Theorique and practise of warre. Written to Don Philip Prince of Castil, by Don Bernardino de Mendoza. Translated out of the Castilian tonge into Englishe, by Sr. Edwarde Hoby Knight. Directed to Sr. George Carew Knight
Mendoza, Bernardino de, 1540 or 41-1604., Hoby, Edward, Sir, 1560-1617.
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❧ THE ORICQVE AND PRACTISE OF WARRE.

GOD hauing made your Highnes heire ap∣parant to the multitude of Crownes, Estates and Countries, which the K. our soueraigne Lord Y.H. father possesseth, so diuersly occupying a good parte in Euro∣pe, and so mighty in America, East Indies, the new world, it is very likely, and forceable in mans rea∣son, that Y.H. shall enter into many Warrs by sea and land, either in conquering, * or defending. Togeather with which, the successes and chaunces of the world breeding differences, which ordinarily falleth out beetwene Kings, Cōmon wealths, and Catholike Potentates, muste needes lye awakened: And albeit your qualitie may require to appease them with armes, yet is Y.H. carefully to looke that you make no vse of them, before you stand desperate of anie other meanes of negotiation or agreement, in respect of the great damage which in imbrewing your sword in blood among Christian Kings may redound to the * Ro∣mane Apostolike Church, hindring thereby the increase of our Catholicque faith, besides giuing occasion to infi∣dells and hereticques, by not seeing the Catholicque for∣ces vnited, to inuade their kingdomes and territories.

This consideration is accompanied with another fit for Kings, Princes and Gouernours,* often to laye before their eies, which is that our Lord cannot bee better serued then in time of peace, nor contrariwise more offended then in warre. A matter which with my self oftentimes medita∣ting, hath made me to knowe howe artificially the deuill hath practised to make Kinges beleeue, that it best besee∣meth their greatnes and power to make warr vpon credit, Page  2 perswading them howe easily by that course they may vndertake many, whereby increaseth sinnes and offences when the souldier is left vnpaide. A pointe which spoy∣leth Generals and Heades of Armies, causing them cleane to losen the raine of obedience & good discipline, in yeel∣ding liberty to extortions, robberies, forces, and mutines, which is to multiplie sinnes besides those which a warre necessarily draweth with it, through the freedome, which they giue to such as follow them.

In case that such differences among Kings and catholike Potentates shal fall out betwene any Princes about whom Y.H. shall hold any resident Embassador,* he is to obserue, acquainting himself with the demaundes & answeres the treaties, if the Embassador runne not only a course for ma∣nage of his affaires, but be besides a souldior of courage: for that question beeing of matters out of which breach of armes is likely to arise, it is very conuenient they should passe through the handes of such, as will not bee moued with ambiguous speches, which Princes & their ministers vse in like occasions to aduantage their partie and negoti∣ation, nor yet with the demonstrations which they make of the leauies of men, to countenance themselues with, esteeming it the surest foundation they haue. And likewise if he haue followed the warres, that he be able to ballance matters in such a maner, as he may aduise Y.H. at an inch, of all such preuentions as are fit to bee vsed, and not to a∣bridge him in the end of his instructions, without sending speedily vnto him, which onlie serueth to leauie men to your expence and hinderance. Neither must hee yeeld credit too much to the faire wordes giuen him (when by workes they are not confirmed) least Y.H. growe careles, and at such time as necessitie shall require stand vnproui∣ded: In respect whereof Y.H. is to giue order (your Em∣bassador not being such a one as hath followed the warrs) Page  3 that some such as hath, may be sent in his companie, to assist him ioyntly in this his negotiation, seeking if it shal-bee necessarie, otherwise to color him, wherof there will neuer bee cause wanting among Kings, nor to withdrawe an Embassador, when matters shall affoord to be handled, but in the handes of one, all such as by coniecture are to entreate of their affaires wel hauing to vnderstand, that by no meanes they binde their Kinge, or make shewe of his power & force, if it be not that occasion require it, wherby they preserue reputation, whose foundation is workes not wordes, with which is very small maintenance.* And for that it is a qualitie incident to Kings, that they cannot bee forced either to affect or dislike, and so not to suffer them∣selues oftentimes to bee perswaded to that which is con∣uenient for them, therby running headlong into all sortes of miseries which may be seene, Y.H. must lende eares of obedience to the *Diuines, who are to approue whether your cause bee iust or no, so that they bee such personages for their much learning and example of life, as Y.H. is to chuse for the resolution of a matter of so great moment, it beeing one of the greatest pledges of a Kings wisdome to be able to knowe such among his vassalls and seruantes as may be fittest for him to harken to their iudgement and opinion, according to such matters as they knowe, and profession which they haue made therein.

Y.H. is in like sorte to giue hearing, voide of passion to your Councellours of Cape and sworde, when they shall represent vnto you, that for the defence of your King∣domes (an estimation of greatnes and reputation) it is re∣quisite to take armes, without leauing only to your owne opinion, caried with the heate of age & greatnes of minde, which is to bee thought God gaue vnto Kinges the day when he sent them into the world with like vocation, for that the only tearme of their bringing vp could not bee Page  4 sufficient to inlarge them, or to make them confidently imbrace some glorious enterprise or other, notwitstāding that it carrie multitudes of difficulties therewith.

Y.H. standing fully assured by the Diuines, that your de∣maunde is iust, according to the lawe of God & man, and that it is wisedome to mainteyne it by armes and stronge hand, may then vnder those two pointes hope for a good succor and victorie, and euill in any other sort. But say that God hath graunted victory to many, which haue vniustly fought, it hath bin through his secrete iudgments, and as far as mans reason may cōceyue, to serue himself of them, as of a scourge, chastning those which forget to serue him, & to glorifie him, in paiement of benefites receyued, such as to bestowe the light of faith, knowledge of his inuinci∣ble veritie, and promise of the greatnes of rewardes, which may be expected of his bountifull and powerfull hand, to all those which keepe his commaundements, * which for no cause in the earth ought to be broke, howe much more then to be obserued in warre, being a flashe of lightning of our Lordes wrath, and the charge not able to bee ex∣pressed, which a King taketh vpon himself if he make it for any other motiue or end, then the pure honor and glory of God,* defence of his Kingdomes, and conseruation in them of our holy Catholicque faith, fulfillinge in this the obligation which God hath laide vpon them, that those soules should not be lost, ouer whom he hath made them *Captaines on the earth, and administrators of his Iustice, which is not enough, although they haue all they can de∣sire in the world, to make Kings know when a warre shall end, though they stand sure of the beginning thereof. I do not leaue to knowe that I haue bin tedious in the points which I haue touched, but the greatnes of the profit which may be taken out thereof, will make me blameles with Y. H. Christian pietie beeing as great a pledge and assurance Page  5 of our actions in this life, as is in buildinges the firmenes of a sure foundation.

Y.H. standing resolued to take armes, making warres by lande or sea, it must of force be offensiue or defensiue,* being the two blankes for all warlicke eyes to ayme at, lea∣uing the one for the other, as occasions and successes of times, which draw with them the vnconstancie of matters of this life, shall afoord. The first thing which Y.H. is to looke vnto, is to commaund your Councellers & officers of your excheker, that they certifie you the estate thereof, what readie money you haue, and the places where your rentes be to be paide, to knowe if it be possible (neces∣sitie so requiring it) howe you may take them vp * before hand: consigning them to Marchants: the meanes which may be to rayse a greater summe, without greeuing your subiects, so as the Countries be able with their substance, and they with their wealth, to doe greater seruice to their Prince then ordinarie; for which Y.H. is to yeelde manie thanks to our Lord, holding yours so affectionate, & your kingdomes and estates so * fruitfull, and powerfull, as that you need not stand in feare of what other kings doe, in re∣spect of the barenes and pouertie of their landes, who cō∣fort them selues, that they are only able to defend at home their owne houses if they be sought out, & liue in the same scantnes, in which they were first nourished, *babtizing it for a greatnes, if they can holde a title to haue preserued them selues a while.

Of all the meanes and expedients which Princes haue to furnish thēselues with mony, I find none in my iudgment of more efficacie, or mildnesse, then to haue helde before a forme of gouuernement in such sort, as for pure honor, & Page  6 opinion thereof, the vassals may be brought to spend their wealth in the seruice of their prince, and not altogither vp∣pon their owne profit. Because men, to attaine to that, will naturally plucke out their owne bowells, and will not ad∣vēture themselues in the other, except they may see a pre∣sent gaine before their eyes, for that honour stirreth them vp to a kinde of envie, and Competitorship one against an other, who shall attaine to it, and so doeth litle or nothinge at all profit. This will be compassed with greater facilitie, if you doe but marke that the care is not lesse which men take in getting of wealth, then it is in studying to imploy it as soone as it is gotten. In respect of which it were to bee wished, the old custome mought be kept, a matter of great estimatiō, that subiects in their provinces should be drawn to employe the substance of their wealth, in that which mought proue geatest seruice to the Prince, & benefite of the publike weale of the Realme, as that such as haue wher with, should finde armor, men, and horsse: accustoming them selues in the exercise thereof, out of which there re∣doundeth a greater interest to the cōseruation of the state, then out of riche furniture, and moveables.

*Albeit sundrie are of opinion, that it may breede much inconuenience to Princes, to trayne their vassalls in readi∣nesse of warre: I answere, that if they be loyall, it is a much more greatnes and power in Princes, to commaund ouer such subiectes, other Princes and Potentates standing in feare of the like qualitie, and when God shall withdrawe his hande, and blinde them for their sinnes, not to become such, yet traytors leaue not to be powerfull, albeit they be not armed, able to force if altogither agree in the same at∣tempte, *As in a monasterie where are thirtie Friars, and one Warden or Prior, albeit they haue not Harquebuzes, Caliuers, or pykes, yet as often as they wil ioyne togither, or the maior part of them, to force their superior, that hee Page  7 binde them not to goe to matynes, or deliuer thē the key of the gate, they wilbe able to execute it, without being a∣nie impediment at all vnto them their being vnarmed. But if kinges administer iustice to their vassalls, preseruing them in reast & quiet,* this is the greatest securitie that can arise to princes, and libertie to vassalls, whereby no change can be occasioned among the well disposed, the contrarie being ordinarilie coueted by all the rest, which are not cō∣tented with their owne estate.

Whereas I haue touched armes and horsses,* I meane it not as a generall rule in all prouinces, for that in each one the qualitie thereof is to be considered, and what the in∣clination of the people and common wealth requireth most, and in this sorte it shalbe fitt in some one to increase nauigatiō, if they be prouinces bordering on the sea coste, occupation, traficke, and trade of marchandize in other: & in other husbandrie and heards of cattell. Whereby the prince may be able to keepe his ordinarie garisons & men of warre, with the pay and entertaynement, arising out of the rentes thereof. And the people of the prouince tho∣rough their occupations in being set aworke in some of these things, shall thereby augment their substance in par∣ticular, which is to mainteyne a publique and generall, be∣sides that thereby redoundeth a great ritches vnto princes whē their vassalls be thus possessed.* Of whom if they be to require extraordinarie seruices, they must looke that they rayse it out of that which each citie or prouince hath in most aboundance: because not feelinge the want thereof so much as of other things, it will be graunted with much more will and readines.

Y.H. is to take great heede,* that you be well assured of a good banke of money, being that which giueth moouing to armes and feates of warre, as sinowes doe to liuing bo∣dies: whereby such as holde much brawne and flesh, are Page  8 accounted sluggie, and slothfull, and contrariewise the si∣newie ones most light and nimble, wherevppon the olde auncientes were wont to say,*El dinero el nieruo de la guerra, which continuall experience proueth: as albeit we see at home multitudes of people which ioyned togither, will make the body of an armie, yet when of force they must be diuided to vse them abroad, in a moment they dissolue, except there be money ready, without being possible to vnite them againe togither, their force otherwise beeing only in appearance, & in effect nothing. This maketh me say, that the last crowne will alwayes be the cōqueror, be∣cause he which hath money to pay, wil alwayes be able to holde togither his Armie: his souldiors being in such sorte thereby relieued, is that onely which so easilie bringeth to passe good succes, and enterprises, howe soeuer the vnder∣taking of them out of season may breed difficultie. A point which bindeth to frame your forces accordinge to your money, as often as you shall haue occasion to warre with them, and to thinke that kinges in theirs are limited, howe powerfull so euer they be, and God only without.

Y.H. holding your prouision of money assuredly in rea∣dines to pay your men, which I thinke wilbe sufficient, ha∣uing euer one yeares leuie (in which time a princes force in warres may very well be perceyued) must ioyne there∣vnto your Generall, Captaines, and Councelours, such as may be souldiors,* without suffering this matter to be ma∣naged by any other, then such as hath followed the warrs, moued with this reason, which is, that howe considerate, skilfull, or wise soeuer a man be, if he would haue a paire of hose made him of Karsey, he will not goe about to cut it, vntill the Taylor come and bringeth his sheres, because it is his office to cutt out the stuffe with least wast: so as well in warre, for want of some litle matter of mony, there may Page  9 depende a no lesse consequence thereof a kingdome, men, honor, and life of all.

And albeit that most persons will talke of warr, although they neuer practized it, I finde no better reason so fitt to excuse them, as that the exercise of it is only proper to mē, who think they degenerate out of their kinde, except they be able to discourse thereof: which firste occasioned the prouerbe, howe Armes bred Nobilitie, as peace sciences,* re∣membring the mariadge betwene Iupiter Sauior,* and Pitar∣chia, which signifieth obedience, out of which mach Feli∣citie was borne, as out of the mother of Mars, were Igno∣rance, Famine, and Pestilence, which were giuen to him for sisters.

For that it is requisite in all things,* first to set downe the principall end, and afterwards the meanes which maketh it feazable to be attained, which can hardly be done with∣out the knowledge thereof, firste, Y.H. is to signifie vnto those personages, which I haue mocioned, the disseyne which you purpose, for your taking armes by sea or lande: cōmanding them to aduise of the number of your shipps, artillerie, munition, foote & horsse, which you are to presse out of your aydes & garisons, or to leauy a new for the cō∣positiō of your Armie: which before they frame or lodge, they are to set down in comon the considerations, which they suppose necessarie (according to the manner of the warres) to doe it with more exquisitnes, being able with them, as generall rules, to come more distinctly to intreate of what is fit particularlie to be handled, as cause shalbe of∣fered, and the present time require.

Y.H. going about to conquere * a kingdome, state, coun∣trey, or part of any such, which is the * most secure warre for Princes, being voluntarie, and not of force as a defen∣siue Page  10 is,* giuing respite for your prouisions to be made in time, and layd in at the best season, is to be held a naturall matter in all sort of men, how much more, in kings the de∣sire of a conquest, which a Prince vndertaking, is worthie of much commendation, though not to be reprehended, if he attempt not like enterprises, for many reasons which they ordinarilie haue, wherwith to be able to excuse them selues: when a conquest is vndertaken without cōuenient force to performe it, not only the people blameth him, but he committeth besides sundrie errors which causeth great inconueniences, * and who so coūcelleth him thereto vn∣der colour to make him more powerfull, procureth his ruine, & that coūcell is a prince to holde suspitious, where the conquest is not accommodated to the proportion of his forces, which althogh he hold great, such as the season and time may thinke conuenient for the entreprise, yet is it to be considered, whether it be fitter to mooue warre to another king, or to stay vntill he breake first, comparing the enimies forces with his owne, & whether it be better to haue many ioyne in league with him in making of the warre, or to vndertake it alone. Prouided that Kinges al∣wayes carrie them selues in like occasions, without being ouerled with their owne liking and passion, which seldom times councellors can temper, besides that when for their owne sake they will not tell any lyes vnto their prince, yet will they all shun to discontent him, euery one mooued with care of him selfe, which causeth many truthes to bee kept silent. Moreouer they must consider the qualitie of the kingdome which you attempt, what is the tempera∣ture, climate, and distance thereof, whether mountaynous or playne, dry or many riuers and woods, fertill, abundant, well peopled, or not: any store of townes, or Cities: whe∣ther those they haue be compassed about with any better defence then ordinarie walles, which they call Casamuros,Page  11 what * entries or hauens they haue able to lande an hoste or armie, with great exquisitenes still searchinge out the disposition therof: and whether they be fortified: in what maner, whether onely the crabbednes of the stite bread, difficultie, or sterilitie of the countrey about (a meanes which some haue vsed to stopp inuasions into their king∣domes and Prouinces, not manuring the frontieres there∣of, but making them lye wast) whether it be a nation giuen to warr, able to endure all kinde of labor, or louers of their owne ease and quiet, which many times the composition of their bodies may occasion, for the smal vigor is in them, enclining of them selues to ease, other through their euill education liuing in ydelnes: whether they holde military forme in generall, or some garisons and ordinarie bandes, of more power in cauallerie or fanterie, or contrariwise. Likewise, whether they haue any quantitie of Shipps rea∣die armed for defence thereof: if it be an Yland, or border much along the sea coste: whether the gouernement ther∣of be caried in forme of a Democracie, which is,* whē all the people in common, or the maior part of them hold souue∣raingtie and commaund, or Aristocracie, when a lesser part of the people holde of one bodie within it selfe empire, & power, giuing lawes to the more sorte of the rest in gene∣rall, or particular: or Monarchie, which they tearme Royal Senorie, the Prince hauing iustlie conquered it,* becōming Lord of their persons and goods, vnder which he may be able to gouerne them with equitie, & yeelding vnto them libertie, with putting them in possession and proprietie of their goods, from an absolute Lorde establisheth then to him selfe the gouuernement of a Royal Monarchie: whether the Monarch or king be electiue, and if his authoritie con∣siste more in the body and voice of his Prelates, Nobles, & cities of the kingdome, then of his royal person, not being able to vse discipline, enacte lawes, or impose tributes or Page  12 fynes, without consent of the members of his kingdome, remayning in the Court: whether it come to him by suc∣cession, or gayned by mariadge, or right of inheritance: what the age of the king is in possession: what talent and partes God hath giuen vnto him: howe he vseth them: what heires he hath, and whether he bring them vp, alow∣ing them a hande in gouernement, or farre from him for suspition: of what qualitie his officers be, which he retay∣neth about his person to assist him in gouuernement, and howe farre he yeeldeth vnto them: whether he accounte of Souldiers and men of warre, for affection hee beareth therevnto, or onely for necessitie, hauing among them any personages of experience and valour: whether he be more beloued or feared of his vassalls, in what sorte his rentes a∣riseth, the summe and quantitie thereof: whether hee bee able to augment them more, if he holde them free or char∣ged with such assignations as he shall haue giuen or solde vpon them: if he be gouerned by any Tutor or protector, through the minoritie of his age, or want of vnderstāding: whether there be any Gouernor, either through the kings being taken prisoner, or for distancie from the state, where the Prince, Gouernor, or Captaine general resideth: whe∣ther that Kingdome or Countrey be frō before time with other fallen vnto him, or since the King or Prince enioyed it: whether the leagues he holdeth be onely personall or successiue, to his heires: finally, whether the disposition of that kingdome or state be of such a sorte, as draweth the bordering Princes, albeit they are not confederate with it, not to suffer that any more powerfull shall enioy it, for the difficultie and feare of greatnes, looking the more narrow∣lie thereinto,* for the conseruation of their owne estate.

Out of these considerations which I haue set downe, Y. H. may be able to serue your turne, in cōpassing such for∣ces as your armie shall neede: marking that alwayes a na∣turall Page  13 Prince holdeth a greater pledge of beeing beloued, then a straunger, if his extremitie of vice doe not cause his vassalls to abhorre him. Therefore in the continuance of a long gouuernement, many occasions & causes of nouel∣tie are withdrawne and remoued, which the chance of an Empire draweth with it: the one opening the dore to the other, as one building the frame and workemanship of an other: for this cause a conquest is seldom times effected, without hauing some intelligence with them of the king∣dome or state, being an enterprise of greatest daunger, to enter warre within a countrie, of which you shall hold no further knowledge then what you must be fayne to take by force and armes: the which extreemely delayeth the proceeding thereof, a matter which can not be auoyded, vntill you finde your selfe so farre within the Countrey, as the people for loue of their owne houses, and impossibili∣tie which they see in maintayning of their wifes and chil∣dren without them, constrayne them selues to suffer the yoke, in seeking to please those, which impose it vpon thē. And likewise, the most ordinarie way is to entertayne speach before with some whō you may perceyue discon∣tented with the Prince,* through his want of vnderstan∣ding, vicious customes, euill gouuernement, naughtie ad∣ministration of iustice, and choise of ministers, which en∣gendereth partialities: losse of wealth, or couetousnesse in procuring of it: oppressions and greeuances without rea∣son, which maketh honorable heartes to growe desperate, resenting more an iniurie then death, except the feare of God,* and obligation of a subiect (which is not in any wise to admitt of any condition to make him faltar in the loy∣altie which he oweth) restrayne them: or that Kinges re∣frayne their appetites and passions, considering it is with their owne subiectes.

Besides this, another cause manie times stirreth vp sub∣iectes Page  14 to intend nouelties, * and that is when their Prince hath no heire, and there be diuers pretendours to the suc∣cession, which some will aspire, making great shewe of the sufficiencie of their partie to obteyne it: and other more ambitious, founding them selues vpon the authoritie and trayne they cary assay the ayde of neighbour Princes, to be able to possesse them selues of the commaunde, vnder such profites or Townes as they can offer vnto them: di∣uers likewise are the readier, finding them selues in neces∣sitie, hauing prodigallie wasted their substance, imagining that through want therof, they must needes decay in their credite and opinion, and then necessitie so mouing them, couer their ambition, vnder the title of libertie, vnder co∣lour to remedy the publicke weale, their owen particuler being their principall end, & to destroy the generall, that with change they may bring their purpose about. Some∣times in like maner it falleth out, that there is either an e∣state or cities adioyning vnto the place attempted, whiche albeit they depend not thereon, the euill entreatie they haue receyued, may make them wishe that other might occupie the roome, offering thēselues to their ayde, which is eftsoones also occasioned through feare, and a forced good will, for that they are not able to giue anie impedi∣ment therevnto.

Those persons which Y.H. is to vse in this negociation, for the causes rehearsed, or any other that may occurre, ought to be men of vnderstanding, and souldiours, albeit they cary no such shewe,* to be able to viewe in the entries and salies of the kingdome, the qualitie and commoditie of the countrey, and what for the better assurance of fo∣raine forces may be found therein, and that they be not to light in beleeuing their offers, with whom they practize, which commonly bragge more then is cause, of their power, kindred, & account they holde in the kingdome, Page  15 despising and setting their owne princes at nought: with which they make them beleeue, to the end the Prince, by whom they seeke to be releeued, should more feruentlie imbrace the matter, that his desseine may be easilie com∣passed, through the ill satisfaction of the subiectes in gene∣rall, wherein great difference is to be made betweene men desperate, and male content. The firste whotly pursue the ruine of the Prince, endangering to bring it to passe,* both substance and life: the other wishe innovations, but with∣out hazarding their owne, more satisfying thēselues with the present mischiefe knowen, then the future good that is doubtfull. In such sorte, as both the one, and the other, serue as tynder for the fire of a ciuill warr, which to the de∣sperate bringeth reuenge, and encrease, and to the male∣contents, comoditie & ease, which quickly maketh them to agree with the Prince, when soeuer he will but vouch∣safe and yeeld anie authoritie vnto them. Notwithstan∣ding that they haue before taken armes, which hardly can be nourished in a kingdome, or a ciuill warre mainteyned, without great succours of money, and forraine ayde, by reason that you may by negotiation corrupt a kingdome, but not maintayne a warre within it, without force of armes, and much celeritie, for that the naturall Prince will with time euer gaine to be better followed, strengthning him selfe by his owne authoritie and partie. It is likewise to be noted in this matter of malcontents, that they are to bee founde in all Kingdomes, Prouinces, and Courtes of Princes, it being annexed to humane nature, that men are neuer satisfied with those things, which our Lord orday∣neth, and with the gouuernement wherewith he guideth. And also it is not to be marueyled at, that they be ordina∣rilie discontented, with what contentement Kinges and Princes cary, being men, albeit in some actions wise and confident, which is occasioned by the conceite that euery Page  16 one hath of him selfe, bringing him to imagine that hee could gouuerne better then he that is in place, and vnder this to condemne the proceeding of any other. And there is another sort of male contents, in not seeing thēselues ad∣uanced, and promoted to rule: which though they bee many in a kingdome, and of the principall sorte, yet verie seldome can they alone be able to make a sufficient partie, for to stirre vp a ciuill warre therein, with a foundation, & in maner that it may endure, notwithstandinge that ano∣ther Prince yeeld them assistance therein, except the com∣mons and people, as well estraunge their affection from the Prince, for some cause which may mooue all to a ge∣nerall distaste, which is the surest foundation to frame a ciuill warre vpon, and then not onely the principall men and great personages, but anie one whosoeuer that hath valor or hardines, may be fitt to serue as * sulfer for the nourishing of a fier of warr with facilitie, through the dis∣position of the matter, and detestations whiche the com∣mons and people conceyue, desirous of Nouelties, wher∣by to better their owne estate: with which it commeth to be mainteyned, & to take roote in like maner, as stormes doe in gulfes, euery winde altering them, for beeing so prone to mooue them selues, whiche is not seene on the lande, though they be very boysterous, & furious for the hardnes thereof, and on the sea, in that it is a licquide bo∣die, a small blast swelleth, and puffeth it vp, taking a motion in it selfe, thorough the qualitie of the disposition thereof, which being once conceyued, the furie lasteth for a long time, albeit the first moouer cease, and the rebellions of kingdomes in like maner, when they shalbe nourished by commons, and the people, will last many yeares, though the heads which began them, may happen to fall & fayle. A reason which byndeth very diligently to consider, of what qualitie the discontentment of a Kingdome or Pro∣uince Page  17 may be, whereby a ciuill warre may the better bee mainteyned therin, whether it be occasioned by any mat∣ter which breedeth a generall offence or no.

