, for there be sometimes of the yeare wherein purga∣tions ought not to bee ministred, as in Somer,* specially the Dogge daies, as they are commonly called, during the time that the Sunne is in Leo, for then is nature burnt vp & made weake, y she is not able to suffer the force & violēce of a purgation, but the Spring time is moste apte for purgations, because it is temperate. Last of al, ye Phisicion ought diligently to beholde and contemplate the disease, that he knowing what kind of disease it is, may the better finde out of what humour it is caused. As for ex∣ample,* if the Phisicion perceiue the di∣sease to be a tertian feuer, straightway he knoweth that it is caused of aboun∣daunce of choler, and therefore he must minister a medicine to pourge choler, & so foorth in other diseases.

Note, that it there be none of the im∣pedimentes aboue named, a purgation is good to bee ministred to all soche as haue aboundaunce of euill iuyce or cor∣rupt Page  lix humours in y bodie, for it draweth out the humours that dothe moleste, and thereby restoreth the bodie to his natu∣rall estate again. But if a purgation be rashely ministred, either to one that ne∣deth it not, or at an vnmete time, or that it be soch a medicine as draweth not out the humour whiche then aboundeth,* or if the medicine bee vehement and very strong, it will surely put the pacient in daunger of his life. These thinges ther∣fore ought to be well taken hede of by al men, lest they catche great hurte, when they hope for some profite. But if a pur∣gation bee ministred discretely to hym that hath nede of it in due time, & by an apte medicine, whiche is able to drawe out the abounding humour in sufficient quantitie, then dooeth the medicine sin∣gulare commodities to the bodie, for it euacuateth and emptieth out al the cau∣ses of diseases and sicknesses, either pre∣sent or to come, being engendred of any superfluous or corrupt humour, as bee feuers, tertians, quartains, quotidians, Page  [unnumbered] fluxes caused of rawe humours or sharp choler, Dropsies, Goutes, Palsies, Li∣targies,* and diuerse other. Note that be∣fore a purgatiō be ministred, ther ought a medicine to be taken, whiche shoulde prepare the body & make it apt to purge, and therfore it is called a preparatiue, it is geuen for two caused, either to deuide extenuate, and make theim grosse and clammy humours, that they may be re∣die to Aowe out, whē the medicine dra∣weth them, or els it is geuen to open & vnstoppe the cōduites and vessels of the body, by which ye purgation must drawe the superfluous humour to it. And this is that whiche Hipocrates doth counsail in the first Aphorisme of his secōd booke where he saith, Corpora cum quis{que} pur¦gare voluerit, oportet fluuia facere, that is, when any man wil pourge the body, he must make it flowing by opening & vnopening the vessels.* The moste mete time to receiue a purgation, is the mor∣ning, for then are all the digestions per∣fectly finished, and the stomake is with∣out Page  lx meate, there is heede to be taken, in what signe the Moone is before a purga∣tion be ministred, for some signes ar good for it, and some are euill, whiche are de∣clared in the table before, so that if any man desire to knowe a mete time for to pourge, there he may learne it. A pur∣gation must be taken hote, for so it offen¦deth the stomack lesse, and it wil worke the soner. Those that be apte to vomite, and are offended with the smell of the purgation,* let thē stoppe their nosethril∣les or smell some odoriferous thing in taking of it. As soone as it is taken it is good to smell to a toste of browne bread dipped in vineger, & applie warme clo∣thes to the stomake, and to washe the mouthe straighte after it is taken with odoriferous wyne, or to chewe sweete & pleasaunt things to take away the hor∣rible taste of y medicine, by this meanes vomiting shalbe eschewed. For i. hou∣res space after the purgation is taken, let the pacient sit still and keepe himselfe the quiet and without sleepe, that the Page  [unnumbered] strengthe of the medicine may passe to all partes of the body, if the purgation worke slowely, lette him walke vp and downe a good pace if he can. When it worketh, in any case there must be hede taken that the pacient doe not slepe, for so the operation of the medicine woulde be stopped. Also in the time of pourging, immoderate heate and colde are to bee eschued, and therefore a very great fier, and the colde and open aire are bothe hurtfull, for the bodie must be kept in a temperate heate.* After that the purga∣tion is taken, except the stomake be very weake, it is beste not to eate any thing, lest the operation of the medicine should be hindred. After that the purgaciō hath doen working, the pacient must be nou∣rished with a meane quantitie of some broth that will breede good iuice, and be easely digested, and after by little and lit¦tle, returne to his accustomed diet.

Thus haue I as briefly as I coulde, declared the commodities of bloud let∣ting and pourging, being wel and due∣ly Page  lxj ministred and vsed, and the discōmo∣dities that will ensue of thē both if they be at any time misused, wishing al men as they tender their healthe and life, to beware of those ignoraūt persones that vse to open but one kinde of vaine for al diseases,* & occupie but one kinde of pur∣gation against all humours, not consi∣dering at all, the time, the strengthe, and age of the patient, nor the cause of the di∣sease, nor any other of the circumstaun∣ces afore named, but let theim seke for the counsaile and aide of one that is skilfull in phisike, and circū∣spectt in his doinges. Who can consider what neede they haue, and what is moste mete to be ministred vnto theim. ∴