In all the prouisions or levies of men,* which are made for any maner of warre, by sea or lande, it is ordinarilie to be vnderstood, that they be coloured with some different motiue, from what is meant, whereby no time may be gi∣uen to the enimie to perceyue it, by preuenting disseins with the contrarie. An aduise verie necessarie, especiallie in conquestes, for many respectes, not being the least, that albeit that kings loue not to be vnsauorie to their subiects, thinking that they holde all sortes of money to content them with, when they please, yet at the verie houre that they discouer their disposition to take armes, there is no meanes nor negotiatiō, which they will leaue vnpractized to reduce them to their trayne and affection, the thought hereof, being able to bynde them to be more liberall then gratefull, for their victories and seruices done: A meanes which bringeth them to be reconciled with those, whom before they feared, and to make the other leaue off their treaties with forraine Princes, which before they had, de∣claring them selues enimies to them, and assured to their owne.

A matter which is fitt to be auoyded by concealing the causes of suspition,* and that other Kings and Potentates may not linke themselues to assist him which assayleth, ca∣ried with an humor, which naturally a Royall blood is cō∣pounded of, in waxing fierce against any other King whō they see growe in power and force, imagining that that his greatnes will ouerwaye the ballance, for that the one came not vp without the going downe of the other. And by reason that it is as easie a matter to Princes, to deceyue men by their deuises and negotiations which passe by pa∣per, as it is harde in matters of publike actions, It is fitt to Page  18 couer their disseins and preparations, by seeking out of some notable apparant reasons, and as much as may lye in them to remoue such shadowes as are setled in their iudg∣ment, which thinke them selues of greatest reach, & most pearcing vnderstanding.

*By no better meanes may this be effected, then in sen∣ding vpon such occasions Embassadours to those Kinges, who are most suspected would oppose thēselues to your disseins, plotting with them treatises of newe friendships, and good correspondencie, according to the humour and disposition, in which they shall finde them, lulling them a sleepe with such offers as may holde in suspence, and at the gaze, the more part of the potentates.

I haue thought good to signifie the premisses vnto Y. H. for that the desire of sparing is naturall, not onely to all sorte of people, but to very Princes and Kinges, hauinge most times reasons to leade them therevnto: but Y.H. can not haue a greater vigor, & surer foundation, then to stand cōtinually prepared, since that in not being so many grea∣ter mischiefes, and inconueniences may ensewe, then by the expence you should be at, & that with discretion you may suspecte double dealings, though Y.H. for nothing in the earth would your selfe mynde the same, holding it for a most sure maxime, that who hath weapons & souldiers, preserueth friends, and despiseth him he seeth vnarmed, & by consequent, who standeth with his sworde in his hand, will take no great liking to content him, whom he seeth without, remayning thereby with great suspecte, and very small securitie.

*When Y.H. shall haue entertayned the Princes, & made your prouisions and leauies of men in readines, and in so good estate, as no time may be giuē to the enimie to arme him selfe further, it shalbe fitt that speedily among Y.H. vassalls, in as short time as may be, you resolue of the en∣terprise Page  19 you meane to execute, especially if it be against the infidells, barbarians, people or natiō of the qualitie as they are at enimitie withall, because that being of them selues enclyned there vnto, they growe enflamed in that sorte, as they embrace the very day it is published with great con∣tent and reioysing, whereby two things are gayned: first, that they stand encouraged thereby to performe some ex∣traordinarie seruice to Y.H. in hope of the profit and suc∣ces shall ensewe thereof; secondly, most Princes and Po∣tentates shall perceyue the affection which Y.H. vassals ca∣rie towardes you, with what applause they performe the seruice: Notwithstanding that it be done with excessiue expence of Y.H. rentes, and they willing to supply parte thereof by diminution of their owne.

When any Prince shall attempt the kingdomes or estates of Y.H. the warre is defensiue,* and then the motiue is to be respected, for which cause it is mooued, if it be to recouer any right, iniurie, or agreuance, which they thinke they haue receyued, or for a common enmities sake, which the infidells and barbarians holde against all christian Princes, causes which they call extrinsecall, or outward, for the de∣struction of a kingdome: intrinsecall, or inward be such as I haue described, wherof there is no maruell, though some shall happen in any of Y.H. estates, through fault of your gouuernours, being men as Princes are, and holdinge co∣moditie to condescend to their appetites and lustes, tho∣rough the power of the place, which they occupie: and sometimes, when to giue contentment to their Prince, re∣quiring of them some summe of money, or assistance of other prouisions, they ouer excessiuely charge the peo∣ple, bringing them thorough this oppression, to mutinie, without aduertising the Prince, what inconuenience may fall vnto him, moued therevnto by the pleasure whiche they thinke they doe him therein, and imagining more Page  20 aduauncement and greatnes to growe vnto their owne persons thereby.

*To defend may be done three maner of wayes, in saly∣ing to receyue the enimie without the kingdome, or to at∣tende him vpon the confines thereof, manuing the fron∣tiers as the roughnes or straightnes of the wayes and diffi∣cultie of passing the Riuers will yeelde commoditie. The thirde may be likewise in two fashions,* furnishinge with good store of souldiours and munition one or two fron∣tieres or more, when they may be places well fortified, ha∣uing within their view all the rest of the armie lodged to be readie vpon any good occasion: and the other, if the frontiers be weake, villages round about, and the fielde o∣pen, is to chuse such a sciete to lodge your army in, as may cherish the frontires, and renforce with people where you shall feare the enimie, will seeke to inuest him selfe by the demonstration alreadie declared.

*In going forth to seeke the enimie, may well be noted a greater courage and gallantnes in him which attempteth, then which attendeth, and that ordinarilie the successes of warre fauor more the inuador then the defendor: beeing to be considered in this, that to assaile requireth more for∣ces, then to be assailed, or at least, in reason they ought to be equall, hauing like consideration betweene the qualing of a conqueror, & seeing him selfe come to be sought out, the one of force constrayned to come to handes if he will seeke to enter an others house, and the other to arme in his owne defence, as the seruice shall require: and in this ma∣nie are of opinion, that the souldior fighteth with greater courage out of his owne Countrie then at home, loosing the confidence of any other meanes to escape by, then the valor of his owne handes: Iointly they saye, that as the good housholder doeth not take so much care in ridding them that are vitiouslie giuen from his house, as in preuen¦ting Page  21 that they come not at all, nor him to be a wise politi∣cian, which only chasteneth theeues in the cōmon wealth, except he gouerne in such maner, as they come not in, so neuer did wise Prince giue place to the enimie to set foote vpon his lande. If he had any meanes to hinder it, or con∣uenient forces to breake him before his entrie in.

On the contrary part, it is helde a daungerous resolution to goe to seeke out the enimie,* except it be holding a sure place of retreate, or an other armie vpon the Confines or Frontiers, with which you may be ready to fight the se∣conde time: for that in doing otherwise, it were to endaū∣ger a whole estate in one battayle, especially when they goe not with superior forces, or at the least equall. Hauing to consider vpon any such occasiō, whether the Captaine be of valor and experience to whom the armie for the first iorney is commended, and that the Soldiours and men of warre be well trayned, & such as loue the Captaine which guideth thē, for that this fayling, they will neuer performe any matter of worth, nor the Captaine, what fashion so e∣uer he carie, except he holde a confidence and assurance in his Souldiors, for their much obedience, promising to him selfe, that they will be as readie to obey what he shall commaund, as they likewise stande perswaded of his suffi∣ciencie to be able to gouuerne. Likewise if the person of the Prince remayne with a second armie vppon the Fron∣tiers with a body of people readie to relieue it, if it should retire, or to gather vp the reliques thereof, if there haue bin any losse, turning face to the enimie, which seldome times although he gayne a victorie, or route leaueth to be brokē in his owne force, & strength, if the fight haue bin against olde souldiors.

In the seconde maner you are to consider,* whether to keepe the passages and entries, may be done with few peo∣ple, through the strength of the scituatiō, or with so many Page  22 as it must aske a principal parte of the armie, for then com∣meth it to be diuided, and consequentlie the first forces by the inferioritie hereof remayning broken, and the passage being lost, it is impossible to fight with the seconde, or to be able in a long time to succour the Frontiers or Cities, when the enimie shall giue vpō them, maistering the field, and if he chaunce to seeke out that parte of the rest of the armie which hath remayned entiere, there is no other helpe lefte then to sticke close to some Towne or stronge place, to defende it selfe, attending succour, if there be any hope thereof, so as the roome and place which they occu∣pie be able to receyue it, and to holde victualls, for other∣wise they shall finde them selues but in harde estate.

*The third manner is of a greater securitie by giuing time to time with it, which is the foundation to preserue, enioyinge the benefit thereof, and may alwayes bee helde for such when they suffer not much, causing then no lesse damage. Besides that seldome times is any kingdome or estate attempted, which holdeth all the entries thereof in such wise as the very scituatiō by nature maketh thē harde, but that when they are such, always some intelligence is had in them, or hope to gayne them by some cunning stra∣tageme: and if it be to inuade by Sea, euer to seeke out a porte or landinge place, where the artillery of Castells and plotformes may not reach the shipping at the landing of the men on shoare.

*It shalbe verie conuenient in the first forme of the third manner of defence to consider, whether the fortification of the places or any of thē be so well vnderstoode, as that probablie they may hope to defend it some monethes: what number of people such frontire is capable of, hol∣ding munitions and victualls for it, for that the muchnes of soldiors is that which mainteyneth places for many dayes, albeit they be weake of them selues, and by conse∣quent Page  23 will prolonge the defence of a fourth monethes, if there be a head of valor and courage to mainteyne it, and Soldiours that conceyue the same opinion of him: with which vndoubtedlie the enimie must needes spende and weaken his forces, albeit the besieged consume them not, either in salies, trenches, or bateries, the time being the greatest enimie that may be to those, which besiege, to whom in his degree it offreth no lesse difficulties, prolon∣ging thē from fight, then to be besieged, besides thorough pestilence, want of victual, munition, paye, fowle weather, and other successes, he which besiegeth cōmeth very often to diminish his forces, the contrarie parte resting with equalitie to succor the place, albeit they before held them selues inferior in number, not hazarding in consideration hereof, the whole for a parte, which ordinarilie falleth out when they will succour a place within their owne estate, with the body of an armie, a reason which bindeth to pro∣uide in this sorte of defence, for the frontires and townes of soldiors, as if they should not need any after succours, & yet still to prouide a new, as if they were not already proui∣ded for, at the instant that any occasion shoulde be offred.

In the second forme of the third manner of defence,* it is to be considered wether the scituation where the armie lieth for the defence of the places and frontires, be in such a disposition, as that one towne may be at hand to releaue an other, and that garrison be put with cōmodite of well knowing the countrie, and euerie sorte of wayes and pas∣sages, with which the enimie may not be so well acquain∣ted, whereby he shall no sooner giue vpon the place, then finde it furnished with souldiors, and an armie at hande, which may be able to put him to his trompes, and cut off victualls, causing for the preuention thereof euerie one to retire into the mayne, to breake downe mills, and bridges ouer riuers, and to cut downe quantities of trees: acrosse Page  24 the wayes of the woods, to stop them: preuentions which cause much toyle to an armie, for that there is fewe, or none, as it is vsed nowe a dayes which can cary all necessa∣rie cōmodities with it self, not presupposing to finde some within the Countrie, & when they shall preuent them but for a fewe dayes, by reason of the barrenes or depopulati∣on of the place, many must finde them selues much an∣noyed. By this forme of defence, and dispersing of the ar∣mie alongest the townes and frontires, which is almost all one, whilest that the enimy consumeth himselfe thorough want of victualls, and other discōmodities, although he be Maister of the fielde, which causeth great trauaile to his armie, not holding inhabitation wherewith to refreshe it, you are to consider, that if the Prince which defendeth himselfe holde not on his parte the affection of his vassalls, this kinde of defence will neuer come to any good, for that he shall not bee able to place within the townes so many soldiors, as may commaund the neighbours, who wilbe readie to giue passage to the enimie to free them of their oppression, yeelding thē selues as soone as they shall see him neare their Townes: which is to confirme footing to the Conqueror, an incōuenience which can not be re∣medied without shewing a boldnes with it to resolue to fight, and to lodge so neare the enimie, as that the very thought thereof, may make him not to let goe much of his people frō their lodging, looking to fight, & the countries to stand in suspence, without daring to declare thē selues, vntill they see the end of the iorney. In lodging so neare, you must alwayes choose out a strong scituation: when you can not, you must by arte cause such a one, especially if you be fewer in cauallerie, or fanterie, thē the enimie to be able to equall the inferioritie thereof, with the aduan∣tage which a good lodging and scituation may yeeld to fight, for which there needeth no lesse trauayle, then the Page  25 busines requireth, which is so hard a matter to emcampe, nor lesse experience in the generall, being one of the grea∣test actes that are in warre, and which seldome hath bene seene.

Y.H. may in like sorte, prepare your men in readines to defend your selfe, by preuenting such King or common wealth, as you may haue warr with, or any suspition of his breaking with you, & on that parte where Y.H. imagineth he may most annoye you, vsing in this case the meane of diuersion: the enterprise which you are to execute by sea or land, must be handled with greate secrecie and speede,* lest the enimie preuent by gayning the hand: you must in this, respect the qualitie of the action, & whether it require more cauallerie then infanterie, or light foote, which must assure footing where you meane to hinder the enimie, or vpon any seruice done, to retire them selues.

As well may Y.H. leauie men in assistāce of some Prince,* with whom you stande confederate: by reason of such league as you holde with him, which ought to bee kept with all precisenes. Y.H. and all Princes being engaged to keepe their faith and worde, and contractes made vppon trust thereof, for two considerations: firste for that by the lawe of nature contractes are to be mainteyned: and se∣condly, a Prince is to keepe his faith and worde, for that it ought to stande as a pledge and inviolable gage, as well to∣wardes subiects as all other maner of persons, well carying in remembrance what God signified by the mouth of the Psalmist, saying: Et quae procedunt ex labijs meis,*non faciam ir∣rita. In this nothing more resteth to be considered, when the number of men shall stand limited in the capitulation, then whether such aydes shalbe drawne out of the olde soldiors and ordinarie garrisons of Y.H. or of men which are to be leauied of newe, vnder experimented Captaines.

Y.H. may in like sorte imploye your forces for the con∣seruation Page  26 of any Prince, or cōmon weale which you hold vnder your protection,* albeit the qualitie of a Protectour comprehendeth not any subiection of his inferior vnder him, nor giueth any right at all to commaunde, but onely a certaine honor & reuerence which they owe vnto him, which put them selues vnder his protection. A matter no∣thing at all diminishing therby any authoritie of their So∣ueraintie, not yeelding power to the Protector to ouer∣rule: whereby it may be gathered, that the Prince which putteth him selfe vnder protection, is of lesse authoritie, then he which yeeldeth tribute: for that in paying tribute he resteth free and exempt, but he which is vnder prote∣ction, hath euer neede to be defended: which bindeth thē to take greater securitie on their parte, then the Protector shall neede, by reason they are inferior vnto him, & a daū∣gerous matter to admit a protector, except for wante ther∣of he shalbe forced to fal into his enimies hands. In which is to be considered, that a protector must holde some in∣terest in defending such as flye vnto him, and that for the conseruation of his owne estate, because in any other sort such protection wilbe but of small durance, & many times it falleth out, that when one hath yeelded him selfe in pro∣tection as to a souerane, he may for some other particular acknowledge the subiectiō of a vassall, asking in such case ayde of his Protector, he is bounde in double obligation, to defende him: especiallie if his person be interessed in the quarell, honor, and goods, * all Ciuilians agreeing, that a Prince can not in reason take into his protection, anie vassall against his Lord, except he haue iust occasion of quarell against him: which requireth a good cōsideration to be had of such as they take into their protectiō, for that it draweth manie inconuenients with it. If the protection be not iust, because all protections and leagues made with a powerfull Prince, carieth with it selfe an obligacion to Page  27 take armes in their defence, rūning the same fortune which they doe, except a neutralitie be specified in the contract, the honor and profit of what is conquered, remayninge onely to the protector a forme of capitulation, which is not vsed in these times, except it be when the conquerour will giue what lawe he list to the conquered.

Y.H. may in like manner take armes for the assistance of some Prince, with whom you doe not stand confederate,* nor holde in your protection, moued only therevnto thorough the iniustice which is don him, and being con∣uenient that he which assayleth so much without reason, should not make himselfe more powerfull, neighbouring to Y.H. estates, in which is to be respected the qualitie of the Prince, and his forces, which defendeth himselfe in cōparison of him which assayleth, & if there be more need of caualery or fantery, munitiō or artillery: if you aide him with men, they must goe well payd, and disciplined, so as they may be able to serue for a salue to his soare, & not to fester with the insolencies & agreeuances which they shall commit vnder color of necessitie, which causeth them no lesse hate among the countrie people where they warre, then they beare to their proclaymed enimies.

No lesse is it fit that Y.H. arme your selfe in being pre∣pared to preserue your vassalls,* hauing warr betweene two Princes whose kingedomes and estates border vpon Y.H. shewing your selfe neutrall, and that you stand not vnfur∣nished of forces thorough the suspition yeelded in seeing them two arme, it being a no lesse conuenience to preuent an iniurie, then hauing receyued it necessarie to reuenge, and this to performe without engaging your selfe in their warres, giuing assistance to neither, holding for a sure grounde that if you doe, the losse wilbe generall, and the fruit of the victorie his onely who mainteyneth the quar∣rell, and your selfe enforced to proclayme enmitie to such Page  28 a Prince as neuer offended you standing neutrall there are euer founde occasions and meanes to worke a peace betweene thē, gayning honor and thankes of each, besides preseruing your owne estate with the ones ruining of the other, for that among the best iudgements it is helde that the greatnes of a Prince is the destructiō of his neigbours, and his power not able to growe greater thē by the weak∣nes of the other Kings, and common wealthes, founding their securitie by equalling their forces one with the o∣ther: And albeit some hold it for good, that not withstan∣ding they shew them selues neutrall, yet secretly to kindle the fire of a warr, in steed of quenching it, as the meanes to preserue their owne estate, to haue the other two Princes by the eares togeather, it is a matter which can hardlie lie couered, & once being vnderstood, in the end the two par∣ties, as persons which approued themselues, come to agree to spende their forces vpon the third, wherby he standeth most secure, which holdeth himselfe neutrall, maintey∣ning his owne estate, without intermedling in any sorte with the warre of his neighbours.

*Occasions may also fall out, vpon which Y.H. shall stand in need to leuie men, enabling your selfe therby and with taking armes to chastise some sedition or rebellion of your subiects in which no iot of time is to be lost for many rea∣sons, not being the weakest, that such Princes, as suffer ri∣sings of Cōmunalties, Cities, or Prouinces, giue example to other to folowe the like, when they see them not armed to punish thē, which if they be, it is a meanes to draw those vnto their Prince, with better will, which haue not decla∣red thē selues against him, seeing him followed with men, and that he will not suffer himselfe to be trodden vnder: standing assured that he holdeth more certayne meanes to reward, then rebells, vpō whose partie, larger promises doe euer passe, then can be obteyned, as well through the vio∣lence, Page  29 with which those that rise are enforced to proceede in the beginning of their rebellions, as for the nouelties which they must necessarilie execute, with much extorsi∣on: agreeuances whiche pleaseth many voluntarilie to heare of, when they see securitie of armes on their Princes parte: ioyntly the authoritie of an empire and rule is more strenghtned by the vigor of forces, which is very daunge∣rous for you to employe against your owne subiects, ex∣cept in humane reason there appeare a certentie that you shall come to an end by punishing of them, least you arme the Lion with clawes, to hurte his gouuernour, and fight with disaduantage, with a rouer or pirate, who augmēteth and reenforceth himself with the damage of the contrarie, and gayning of his shipping: sufficient considerations to moue a Prince not to embrue his sworde in the bloode of his vassalls, if it be not done with much securitie, differring it with such secret means of negotiatiōs, as may be offered to reduce some of the principall heads of the insurrection, by treaties of grace and pardon, as may moue them, en∣ioying the benefit of time without suffering thinges to runne so rawe, as that another shoulde thrust himselfe in, wherby he should be enforced to graūt it, & so finde him∣self neither in state to mainteine an offensiue warr against thē, nor to come to a peace, without much disaduantage, through the wronges receaued, causing the wounde to vl∣cer by the assistance with other Princes shall giue to main∣teyne the rebellion, & by that meanes weaken the Princes force, of whose greatnes and power they stoode in feare, which (how troublesome it would growe to a Prince) a holy Doctor foreseeing, writeth: Plerumque Rex iustus etiam malorum errores dissimulare nouit,*non quod iniquitati eorū consentiat, sed quod aptum tempus correctionis expectet, in quo eo∣rum vitia emendare valeat, vel punire: which ought to be put in executiō after the gayning of a victorie, not otherwise: Page  30 so as the punishement may seeme to be done for a good example and not reuenge: albeit the Barbarians holde it the better parte of a victorie, to refrayne the iust furie of shedding blood, and anger of men, when it falleth out betweene those which before loued togeather, although occasion haue bin giuen to the contrarie. A passion which can hardlie be cooled in a Prince, except he consider the taste of reuenge to last but few dayes, and the ioye of pie∣tie eternallie, and so to accompanie iustice with clemen∣cie, that it be no crueltie, and clemencie with iustice, that him selfe runne not into contempt. This bindeth in the insurrections of Cities & Prouinces, or mutineys of men of warre, to punish such as make the beginninge, or firste motion, being authours thereof, pardoning rhe most part in generall, since it is not possible to punishe a multitude. The reasons which I haue propounded may be occasion to take armes as well on Y.H. parte as of any other Prince or Potentate. So may there be other which I write not for being to tedious, and that they are sufficientlie comprehē∣ded in the before mentioned, the cōsiderations set downe being able to serue for a rule as well to the one as the o∣ther, in resoluing what foote or horse, artillerie, or muniti∣on is fit to be leuied for the compounding of an armie, or fleete of shippes,* if the seruice be by Sea: many are of opi∣nion that it were much better to compounde it of one onely nation, then of diuers, in respect of the diuersitie of language, and customes, which partlie causeth confusion vpon manie occasions, not onely in lodgings, but in fight, whereby ariseth diuersitie of complaintes, infecting them selues in such sorte as hath causeth the very losse of whole armies, and for that ordinarily among those of that quali∣tie, are souldiors which serue onely for such paye and pil∣lage, as in particular may fall out in the warre, with ey∣ther Page  31 of which wanting, they laye aside the reputation, good and greatnes of the Prince (owing no further fide∣litie to him then their seruice) for their priuate interest to whom their very Leaders giue assistance, moued with the gaine they haue in payes and musters, in which they are greatlie interessed, alwayes making such regimentes and leauies of men, more for respect of profitt, then anie affection they cary the Prince. Hence it doeth ryse that they haue often refused to sight, at the very time of necessitie, and gone and serued the contrarie parte, with∣out resenting any whit at all to haue fayled in their fideli∣tie not being payde: whereby the enimie commeth to bee strengthned, the contrarie parte remayning more weake.

Likewise seldome times doe Kings & generall Captains vnderstande so many languages as to bee able to speake to euery one in his owne: a matter which naturally maketh them affectionate, and winneth them to obey with more readines, and sooner stirreth them vp to fight.

On the other side experience hath proued great Cap∣tains to haue combated and warred yeares enough with armies of different nations,* without euer hauing had any mutinies or sedition among them, & gayned many victo∣ries, and that one nation can hardly accommodate it selfe without a very large and continuall experience in teach∣ing the mānage of such diuersitie of armes, as is necessarie for soldiers to vse at this day in the armies. In this respect and consideration men of auncient time were of opinion, that those instruments of warre were of much credit and estimation among the most parte of people, as mought serue them without any exercise at all before had of them, and so we see one nation more fit for the readines of the Harquebus, and other for the stande and firmenes of the Pike, and better able to endure to goe and march armed: Page  32 and so by consequent as well in the Cauallerie, better ac∣commodating them selues with the demi-lance & armor, or * with Tablachinas, & other with very long ones of two headdes, without any Iackes of mayle or corselettes, and some carying light horse staues, leading staues, and Tar∣guettes, & other with Pistolls, or long Petrionells: which difference of armes is as well required to be considered, as the horsses may be able to beare out therewith in combat best. The verie reason which at the first moued men to in∣uent them, proportioning them according to the fitnesse of such horse, as the Prouince or Climate did breede, af∣firming iointlie, that it is a very hard matter at this time, to be able to frame an armie of one entiere nation, when it is not for the defence of the same kingdome, vpon the inva∣sion of any stranger, for the diuersitie of considerations which may therein be offred. And in particular, whether the Prouince be so well peopled, as that it may yeelde so great a nūber of men, as is necessarie for the maintenance of a warre abroad, the which euery day consumeth men, and to breede souldiers, it is necessarie to employ youthes which haue passed sixteene yeares at the least: and in case so much people may be drawne out of the Countrie,* and so many men trayned among them as is fit for the diuersi∣tie of armes, vndoubtedly an armie of one entiere nation, is much more to be esteemed, which cōforme them selues in customes, and language, then of diuers: which ought to beare parte, and all to depend of one selfe same cause, thereby to be the more vnited in their conseruation, and by consequent their force of greater vigour. Of this there are not onely probable reasons, but effectes, consideringe that the greatest Empires which haue bene, haue augmen∣ted and preserued them selues, by warring with the Soul∣diors of their owne nation onely, with whom they made an entier body of their armie, lodging such of other nati∣ons Page  33 as came to their ayde a parte, thereby giuing to vn∣derstande that they depended not of them.

In this case hath our Lorde made Y.H. so powerfull a Prince, as that you possesse kingdomes, and many Prouin∣ces, out of which you may forme great armies of one en∣tiere nation or diuers, being all your vassalls, or such coun∣tries assisting you, where you haue Coronells in paye for the same effecte: and so may Y.H. chuse the partie most conuenient, according as your generall Captaines shall be of opinion, & the forme of warre may require which you vndertake, and in what Prouince or state: particularities which will giue light to the resolution of your leauies and places of musters which are to be assigned, accordinge to their order and securitie.

Some are of opinion that in those Councells which Princes holde, for giuing of order to leauie men,* it should be verie cōuenient, the Princes person not being in place present, not to name any general at all, vntill all prouisions were at an end: presupposing that there would be foūd so many persons fitt for the same charge, as that the findinge of anie one to be named, would bee an occasion for the more parte to backward the seruice, encreasing the other inconueniences which mought be founde therein, moo∣ued by the competitorshipp which is naturallie founde a∣mong men of one profession. I will assure Y.H. that this is a consideration of much moment, & not able to be kept with puntilio, for many occasions which offer thē selues, wherein necessarilie a Captaine must be declared before the leuies, being the best meanes for the easie dispatche of them and the enterprise: and that which is most trouble∣some to a souldior is, that the circumstance of euery par∣ticular case is of that importance, that he is bound to hold such rules as in generall, he may finde to guyde him by, worthying him selfe herein by his owne estimation, as the Page  34 principall parte which a souldior is to obserue.

*All your leuies and preparations being once in a rea∣dines, Y.H. may, if it be not already done, nominate the generall of the enterprise, and the most headdes of the ar∣mie, which ought to be soldiors, considering that manie haue courage enough to fight, which wante wisedome to be able to commaunde, and combat in the fielde, it being the greatest matter of importance to be required at a gou∣uernours handes, and in particular the Campe maister ge∣nerall ought to haue good skill in soulderie,* for that the executiō of his office is no wayes permissiue to any other person then a soldior of many yeares and experience, be∣ing the liuely voice and spirit of the generall, which hee participateth to the armie, if he be a souldior: and in case he be not one, the actions of the Campe maister generall, in respect he is so necessarie, giueth spirit & life to the Ge∣neralls, in such sorte as he commeth to be helde a souldior, though in deed he be none. The which hath made mee, discoursing vpon this matter, to affirme sundrie times, that men may be borne generalls, but not Campe maisters ge∣neralls, which is the second person of the armie, since that the Generall thereof fayling, howe great personages so e∣uer carie any other charge, it apperteyneth to the Campe-maister generall to giue the worde, and likewise to admi∣nister ciuill and criminall iustice throughout the armie, in the name of the Prince or his Lieuetenant generall: and to this effecte, he holdeth about him men of learning, and the great Prouost. I speake not of a Campe maister gene∣rall, where there is a Conestable in an armie, that being no office nowe in vse, with like preheminences as they were wont to haue in former times, being more or lesse in one Prouince thē in an other,* but in deed the charge of a Con¦stable is a Lieutenant of the Kings person in peace or war, & in all matters depending theron within the kingdome.

Page  35Men in olde time esteemed it sufficient for the warre, to haue some good partes in those which commanded, as to guyde & order armies, to vanquishe the enimie, which they perferred before most morall vertues, which ought to be wished in a Captaine to be able with his wisedome, and sharpnes of witte, to compasse such matters, by the helpe of some naturall giftes, as courage, quicknes, affabi∣litie, endurance of travailles, and like qualities which hold affinitie with moral vertues, though they be none, and ve∣rie necessarie in the exercise of warre.

I haue handled with like precisenes, of what condicion the person of the Campe maister generall ought to be, by hauing sundrie times considered, that there seldome hap∣peneth a generall, which is a souldior of experience, albe∣it that wisedome and excellent partes, are in no charge more to be desired then in persons which are to gouuerne armies, for that the matters are innumerable which they are to prouide for, and to commaunde, carying withall a wauering common wealth of men vpon their shoulders, besides a multitude of accidentes, presenting them selues euerie moment and varietie of cases, vpon which they are to resolue with quicknes and determination. And albeit in all estates, benefites and graces vndeserued, fall out to be preiudiciall to those which receyue them, in the char∣ges of warres, it is groaped at with more certaintie then in any other, for the mischiefe which falleth out euery mo∣ment, whē such a one occupieth a charge as knoweth not what it meaneth, imagining that they are able to discharge it only through the confidence which they haue of them∣selues A matter easily confirmed, if you doe but consider how great enterprises many Princes haue atcheeued with∣out euer hauing folowed the warre, by meanes of recom∣mending them, and their armies to such as were soldiors.

If Y.H. disire to holde within your Kingedomes many Page  36 persons to be able to serue you, as well for Generalls as in other charges of warre,* there cannot be a better meanes then that which is vsed in vniuersities to preserue scien∣ces, and to cause rare men of learning among them: which is, that notwithstanding the greatest nobilitie in blood, fa∣uour of kindred, riches, or shewe of abilitie, which he can holde that is willing to followe in the vniuersitie, the pro∣fession of any science, yet can none of these thinges poin∣ted out by them selues, or all ioyned togither, bee able to make him a graduate, hastening the courses which are ne∣cessarie for it, except him selfe hath helde them, & so when he resenteth him selfe most of his fortune, it is in beway∣ling that he studied not yeeres sooner, to be able to enioy the reward, and not in that other holde it with lesse gage and courses then him selfe, a matter apparant euery day in the soulderie and warrfare which Y.H. holdeth, many by fauour, and intercession of friendes occupying charges which they neuer deserued by their experience in the ar∣mie, or for anie seruice done, causing such as haue to grow desperate in seeing those preferred, and them selues left out. In such sorte as the hope which before serued them for rewarde, imagining that passing so manie yeares in fol∣lowing an armie, they should come to be capable of the rewarde, whereof they see them selues defrauded, nowe fayleth them, thorough the fauor and negotiation which other holde, & this kinde of singularitie being once vsed, straight followeth corruption, which marreth all: which breedeth a hatred in the armie, discouraging them in such sorte, as the militarie discipline commeth to be confoun∣ded altogither, by altering the conseruation and sound∣nes thereof: a matter which would breede the like incon∣uenience in learning, were it not for the inuiolable order of yeares which they must needes spende in studie, and such courses, since whether they bee of abilitie or no, to Page  37 haue neuer so good pledge, they can not bee admitted to degree, before their dew exercises and course bee perfor∣med. A reason which mought moue Y.H. to ordayne, that none should be * Corporall, before he had serued some yeares vnder colores, and more for a Seriant, and by con∣sequent of an * Alferes, or Captaine, rising from his degree to be a Campe maister, *Alcayde, or Castillane, with time set downe, inviolablie obseruing the same order in your warrfare, which Y.H. holdeth in your estates of foote and horsse of all nations. By this meanes there will be founde many souldiors worthy to receyue charge, being capable of them: since that the Turke by obseruing this course, findeth them, ouer whose armies and Prouinces we see none put to commaunde, that hath not experience to enable him thervnto. Neither doth Y.H. want subiectes of learning within your Kingdomes, for the exercise of such charges and dignities as are to be administred with them, all men animating themselues to take paynes tho∣rough a certain hope of rewarde, and since that vertue accompanied with learning without needing any other manner of gage rewardeth it self, in the ecclesiasticall state and lawe, wherein in all ages their are found very singular men, let Y. H likewise reward valor & experience in warr, and there will neuer be want of excellent Captains, to pre∣serue, and augment your Kingdomes and estates, nor of couragious souldiors, God hauing giuen vnto Y.H. Pro∣uinces in which men of great strenght are bred, and so great disciplines to make them skilfull and obedient.

My meaning is not in writing that these orders are to be obserued in warlike discipline, to set it downe with such precisenes, as that I imagined Y.H. should not be able to dispense as occasions and succes of time should require, being a thing annexed to the authoritie of a lawe giuer to be able to alter the same alwayes, as the common good Page  38 should require, which is that which first caused it to bee established: but to bee done seldome times and that for seruice of so great consideration, as the people may come to alowe thereof, in such wise as they may holde it for a good lawe not to obserue the former: Like vnto this was Scipio his aunswere to the people of Rome, murmuring that charges, and triumphes were yeelded vnto him, before he was of yeares,* and age sufficient for them: Si vos aetatem meam honoribus vestris anteistis, & ego honores vestros rebus agendis praecessi.

*And to the end the Captains of Y H. ordinarie compa∣nies may not steale payes, which causeth great inconue∣nience, & when so many doe arise as can not be amplified, the losse of your monie being the least to bee reckoned among them: let Y.H. commaunde the paye of your Cap∣tains, Officers, and Soldiors to be encreased, in such sorte as they may be able to mainteyne themselues, and to serue you well armed, according to their charge: And this to be done by way of reward, aduantage, or otherwise, framing the encrease of paye, according as the qualitie of the Pro∣uince where they reside, the climat therof, plentie or want of victualls shall require, making it stande for an honor not to steale payes: which if they once growe to esteeme, not to blot their life in the least point, they will make lesse ac∣compte of wealth, hauing paye to mainteyne them selues, and that Captaine and Officer to remayne diffamed for euer, which shall auow to haue more soldiors then such as in deed folow his colores, a punishment which will bridle them, and make them lothe to bee deseruers of it: and let Y.H. hold them in estimation, giuing honor vnto them, without dispising armes, which doing is the cause of loo∣sing states, as the maintenance thereof is to perserue them, and the only meanes to conquer other, according as great Empires haue bene, when they haue bene founde vnfur∣nished Page  39 of armes, shipps and soldiors, like vnto great buil∣dings when their propps faile which were many yeares in framing, but by like defects marred themselues, and fallen in fewe monethes.

And let not Y.H. suffer your self to bee perswaded that you shalbe able to make warre although you haue no ex∣perimented Captains, in respect that you are a most ritch Prince, and Lord of so great Kingdomes, in which all sorte of armes and instruments of warre can be forged without help from ells where, two things being most certain, as the Castillian prouerbe goeth,*Armas y dineros buenas manos quie∣ren: both which require to be put into their hands which know how to mannage them, and hold experience how to exercise them both to good purpose.

Y.H. hauing named the generall and heads of the armie, is to aduise with him and the rest in what manner you are to make your warre, in which you are to harken to, and folow their opinion which offer to execute the councells more, then theirs which giue them, not being themselues to put any hande thereto, (in case the resolution bee not ouerrash, nor any euident perill therein) since that both honor and life in their owne opinion lying on it, they will looke into it with more open eyes thē others, with greater affection and will, putting that in execution which them∣selues first counceled.

Likewise Y.H. hauing your leuies and prouisions in a readines, and your armie compounded, is to consider,* cal∣ling in like manner vnto you the heads thereof, and the other of your Councell, what proclamations & instructi∣ons are fittest to bee published, as well to hold the people in good discipline, as in respect of the publicque good: & when as the heads of the nations which are in the armie haue not bene at such your councells, being better that they were present, you are to cōmunicate them vnto thē, Page  40 wherby they approuing them, may with greater care pro∣cure the accomplishing thereof. This being done, and re∣solution taken vpon them, Y.H. shall commaunde them to be ordayned, and that they be giuen to the Prouoste gene∣rall, that he may cause them to be published in their tyme, and that to be done in so many languages, as there are na∣tions in the armie, to the end none may plead ignorance, imposing conuenient punishments for those which break them, commaunding them to bee executed with all pre∣cisenes without the request or intercession of any hinde∣ring it, since that otherwise you shal neuer haue obedience in warre, because that in the heads of armies, softnesse and mildnesse without consideration is more hurtfull, then sharpnesse and rigor in punishing, and therefore a forbid∣ding or prohibition in matter of lawes and statutes is alto∣geather vnprofitable, except a penaltie bee annexed, and a penaltie but a scarcrow, except it be put in execution: and albeit that the discipline of warre ought to be more seuere then the ciuill or politicque, for that ordinarily the penal∣ties are losse of hand or life, yet are they not to be imposed to so manie things, as that the rigor of them should come to a bloodie crueltie, but a meanes whereby the soldiors may stand in awe of the seueritie of their Captaine, with∣out abhorring him for his crueltie.

When Y.H. shall haue in readines your cauallerie and infantery, munitions, artillery and necessaries fit for them, and that you haue caused them to be raysed for the enter∣prise, & preciselie knowne the whole number of the men, by the musters which haue been taken in diuers places, not ouercharging one countrie with the whole, Y.H. may in the same respect order their march, causing it to be done by sundrie wayes alongest the frontires and confines of the Kingdome to the place where Y.H. shall hold it most conuenient to ioyne your campe togither: prouided that Page  41 you choose the scituation thereof in good grounde,* with commoditie of wood, water, and forage to lodge the ar∣mie, not being a matter necessarie as then to looke into such other particularities as I will hereafter handle, which are to be required in their lodgings, and that this be done onely with an ende to ioyne the armie in one bodie, so as the disposing of the market place, quarters, and fortificati∣on of the whole armie, may be able to serue for viewe and paterne in these generall matters of the rest of the lod∣gings, which must be accommodated accordinge to the qualitie of the scituation, demonstration of the enimie, & maner which you holde in warr, the circular forme in lod∣ging, not being of any importance, nor the quadrangle, triangle, or in length, which is most ordinarilie vsed.

And here you must chuse such a * market place, as may be large enough to cōteyne all your men in battaile, vpon any alarom by day or night, in such sorte, as a distance be lefte betweene one squadron and an other, as well of fan∣terie as cauallerie, that men may passe commodiouslie, if occasion require, being able with facilitie to close one within another, as shalbe necessarie: neare vnto the mar∣ket place, the quarters are to be appointed, euery one set∣ting out their colors in fronte, whereby the mē may with more readines, gathering them selues togither, come out vpon the alarom to forme the esquadrons.

Some alowe to euery colors tenn pace to lodge in frunt, and in depth thirtie or more, according as the companies are of greatnes, & of distance from the front of the colors to the place where they are to stande in squadrō, the space of thirtie or fourtie paces, and from the front of the squa∣drons to the fortificatiō of the trenches, betweene fifteene and twentie: considering that when men come to fight, and close, they occupie farre lesse space & place of groūd, then when the esquadron standeth stretched forth: mea∣sures Page  42 which serue in maner of compasse, that the market-place be not disproportioned, wherein there is to be con∣sidered that when the men shall stand in battaile, a conue∣nient place be lefte. If necessitie require, for any squadron what soeuer of Cauallerie or infanterie to passe, betweene the backe of the squadrons and the fronte of the quarters, without disordering them selues, entring by the quarters, nor to cause shunning this inconuenience the rest of the squadrons to breake their owne: and likewise that at the fronte of the squadrons, there be a space left for a squadrō of cauallerie or fanterie to passe without altering the order of the reste, or salying forth of the trenches, and that it bee not so great, as to haue thereby the harquebusrie, & pieces of the fielde to remaine vnfurnished, or other which are placed in the trenches or their trauesses.

*In this market place where none ought to come to trou∣ble it, the guarde is to be placed with an ordinarie fire some foure score paces more or lesse from the colors, and in some places I haue my selfe serued, where they were fayne to pitche tentes to defend the soldiors from terrible coldes and stormes, and in other, from the excessiue refle∣ction and heate of the sunne.

*In the middest of the quarters and front of the compa∣nies, Y.H. is to piche your owne tentes & quarter of your Cordeguarde, which the battaile shall folowe, when so e∣uer the bodies of the squadrons shall be assigned for it, ha∣uing in the quarter betwene the passages & pauilions, spa∣cious streates for the men to repayre to the markett place without trouble: and at Y.H. Tentes, there ought to bee a toile of canuas round about, in maner of a wall brest high, and a little diche cast at the foote thereof, which may serue to keepe common passage from neare Y.H. Tentes, hol∣ding the respect that is dewe without apparance of fortifi∣cation, for that otherwise that would shewe either feare of Page  43 the enimie, or distrust of your owne armie.

On the one side Y.H. is to lodge the Campe-maister ge∣neral, and the officers which follow him, Quarter-maister,* as much to say, as the Maister which is to assigne out the quarters, (who ought to be a man skilfull) Captaine of the guydes of spialls, and likewise other which they call chief∣taines of the watche, whiche signifieth the headdes or principalls of the guardes, and Centinels of the Campe, who serue to visit them by day and night, and the whole circuite of the lodging, to report the state thereof to the Campe-maister generall, for that it is vnpossible for the Quarter-maister to take so great toyle, to whose office the care thereof apperteyneth, and he to make relation to the Maister-generall, as also to the great Prouost or Captaine of the fielde, to reporte vnto him what is done in the mar∣ket of victualls or vivanders. And although it doeth con∣cerne, the Seriantes, Alferes, Captaines & Seriant Maior, as also sometime the Campe-maister to ouerlooke at sun∣drie houres of the night, the guardes and centinells in the parte where the colores stande: yet they are not to passe so farre as the Tierces or Regiments of different nations: but to appoint when the armies are great, the headds of the guardes and Centinels for that purpose, to make a rounde about the circuite of the whole campe, presupposing that they are able to vnderstande the languages of the nations which are therein, and diligentlie to looke that guarde be kept. Likewise are the Seriant Maiors and officers to shew the place, which the Campe-maister general hath assigned for the Corps de guardes in the night, not being him selfe in place to doe it, whiche is sometimes by putting vpp a marke, as sticking into the ground some stake. On that part where the Campe-maister generall is lodged, the quarter of the vauntguarde and Captaine is euer wont to folow.

Not farre from this quarter, in place most conuenient, Page  44 is the generall of the Artillerie to be placed, with the pow∣der,* shott, and other munitions, and the furniture apper∣teyning, the Captaines and officers of his carge, and the Coronel & Captaines of the gastadors or pioners, which are to be lodged in the same quarter.

*On the other side of Y.H. Tentes, a space is to be left for the markett of victualls, vivanders, and marchandise, lod∣ging the gran-Provoste in the ende therof, with the horse and officers that folow him, whose tentes is to serue for a prison: & here ought a place to be raysed on high, where iustice & punishment of offendors is to be executed,* pre∣venting by the standing thereof so neare Y.H. Tentes, and with the assistance of the Provost, that no disorder be cō∣mitted in the buyings and sellings, nor force offred to the Vivanders, which is a matter of verie great moment for the conseruation of a campe, and to be warie of the con∣course of people, which repaire thither from all quarters.

*Next vnto the gran Provost his tentes, is the Captaine of the rereguarde to be lodged, if any men bee appointed for it. I haue set downe vnto Y.H. this disposing of quar∣ters, in case that the men be diuided into vanguarde, bat∣taile, and reregard, and with headdes appointed of pur∣pose to march and combatt with them, because in reason of warre the vantgarde ought to be most skilfull and exer∣cised, and consequentlie is of force to bee the right horne in stand, or fight. And if they haue not bene appointed, & that there be different nations in the armie, it is to be con∣sidered, that the quarter next vnto Y.H. Tentes, is to be gi∣uen to those whom Y.H. hath commanded to take charge of your person, and the rest to be dispersed, considering that if there be so manie colors of one nation, as that ano∣ther alone will not by much be able to equall thē in num∣ber, It shalbe good to dispose the quarters in such sorte, as the colores of two nations ioyned togither, may come to Page  45 equal that which was superior to euerie one by it selfe: whereby they shall stand more vnited, & keepe the stron∣ger from doeing any force to them, which of them selues are not able to resist: and sometime not hauing a sufficient number of colors of one nation, & being willing to min∣gle them with another to forme a bodie of a squadrō, they vse to lodge them ioyntlie in one quarter, whereby they may come to knowe the soldiors, and by a brotherhood the sooner to ioyne to fight.

Likewise it is very conuenient to lodge in seuerall quar∣ters not only the light horse-men at armes, and * swart rut∣ters, but the Regiments and Tierces distinctlie, auoyding the confusion which groweth when they stande mingled togither.

The quarters of Y.H. being generallie appointed of ca∣uallerie, infanterie,* & artellerie which the Quarter-maister is to dispose of, the Camp-maister generall is to viewe the circuite of the lodging, togither with the generall of the artillerie, to giue order for such fortificatiō as is necessarie, which many times is done, by putting wagons round a∣bout the quarters within the diches which are made, by raising trenches, where the scituation doeth not yeeld ea∣sines of breach, high bankes, hollow or deep wayes which may serue for defence: a matter which concerneth the ge∣nerall of the artillerie, with the gastadors, which in reason should giue order to fortifie his quarter with a good dich, leauing cōuenient places to issue out the wagons, and this to be done after all the munitions and furniture of artillery is gathered togither, ouer which an ordinarie guard is to be set: prouided that the centinells be Pikes, which are to stand about the wagons of pouder, & not harquebusiers: for the daunger which mought happen by the fire of the maches to the pouder: which guarde may not permit any person once to come within the quarter, except he be very Page  46 well knowne, nor that any come neare the carts of muniti∣on, especiallie of pouder, auoyding the mischief which mought chance by the enimies sending some men in dif∣guised habits, not only to viewe, but to fire the pouder as some times it hath fallen out.

The fortification of the camp, ought to be especially in the entries therof, well prouided, & in such manner as the men may salie speedlie in rankes, if occasion require it, and the way by which they fett their water to be very broade, if their be none within the lodging, assigning some to kepe the waters which they are to drinke from being troubled, a particular which is to be accompted of, as in the cleanli∣nes and neatnes of a campe, especially if they bee to tarrie dayes in one lodging, and that the scituatiō be not durtie, by the fall of rayne-water, and to appoint a conuenient place in euery quarter for the vivanders which follow it.

*The Serieants Maior, Commissaries of the light horse, and the rest of the Officers whom it concerneth to knowe the number of men, whiche are to keepe watch euerie one within his charge, ought to come to the Camp mai∣ster generall, to take order for the colors & standars which are to enterguard that might, and for the places wher they are to set their Corps-de-guarde being men at armes, swart ruyters, and companies of pykes for the night, and light horse and harquebusiers by daye, to whom apperteyneth the scowts, when it is not so daungerous to be enforced to reenforce them with pykes, men at armes & swart rutters. And for the guards of like lodginges, hauing no suspition of the enimie, Y.H. must commaunde that your men tra∣uaile no more then is fit, to exercise them in guardes, con∣tinuing in the custome therof: cōsidering that with ouer∣tyring the men,* horses and the rest of the members which an armie is cōpounded of, there is no one bodie so tender as that is, being formed of such a fashion, as a corrupt ayre Page  47 will soone throwe it downe, foure dayes hunger, or foule weather, dissoluinge it, without the enimie euer vsinge sworde, which they feare most, which haue not had ex∣perience of the rest. And likewise heed is to be taken, that the armies and men of warr be not wearied in their guards and marche, more then necessitie requireth, to preserue them, and to hold them in exercise. This diuision of the guards in the forme set down will serue for the lists which shalbe made of the colors, and standarts of the armie, deui∣ding thē into foure partes, whereof one is euerie night to keepe the guarde, & so three still to rest, which is no great trauail, & exercise sufficiēt to accustome them to the field. The guardes are to be set at twielight,* withdrawing those which stood all daye, to the end no place bee giuen to the enimie to view the standes of the guardes and centinells, which ordinarilie in these fortified lodgings, requireth the distance of a Corp-de-guard to bee thirtie paces from the trenches, the centinells being so set as the one may see the other, not being necessarie, except the enimie be at hand to double thē. The corp-de-gards of the Cauallerie must be without the trenches and fortification of the camp, and the centinells disposed alongest the wayes, and placed in such manner as none shalbe able to passe to the campe without being perceyued, and as well to the centinels of horse as foote the word is not to be giuen vntill they be set in their stands, whereby none may passe,* enter or goe out of the Camp, without order from Y.H. or the word giuen.

I will not be tedious to handle the manner which the Seriants Maior and officers of the Cauallerie must hold in apointing such standers & colors as are to serue that night for the guard, which are to haue warning from the mor∣ning before, because it is a matter which in particular tea∣cheth thē, folowing the forme of a discipline which euery nation vseth in changing the centinells, either with sound Page  48 of drumme or without, and to make rounds and counter-rounds: nor likewise what care the Captains, Lieuetenants and Alpheres of cauallerie are to take in viewing, as soone as the standarts are lodged, the way which is from their quarter to the market place, that vpon any alarom by day or night, they may repaire readilie thither, euery souldior to the standard which is to guyde him.

*In this lodging Y.H. is to commaund that those orders which you shall haue set downe be published, which is to be done by the gran Prouost, Kinges at armes, Trompets, drummes, & * instruments, & that throughout the places most conuenient as the market place and victuallers, and distinctlie in all the quarters.

Iointlie Y.H. is to commaunde your councell to debate whether it be fit to take a generall muster of the armie, or a particular in euery regimēt, standard or nation: a matter to be resolued of if it bee well considered, whether it be necessarie to make aparance and demonstration of the ar∣mie, or to couer the number of your men, and power though it be verie great.

They are likewise to consulte in what forme the battayle is to be set, guyding themselues in this by the lystes of the musters of cauallerie and fanterie,* to forme the squadrons which are to serue for the right horne or left, battaile or guarde of the artillerie: a matter in which you can not fur∣ther particularise (when the case and occasions are not pre∣sent) then in considering the qualitie of the cornets of ca∣uallerie, and with what sorte of armes they fight, & in the fantarie the number of pykes and harquebusiers: accom∣modating to this the squadrons, which shalbe well to bee framed according to the scituation and disposition which the enimie shall shewe: which ought to be cōsidered whe∣ther it must be a square of people or groūd, of great front, or in lēgth, with much depth, or of other fashion: A thing Page  49 which is to be ordered according to the stand & custome which euerie nation vseth in fight, more in one sorte of squadron and battaile formed then in another, the Serie∣ants being perfite in framing thē, which obserue certaine measure to make them holde great fronte or depth, & that the depth be not more thē three partes the number of sol∣diors which the fronte of the squadron holdeth, and those in the great fronte the thirde parte of the flanke: so as if three score be in fronte, twentie ought to be in flanke: and if three score in depth, at least twentie in fronte, rules by which they shall stande proportioned, and garnishe the flankes of the shott: and if they drawe one or two winges out of it, which is according as euery natiō is accustomed to fight, and the scituation permitteth, it is to be conside∣red, that when you would haue a squadron to bee in all partes reenforced with equal proportion, you must forme a square of men; if you will reenforce the front or rere∣guarde by putting more souldiors to fight, you must make a square of ground, and to this ende they make the squa∣drons large in fronte and litle in flanke, coueting to haue most men fight in fronte, holding confidence in their dex∣teritie, and when there is made a great depth, it is to the ende that the same weight of the squadron mought effect a breaking in vpon the enimie, the light horse fighting in troupes, men at armes and swart rutters in rankes, and the Gynettes, which albeit they keepe in rankes, yet ioyned with the foote vpon the charge in grosse: the men and squadrons for a battayle, being to bee disposed,* with like correspondencie, as the members in the bodie of a man proportion the armes which are at this day vsed in armies like vnto them, the feete and handes being the harquebu∣siers on horse, the legges and armes the light horse, the thighes the men at armes, the squadrons of infanterie the breastes, the head, the Prince or generall, and the belly the Page  50 bagage. And if you would set forth the body of a man to most shewe, the ground being well looked into where his feete stande, the members may be so disposed as he shall seeme greater: By consequent, if one man come to fight with an other, he will first set his right foote forward, stret∣ching out his right arme, turning sidelong his body to co∣uer the rest of his members, shewing lesse marke to be hitt, but if he be disposed to wrastell with an other, he then see∣keth to helpe him selfe with all his members equallie, be∣ing to graple with the enimie, and to serue his turne by them, vniting in that standing his whole force, to labor at one instant: The like is to be done in setting an armie in battaile, and if it be for representation to giue it forme ac∣cording to the scituation, and to the squadrons, so as they may seeme greater, but if it be to attempt the enimie, then to doe it with harquebuzes on horsebacke, light horsse, foote men, and some slight horse, beginning the skirmish with discretion, that when they come with greater liueli∣nes to ioyne, they doe not so hastelie charge as to be faine to come to close with the rest of the squadrons, which if they be forced to doe, and to giue battayle, then to dispose it so, as all may fight at once, & euery man graple with an other of the enimie, when the battayle serueth for it.

The circumstances aboue written are to giue lawe vn∣to Y.H. for the forming of those squadrons, of which the battaile is compounded, and hauing launces and argole∣tiers in the armie, it is a very good way to mingle them, to put in the left flanke of the lances, a Cornet of swart Rut∣ters, which commeth to serue as a winge: the which is to ioyne a litle before the lances,* that their companie may serue for some profit and purpose, and that the pistoliers doe as much, giuing their voley, as they vse to charge when they are in forme of a halfe moone.

It is helde as well for a good order of battaile, to drawe Page  51 to the right side of the squadrons,* a troupe of pykes and lances, conteyning a fift parte of the squadron to set vpon the flanke of the enimie at the time of close: who if hee turne fronte to the troupe, leaueth the flanke to the squa∣dron, and if he fronte with it, forceablie he must discouer his side to the troupe. A practise which hitherto I haue not knowen vsed in the fighte of the infanterie, and which my selfe haue done vpon a day of seruice in the cauallerie, disposing the squadrons of light horse which were vnder my charge in this manner, and found it by ex∣perience of much effect for that which these troupes per∣formed, when not being fiue and twentie horsse at the chocke with the enimies squadrons, it pleased God that we brake them, giuing the victorie to the King our Lord, Y.H. father. Iointlie we finde by experience in this occa∣sion, of howe much more worth lances are in fight,* then pistoleteres, and the maner with which they are to com∣bat with swarte ruyters: The squadrons of lances may not exceede one hundred, or one hundred and twentie at the most, albeit they be to sett vppon a squadron of foure or fiue hundred argoleteres, and of this number to make ma∣nie, diuiding the lances, and to charge with furie, which is that which soonest putteth the swarte Rutters to flight, in that the pistolls be but of very small seruice mingled with them. So they vse to haue one or two squadrons volante,* and that to vpholde a skirmishe in grosse, mainteyning it with purpose to allure the enimie to fight, and to preuent anie charge shall be made with multitude of horsse, being superior to them in shott & cauallerie which accompanie them, able with a squadron volante to succour with such dexteritie as shall neuer neede to put in daunger the rest of the battaile.

When Y.H. holdeth the squadrons devided & plotted out by those of your councell, in one, two, or more formes Page  52 in which they may be sett in battaile, standing therewith prepared to compound it according to the demonstration of the enimie, and scituation, with greater readines and fa∣cilitie, you must commaund them to aduise in what sorte they will diuide the armie to march, & the maner in which the warre is to be made, whether according to the motiue of Y.H. and ende of the iourney it be to be done in resting in a place, or encamping.

Of these and other things noted, Y.H. is to commaund that in way of conuersation they treate of them, with some particular headdes of the armie, which bee personages of experience and discourse, and charge them to doe the like with the olde soldiors, of whose iudgement and reasoning they may hold some satisfaction, for that they know what they speake: because many times matters of importance come to be moued, on which councellours doe not putt their eyes, being clogged with businesses, which doth not giue them leaue to thinke thoroughlie of matters, nor to be able thereby to direct them, not being possible for a man to consider all things which is required for the guy∣ding of one well, and that it greatly furthereth, though it be much considered of, to heare the opinions of manie, to resolue of what is best: a point which bindeth Kinges to holde Councellors about them, affirming to those which are most cōfident, that Princes in their particulars of warr, are to heare all, and resolue with fewe.

That Y.H. may take resolution in marching and lodging as may fall out, notice must generallie be had from the in∣formation of the naturall men of the Countrie, or those which haue liued in it, or by descriptions of Cardes and Mappes, which is fitt Kinges should haue, although it cost them much money: and albeit vpon entring into the coū∣trie, some defectes may be found in them, yet are they pro∣fitable for manie considerations. The light which is to be Page  53 taken out of these things, is not of that sorte as that Y.H. should put so great confidence in them, as not to sende be∣fore men practised to view the lodging, wayes, and quali∣tie of the Countrie.* And in case that for want of carying sufficient number with them, the enimie should charge them, without giuing them respit to discouer or view farre within the Coūtrie, yet they are to goe with carying such an eye, as to consider in the little or nothinge which they passe, whether there be anie place fit for to lodge in, or no.

In conquestes you must alwayes haue a care to get some towne, assuring therby your setting foote within the Pro∣uince, and to be able to haue a secure place to draw togea∣ther the sicke and hurt men, and others cumbers of muni∣tion, which can hardly bee done in the spaciousnes of a field, which consumeth multitudes of horse, and disturbe any succors which come to reenforce the armie.

To these considerations may be added the reputation which is gayned by taking of a towne, weakening there∣by the enimie and his trayne, who standeth as much enda∣maged as the contrarie parte profited, all which requireth that in endeuoring a cōquest, you first seeke out, & be able to seate your selfe in some place which may bee of profit, whē there is no capitall towne within the Prouince, vpon the giuing vp of which you may with reason promise the rendring of the rest, or ells to combat with the enimies ar∣mie: particularities which ought to be looked into with the first, leauing the rest to be regarded after: when there are few mē,* the armie is in their march to be deuided into two parts, to wit, the vantguarde and rereguard, and ordi∣narilie if there bee a number of squadrons into three, for∣ming a battayle with parte, which may hold equall pro∣portion with the vantguarde and rereguarde, whereby it cōmeth to bee a meane without participating of the two extreames, and a proportioned bodie thorough the equa∣litie Page  54 which euery one caryeth by himself to be ioyned to∣geather. In which Y.H. is to marke, that to deuide an armie into these partes, ought to be ment only of the infanterie, which in deed is the verie strength of the fielde,* in respect that the force standeth more vnited in the footemen then in the horse, because that they moue by reason, and horses by the spurrs, and helde backe by the bridle, and both the one and the other can not bee alike in all, as in men which haue discretion.

*And albeit that in olde time the cauallerie was of more estimation for their furie and redines then the infanterie, experience cōmeth to discouer the contrarie, & to put the ground of a warr in the squadrons of fanterie, which serue with pykes, to which the first place is to be yeelded in ar∣mes as to the launce in horsemen: albeit some soldiors of late yeares would preferr pistoliers, which grew thorough the impossibilitie of carying launces which they sawe in those against whom they were enforced to mainteyne warre, To couer this relying vpon the sharpenes of their witts, they perswaded with apparant reasons that pistolls were of most aduantage for the souldiors, who were easi∣lie caried away with the beleefe therof, in that they found the launce a weapon of much trouble and charge, and the pistoll not so much. Among other their reasons, that of greatest force is, that pistolls may doe greater hurte, and further of then launces, vpon a first charge carying one in the right hande, and a sword drawne with the hilte faste∣ned to the thumbe in the lefte, which holdeth the rayne, readie to vse vpon the discharge of the pistoll, being put in the case, except it be fit to pull out the other, whiche is in that forme, which those of this opiniō would haue the ca∣uallerie to fight in, and to be armed at the proofe: wherby they doe affirme, that they come more securelie to mingle with the enimie, & to annoye him more, carying swordes Page  55 in their handes: for these reasons they may be satisfied, that in the first charge, lances are mingled with harquebusiers on horsse, which annoyeth further off then the pistoll, and in comming to the shocke, the launce hurteth with a more certeintie then it folowing after wardes the furie of the horse which runneth thē ouer and ouer, & seldome times doe they fayle two encounters with the launce, although it be brooke in the first, and many times thrise, not beeing the worst that which is left of the great ende of the staffe, or truncheon, since with an encounter therewith a man may be vnhorste and throwen downe, in such sorte as it may well abyde two encounters, if not three. These en∣counters being made, the pistoll still remayneth with the light horse, which most carrie at the saddle pummell, in steede of a mace or fawchion which they were wonte to hange thereat, and the tucke or sworde at the girdle, which is no lesse readie then if it were in the rayne hande, where it must needes be a trouble for him which gouuerneth the horsse. Besides a pistoll can not be shott off face to face without hurting a mans owne horse, & to discharge it be∣hinde, is to hit by chaunce, which if you will be sure to do, you must leuel on your right side or lefte: whereby vn∣doubtedly you giue vpon the flanke of the enimie, which is no small aduantage. I signifie this opinion vnto Y.H. for that by no maner of meanes you must permitt your horse to leaue lances, since, if no other reason were to per∣swade it, the verie custome whiche all nations haue vsed manie ages to make their horsemen cary them, and conti∣nued it euer since the invētion of powder hath bin found, and made good proofe of their violence, is a sufficient de∣monstration, that it is the best armes of horsemen, for this cause the squadrons of Cauallerie, are diuided in such ma∣ner as a proportion be kept therein, the men at armes be∣ing the strength, and the squadrons in such sorte as they Page  56 may be able to renforce with them the vantgarde, or anie other parte of the armie, and to diuide them likewise into three partes, to renforce euery part by it selfe, with the ca∣uallerie and infanterie.

The handling of conquestes, leadeth me to signifie vn∣to Y.H. before I proceed to the marching with the armie, howe earnestlie you are to wishe, the vndertaking thereof vpon the infidells, since finding your selfe busied with o∣ther warres for the conseruation of your kingdomes, you ought euery day instantlie to beseeche our Lorde to ryd you out of the trouble of them, whereby you may em∣ploye the greatnes of those forces, which it hath pleased him to giue vnto you, with so many Crownes, against the enimies of our holy catholike faith, settinge at libertie the multitude of slaues, which the infidells holde in harde op∣pression and captiuitie: An enterprise worthie of Y.H. and of the Kinges of Spaine to busie them selues in, as alwayes your auncestors haue done, encreasing (by seruing our Lord in this) great proffites to their Crownes: A matter which moueth me iointlie to handle the manner which I am acquainted with,* howe they are to lodge and martch in conquestes vpon the infidells. The Countrie being vn∣peopled, in respect of the drienesse thereof, and wante of riuers, will aske that Y.H. bring store of Cauallerie, especi∣allie if the enimies force of his warrfare consist therein, as the Kings of Africa, and other partes, the better to assure the lodgings, and to fetch water, and to bee able to couer the bagage, munitions, droues, or cariadge of victualles, which necessarilie are to bee caried: and when this may not be possible, and that you are forced to execute the en∣terprise, it will be fit to make litle iourneys, occupyinge the lodging in no further distance, then that it may finde water, the squadrons well formed, to martche by litle and litle, in such sorte as they may be at hande one of another: Page  57 the which will cherishe the small number of Cauallerie, which is caried, assisted with the winges of the harquebu∣ses & muskettes, the bodie of the Armie couering the mu∣nitions & baggag, which ought to go close togither with∣in it: and in case that the troupes of the enimies cauallerie, set vpon thē, with the heate of his harquebusiers on horse∣backe, they may fray them away with fielde pieces and in∣strumentes, whereof foure may be caried in a wagon, and muskett shott, which wil be the most certen, being able to discharge their voleis more speedilie, and with more nim∣blenes then the artillerie, a muskett reaching much fur∣ther off then a harquebus on horsebacke, although the pe∣tronells be neuer so longe which they cary, comming to loose them selues hereby, without their shott seruing to anie effecte.

Iointlie it is to be noted, warring in Barbarie,* that the Africanes, Alarabes, and Barbarians keepe no order in their fight: onelie running in troupes huddle togither for the execution thereof, but we keepe order in defending the enimies on sett, and disorder our selues at the close: the which requireth, that no voley of shott bee bestowed on them, vntill you see them ioyned togither, and to enter∣tayne them in skirmishes with shot of the artillerie, and some muskett, for they are almost all lost, in respect that these nations doe very much scatter them selues in skir∣mishe, and not to charge them without a body of formed squadrons. By marching in this forme, you shal haue time to fortifie the lodging by day, standing with greater secu∣ritie in the nightes, whereby the enimies Cauallerie can hardlie breake in vpon you, and be able to enlarge your selfe much, to repose with ease, for that it is not possible being alwayes on horsebacke, to be maister of the fielde. This will giue time to put in order at a good houre, the armie and baggage to martche without any impediment Page  58 of the enimie, standing within viewe in battaile, being of necessitie, except he holde some walled Townes neare hande enforced to come from farre of.

In Barbarie you must be forced to lodge in such scitua∣tion as the nature of the Coūtrie affordeth, neare vnto the water, without being able to chuse anie other more strōg: an inconvenience which sometimes our forefathers pre∣uēted, carying emptie sackes, which they filled with sande to fortifie the lodgings withall.* And because this may fall out in such iourneys as the King our Lord may make into those partes and prouinces, I presented, in the yeare One thousand fiue hundred eightie & foure, when I returned frō my embassage * in England, a forme of engine of tym∣ber, and certayne vices, with which they mought arme in verie short space, a caualier of the height of thirtie geome∣tricall feete, & more, & broade of three score foote square, vpon which might stande store of muskett shott, where∣with to defende the lodging, placing foure of these caua∣leres at the corners thereof: the which will come to serue as trauesses to keepe the entrie thereof, and platformes for the fielde, being framed of little pieces of timber, whiche may wel be caried vpon a beast, and be not of much cum∣ber and trouble in arming and disarming them, which is that which maketh engines and instruments to be of grea∣test profit. Of these tymbers there might be likewise made an other engine, of fiftie foote high or more, which a man mought easilie goe vp and down by, discouering the field as farre as the height of the place will giue leaue, seruing as a watch towre to giue the alarom, in case anie men come neare, perceyuing them from farre off.

*Iointlie I presented to his Maiestie, for the effecte of the same iourneys, a sorte of pieces of artillerie of metal which mought cost some fortie crownes, & weigh thirtie poūds, shooting a bullett of one pounde with that furie, that it Page  59 would peierce through a bricke wall of two foote geome∣tricall thicke, notwithstanding the small weight of the bo∣die of the piece, and in respect thereof the greatnes of the diameter of the bullet, and not being heated verie soone, which is as well of momēt, being able to put them aborde shipps although they be small, and shooting like slynges for their litle weight, which are qualities of very good ser∣uice.

Likewise I presented to his Maiestie,* a forme of bridges of litle pieces of tymber, to passe ouer riuers withal, which are verie easilie made vp, being stronge, & euerie piece by it selfe of that bignesse, that it might bee caried vppon any beast: and the truncheons of the model being not longer then halfe a foote geometricall of the bignes of ones little finger, and three broad, the bridge being fiue geometrical feete in depth, a man may verie securily passe ouer it for the strength thereof: whereby you may imagine what might be done by increasing the proportion of the Trun∣cheons.

When you finde a Countrie craggie & mountainous the cauallerie wilbe of small auayle, & the infanterie more profitable, especiallie if there be good Harquebusieres a∣mong thē, which serue best to fight in a fielde of the fore∣saide conditions, finding in most partes a defence, to be a∣ble to discharge with securitie.

The most dayes that Y.H. shall stande in this firste lod∣ging, you are to goe out and walke,* that the people may of ordinarie see you, encreasing loue in vassalls, when they shall many times beholde the face of their King: and in soldiors a liuelines, gallantnes and affection, with the sight of their Captaine, whose person and partes euery one ad∣mireth according to the caractes of his vnderstāding, and the most his pompe and trayne: from whēce it riseth, that by seeing Kinges with that maiestie and greatnes whiche Page  60 they shewe them selues withall in publike, & composition then of their actions, euery vassall accompteth of him self, moued thereto in that God hath giuen him a king so pow∣erfull, promising to him self to gouerne & guyde his verie secret actions with like discretion and consideration as his publique. This maketh all men in cōmon to be able to see things, but very fewe to haue vnderstanding to vnripp the reason of them: the which causeth outward demonstrati∣ons to be of greatest effect when magnificence, and garbe giueth helpe vnto them.

Y.H. is to goe abroad, a litle before the guardes be set, to viewe the lodging,* & see them enter in, an houre in which Y.H. may gayne much experience in the knowledge of the scituations, by the reasons which the Campe-maister generall, and headdes of experience shall deliuer, which accompanie Your Honour in placing the Corps de guarde, and the Centinelles more in one parte then in an other, and what is necessarie to bee marked in the chusinge of them.

And if Your Honor will be a famous Captaine, a quali∣tie of so great estimation for any the most powerfull Mo∣narche, you must knowe howe to emcampe well, whence ensueth to bee able to combatt in season, the head corner stone of a Generall for that to fight alone there is none so base as doeth it not. Howe to aduantage your selfe in en∣camping, Your Ho. shall learne much by being sometimes present at the chusing out of the lodgings, in hearing vpon such occasion as shall fall out before your owne eyes, the opinions of the Campe maister generall, and the rest of the Councelours, vpon the disposing of them, what parte wil serue best for the Cauallerie and fanterie, and the difficul∣ties which other offer in being fitt to change them or no, and to occupie an other scituation.

Page  61A matter of which Y.H. albeit you bee not present at the instant in the fielde with an armie, may be able to take a generall notice,* by commaunding such as accompanie you in hawkeninges and huntings, to make reporte vnto you (if they be souldiours) of the qualitie of the countrie, where it may serue your best turne to assure the infanterie, as also for the cauallerie to fight, where the artillerie may be scituated, and the markett place appointed, discoursing in this manner of the rest of the particularities, conside∣ring that in your recreation of hawking and hunting it be done, to the ende to take knowledge of the fielde, scituati∣on of the standes, and to preserue in good estate the health of the armie, that for anie other ende then these two, it is not fitt that Kings should consume their time in a matter, whence there is no more honor to begotten, then that he which guydeth him selfe with reason, shal haue deceyued or hurte a poore beast which is voyde thereof. And like∣wise it is conuenient that where Kings take their recreati∣on, it be done in such things as some profit may arise ther∣by, for to exercise the ministerie, in which God hath pla∣ced them, reducing all their actions to this ende.

From this firste lodging Yaur Honor is not to departe, before you haue ioyned togither all your men, artillerie, munitions, and victualls, being necessarie for the iorney: and if it be a conquest, to commaunde that forces bee pre∣pared of newe, for to succour the armie, since that obtey∣ning good successe, you may fend them away in case it be not necessarie to reenforce it, least otherwise you cōsume occasions and time, which is a great enimie to armies, and which finisheth all matters in the world: preuenting here∣by, if disgrace succeede that you stande prepared, so as no occasion be giuen to other Princes, to inuade Y.H. estates, by seeing your forces putt to route, and disarmed, whi∣lest that the enimie remayneth gallante, and victorious, Page  62 which causeth reputation to be lost, and the liuelines and courage of the soldiors to abate, cooling thereby the faith and affection of the rest of friendes & confederates, wher∣by most times thorough the spoile made in warre, rentes come to be diminished, thinges which breede ill successe, and losse of reputation.

The day being set downe in which Y.H. purposeth to dislodge,* you must commaunde that warning be giuen o∣uernight to departe: wherby all may prepare them selues except it be necessarie to watch the night, and couer your departure: giuing order then by mouth, must bee done without the infanteries stricking vp of any drumme, and the Cauallerie sounding their Trumpetts, with a suddeine Y.H. must commaunde to sounde a bote sela, when your men are geathered togither at the morning watch, & then to sounde A Cauallo: at which time there ought to be pre∣sent in the market place the cāpe maister generall, Quarter maister, Captaines of guides, & officers of their traine. In olde time, the Cāpe maister generall, when the armie mar∣ched, was wonte to carie an ensigne, differing in forme frō the Princes, & the Quarter maister a square bāner, to make so manie persons the more easilie finde him out as are to seeke him, and to the Quarter maisters banner, the Princes harbengers repayre, personages, and Caualiroes of his Court, and those of the rest of the Regimentes, and Com∣panies of horse, which they call Furriers. The like is done nowe, although without banner, & when there is no sus∣pition of the enimie, there is a troupe of soldiors giuen to the Quarter maister, to keepe the furriers from runninge abroade to commit disorder.

The Campe maister generall hath for many yeares since caried no guidon, and in some armies Princes haue alow∣ed him a companie of horse, to the ende he should haue men stil at hande to accompanie him, without losing time Page  63 in sending for the Cauallerie from their quarters, and to haue the infanterie at a moment when he should require them.

As soone as the greater parte of the armie is come togi∣ther within the market place, the campe maister is to giue order for the playning of the trenches, and fortification of the lodging, whereby the men may salie out in squadron with greater commoditie and readines: and euen so doe armies vse to plane the trenches when they goe to combat with the enimie, giuing to vnderstand by like demonstra∣tion, howe they contemne the strength of their defences, in regard of the valor of their armies. The fortification be∣ing explayned, the Campemaister causeth the vangarde to stande from the trenches such a distance as he thinketh fit, making way therby for the battaile & reregarde to march, and for to set in order the cariage of the artillerie, muniti∣ons and bagage, a companie or cōpanies of the vangarde salying before, to whom they giue guides of the fielde, dis∣missing the curriers which serue to discouer, & as a guarde vntill they marche.

In this time the Generall of the artillerie should goe to place it in order, and the cariage of his traine,* according to the breadth of the way, helping him selfe with the gasta∣dors, if it should be necessarie to make planesse: and the grand Prouost is to order likewise the waggons of the vic∣tualls and baggage, who is to carie a little banner for his better guiding, and then the Captaines and * Corporalls of the Regiments of the fielde, Terces, and cauallerie, are to holde their baggage withdrawne by them selues, to sa∣lie forth of the lodging. All the waggons of the trayne or suite of the artillerie ought to bee the firste, the vastadors marching with them, without any other being mingled a∣mong those of the munition which ordinarilie goe in this forme, that is to carrie the first carte laden with spades and Page  64 mattockes, the which * pyoners followe, seruing to marke out the tracks of the way which they are to passe, and next the light pieces, and after them the greater, in the blocke cariages, being more easilie able to be carried so, then in proper carriages, in which they are enforced to marche withall when there is likelihoode of combatt time beeing gayned thereby, which would be lost in the remouing of them from the blocke to their wheele cariages. The pieces of artillerie are followed by the Carpenters and smithes cartes, and then by those of the pouder and leade, & after with the match: such cartes comming after these, as carrie Pikes and Lances: and after, those which carrie shott, at whose heeles marche the waggons of the Generall and of∣ficers of the artillerie, and after them all the rest of the mu∣nitions appertayning to the trayne of the artillerie: and last of all the waggons of victualls and hospitall: and by & by those of Y.H. with which beginneth the baguage cary∣ing before Y.H. waggons the bāners of the grand Prouost whom the rest are to followe. And when it is necessarie to advance anie pieces, for being in suspicion, or doubting a fight, they carrie with them such waggons of shot & pou∣der as is necessarie to serue their turne with.

The artillerie and baggage being set in order, and the vangarde, battaile, and reregarde pointed out (which Y.H. is to giue warning for ouer night) the Sergeant Maiors & Commissaries generall of the Cauallerie, hauing taken or∣der for such place as the men are to holde which are vn∣der their charge, diuiding therin such as are to goe in van∣garde, or rereguarde by their lists, because none should be agreeued, nor one trauaill more then another, the Campe-maister generall must marche with the vangarde, sending corriers before: which are euer to keepe within sight of the vanguarde, gayning the highest places to discouer, & such as are likelie for any ambushes, aduertising continu∣allie Page  65 what they viewe, being likewise the custome to carie in the vangarde some pieces of artillerie, which must goe renforced with more or lesse cauallerie or infanterie, ac∣cording to the qualitie of the Countrie, narownes of the wayes, largenes of the fielde, or suspect which may be had of the enimie on the vanguarde, rereguarde, or vpon the flanke: A consideration which causeth the orders to be so diuers which are giuen for marching, and of those I will write to Y.H. in common, what I vnderstand is to bee no∣ted in generall, for that it is not possible for a souldiour to be able to touche all particularities, although he should write great volumes.

At this time Y.H. must be alreadie on horsebacke, who are to marche with your guidon and * pensill, which is the standarde, whether all the grandes, Lordes & Caualleries, which serue Y.H. in the battaile, are to repaire, being their stande in the armies of Princes and generalls, in that it is the place whether from all partes they are to resorte. And albeit this be the fashion of the warre, yet I haue bene my selfe in campe where the Generall hath bene resolued to change it, and to marche in the vangarde with the vasta∣dors (which was a strange place to them) which he did in being enforced to goe ioyned to the enimie, to starue him vp, and keepe him from possessing any place: And in case the enimie would seeke him out for to fight, thorough his so neare neighbourhood, yet was it not possible for him, although he defended him with an armie inferior in num∣ber, besides sauing much paines and trauaile thereby:* an occasion that he would loose no time by remayning in the middest of the armie, from whence he was to parte vpō any newes of the enimies seeking of him out, to make choise of some conuenient place for to fight: the which he remedied by being in the vangarde, and helde by this, and the first intelligēce of the enimies approch, the fielde well Page  66 vewed, and scituation where to fight, which he instantlie commaunded to be fortified, & so his armie had no more to doe, then as they came to the stande, to sett them selues in battaile, being by this meanes superior in scituation, al∣wayes to fight with aduantage.

*If the fielde be large to be able to goe from one lodging to an other in battaile, & that the enimie be on such parte as you can not be able to present it vnto him for that day, it shalbe greater cōmoditie for euerie squadron to march by them selues, being able to ioyne togither with ease, and the artillerie and baggage vppon the flanke of the armie, where least feare may be of the enimie, the cariage coue∣ring the squadrons which are to goe in eight or ten rankes in fronte, that they may be with the least, and march with lesse trouble, prouided that the artillerie goe on the side of the squadrons, and some fielde pieces before, for that in case it should be necessarie to better them, it mought bee done without annoyance of the rest of the cariages, a mat∣ter which is fit to be preuented by the generall thereof.

Such leader as shalbe in the vanguarde, must leaue be∣hinde all, a companie of lances, or harquebusiers on horse, with an experimented Captaine, who is to drawe out cur∣riers, which are to marche farre from his companie, or re∣reguarde, but not so farre as to loose sight thereof, and this to be done in case the countrie be plaine: and if hillie, then are the curriers to get vp to the highest places, and moun∣taines, to the end the enimie occupie them not: and from thence to discouer the order of the marche, retyring them selues in this sorte from mountayne to moūtayne. In case that the enimies folowe the armie with a greater troupe of men, then the companie of curriers and vanguarde, and that they be enforced to retire them selues more then the scituation where they marche requireth, or is fit for to dis∣couer, thē the Leader of the rereguarde shall enforce them Page  67 to maintaine their standes, giuing order that they charge not with greater furie then is necessarie, to conserue them without losse of the marche, nor to suffer the watchworde or Alarom to passe, except there be occasion for it, giuing euerie moment intelligence vnto Y.H. howe things passe. And if the enimies straine vpon the curriers with such gal∣lantnes and force, as that they must be constrayned to re∣tire as farre home as the rereguarde, then is he to sustayne them by turning face, with making a halte, of which hee must aduertise Y.H. to the ende you may renforce or suc∣cour them as necessitie shall require: since it may bee so great as putting them selues in battayle, they may come to hande-stroakes, a matter which they are to forbeare, ex∣cept they be forced therevnto, attending to followe the Campe, which ought to be their ende.

When armies marche thorough an open countrie, the enimie (being a Captaine of experience) is wont to sende a troupe of loose cauallery to marke the order which they carrie, viewing the nūber of the men by the body of their squadrons. To attaine to this, as soone as they discouer the curriers in vanguarde or rereguarde, they charge thē with resolution, who must be enforced being so much inferior to retyre them selues, and the enimies horse thereby ap∣proch neare the armie to take the fuller viewe thereof. On this occasion if Y.H. carrie a purpose to occupie forceablie any lodging, or passage which may be of much impor∣tance, and not to loose time in marching, you must enter∣tayne them, by putting squadrons of cauallerie in fronte, which may skirmish coldlie with them: whereby the ar∣mie shalbe able to marche without annoyance, Y.H. not holding any particular purpose, & being willing to breake vpon the horse, which after the manner of warre carie no more succours behinde them, then are discouered being loose men, must commaund the Cauallerie, which shall Page  68 stande nearest hande vnto them to close resolutelie, min∣gling them selues among them: a matter which you are to giue in charge to the captaine of those whom they terme *Despepitados, because by this meanes they shalbe enforced to entertayne them, giuing time to charge vpō them with the rest of the squadrons, which shall come to better their partie, and the enimies horse hauing none to retire them∣selues too, when they shall haue done: a matter which the cauallerie doth at pleasure through their much dexteritie, though very litle time be giuen vnto them.

To close vp the first horse, can not be done without dan∣ger, a mischiefe which must be recōpensed with what the enimies vndoubtedlie may receiue, by entertayning time to mingle with them alwayes when it may be done with readines and determinatiō, which is that which Y.H. must order vpon like occasions.

Likewise at other times they sende some horse to disco∣uer, who for not being of anie great number, are to occu∣pie some highe place, or mountaine, shewing them selues thereon with great front, & so they make a greater appea∣rance of men then they are in deed, whereby they can not be readilie discouered:* A case in which is to be noted, that such as are sent to discouer, must looke well to the horsse feete, if they can clearelie discerne them, for that thereby may be perceiued whether the front be of any thicknes or no, or haue anie troupe of horse, notwithstāding any shew they make. The better to vnderstande the certain number of horse or fanterie which a squadron may holde more or lesse, you must cause them to marke from on highe down∣ward, for thē the forme is discouered of all partes, not ma∣king more appearance thereof then is in deede.*

In marching thorough a straight of anie Countrie, the vanguard must goe renforced with the infanterie, and that according as you holde anie suspitiō of the enimie in that Page  69 parte, accompanying it with some fielde pieces, if the way permitt: And in case the enimie be able to charge, you shal as well reenforce the vanguarde, diuiding the battaile in such sorte, as the Artillerie and baggage bee placed in the middest, since it is not of anie effect, carrying in the van∣guard and rereguarde fielde pieces and harquebusiers on horse, or launces, such as the disposition of the Countrie shalbe capable of, if the way be so straigth that the cariadge must be faine to goe so much in ranke, as hardlie the rere∣guarde can succour the vanguarde, troupes of infanterie must marche on the two sides of the baggage, in such sorte as they may giue hande one to another, makinge by this order an easie way for to repayre to that parte where most neede requireth.

It is as well to be considered in this disposition of the Countries, and straightnes of wayes, that other crosse the vallies & breaches, where (for that the enimie may come out of them) for a gulpe of infanterie to make halte, to as∣sure them vntill all the bagage and cauallerie may be pas∣sed, the infanterie retiring them selues then with the rere∣guarde.

Being of necessitie to marche thorough woods which may be great,*Y.H. must commaund to put a golpe of har∣quebuserie in order, with which they must take the wood, and this harquebuserie is to marche along the sides of the way which the Armie is to passe, seruing as wings to couer it, with spredding them selues vppon the flankes of their owne Armie, & when there be founde anie planes in such woodes, as sometimes it falleth out, the cauallerie is in thē to make a halte, the better to assure the waye, the baggage folowing assoone as they haue passed the plane, and at the tayle thereof the infanterie, which necessarilie is to rest with the rereguard, and at the cōming forth of the wood, if the fielde be open, the harquebuserie is to stande, at the Page  70 skirte of the same wood, making halte vntill the Caualle∣rie gaine the fielde with their squadrons, or the high pla∣ces, being a hillie countrie. And for that commonlie in camping you may be enforced to passe riuers by ford or bridge,* in which there is for the most parte much daunger by the aduantage which is giuē to the enimie by the able∣nesse of assayling a passage, or defending it: it is fitt that Y. H. haue good consideration thereof, firste vnderstanding whether the enimie holde it fortified or no, and in what maner, seruing him selfe with Artillerie for defence there∣of: because then I would not councell Y.H. to attempt it, since necessarilie the Armie is to be diuided in the passage, and cōsequentlie the forces, which is to make the enimies greater, when as the cōseruation of the whole armie stan∣deth not vppon it, being otherwise a most daungerous course: and albeit that some haue putt it in execution, it hath bene more thorough the cowardise of such as kept like passages, then for anie reason which could bee allead∣ged for the gayning of them, which must be attempted with so great daunger & inequalitie, as falleth in that man∣ner of fight, and so it shalbe fitt for the auoyding of this inconuenience, that Y.H. vse great diligence and secrecie in passing of the riuers, seruing your turne with all sortes of stratagemes and deuises, to the end the enimie may not preuent you, by before occupying the passage. In all acti∣ons of warre, that is helde for best and most secure, which the enimie least suspecteth: and in passing of riuers it is of greater importāce then in any other, for the danger wher∣with it is performed.

When there is found in the riuer anie forde with much water, or his current carying great violence, you are to bee enformed by the naturall countrie men, in what parte the fordes lye, howe deepe they are, and in what season of the yere it may be past with lesse or more facilitie, giuing light Page  71 therevnto: if the Riuer beareth ordinarilie much water, or holdeth great quantitie of land-waters swellinge with raines, and melting of snowes from of the mountaines, which causeth much furie to the riuers; whether the lan∣ding places at the forde be a plane, with trees, or rough & vneasie: vpon these qualities Y.H. may take resolutiō with your Councell, touching the forde by which you deter∣mine to passe, whether your cauallerie is to come before it grow morning, and with them a golpe of muskettiers and harquebusiers, which the infanterie is to followe, carying in vanguard fower or sixe demye Canons, whereby they may possesse the brinckes of the riuer, so as the vanguarde may begin to passe, the harquebusiers on horsse folowing such guydes and persons as haue alreadie sounded the forde, and straight the light horse and men at armes, euery soldior carrying on the buttock of his horse a harquebu∣sier, or musketier, which may alight assoone as they are passed ouer, occupying the most conuenient standes, and the Cauallerie theirs, if the fielde permitt it, when they are not to returne, leauing the harquebuserie assured, and the infanterie to passe on the horse buttockes, renforcing the first, if the enimie be discouered, which shalbe hardlie able alreadie to hinder the passage.

If the depth of the Riuer and water be in that maner,* as cartes may passe, they vse to frame of them a kinde of brid∣ges vpon which the rest of the infanterie may passe, wet∣ting them selues verie litle, which is a great commoditie to the armie. Vpon like occasions the carriadge is wont to passe the forde, and the artillerie when it is not much, I haue seene passed ouer, dismounting them with raftes, martinets, and other instruments which they carrie to that ende to the other side of the water, where a great gable is fastened, which crosseth the Riuer, stiffe drawne, and vpon that they hange strong cordes, which they fasten to the Page  72 eares of the piece, the which going betweene two waters, is easilie moued, the great corde running alongest the ca∣ble, vpon which the piece is hanged, and hereby the ca∣ble is able to beare it, when the corde is made in forme of a slyding knot, that it may be wyde inough to slippe, and one other great corde which is tied to the slyding knot, & another to the hādles of the piece, the which pull it to the other side of the Riuer, by giuing it motiō, which is easely done, by reason in this manner, for that the verie water by naturall reason lightneth the waight of the Artillerie, a ••ng which is palpable by experience. In this maner they vse to lande in little riuers the artillerie on the other side, when the forde for the owse doth not serue to passe it in carts, nor the Bridge stronge inough to beare the waight thereof.

I haue signified this particularitie to Y.H. for that it is an invention of my time, and verie profitable vpon some occasions.

When they encampe within Prouinces where great & deepe Riuers are, the Armies ordinarilie carrie bridges of Barkes with them, that the whole armie may the more se∣curelie passe, being verie easie to be framed vpp: and al∣beit that at other times they make them vpon barrills, ca∣bles, and plankes of timber, it is but to supplie necessitie, when they can not carrie boates whereby the Canon may securelie passe.

In case it be necessarie that Y.H. make a bridge of boates, or of anie other forme,* you must commaunde that the whole Artillerie may be placed, which you would haue passed, vpon the brincke or shoare of the Riuer, marking it out for such places as you would vse it in.

The which being done, they must put the boates a crosse the water, forming a Bridge, vpō the plankes wherof they shall place some harquebusiers & musquetiers, the better Page  73 to assure the other side of the riuer, if the enimie chaūce to discouer that you minde to passe it. And assoone as euer the bridge is made, Y.H. shall commande that some harquebu∣siers on horse passe ouer with a golpe of harquebuserie, and some lances, if the field yeeld cōmoditie thervnto, & foure or sixe field pieces, some cartes & vastadors immediatlie fol∣lowing, wherwith the soldiers may fottifie the guard of the bridge, which verie well may keepe fiue hundreth men for∣tified, without indangering any greater number at the be∣ginning, being sufficient for that effect: especiallie the rest of the Armie and bagage being to followe, Prouided that if Y.H. haue any suspition that the enimie may come to giue vpon the rereguarde, that the entrie of the bridge on the o∣ther side be well fortified, in such sorte, as the verie last of the soldiors which are to retire, may doe it with securitie: & the Pikes which are among them, are wont to carrie them in their retraite, trayling the heades along the bridge to the enimie wardes, to haue them the readier in hande, if it bee needfull to serue with them, with but turning their faces, leauing the bridge afterwards, if it shalbe necessarie. In case that Y.H. perceiue that the enimie renforceth him selfe for to charge them, you must commaunde that some pieces of artillerie be planted, assoone as they haue passed ouer the ri∣uer to play vpon the enimie.

The whole Armie being passed, Y.H. may march with it according to the qualitie of the coūtry in one of the formes which I haue set downe, and according to the shewe which the enimie shall make, and before you come to the place where Y.H. purposeth to lodge, you must sende the Campe maister generall before for to view it, and to make out the lodging, in which is to bee considerd,* besides those partes which I noted of water, wood, soyle, and wholesome ayre, whether it be fitt to haue it on a hill, for that ordinarilie in such scituations there is want of water and pastures, & com∣ming Page  74 to seeke for it below the hill, besides the discōmoditie and toyle in clamering vp with the victualls, the enimie may easily hinder both, & besiege the mē if the moūtain be high, where likewise the artillerie cāserue to no great purpose, ex∣cept it hold a proportion to shoot frō an high downwards.

In lodging vpon the side of an hill, they commonlie point out the market place in the highest part thereof, prouided that the distance from the quarters thervnto, be not so great as that the soldiours must bee faine to bring their Armes breathles with clambring for to fight, which is a great incō∣uenience, and no small one to be faine to holde the Corps de guard wel renforced to entertaine play with the enimie, while the men come togither to sett them selues in battaile: if you descend from the side of the hill and quarters downe to the markett place in a plane, it is done likewise with great disadvantage, for that the whole power commeth to be dis∣couered, which the enimie lying close may with great cer∣taintie playe vpon.

These be the inconueniences which souldiors put in like lodgings, and so are they esteemed for best in a plain, when they are not neare any mountaine or hill from whence the enimie by occupying it, may offend with his Artillerie the market place or quarters, for these causes are lodginges best on the plane, not holding anie enimie neare, especiallie if there be any wood behinde their shoulders or flankes, or that there be any lakes, breaches or riuer whereby to guard the flanckes or sholders: prouided that the quarters be not so placed, as that if the riuer swell, it may be able to doe any hurt with cōming in, nor the enimie by getting any Arme thereof, to drowne them, nor yet to furnish the lodging by putting them selues in front at the entrie thereof, whē there is no other way for them which occupie it to get forth.

Iointlie when there is anie eminencie of scituation, and that you must be enforced to lodge neare vnto it, let it bee Page  75 kept by placing men, on the toppe, least the enimie possesse him selfe thereof, so as it be no further distant thē you may be well able to succour it, for that otherwise it would bee a greater mischiefe by loosing your people: And I doe not councell (as some are of opiniō) that it is fitt to turne backe to gaine againe the moūtaine, since that in matter of standes and lodgings, nothing is to be helde for good which may be bettered, neither is it fitt to occupie it to any other ende, thē still to mainteine it, without thinking to recouer it again

These aduertisements which I haue signified vnto Y.H. hold in generall as concerning the election of lodginges, which are to be proportioned with the circumstāces of the case, motiue of warre, forces of the enimie, & place in which they stande, holding alwayes a consideration before their eyes, which is of greater importance then all the rest for lod∣gings, and that is, to chuse them in such sorte as may hold a verie euill acces for the enimie vnto them,* and a good salie for them which occupie them: A qualitie which is not pos∣sible to be particularised vnto Y.H. except it bee with the present occasion, and much experience, which teacheth of what moment an ill approch is for him which is to fight, & a good salie for those which would doe it, or dislodge. This may be said to be it, which men in ancient time denied, whē they desired that the frontieres of their common wealthes, which they builded in rough and raggie places, might hold a good assent on their parte, and an vneasie on the enimies, which sometimes commeth to giue impediment to him to lodge, and then the election of the scituation being made, he placeth all his Cauallerie in fronte, stāding in squadrons to couer the fortifying, so as it can not be discouered before it be fullie finished.

In countries which are much peopled, they vse to disperse the cauallerie from the infanterie, to giue commoditie of houses, and forrage, which is done in such maner, as the Ca∣uallerie Page  74〈1 page duplicate〉Page  75〈1 page duplicate〉Page  76 couereth the infanterie, whē they are not sent out, and the infanterie seuered, to keepe watche a nightes, the Campe maister generall ordayning it, and that victualls bee brought if it be necessarie.

When as the lodgings be fortified, & that there be houses round about, Y.H. may not permit your mē to goe & lodge in them, for that they serue to no other end then to giue oc∣casion to the enimie to cutt their throates in the night by standing without guarde.

The Campe-maister generall hauing deuided the quar∣ters, and market place, in such maner as I signified to Y.H. in the first lodging, the Quarter maister is in particular to tickett them out to the harbengers & furriers: which done, he may goe to rest, and the Captaines of the skoutes and Centinels,* which are those that are to be first lodged by rea∣son of being wearie a nightes, and the companie of the Campemaister generalls horse, if he haue anie, and this to be done while the vangarde standeth in squadron, and the battaile be come, which is then to goe to lodge, the battayle remayning in squadrō vntill the artillerie, munition, bagage and rereguard haue entred into the lodging.

In this time the Campe maister generall, shall viewe the most conuenient scituation where to place the day guarde on what parte the enimie is likelie to come, and the Captain which shall haue charge thereof, shall drawe out the Centi∣nells to their standes, without dispersinge them so as they should loose the sight of the Corps de garde, prouided that if there be any vallies or woods, by which the enimie should be able to cutt them off, more centinells be placed to disco∣uer, in such sorte as the corps de guarde may see them, who are ordinarilie to aduertise Y.H. of such men as the centinels discouer, be they more or lesse, which must by no meanes departe from their standes without order, nor the corps de guarde to charge the enimie, although he be superior vnto Page  77 him, with whom he may skirmishe to entertaine time, still aduertising Y.H. who are to giue order for what shalbe most conuenient, & in case the enimie renforce them selues, and that no succour come, then are they to retire in good order, so as still they intertaine them, giuing time & aduise to Y.H.

In some lodgings it is not inough for discouerie to place one Cordeguarde, a matter which the Campe maister ge∣nerall is to foresee, be they two or more, according to the qualitie of the scituation, and that the guardes of horse, the daies being long & whot, may be changed at noone, wher∣by they may not ouer trauell.

The scituation for one cordeguard or more being choo∣sen out, the Campe maister general with the generall of the Artillerie, and other heads of the armie must viewe the lod∣ging round about, appointing the standes which the Cor∣deguardes are to be placed in by night, and such fortificatiō as he ordaineth, the rereguarde being alwayes in squadron; if there be anie suspect helde of the enimie, vntill the lod∣ging be fortified: A matter which is done more or lesse, ac∣cording as the time serueth, and as they thinke to occupie the scituation.

This being done, & that the day-guard which is to make it, stande in their places, the squadrons of the rereguard, and corryers which come behinde goe to be lodged, the guard of the field remayning entierlie where they are sett.

It is fitt that Y.H. come to lodge in a good hower, as well for the greater ease of your men, as that you may haue time to fortifie your self, if it be necessarie, thorough the enimies being at hande, things which are verie ill performed in the night: and the better to assure the forragers, you are to cō∣sider the enimie being able to doe hurte, that horse bee sent to discouer, and make skoute if occasion require it, preuen∣ting that the Armie miscarrie not, and your men bee lost, who albeit they be not armed, yet is it a reputation to pre∣serue Page  78 them, and a benefitt of the fielde.

*When the enimie draweth neare to the scituation which is alreadie possessed, they vse to renforce the guarde more then in other standes, and this by diuiding the Armie into three partes, that one may keepe guarde a nightes while the other two reast, and in case the suspicion increase, that then they put halfe of the armie to guarde, considering that it is a lesse incōuenience to stande readie prepared, although they toyle for it, thē to be careles: this maketh officers to answere soldiors, if they complaine of their euer oftē guarding, that the K. payeth for the guardes, not for the fight: The particu∣lar of ones selfe depending on the one, and the common se∣curitie of the Armie on the other.

They vse aswell to putt betweene the principall corps de guarde, and the double Centinells, other small cordegardes of such number of soldiors, as may serue to change the cen∣tinels; the which carefull Seriants Maiors will of thē selues looke vnto, as well for that it may be done with greater fa∣cilitie, as also for that one single centinell giuing warning to the double, and by that which they see, they are more assu∣red whether it be certain or no, then by report of others: & if it be necessarie for him to retire, he doeth it to the double Centinells, which are three souldiors, and they to the lesser Cordeguarde.

The same order may be helde among the guardes of ca∣uallerie, which they sett without the fortification, if much suspicion be had: and the Captaines and Lieuetenants of horsse, in reason as men experienced, shal place men in such partes & wayes, as the enimie is to passe, the guardes of horse being that which assureth the campe most, and likewise the garrisons which must of force be scattered from it: hereby time is gained with discouering the enimie to preuent him, standing readie prepared for him, the better to be able, to prouide for anie hurt before it falleth out.

Page  79Iointlie there is another way of preuention in time of suspect, the enimy being near, or if you be desirous to know whether he send anie men forth of his Campe by night, or dislodge, which is to place centinells a foote and on horsse so neare his Campe, as that for daunger therof they may not haue the worde giuen them, and are named forlorne,* cary∣ing other markes whereby they may be knowne of the cen∣tinells, in case they returne to bring any newes. Besides the care which must be had to seeke out good spyes, a matter of so great importance in the warre, it is a verie good meanes to hold day and night vpon the enimie, one, two, or more troupes of horsse, which may goe by diuers wayes, with good guydes, fifteene or twentie in a number, & with eue∣rie one an officer which may be experienced, and carrie a soundnes of iudgement to viewe, without making any hur∣lie burlie.

These troupes salying out of the Campe by night, carrie not the worde but their leader giueth one among them sel∣ues when they are abroad, by which they may knowe one another, being that if anie of them should be lost, the eni∣mie should not come by it: and being to returne with anie intelligence by night, the officer which goeth with them, hath order to sende before a souldiour, who is to giue war∣ning to the Centinell, that they take not the alarom vppon seeing of the troupe, and that he declare to his Captaine, howe such an officer of the Corriors is come, and then the Centinell shall aduertise him thereof, willing the souldiour to retire, who shall make the same knowen to Y.H. or the Campe maister generall, who must giue order for what shal be most conuenient, & in case that he come into the campe that then an officer of the Cordeguarde goe forth whiche knoweth the word, to giue order that the Centinells suffer him to passe after hauing well taken knowledge of him.

The same course is held when anie troupes of infanterie Page  80 or cauallerie haue gone to keepe skoute, or vpon any other seruice, to sende if it be at the howres that Centinels are set, to giue warning by some soldior which shall goe before, that they make no sturre, or raise any alarum vpon the sight of them: The which must be preuented, and Y.H. or the Campe maister generall must haue warning before they discouer them, who are to march slowlie: and in case that any come to enter within the Campe, and carie the worde, for that the generall gaue it vnto him, and would speak with him at any hower without loosing time, the single Centi∣nell on foote or horse, is to bring him as farre as the double, and one of them to carrie him to his Captaine at the Cor∣degarde, who is to deliuer him to the principall officer, that he may aduertise the Campe maister generall thereof, if the newes be not of so great moment, as to deserue to bee pre∣sentlie caried to Y.H.

*Some vse in like sorte when the enimie is much superior in Cauallerie, & that they feare he will assayle the lodgings in the night, to make great fieres before the markett place, which discouereth whosoeuer cometh, and dazeleth them, not to be able to see againe who there attendeth: other pre∣pare themselues by making diches before the market place, in maner of pitfalls for to annoye the horse, & skatter some prickes of yron, and in this conformitie euery one applieth what he thinketh most to purpose for his owne defence, ac∣cording to the occasion which is offered and suspition had.

I haue signified to Y.H. all these formes of warres, for that it was neuer hurtfull to anie man, though he were farr from the enimie, much lesse neare, to stande vpon his guarde, and that with great warienesse, though some say that Y.H. in so doeing, doeth but giue reputation to the enimie, and shewe a feare of him, for that in warre such as are reachles, are eue∣rie moment payd home, and neuer did a circumspect soul∣dior receiue hurte, nor an obstinate good, an enimie being Page  81 to be cōtemned at the time of fight, but alwayes to be estee∣med for pointe of warre; for this cause the errors of a Supe∣rior in matters of gouernement and pollicie, may bee com∣pared to lingring infirmities, which giue leasure to thinke in matters of remedie, but those of warr to sharpe ones, whose beginning is the ende of the patient.

The alarum being taken by night,* which ought to be vpō good ground, those officers being to looke vnto it that take charge of visiting the Centinells at diuers houres, that they may stande in readines, the single Centinels are to retire to the double, vpon the enimies charge, and the double to the small corps de garde, which ioine them selues with the prin∣cipall, wherwith they make a squadron, and whether all the armes, banners and standarts are to repaire.

Such companies as serue for guard vnto Y.H. are placed in squadron without mouing from their standes, and so are those which guarde the Artillerie, & sometimes in the lod∣gings some other colours stand for guarde, in such partes as they are appointed to make a squadron in the same place, for the inconuenience which might follow in case it should be abandoned, being lost time in going to the generall mar∣kett place, as they must doe by day, for that then being able to knowe which way the enimie directes, the Commander hath time to sende men to withstande him, being readie in the market place, whether all make their appearance: a mat∣ter which vpon alarum by night can not be done.

Those officers whose Centinells firste began, are to en∣forme Y.H. from what parte they come, and vpon what oc∣casion, giuing warning to the cordeguarde next hande, that they retire their Centinells, the furie of the alorum conti∣nuing, and that no trumpet sounde vpon paine of loosing a hande, vntill Y.H. owne haue done, which ought to be the best and most skilfulliest in that arte.

The like order is to be kept by the dromes, when they do Page  82 sounde alarum, those which stande on Y.H. guarde begin∣ning, when they may be heard, being in reason that they are better able to knowe vppon what ground the Alarom riseth, where Y.H. person resteth, & before anie other parte: and manie times the voyce of Arme happeneth to come within the verie campe, before anie centinells haue cried it, who are not to retire from their standes without the enimie force them, or that their officer come to him vppon the a∣larom, and then Y.H. must giue a newe worde in returning to place againe, and the men goe to lodge, for feare least the enimie should get the word by hauing taken any centinell, nor that anie spye, if he haue entred that night vpon the ru∣mor of Alarom, should escape forth vntil it were day: when the Sergiants Maiors, being of experience, & other officers come to aske the word of Y.H. after hauing put the men in squadron, and ordred them to lodge, you must know whe∣ther the Centinells be retired or no.

Y.H. encamping with intent to invade any lande, the motiue which is helde in warre so requiring it,* to cause the enimie to leaue anie strong holde, or to come to fight for the succour thereof, to gett victualls, or sett foote within the Prouince, must in reason before hande haue relation and knowledge of the scite and fortification which it holdeth, the number of men which are to defend it, & whether they be soldiors or no, and with what head: and not to learne this onely from the naturall persons of the countrey, but from spyes, or such other as vnder colour of negotiations, treaties, or prisoners haue bene sent to view any such place, and the wayes thereof.

Y.H. must signifie vnto your Councellors the relation of any such information as persons of experience, or the na∣turall men of that countrey shall deliuer, for to take the last resolution in what maner the siege must be layed, folowing with much precisenes their liking and opinion, for that to Page  83 besiege a place is one of the matters in warre, which asketh much consideration, weighing the enterprise, for that hasti∣nes is an enimie of good councell, & delaie neuer good but to represse anger and displeasure, for which cause resoluti∣ons are to be taken with valor of the minde, for that they o∣therwise be ambiguous, which neither come to helpe those which take them, nor endemnifie the enimie, & frō whence great mischiefs haue redounded to Princes, as often as they haue entended stages without it, and in particular if they haue not helde quantitie of artillerie, with boundance of munitions, wherwith to oppen a sufficient Batterie, making the soldiers and Corporalls which followe them, the more easilie to shewe thereby their courage, when they come to hand-strokes with the enimie, which is that which in the ende gayneth the places, the honor thereof being dewe to them, and to the generall the blocking vp of the passages, whereby to hinder succours, placing the batterie in the best parte thereof

The first matter which Y.H. is to debate of, is whether they must make one or two lodginges or more before that you come to laie siege discouertlie, enquiring whether ther be no townes rounde about, making shewe as though you meant to besiege one of them, and not that which you pre∣tend in deede, to finde it thereby the lesse prouided: for this cause the Armie must bee diuided and marche on diuers partes, and in the night with great diligence troupes of sol∣diours must be sent to take the passages and places whereby men may come to enter within the countrie.

Being able to besiege with making one lodging onelie, is the better, because of putting the greater feare in those whi∣che are within, seeing them selues suddenlie enclosed, pre∣uēting with speedines that they do not hinder the taking of the lodging, and burne the suburbes & houses about, which is of great moment, nor to haue readie their Artillerie, and Page  84 other things which in this conformitie may be had by dal∣lying the time of the siege, if those which stande vpon their defence come to suspect it, for this they vse when the Coū∣trie holdeth three or foure passages or sayles, to send by day or night men, if the scituation permitt, that at one instante they may occupie the passagages thereof, making great dili∣gence in fortifying them, with trenches, ditches, and traues∣ses, whereby they stopp anie succour from them, & let them within frō saling forth, being so near, hauing many meanes to be able to offende them, if they entende anie salie with greater securitie.

To execute this enterprise, the Armie is to march accor∣ding as the countrie serueth, in one of the manners which I haue set downe, and in the vandguarde the Campe maister generall to be so well renforced with Cauallerie and infan∣terie, as that he may be superior to those within, being able thereby, if they make anie salie to charge them with deter∣mination, & readines, so as he make them turne tayle, with∣out loosing any time vpon the occasion which may be offe∣red, according to the disposition of the place and borders a∣bout, happening some times vpon the like charges, to slaye or take some of the leaders which salie out to guyde the be∣sieged, of whom intelligence may be taken: a matter which greatlie quayleth them, and in particular if they receyue much hurte vpon the first brunt, which bringeth them to bethinke them selues of yeelding.

It hath likewise fallen out that they haue so mingled thē∣selues with the enimie, as that they haue gayned the place, entring pele mele one with another into it, by reason of dis∣ordring them selues vpon the retreat, and not holdinge the guard of the gates fortified with Baricados, & other things, which they vse in like places where they liue circumspectly and with good guarde.

And albeit these effectes sometimes happē, to charge the Page  85 enime with determination, is to gett to approch the walles, assalting the enimie, and to viewe the manner of them, the diches, loopeholes, & trauesses, marking with the eye whe∣ther the fortification be chaunged or no, from the relation which before you had, and newe defences made, & by this meanes gaine time to straighten them, which is the ende which the besieger is to worke for, as to enlarge him selfe is his which defendeth, the most which may bee possible for him, from his neighbourhood.

In this charge the Cāpe maister generall is to marke that the squadrons of the Cauallerie be not placed in such sorte as that the artillerie from the plattformes and caualiers of earth may much annoy them,* viewing if he be a soldior the places as well in the wayes as other standes, where the eni∣mie may in reason ayme with his pieces: a particular which may be knowen with the eye, and experience of a souldior, assoone as he seeth the field, and discouereth the countrie.

The enimie being dulled within the place, the Campe-maister generall is to marke out the lodging, assigninge the quarters as neare as may be vnto it, and that without being subiect to the Canon: and albeit that the bullettes light frō the place besieged vpon some of the quarters, giuing to the pieces as much charge as they can hold, it is no great incon∣uenience: The quarters ought to be disposed in such sorte as that the Towne be enclosed round about, that none may escape out, nor bee able to relieue those whiche are besie∣ged, with either men or victualls, being to no purpose to vndertake anie such enterprise, without a most strong lod∣ging: neither can a Town in deed be said to be besieged,* ex∣cept it be enuironed on all partes, and whē any suspitiō ari∣seth, that the enimie is like to come with a maine Armie to succour it, thē doe they fortifie the lodging aswell towards the walles as the fieldes, which they must haue a great care ouer, preuēting the approches which the enimie may make Page  86 for to put in succor, or giue vpon the lodging, which is to be fortified as shall be thought fittest, making trauesses, Ba∣ricados, or trenches, if occasion require, and by Y.H. stāding readie prepared after such maner as you are to dispose your Armie in battaile to attende him according to the scituatiō, and that after such a fashion as may defend the whole body of the lodging, being assayled on diuerse parts or one alone, one quarter giuing hande to another, in the case the enimie attempt anie one with greater furie then the rest; orders which are better executed by being before hande fore∣thought of & prepared, then iust vpō the enimies discouerie

If any riuer runne by the Town, the Campe must needes be diuided into two or three partes for to besiege it, which asketh that they be well fortified, so as euerie one may of it selfe defend it selfe, with such leader as Y.H. shall place in euerie stand, and to succour from one quarter to another.

I doe not lay downe to Y.H. such maner of bridges and engines as I haue seene made, for to worke all these effectes, for that I would not be to tedious, and that it is necessarie a man gouerne him selfe in these enterprises according to the preparations which are to be made for such a siege, & as the qualitie of such a riuer is, and furie of the current which it holdeth, which is to giue law, whether it be better to frame the bridge making it aboue the towne or belowe, or both, so as those within may not be able to serue their turne with the current for to vndoe it, by putting down of barkes vpō the ebbe with men, and artificial fiers for to breake & burne it, if the current serue for it, and consequentlie if the bridge stande below the Towne, that the enimie come not vp assi∣sted with winde and tide to spoyle it, and succour the besie∣ged, and so whether it shalbe conuenient or no to fortifie the entries of the bridges with anie rauelin, or defence, kee∣ping a renforced guarde, for that it standeth ioyned to the quarters.

Page  87The Armie being lodged, and the towne viewed, as well by the generall of the artillerie, as other leaders and souldi∣ours of experience, Y.H. must take resolution on what parte you will plant your batterie, or batteries,* considering that ordinarilie in cold countries the walles which stande to the North, and which lye subiect to the Septentrionall windes, are weaker then the other, and in warme, those which stand on the South: A qualitie which is to be marked, and what rampier they holde, and the thicknes thereof, and whether the wall be builded of newe, in being more easie to batter it: whether there be space where you batter betweene one tower or bulwarke and another, so as you may make your batterie for eight or nine souldiours to be able to enter in front, which distance is helde for a great Batterie, & allowed for good in case they be not able to assayle in front. Iointlie it is to be considered whether the wall yeeld cōmoditie by anie angle or corner to be able to crosse the batterie, for that then they within can hardlie defend it, and to make two batteries when it may be by assalting the towne in two pla∣ces at once, is much better then a single, those which stande at one batterie still fearing least they enter by the other, and hereby stande vpon their defence verie ielous of their own destruction, and there is no noyse of woomen or children heard, how small soeuer it be, which giueth them not some care looking back what it meaneth: a particular which sun∣drie times causeth places to bee the sooner gayned, and in this respect they attempt other by assalting in sūdrie partes, making shew of carying ladders & other prouisions, where they neuer purpose to enter, onely with intent to diuert the enimie, puttinge him with the suspition thereof in great feare, seeing him selfe readie to be assalted, which euery thing increaseth, augmenting a distrust, vnles the resolution of honorable Breastes despise it; matters which must be re∣solued on without loosing time, and in some place they Page  88 plante pieces on the plaine groūd without gabions or tren∣ches, when as the town which they would take, holdeth no defence, nor that it is necessarie to vse anie greater diligēce, then to batter a gate, or open a Portal. In this you must pro∣ceed according to the men which are within, and qualitie of the walles and ditches, if there be anie, because whē they within may be able to holde time without yeeldinge, it is not good to goe about to batter, without couering of the artillerie, & making of trenches, for that without these two things is but to venter and put in hazard manie men, and giue greater courage to those within, when they shal see the losse which is without.

In making the approche, as they terme it, as much to say as to come neare to the walles and ditches, the Artillerie & munitions being readie, they vse, the enimie being retired within the walles, and the place where they are to batter well viewed by the general of the artillerie and other heads of the Armie, to marche with great Culuerings, and poin∣ting them, to such parapetts, platformes and Caualiers, as they may best serue in, to begin to quitte some defenses, drawing while the Coluerins play, the Cannon as neare as they can, to quitte the loopeholes & defences, in such sorte as they may not discouer the Coluerines, or descrie them neare hande, being places where the ehimie may doe mis∣chiefe, the demie Cannons, Coluerines, and quarter Can∣nons folowing the Cannon as neare as can be, and shoting where the Coluerines and Cannons haue battered, throw∣ing downe the defenses the best that they can, & that with speed and diligence, causing the enimie in one, two dayes or more, to quitte the Canonries and trauesses: which be∣ing done, or continuing to procure it, it giueth a beginning that no losse of time be to worke more easilie in the night, and with greater securitie vpon the trenches, the enimie ha∣uing no secure place whence to discharge a piece for his Page  89 own defence, the great cannons being then able to better their place where the batterie is to be made, and to begin or continew the trenches if they be in hande alredie, which in such place as much sande is, they rayse with stones,* which are verie daungerons trenches for hurting much people with their own stones, as often as a bullett lighteth, & when the soyle is waterie, some helpe it with chestes of wood, fil∣ling it with earth, other with gabions, with which cōmonlie they couer the artillerie, allowing them eight foote of dia∣meter, which is large inough for a defence: and in Barbarie where there is so great aboundance of sande, little earth and want of trees, they haue bene wont to make their gabions by putting stakes into the ground, fastening thē with ropes of bentes, in steed of boughes, weauing them so close togi∣ther, as that they may fill them with sande: It is a matter vnpossible to deliuer to Y.H. at what place the trenches are to begin, nor whether they should be long or shorte, nor whether for the better couering of the artillerie with which they batter, they must bring it as farre as the brincke of the diche, or come to disemboke within it, nor to goe with tra∣uesses through the same ditch forwards, if the qualitie ther∣of permitt it, nor if it stand brim full of water, with the more ease to be able to make bridges within it, vpon which after the batterie made, the assalt may be giuen, or to bee able to come in barkes or boates to the verie batterie and walles, particulars which I can not resolue, except I were present vpon the verie ground, & as occasion presenteth gouerning ones selfe in this, and in the guardes of the trenches & other thinges according to the resistance which the enimie ma∣keth, and progresse in prolonging or shortning the siege.

The chiefest point to be considered is, that the trenches be wrought with much heed and consideration,* taking care to guyde them with the bulwarkes, towers, and flanckes of the walles, making the windings in such sorte as no piece of the Page  90 enimie may be able to emboke them, nor to batter by direct line anie bowe or windings of them, being so much the bet∣ter, by how much they are deeper, broader, and higher, and approche nearest vnto the quarters: and in case that the principall heades of the Armie be enforced ordinarilie to goe vnto them, it is verie fitt when there is a quantitie of va∣stadors, to assure the entrie, Y.H. not hazarding those per∣sonages which are about you, by reason that the want of a∣nie leader may proue verie preiudiciall.

Albeit that trenches are commonlie made after the ma∣ner which I haue sett downe vnto Y.H. yet I haue my selfe bene in place, where they wrought them straight, with flan∣kers on high, which seemed verie strange to those souldiors which sawe it, & to very good purpose by gayning of time in not making windings: wherein is to be considered, the disposition of the grounde, seruing to bee able to worke a streigth trenche, that bowes be made out from one parte to another to renforce them with men, for that a streight one is not able to receiue manie, and it is verie necessarie to hold them well renforced with soldiors, and prouided of budge-barills, that the harquebuserie may shoote with more secu∣ritie, to whom order is to be giuen, that by no meanes they talke to them within, auoyding thereby any aduertisement which might vnder hande be giuen, as sometimes it hath fallen out of what hath not benefitt to be discouered.

Concerning the trenches, the place ought to bee before hande well viewed and assured whence they are to batter:* In which sixe pointes are to be considered: Firste, that it be strong by nature, or capable to be made so by arte. Second∣lie, that the souldiors may be able to furnishe and combate within it with commoditie & defence. Thirdlie, to be able to retire the artillerie easilie frō the place, if necessitie should so require. Fourthlie, that the scituation be capable to plant pieces within it, in such sorte as they may bee able to hitt Page  91 point blancke vppon such parte or partes as they minde to batter. Fiftlie, that there be a place prepared readie for the souldiours to giue the assalt after the batterie made, which will be to small purpose, if the approch vnto it be vnaccessi∣ble. Sixtlie, that the batterie stande not to neare the walles, least the enimie chaunce to annoy manie men with his har∣quebusiers, nor consequentlie that to avoyd this inconue∣nience, it be too farre of, where the furie thereof shalbe able to worke but small effect.

Some holde that Batterie for the best, when the pieces may be foure score or one hundreth paces from the wall,* their furie being nothing so great, whē they stande one hū∣dreth and fiftie or two hūdreth of: vpon which is inferred that at three hūdred, or how much soeuer more, the pieces be planted, they batter with lesse force. For which cause o∣ther are of opinion, that the pieces were best to be placed, if it were possible, vpon the verie brym of the diche, whereby they signifie that according to their opinion they should be drawen to batter as neare as might be to the walles: vppon this when the place which is besieged holdeth a number of men within, it falleth out a great inconuenience, if they bee soldiors, besides being able to hurt many in being so neare, which is to giue occasion to those within to make braue salies, vnder hope to clow some piece by lying so neare, and to be able to be defended by their harquebuserie and mus∣ketrie from of the walles: a particular much to be regarded, considering the commoditie of doores or close casaments, which the besieged may holde, to salie out vpon the artille∣rie, or trenches, and whether before they come neare vnto them, they must of force be descried a farre of or no, to the end that if they be discouered before they enter skirmishe, there may be space to renforce the guard of the Artillerie with soldiors and armes, for which time serueth not, if so∣denlie they be able to giue vpon them and the trenches.

Page  92It was held in old time a compleat Batterie to batter with sixe Cannons, two Coluerines, and fower demie Colue∣rines, and twelue Sakers or Falconets, a thing which hardly can be deliuered to Y.H. by anie certaine rule, for that the number of the pieces and batterie is to be cōsidered accor∣ding to the qualitie of the place or fortresse whiche you would batter with them: Those pieces which carrie bullett betweene fortie and three score pound, they now commō∣lie call Cannōs of batterie, & those which passe three score, Basiliscoes, notwithstanding this, such Cannons as com∣monlie are founded for batterie, be of eight and thirtie, for∣tie, and fower and fortie pounde of * weight, & the demie Cannons of fower and twentie, being found by experience not to be pieces of much wast, doeing sufficient effecte for batterie, and with greater facilitie to be maneaged then any other sorte of pieces, as well to encampe with all, as for a siege, and when a warre is broken out betweene two Prin∣ces, one attempting vpon another, they vse to giue more or lesse weight to the bulletts of their Cānon of batterie, then the contrarie part vseth, whereby ones bullet may not serue another, in sorte as if the bullet on one side weighe two and fortie pound, the other shallbe of eight and thirtie, or six & fortie, somewhat more or lesse: iointlie they accompanie these pieces in the batteries as I haue sett downe with de∣mie Coluerines, quarter Cannons, demie sacres, and fielde pieces, which commonlie they carrie when cōmoditie ser∣ueth for it, great Armies bringing with them of all sortes of Artillerie to euery purpose placing the smal pieces, on such partes and ground, as may best conuenientlie stoppe the sa∣lies of the besieged, and other passages, by which the enimie might come to succour.

These pieces being planted with their beddes, which are made of tymber planckes or hurdles, they couer them with gabions and diches, as well for the securitie of the Pyoners Page  93 (which assiste to retire them with the gunners, & doe other necessaries) as the guard of the artillerie, fortifying the sci∣tuation thereof, in such sorte as whē the enimie driueth the men from their trenches which they haue to couer them, & passe forward either to gaine or clowe the Artillerie, the sol∣diors which stand at the guard, may hold sufficient strength to defende it. To batter the walles when they are onelie a casamure without rampire of earth, you must plant your pieces in such sorte as they may batter the walles a slante, for that then they breake them worse then shooting by direct line, by which they onely pearce thorough the wall with much furie, without shaking it. The approch being made, driuing the trenches as neare the towne as may be, the bat∣terie is to be planted, which is to begin in this order, that is to shoote of those pieces with which you batter determina∣blie by voleyes one after another, being of greater effect so,* then if they should be discharged euery one by it selfe, and then after a voley passed, shooting off those pieces which stand at the defences, to the ende the enimie may not disco∣uer while they be charged a new, and put in ther place: and the like is to be done by the harquebuserie & musketrie frō the trenches, keeping the enimie from shewing him self vn∣till they returne to giue another voley, which is the manner whereby a batterie is continued, seruing them selues with the greater pieces to shake the wall, breaking it a pieces, and with the lesser to cutt it after, and to make the greater ruine by the falling of that which was shaken, in anie wise haste∣ning the batterie with all the diligence that may be, and to plie it so (if it be possible) as so manie voleys as should serue turne, might be shott in one day rather then two, diligence in batteries being of great moment, and for manie respectes to be vsed: a busines which wil giue them that are besieged to thinke on, when they see them selues furiouslie battered. For this purpose, besides the diligence which the generall Page  94 of the artillerie, his Lieuetenants and officers are to vse, the gunners finding that they gaine particularlie by euerie vo∣ley which they discharge, are to giue cartages & budgebar∣rels, to charge more easilie, & speedilie: and by this meanes I haue bene present at a siege where there hath ben dischar∣ged in the end of August when the dayes are not very long, fouer score and on tyre in one day, the batterie being of sixe and thirtie pieces. It is true that in respect it was in a colde countrey, they cooled not their Cannons as they must bee forced to doe in whot, and thereby loose much time.

At night when the last tyre is shot of and the pieces char∣ged, they place them as if presentlie they were to be dischar∣ged, to hinder them which are besieged from repayring any breach which is done by shooting of euerie piece by it selfe in the night at such hower as is convenient.

In this time if the diche be drye, may be viewed the Ca∣noniries, and casamates which are within it, and the dam∣mage which the ruine of the batterie hath wrought, and if it holde water, they to deuise to let it out if the grounde will serue for it, or to drain it with engins for the purpose, or to stopp it vp with Fagotts, or fill it with earth, as I haue seene it in a siege,* & to make readie if it hold any depthe, bridges, which are to be thrown in for the assalte made of Barrelles, Barkes, and ship-mastes: the throwing of them in being a matter of sufficient peril, and great danger for a generall to commaunde an assalt to be giuen before he haue well view∣ed the batterie, and the trauesses quited, vsing all diligence in this: albeit it is true that the trauesses where the harque∣buserie and musketerie may be sett in such places as are for∣tified, can hardlie be quitted by the enimie, and in case the disposition of the place be of such sorte, as he must be faine to loose them, at the instant he will treat of the deliuerie of them vp, knowing if he be a souldior, that without them he can not be able to defend the entrie.

Page  95It is likewise to be considered that whē the diches where the batterie is made, holde much water, it is not onely verie perillous to throwe in the bridges, but most daungerous to giue the assalte on that parte, because that the depth of the diche swalloweth vp the ruine of the batterie, in such sorte as the head of the bridge can haue no fastening, or giue anie commoditie at all by this for the soldiors at the assalte to be able to finde anie place in the breach, where they may ioine togither to fight against thē within, wherby it is a very hard matter to be able to runne vp skattered, or to enter first in, if they within haue any courage at all to defende them selues, because that the bredth of the bridges which are cast in, are not capable aboue fiue souldiors to marche in front, and so fewe of the first come to fight, except they holde a place in the breach, for those which followe them to doe as much: & so those which stand vpon their defence within become more superior, and holde greater aduantage, by the place which they occupie, and the soldiors which are to giue the assalte, goe close togither on the bridge, being thicke vppon the bancke of the diche, seruing onely as a marke for those vpon the walles to shoote at without being able to giue thē anie annoyance by fighting. Inconueniences which were verie fitt to be looked into before the putting in of the brid∣ges for the assalte, or planting the batterie on that parte, Y.H. entring into consideration thereof according to the intelli∣gence and information which shalbe giuen vnto you of the depth of the diche.

The batterie being well viewed,* and Y.H. resolued to haue the assalte giuen, you are to giue order to such nation, Cap∣taines, and Campe maister as must be of the vanguarde, In which is to be considered, that it be recommended to such leaders and souldiors as haue a desire to fight, shewing their determination and courage, willing to enter into any daun∣ger: to whō particular order must be giuen, that in clyming Page  96 vp to the highe of the breach, they runne vp the wall, if the disposition of the place will permitt it, which is that, that most assureth the entrie, and so likewise the rest which are to followe the vanguard, all standing armed in readines within the trenches.

In some assaltes the souldiors haue ben necessarilie faine to vse ladders, which is a signe that the batterie is not good, and the generall enforced (cost what cost mought) to take the town, or retire him selfe from it, the which he must bee constrained to doe, attempting it with so great daunger for to auoyde a greater inconuenience, a matter which Y.H. must by all meanes seeke to shunne.

To withdrawe the men into the trenches, Y.H. is to com∣maund that the rest of the Armie, as well cauallerie as fante∣rie, put them selues into battell, and squadrons within the markett place, with whom the Campe maister general is to be readie prepared, if the enimie should come to combatt the quarters, which ought to stande well fortified, to stoppe him, and giue impediment to his attempt, and likewise to renforce the men, that by one or two wayes they may giue vpon him, and to refresh them, if it be necessarie with some tierce, regiment, or collours, giuing them charge to attempt a freshe: and in case that the besieged putt backe the men from the assault, if they retire, it is easilie to be beleeued, that it will be done with disorder and scattering, for that it is not possible they should doe it otherwise, and if they within the towne with a new harte of grace, should make anie salie out of the same breach, as hath bene sometimes seene, you may not thinke to gather those again togither which are retired to turne back to charge them, but to doe it with those squa∣drons and men that remaine in the markett place: thinges which are preuented by keeping the rest of the Armie in battaile.

Besides, it is to be considered, that when the souldiours Page  97 come to stande pike to pike, and at hande stroakes with the enimie, it may fall out that they can not enter, and so it is meete to holde the harquebuserie and musketerie in readi∣nes, wherwith to furnishe a newe the trenches, to the ende that they may shoote liuelelie from thence, in case the men be commaunded to retire from the assalte, and in such ma∣nor as the enimie doe not only not take vpon him to charge them, but that he be not so hardie as to discouer him self.

Y.H. hauing these things in readines, and your men with∣drawen in such sorte home to their trenches, & the rest sett in battaile, the generall & officers of the artillerie are to ad∣uertise Y.H. euery moment of the estate of the breach, and which shalbe their last tyre, which the gunners terme clea∣ning and sweeping of the breach, & what defenses the eni∣mie may haue made, to the end that Y.H. who are to be on horse backe, and in such a place, if it be possible, as you may discouer both batteries, should make a signe at the instant when the last Cannon should be shott of, as Y.H. to hold vp the same handquerchef at your armes ende, and when that can not be, then some trōpet to sound which is wel known.

For to assalt the men goe in troupes, euerie one vsing di∣ligence according to such valor, boldnes, and experience of assaltes as he hath, and while they be cōming to clyme the breach, the small pieces are to playe if there be anie, and the harquebuserie hastelie from the trenches, occupying the e∣nimie so, as he discouer them not vntill they come pyke to pyke with him, and the soldiours to hande strokes, and then to cease shooting, and the generall of the Artillerie to keepe his pieces still charged and appointed for what soeuer may fal out, shooting off if it be necessarie some times a thwarte in case the enimie in time of the assalte, chaunce to discouer him selfe, which sometimes falleth out hauing kept him self close before, & being verie requisite to shoote at the breach whereby the enimie vpon the souldiours retreat, not being Page  98 able to enter, may not discouer it selfe.

It falleth out while an assalte is in giuing, that not onely trauesses be therein discouered, but fire giuen to some myne or mynes, wherby the entrie is made difficult, & the breach repayred in such wise as though it appeared good, yet it is not. By this occasion the soldiours are wonte sometime to finde what hath endemnified them, and battering anew to giue the second and third assalt: at other times they gett place in the breach walles or towres where to defend them selues couertlie, going before with *Hornilloes, and mynes, if the ground by not holding water yeeld commoditie for it, a matter which is to be wrought with great industrie, taking first preciselie the distance from whence they beginne the myne, to the place where they would come out, guyding by a compasse which point they are to followe, and to haue great quantitie of postes to propp them vp, doeing it with great securitie, that the enimies may not perceyue them, nor finde whether they come to rest: Because otherwise they will remedie it by coūtermines, being verie necessarie whē the myne goeth farre forward, to hold so much better guard within it, that the enimies may not come to encounter thē, and if they finde a small guarde or resistance within it, they will easilie gaine it, and then will it bee a matter almost im∣possible for them without to recouer it, loosing all the time that they were a myning. And for that I will not be tedious I touche no further particularities in the maner of working them, be it vp hill or downe hill, or in a plane, nor in what sorte they are to take measures, and myne a Wall or Tower which standeth on a rocke: If with the mynes they runne so farre, as to come to fight in them, it shalbe fitt that Y.H. re∣commend the doeing and guard thereof to soldiors of cou∣rage, for that it is one of the most daungerous fights which can be in a siege.*

In like sorte they sapp the walles, when they haue come Page  99 with trēches or trauesses within the diche, or by some other meanes to the foote of them, the souldiors couering them∣selues with blinders when they worke, which they couer with leather on the out side, thereby keeping them frō bur∣ning, being made of wood, if the besieged chaunce to cast anie fier vpon them. Some other times they put postes, dig∣ging vnder the foundations, and when they see that they onelie supporte the wall, they anoint them with tallow, and piche, that they may burn the better, putting pouder about them, and a quantitie of strawe & wood, to which they putt fier, when the men are readie to assalt vpon the falling of the wall, and so doe they giue order for putting fire to some myne or hornilloe, not to loose occasion.

So doe they vse when as the rampires of the Bulwarkes, Caualiers, and Platformes, for the small firmenes of earth within them are made with timber, to pull out such timbers which they draw from a farre off with capstones, tying ga∣bles vnto them, or other instruments which they call perpe∣tuall windels, which wil hale vp anie neuer so great weight, with which the earth will moulder away, when the proppe is gone, and after this maner there are manie engines too te∣dious for me to recite to Y.H. which they vse in sieges, ap∣plying the vse of them according as the state of matters and qualitie of the work shall require, & sometimes it hath ben, that they haue raysed platformes and caualiers without, wherby to domnere ouer the walles and them within, get∣ting by this meanes the places to be yeelded vp, and at other times they haue battered with balles of artificiall fieres, that entring within the fortification, they mought sett all on fire being builded of timber and fagotts.

While the assalte or assaltes is in giuing, Y.H. is alwayes to be on horsbacke, looking vpon all that is done, to giue or∣der for what shall be necessarie for those which assalte, ac∣cording as occasion is offred, and if the towne be entred by Page  100 force then to giue the sacke thereof to all the infanterie, re∣seruing if they be christians, the Churches, Monasteries and things hallowed, and in some wartes the men are helde for the best bootie, and in other their goods, and not their per∣sons, which must be put in execution according as Y.H. shal ordaine, whom it concerneth to giue lawe in this, whiche they tearme Castrense, and so to the generall when Y.H. is not in place by representing your person, the like authoritie is giuen of lawgiuer.

The Caualerie not hauing had anie order to light for to assalt, is to haue no parte in the sacke, and so no bootie at all to fall to a horse mans share, although he doe assalte a foot, except he doe it with leaue, which sometimes is granted to those which want horses, hauing had their horse slaine vn∣der them in the siege, which is so ordayned because they should not leaue their standarts in the market place, moued therevnto thorough the couetousnes of the sacke.

As soone as the towne standeth assured, Y.H. is to enter within it accompanied with your guarde and corte, or to sende some heads of your Armie to keepe them from rob∣bing of Churches, Monasteries, nor thinges hallowed, and from offring anie force to those which are within them, for that the house of God is alwayes to be franke and free, exe∣cuting with all precisenes, and exemplarie punishmēt such ordonnances as shalbe made vpon it: and assoone as Y.H. shalbe entred within the towne, you are to goe to the prin∣cipall Church to giue thankes vnto our Lo for the victorie.

This done, the Campe maister generall viewed the town to giue order for the lodging of the men, which Y.H. is to command to enter in, when the daies and howers of sacke are ended, in which is to be considered, that one nation en∣fect not them selues with an other, coming to blowes in re∣spect of pendences, & questions, which may arise betweene one soldior and another about their booties: And such as Page  101 haue shewed them selues remarqueable in the assault, as wel souldiours as Alferezes, by putting first the coulers vppon the wall, you are to giue thankes vnto, advauncing them in the Acknowledgement of their valour, & that the rest may see them preferred for it, then for such pieces of Artillerie, sortes of engines, fires, and qualitie of armes as they which were besieged held, they are to be bestowed vppon those which first lighteth vpon them.

The Towne, such Artillerie as is mounted, and the muni∣tions, is to appertayne only to Y.H. such as are vnmounted, in some Prouinces, to the generall of the Artillerie, & them that are broken by batterie, to the gunners, and the victualls which shalbe found in store, to such generall as Y.H. hath appointed for the enterprise.

Y.H. lodging of the armie within the town after it is gay∣ned,* ought to be according to the greatnes and commoditie thereof, and such end as is helde in the warre, being the best if the enimie be not so puissant, as to be able to come to cō∣bat the quarters, to conserue them, putting garrison within the towne.

In case any occasion should be to raise the siege, thorough mutinie of the soldiors, want of pay, vnseasonable weather, which vndoeth an armie, or thorough suspicion of the eni∣mies being renforced, and their owne fortes diminished, or other considerations which may induce it, it is to be vnder∣stood, that it be first done in retiring the artillerie and muni∣tions, marching with that & the baggage according to such newes as may be learned from the enimie, and this to bee done by leauing the rereguard renforced, to stop anie salie that the besieged should make to charge them, and in such maner as they dislodge not with confusion & disorder, ma∣king their retreat seeme a flight: and in all other thinges which they are to doe, it is to be noted, that ther be alwayes left to the front of the enimie in the rereguard squadrons of Page  102 cauallerie and fanterie, giuing hande one to the other if the field permit it, because it there should be only left either ca∣uallerie or fanterie, the enimie which cōmeth with both to fight against them, hath greater advantage, and more easilie breaketh them, then when they find cauallerie to oppose a∣gainst theirs, and by consequence the infanterie marching in such sort as I haue rehearsed, according to the qualitie of the countrey, in one of those maners aboue written.

I haue not prescribed vnto Y.H. in case the enimie come with a powerfull armie to rayse the siege,* in what maner Y. H. is to gouerne your self, for that it is necessarie to doe it, as the Captains & councelors which Y.H. holdeth about you shall think most conuenient, and according to the number of men in your armie, & state in which it standeth, chusing vpon the consideration of these things, whether it be better to attend him in the quarters, or leauing thē & the lodging to goe to cōbat him with the whole armie or parte therof, the rest tarying vpon the guard of the trenches, artillerie, & quarters, or to resolue to rayse the siege altogither. Vpō this occasion it is to be considered, if the enimie be able to take lodging, wherby to hinder the victuals, or be so well aduan∣taged neare his own, as that he may batter the market place and squadrons, for that vpon any such chaunce, it is not fitt to mainteine the siege, attēding him in the quarters, nor yet to diuide the armie to fight with him, leauing part thereof for the guard, for that it is much better to seek him out with the whole armie, before he shalbe able to worke any of both effects, either to hinder the victuals, or batter the squadrons. Then gayning the battaile the town is gotten, & if it be lost that part of the armie which is left vpon the trēches & quar∣ters standing diuided, runneth the same fortune, and when the whole armie shalbe founde readie to fight, the victorie may very well be gayned thereby.

When Y.H. is resolued to go to encampe with the enimie, Page  103 seeking him out, and to giue the battaile, I wrote in cōmon of such cōsiderations as are to be had in forming of the squa¦drons, and putting them in battaile, and seldome times men come to fight without hauing before made themselues lod∣gings, and viewed the armies: of which newes is gotten by spies, & other intelligences, besides those which are sent to learne, wherwith the Princes and generall Capteines advā∣tage themselues, procuring to stand certified whether their campe be greater then the enimies, standing superior in ca∣uallerie, or infanterie, or both, or contrariwise if there be an equalitie in both campes, and in the trayning of the souldi∣ors, acquainting them selues precisely with this, for that it is a verie harde matter to ouercome any Capteine, who well knoweth both his own forces and his enimies: particulars vpon which they are to found thē selues before they ioyne togither, and giue battaile, ruling them selues according as necessitie bindeth, to salue a greater incōuenience, conside∣ring when they stand vpon defence that a kingdome is not to be aduentured vpon one battaile, except it be vpon great aduantage of place, and in tarying vntil the enimie come to seek you out, of which it is good to stand suspitious, as a wise and watchfull soldior, which way he may doe damage, to preuent him, looking circumspectly into all, but not with so great an assurance, as that though the cōtrarie Captain hold like partes, he could not erre, & chuse the worse of the two partes, esteming it for the best: a thing which he would ne∣uer doe if he were as certainlie acquainted with the state of the enimies armie as his owne. Vpon this runneth the Ca∣stilian prouerb, Si sispiesse la hueste, que haze la hueste,*mal para la hueste.

When they encampe, they sende ordinarilie, and in parti∣cular when they stand somwhat far distant,* great troupes of cauallerie to view from one field to another, recommēding the seruice to men of courage & valor, and herevpon they Page  104 come to make skirmishes, which they terme Rencounters: In which the leader is to carrie him selfe when he meeteth with the enimie according to the countrey and men which he discouereth, and his own which he bringeth, & to marke whether a large retreat may be made or no, in case the eni∣mie charge with furie, the corriers hauing on both sides de∣scried one another at an instant, and when the one hath any newes before hand or discouereth the other, they are wont to make ambushes, seruing their turne for this by villages, woods, and brakes, or other conuenient places, in which the curriers are to goe very circumspectlie, & to take great heed not passing by any place of which any suspitiō may be had without viewing it, sending two or three souldiours to that purpose.* When the Campes draw neare togither, and that there is place to view the lodgings, vigilant generals do seke to annoy the enimie by giuing him canvisadoes: an action wherein Y.H. is to giue care to the old Capteynes, enioying readilie the occasion if it offer it selfe, that it may not be lost by the enimies preuenting of the mischiefe, which he may do in like actions by renforcing the guardes, fortifying the quarters or bettering the lodging, matters which soldiors of experience will foresee, and the danger which is in a canvi∣sadoe, which the yonger sorte thorough the greedie coyle they make to fight, neuer dreame of, recōmending the exe∣cution therof to some soldior of experiēce, able to execute, and of great carefulnes, and of whom such as goe with him to execute, may hold a good opinion, for that the good re∣port,* and fortune of a Leader is that which most quickneth and animateth soldiers, being fit to haue like partes in him, for that being an action to be done by night, it is seldome times precisely lighted on, and they shall euer erre, except the souldiours holde good satisfaction of him which guy∣deth them.

Iointlie it is to be considered that no canvisadoe be made Page  105 on that parte where the enimie holdeth his markett place, because vpon anie alarum giuen within his quarters, all his men doe necessarilie repaire thither: and thereby keepe all helpe from those which giue the canvisadoe vpon their re∣treat, the enimies squadrons stāding in the place wher they entred, and for to salie out by anie other parte, the heades which lead thē, had need be verie well acquainted with the scituation, and to hold the quarters well viewed (which can hardlie be done) wher the men are to enter, for that the har∣quebuserie and holbardes are to be diuided in troupes, par∣ticular leaders guiding them, that they may disperse them∣selues among the quarters, keeping with them the head of the canvisadoe, trumpet or drumme, wherwith they are to giue signe of the retreat, to the ende that all hearing it, may repayre to the place appointed, where they are to salie out, in which they ought to finde supply and helpe to succour them, repressing the enimie if he charge them in grosse, ha∣uing before shewed the scituatiō in what part those men are to stand which come for the relief of those of the cāvisadoe.

Armies were wont to neighbour togither in lodgings ve∣rie neare, for the desire which both parties had to fight, or by the ones procuring to cut of victuals from the other, or hindering him by being so neare that he vndertake not to giue vpon any place, which he might take in few dayes, set∣ting foot within the Prouince, the countrie yeelding com∣moditie for him to doe it, and to get newe supplies. In lod∣ging in this neighbourhood, by that which I haue written, or some other occasions, it is to be noted, that as oftē as two armies stand very neare encamped togither,* that which dis∣lodgeth first doth it with great disadvantage, for the aduan∣tage which he giueth to the enimie, remouing with the trouble of his whole armie, and the contrarie able to fight with him without any at all, and for this cause diuers Cap∣teins haue vsed, seeing them selues so neare neighbours to Page  106 the enimie, & that of force they must be fayne to dislodge, great stratagemes and deuizes to doe it without their per∣ceiuing therof: the which sheweth the perill that is, & how much it is to be considered that they be not to neare neigh∣bours to the enimie, except they be sure of victualls, and of the scituation, & vnderstande that the enimie holdeth it for better to leaue his aduenturing the daunger of dislodging, then to fight with the contrarie.

*The day of battaile presenting it selfe, which must be as Y. H. perceiueth the stomack and gallantnes of your armie for to fight, and when not to excuse it, for that it is not to be gi∣uen, except necessitie presse it, or good occasion call for it. Y.H. is to note, that many leaders of the armies seek by their good wills to fight only to aduantage them selues, but Y.H. must procure the gayning thereof, without leauing them to be caried with their owne imaginations, when they holde no stronger a foundation of discretion and wisedome, then onely a litle foolehardines.

It is likewise to be considered vpon like dayes, whither the countrey be open where they are to fight, field champion, or full of valleys & mountaines, what men the enimie brin∣geth, and number of squadrons, which the curriers haue discouered, & composition of the battaile, whether in one front or in forme of a halfe moone, or with a vanguarde ba∣taile or rereguarde, or if the first of squadrons bee followed with another equall vnto it, to succour it. And when the campes are equall, Y.H. must diuide your squadrons into iumpe as many, as the enimies, the old soldiors which haue ben most exercised in the warre fronting the enimies, and strong men as well on horse as foote: whereof aduyse is to be taken according to reason, & the number of the enimies squadrons, by the spies, & such intelligences as may be got∣ten by roades & skirmishes, which are to be done with this intent onely, and that the qualitie of those men which the Page  107 enimie most accompteth of, and relyeth vpon for supplye may be discouered: and so the confidence of his armie, en∣tertainment of payes, and victualls, to be able to mainteyne it, and the scituation which he occupieth, whether he pur∣poseth to fight in that, or come out and seeke the other: ad∣uertisements which will giue great light, if question bee of hauing a day of batayle, to the differring or not of the iour∣ney, and to shewe in what time it wilbe most conuenient to offer it.

At the day that battaile is presented, the weather is to be considered, and at what hower the fight beginneth, & whe∣ther it be helping them selues with their artillerie, drawing it into a good place, the number of troupes and squadrons which muster, & whether they be so many as may embrace the enimies battaile by girding it in whether the sunne and winde be in their faces, matters which mē in old time high∣lie regarded vpon a day of battaile, for that the sunne offen∣ded the sight, and likewise the ayre if it came with whisking blusters or duste, and whē not to giue them breath to fight: Particulars which are not of so great moment at this day in land battailes, but very much in getting the winde for those at sea: and albeit that the sunne commeth sometime, by shi∣ning on the harquebuse barrell, to dazell the taking of leuel, yet with a litle spitle & powder rubbed ouer it, it will keepe it from by reflexing, to annoy the sight.

The reason why men of olde time made so great accompt of the winde and sunne,* was for that their battailes endured longe, and stoode vpon the strenght of their armes, but at this day, of verie short durance, thorough the violence and dexteritie of the cauallerie, vivacitie of the harquebuserie, and helped with the furie of the artillerie.

As well is it to be considered in what manner the enimie beginneth to fight, whether it be by hastening to much his charges for to come to the chock, or prolōging the skirmish Page  108 for to seeke a good occasion, according to the motiue hee hath, if in seeing his men timerous, he may renforce them, engrossing the skirmish ouer much, that he suffer not his mē to loose courage, or after a charge retire backe through the confidence of the helpe of his squadrons, in such sorte as he may execute (if it be done with agilitie and good order) his purpose, and keepe those which he charged, from turninge backe againe, if being inferior in cauallerie, he putt them in such place as they may flye, rūning away vpon the enimies charge, and aftewards to fight equallie infanterie with in∣fanterie.

Generall notes for like dayes of battaile in which it is vn∣possible for a soldior to describe vnto Y.H. all the circūstan∣ces as a player at chesse, albeit the sortes of draughtes be ve∣rie many, can not aunswere any that shall aske him for to learne, which is the best, further then to giue the mate, and not being able to doe that, to take the fierce, or some other peace, and finally to keepe the gaine with good aduantage, but putting the boorde with the chesse-mē sett before him, in disposing them he may play many good draughts, when in the end with onlie putting forward of one pawne he shal marre all. The like falleth out in warre, & the best is to win, and when a squadron or parte of the armie can not be bro∣ken, then to stande to be superior, or with aduantage know∣ing the scituation, and which way the rather to proffit him∣selfe according to the demonstration of the enimie, to or∣deine a squadron to advantage it selfe, with cauallerie or in∣fanterie, or winges of harquebuserie, to seeke out the flanke of another, or to get some high banke, or ditch, or piece of a wood, places by which the enimie may be made to loose what he holdeth, giuing occasion to charge them, or breake them: a part which a generall cā hardlie play by imaginatiō, except the presence of the occasion presente it selfe, as in many other things, neither am I able to signifie vnto Y.H.Page  109 more then some in common, and those of most moment.

Among other in my iudgment, is the furie of the powder to be considered to be so great at this day,* helped with the instrumēts of artillerie, muskets & harquebuses, as not only it cōmeth to breake, as in times past did, throwing weapons, * fallanges and legions, before comming to handstrokes, but disordereth and openeth squadrons & battallons, defeating them, and so the greatest parte of victories which is gayned at this time, is by hauing obteyned them with artillerie or readines of harquebuserie by their liuelie voleyes, disorde∣ringe the squadrons of the enimie in such manner as they put them in rowte, and defeating them, without euer see∣ing or afronting them, except seldome-times the squadrons of pikes.

For this cause it is a matter much growne in disputation, in what place the artillerie should be caryed vpon a day of iorney, one being of opinion that it go before all the squa∣drons, to offend the enimie farre of, discharging stronger,* & by this meanes the squadrōs to be in no danger remayning behind, which are still to open and shut as the artillerie pas∣seth, where cannot be any profit at all. Some are of opinion that the best place to put the artillerie is in the voyde places of the squadrons, without tying them to open at the chock, a matter which is the beginning of disordering themselues, although they knowe what they must doe.

Those that are of other opinion, hold for the best place to carry it at the sides of the armie, & squadrons, fortifying by this manner of defence the flankers, or placing it on the right or lefte side, as shall giue most aduantage being the most conuenient that may bee to choose a most aduantage∣ous scituation for the artillerie, and so eminent, as it may be able to discharge as soone as they discouer the squadrons of the enimie, disposing the harquebuserie and musketerie of the wings in places where they may play with most securi∣tie, Page  108〈1 page duplicate〉Page  109〈1 page duplicate〉Page  108 by the qualitie of them, or defence of the cauallerie and squadrons, where by they come to obteyne a great effect, which is to be able to iudge, almost with a cōtinual motion, if the harquebuserie be skilfull, offending the enimie.

*These wings of harquebuserie or musketerie, although it is the custome to compoūd them of three hundred soldiers, I hold better to diuide into smaller bodies, for that they may be able if occasiō require the vniting of thēselues in one, to doe it alwayes with facilitie, & when they are small by stan∣ding diuided, they be much better able to fight with them, Captains of experience guyding them: especially if the sol∣diers be exercised in such maner, as if occasion require the first rankes may kneele vpon the ground to shoot off, disco∣uering thereby a blanke to those which stand behinde to make a good marke discharging their voley at one instant.

In making the wings litle, another effect is gotten, which is whē they entertayne a skirmish with them, mainteyning it with the end to see the enimies disposition, that then the harquebuses waxe whot, & many times the soldiors powder is done, & not being able to choose with their swords they are enforced to begge more with great gabling, and not fit that the enimie should vnderstand it, and by being few they retyre easilie to fetch it, refreshing them with other, without any confusion at all in diuiding it out of the barrells, which many times through the haste which is made, are set on fire and so the soldiors left cleane without powder, which the enimie perceyuing is the more animated to the cloze, and I haue bene my self in a skirmish vpō a day of battayle, when it hath bene verie avaylable to knowe this, by the fire and crake which the barrel gaue.

*Iointlie there must be a speciall care taken in viewing by experience, & the eye of a soldior, the scituation which the enimie occupyeth, and on what part by reason he is likeliest to plant his artillerie, for that it is not fit to set the squadrons Page  109 of cauallerie vpon any ground subiect to be battered, nor to be hurt with the furie of the enimies harquebuserie or mus∣keterie: because albeit in warre artillerie slayeth fewest, yet the furie therof frighteth most, and seldomtimes can a squa∣dron of cauallerie keepe his scituation, if golpes of artillerie light thicke within it, or that the enimies harquebuserie as∣salt it, causing it this mischief, to be faine to take one of the two parties, which is to retire themselues, a demonstration which vpon like dayes putteth great courage into the eni∣mie, causing great cōfusion among their owne, and though such a squadron doth not charge without time, nor order, moued therevnto by being ill able to resiste their blowes, & esteeming it for lesse inconuenience to mingle themselues amongst those which giue them, yet commeth it ordinarily to be done with great disaduantage: and notwithstanding that it hath sometimes fallen out to be no impediment at all to the gayning of the victorie, yet grew it more by chaunce, then reason, through the rashnes of the soldiors, & not wise∣dome of the general: who is to seeke to forbeare it, and like∣wise not to fight with men tyred, vnable to carrie them with speede vnto it, which waxe breathles, the pikes not being able then to be held with strength, nor the harquebuserie to shoote with assurance, nor the cauallery to moue with force and dexteritie, and all for want of breath.

It is likewise to be considered, that if necessitie doe not force vnto it, the fight bee not begonne by engaging all the squadrons, in such manner as when the victorie is gotten, they cānot enioy the fruit therof, for the great losse of many men: which bindeth a man to seeke to giue battaile with a foote of led, discouering the intente of his enimie, and de∣monstration which he maketh to followe one motiue from another, opening the dore for a new and different successe: and in any matter els what soeuer Y.H. & he which gouer∣neth, is to shewe a soundnes, which the phisitians say that Page  112 good complectioned bodies holde, no whit altering them∣selues for ouermuch cold or heate: the very same being fitt to be in the minde of a soldior, not to disorder himself vpon any good successe, nor yet to grow coward vpon any euill, but that his courage appeare in the verie middest of his ad∣uersitie.

I haue set no place downe for Y.H. guydon, & squadron of your corte, to stand in vpon a day of bataile, because that must fall out, as the reason of warr causeth Y.H. to fight, not being possible to appoint it, without knowing the scituatiō where the fight is made, and forme of battaile in which the armie is to be put, wherin you must resolue to appoint such place as may be most conuenient for such a squadron, pro∣uided that in the chose therof, it bee done in such parte, as Y.H. may commaūd and gouerne with most ease the whole bodie of the armie, and partes thereof, without engaging to fight with your owne standart, except it bee vpon the last brunt, because if you should otherwise doe, it were impossi∣ble for you to gouerne, which is that which toucheth a Prince: And albeit this which I wright, is the manner of warre, many Princes and generalls, after hauing appointed out a place for the squadrō of their courte, setting their stan∣dart therein, haue notwithstanding left it, going to view the rest of the squadrons, to see if they kept well the orders sett downe, and determination which the soldiours and heades of squadrons helde, speaking vnto them, & prouiding like∣wise other new, if necessitie should so require, which is that which giueth law, not onely in matters of warre, but in all the reste of this life, and hath made Princes and Generalls to fight in their own person, vpon such ground as they least thought of, not to loose opportunitie, and according to o∣ther considerations which are wont to occurre, as the mo∣tiue which the enimie, and your own armie maketh, which is vnpossible to put in writinge, except a man were present to see the occasion.

Page  113If the enimie haue such store or men, as that he thinketh with them to be able to guirde in the battaile of his cōtrarie,* and that the scituation be vpon a plane, where nature doeth not fortifie it, without some flanke of the armie or squadrons, it is to be looked into, whether the enimies infanterie be so many in number as to be able to do it, or only the multitude of horse brasing in of the armie. In respect of these two things it is verie good aduise to garnish the flanks of the campe with the cartes of bagage, if there be anie, which may serue for trē∣ches, & when there is none, nor place of aduantage, that may be picked out, the artillerie must be putt alongest the flankes of the squadrons, to the end they may play a slante vpon the enimie, with more hurt, making a greater front, to be able to better themselues with their owne squadrons, binding the e∣nimie by this meanes whē he carrieth an intent to compasse in the battaile of the contrarie parte, to spredd him selfe verie much to effect it: and to come neare to the close, he must be fayne to goe streightning in by little and litle the squadrons, and drawing the front close togither. Whereby time may be taken to giue more voleys of artillerie & musketrie vpon the enimie, before clozing and cōming to hand strokes, which is that only, which an armie that stādeth in a troublesome state, is able to helpe himself with to advantage his owne strength, being otherwise with so great an vnequalitie lesse in nūber.

Vpon dayes of battaile, when there be men of diuers nati∣ons in the armie, and not of the same fashion of garments, by being free and seruing sundrie Princes, besides a commande∣ment of carying skarfes of diuers colours to be knowne by (a matter which is not done with precisenes) to preuent that friends offend not one another, at the time of the skirmish, a word is to be giuen in publike to all the squadrons, by which they may be able to distinguish themselues from the enimie, and knowe one another.

If the enimie waxing weake in the skirmishe, ye perceyue Page  114 that in anie of his squadrons they departe from the harque∣buserie with which they were fortified,* or emptie the depth, by the soldiers retiring from the last ranks, the pykes to crosse one another, and the colours to moue with disorder, and that such a squadron of cauallerie or fanterie goe on such parte, as it can not be able to yeeld any helpe to the reste, or be relie∣ued by them, albeit that euerie one of these demonstrations shewe the small strength and courage they haue to keepe the place, giuing occasion thereby to charge them, yet must you doe it with the loose men that goe in the skirmishe, assisted with some good squadrō of cauallerie, the rest bettering thē∣selues at the same instant: a motiue which will discouer the enimie and his weaknes with the demonstration before said: which although it put him in route, yet is it not to be follow∣ed by any way, disordering the principall squadrons of the battayle, for that were to venter it, not hauing bodyes readie formed to followe the pursuite in such manner as the enimie might be kept from renewing him self therein. For that an armie cannot be said to be vanquished and defeated, vntil all the squadrons come to be disordered, least forming them sel∣ues of newe, they may come to holde their former vigour. Which bindeth not to vndoe your own squadrons, vpō any demōstration of good successe, the heads which take charge thereof vsing great diligence, and care therein, and vpon any appearance of harme, all the strēgth they can, that they disor∣der not them selues, opening the way to bee put in route: a point in which the safetie of courage and soundnes of a Ge∣nerall is of great importance, considering thereby the proce∣ding of the enimie without euer altering in charging of him, or drawing togither to resiste him, ordeyning that the squa∣drons of the fanterie, bettering of them selues, be done with a leaden foote, and the cauallerie charge them with the raynes in hande, for that in no one thing of this life, is there seene a greater change of fortune then in matters of warre, where a Page  115 commandement ill vnderstood, or ordinance ill executed, a rashenes without order, a light voyce, or a false fancie, may cause those to recouer the victorie, which were before helde for loste.

Y.H. hauing gained the battaile,* is instantlie to giue thanks to our Lord, for such a benefit receyued, and to honor such as liue, who haue serued you therein with their strength and stoutnes, and those that are dead with their boldnes & valor, whom you are to burie with all honor and solemnitie, rewar∣ding their sonnes, & heires, according to the qualitie of their seruice done, shewing a feeling that Y.H. hath had a losse, by the miscarrying of any head of the armie, when he was a per∣son of valour, and experience, for that it is one of the greatest losses that can fall to a King or Prince, to whom GOD hath giuen meanes to be able to make men ritche, & to be follow∣ed, but not to be wise and experienced in warre, except hee haue framed the course of his life to follow it, & had the for∣tune to see many fashions in it, which is the thing of greatest aduantage for a man to better him selfe by in an armie.

Men in auncient time, neuer esteemed battayles after they were summoned to be gayned, except the conquerour held him selfe three dayes in the lodging, giuing therby to vnder∣stande that the field remayned for them, and that the enimie was ouercome: a matter not greatlie regarded now, holding it for a battaile when all the enimies squadrons are broken, & that no one remayneth entire, gayning therein the artillerie and colours, and when any squadron is left entyre, although some artillerie & ensignes be gottē, it is called a route, a name which is vsed this day, as well when they kill and breake anie great number of men, although they carie no artillerie nor many colours or ensignes. The artillerie & munitions which are gotten, must be to Y.H. and the colours and ensignes, the Generalls, giuing tenne crownes to the souldiour that got it, when he bringeth it.

Page  116According to mans iudgement, it can not bee probablie thought, that euer Y.H. will come to bee besieged, being a Prince so powerfull, for that it is a chastisement to those whi∣che are, wherewith our Lord afflicteth Kinges, when by his secrete iudgments he will wrap them in all sortes of miseries, but it may so fall out as some generall of Y.H. may loose a ba∣tayle, and by gathering togither the reliques thereof, which is that which must be done as soone as they see the principal squadrons routed, to saue one, and when not, to geather the more parte of the soldiours routed, making one body, wher∣with to be able to defende the reste which come in from sly∣ing, and to hinder the enimie by this meanes, that he doe not followe the pursuite at his pleasure.

*Euen so may it fall out that he may receiue so great a route, as that he be enforced, through the losse thereof, to quitt the fielde, putting in one or two places such forces as are lefte him, to keepe the enimie from being maister of the fielde, or making a free progresse through the Kingdome or Prouince as he listeth, bynding him not to leaue them behinde him, & in case he would haue them rendred, to resolue to besiege them, by this meanes when the mischief exceedeth the for∣ces, gayning of time the whilste, that matters may chaunge therewith.

It may likewise bee that some Prince or Potentate, may breake into a warre against Y.H. so sodenlie, finding him self armed, as that he will giue no time to compounde an armie, or to warre with him, seruing your turne vpon any such oc∣casion best, by well furnishing of places, in such sorte, as they may be able to endure a siege, giuing them in this time mat∣ter enough to occupie them selues, vntil you may be armed, and make front against the enimie.

Vpon these considerations, and such as the chang of hu∣mane things doth cōmonly carry with it, it is verie probable that Y.H. Capteins are to defend many places, and therfore I Page  117 am in reason to write among other actions in the warrs, after what manner a place is to be defended, being that which refi∣neth a soldier, and serueth as a touchstone shewing the quin∣tecence of his valor and industrie, when he holdeth the parts of wisedome and sufferaunce in those trauailes which daylie passe in a siege or enclosed streight, caryinge them with ioy∣fulnes and content, which animateth the soldiers which are with him, to make them seeme not to be great, & causeth the fearfuller sort to hold them for lesse then the chastisement of death, if they should shewe their cowardise, much soundnes, and resolution being very necessarie for this purpose. Besides the head considereth better then any other those inconueni∣ences, which are to bee preuented by feeling them, and the weight which he carieth vpon his own shoulders. Particulars which naturally would cause men to bee discouraged in de∣fending, by reason that they finde ordinarilie many necessa∣rie things to want in sieges & enclosed places, which should mainteine them, if the honour of their owne person, & loyal∣tie sworne to the seruice or their Prince, and to God, did not cause them to esteeme little their owne life, rather then their honour should be spotted in sauing thereof.

By this which I haue set downe Y.H. may iudge what per∣sons you are to choose to recommend the keeping of such places vnto,* as are to endure a siege not apperteyning to Y.H. nor to a Prince to mainteyne any and very seldom to a Cap∣teine generall, but only to furnish them with heades that are soldiers, and other necessaries to defend themselues withall, being free to be able to be still succoured, and to oppose the enimie, according to such state, as they shall finde him in.

The Capteine or head to whose hands Y.H. shall commit the keeping or defence of any place, ought to be couragious,* wise, and a soldier of experience, and hauing neuer before bene in a place besieged, it is meete that hee haue with him some leaders, or particular soldiors which haue bene: Ioint∣lie Page  118 it is to be cōsidered, of what qualitie the soldiers be which are in the place, and with whom it is fit to furnish it, in case it be necessarie to haue it renforced, and that they may not bee bysognes, and easie to mutinie. In this respect those nations which serue Y.H. are to be thought vpon, & what profe any hath made in cōseruing of places, whether they be your own vassalls or no, and whether there be within the place any or∣dinarie soldiers of the same Prouince, strangers or other be∣inge all vassalls, what King he is, Prince or Potentate, or eni∣mie whom suspition is had of, will besiege the place, particu∣lars which being nicelie digested, will quicklie cause Y.H. to resolue, whether the soldiors of the same Prouince ought to be all of one nation, or different, following the opinion and iudgment of such Capteins & coūsellours as Y.H. shall hold about you, whose experience ought to know, what head or soldiors vpō the present occasion shold be most auailable for the defence of the place, imagining that they may come to be besieged, if the enimie fight with gallantnes.

*It is likewise to bee marked whether the place be fortified alreadie being a frontire, or had neede to be fortified anewe, & after what maner that must be, carying themselues in this according as the enimie giueth time for it, with ingenors and persons which knowe what fortification meaneth, for that it falleth out many times when one would fortifie a place, strengthning it by rauelin, cauallere and pincer or spurr, they make it weaker, because they vnderstand not their busines, & so commeth it to serue for no defence, but rather to help the enimie to offend more. In this it must alwayes bee prouided to haue a place kept, where you may fight in squadron, and trauesses, which is that by which batteries are best defended: for which cause in olde time they inuented round towers for it, and in these dayes, to shun the inconuenience of a circular forme, being notwithstanding a meanes to keepe them from being offended by direct line, from the flancks and trauesses Page  119 wher the artillerie playeth, they haue formed great bulwarks to couer them in angular forme, giuing proportion from one bulwarke to an other, & that the trauesse may come to fasten (as the ingenors terme it,) which is to haue the bullets light v∣pon the front of the bulwark, or part most conuenient, while the enimie doth batter, for that at this day they vse not to bat∣ter the cortine betwene the two travesses, but only the frōt of the bulwarke, holding it for a more easie batterie, to quite one traues or casamate, then both, especiallie if there be any place or rome in them for a piece to batter, against which doe tra∣uesses hardlie resist, although they goe by the diche, and for to preserue these pieces (which while they are in being, and the trauesses in life, maketh a good defence) they vse to make the corners of their bulwarks so thick.

Iointlie it is to bee considered, that it is a most sure rule in matter of fortificatiō, that whatsoeuer is seene the defendant looseth, by shooting of the artillerie in direct line as the sight goeth, and if there must be fower men required to carrie one dead man out of his house, howe much more reason is it that there be as great a number or more to driue him being aliue from thence. Whereby it cannot bee imagined, that any will laye a siege, without being sure to haue equall forces to them within, and likewise artillerie, and when the place serueth for it, and carieth meanes, thorough many bulwarkes, caualiers, and platformes, to put two or three counterbatteries to that which is planted, it may not be presupposed that they can be able to kepe thē, since that he which besiegeth, wil not in rea∣son attēpt the enterprise, except he hold forces proportiona∣ble to finish it, for that otherwise he should enter into an assu∣red mischief without hope of any profit: It is likewise to bee looked vnto, that the fronts of the bulwarks may not lye sub∣iect to be battered by the corteyne of any mountaine, or emi∣nēt place of scituatiō, wher the enimie may plant his artillerie, the men not being able then to stand vpō any defence & that Page  120 the parapets may in no wise be broader thē a pike can couer.

These which I haue touched vnto Y.H. are the foundations, & principall points to fortifie by, being no parte of my mea∣ning to handle herewith the fashion of the workes, or maner of the rampires, which be the better, nor other particularities, for that I should run out too farre, and it were fit to shew the maner of fortification, euer with a compasse in the hand, and composition of lines, which is no worke for a blinde man, al∣beit for the time which I haue liued, I haue spent enough in learning the Theorique of fortification by the Mathema∣ticques, to ascerteine thereby, and with other grounds, what the experience in warre, and manage of the artillerie brought me to learne, knowing the reason for founding it, and fitnes of fashion for the stockes, and carriges, the better to assure the hitting of the marke.

It is likewise to be considered, whether the place bee little or great, or haue manie neighbours neare it, accustoming to carie armes or to make guardes, or no, and what confidence you may haue of them to leaue it vnto them.

Beinge a frontire towne, or fortified, it ought in reason to haue soldiors to keepe it, & to haue out of those offices of the artillerie which Y.H. shall hould in that Province or Kinge∣dome, a liste made of the armes that are in it, quality of pieces, and stocks, & carriges for them, bullets, powder, mache, lead, hanspikes, timbers, mattocks, spades, & other munitions and furniture, apperteyning to the officers of the state of the artil∣lerie to haue a liste alwayes of them, whereby may bee seene what is wanting, and necessarie to bee prouided, and with what diligence

*In such like cases of frontire and castells, where garrisons and ordinarie bandes reside, there are to be houses of muniti∣ons, & victualls: as powdred flesh, fishe, meale, salt, grane, as pease, lentils, wine, vineger, oyle, and other prouisions which are alwayes to be kept in store for manie respects, and at their Page  121 times to bee sold and renewed, that they may not be marred without proffit. And with like consideration must salpeter be kept, brimstone and cole, to make powder and refine it, as also artificiall fieres, and wood, which in Castells, and little places when they are besieged, there is great want of, not being so soone felt in great townes, for that vpon necessitie they pull downe houses, for to burne their timber.

Being a place,* where no ordinarie garrison hath bene vsual∣lie kept, it is meete that the head at his entraunce in, together with the men that are to guard, goe view the whole circuite therof both within and without, whether the diche be drye, or hold water in some parte or all, what fashion the walles be of, for appointing of the standes where the cordeguardes be to be sett, and centinels by day and night, placing a corde∣garde, two, or the most principall in the middest of the town or market place, to succour the rest, to appoint his rounds, o∣verrounds, and conterrounds, increasing & diminishing thē, as ieolousie and suspition shall growe of the enimie, without pointinge out to any nation, or colours, if it be possible to refraine it, especially at the walls & gates wher no soldior is to know on what place he shal become cētinel, vntill his officer place him in his stande. And to this purpose, the colours whē the watch is ready to be set, vse to cast lotts, euery night when anie feare is, for such place as they must stand in, without be∣ing assured of anie one, giuing order that the cordeguardes, through which the colours must passe, hold a good place, & litle watc'houses, casamates, and salies alongst the dich, being drie, or with water, wher boates stand readie for thē, thereby preserue * the estrada cubierta on the brim of the diche, and where dubble centinels are to be placed, and where single, & whether in making the rounds it bee necessarie to carrie lan∣ternes or no.

The cordegards being appointed, and standes for the centi∣nells in places most conuenient, you must with great consi∣deration Page  122 proportion out those men that are to doe it by day and night, helping your selues with assistaunce of the neigh∣bours if you may repose any truste in them. And for this pur∣pose must a liste be alwayes had in readines, of the number of the men, and persons able to beare armes. Likewise they doe shut some gates, walling them vp for the better assuraunce of the place, pulling downe such towers, walls, and other buil∣dings, as cannot be defended, preuenting that the enimie oc∣cupie them not with the siege for the same respect, whē they feare that the batterie of any buyldinge, or tower will make any great ruine vpon the diche, by giuing any commoditie to the enimies purpose therby, they blow it vp with powder, or put proppes, digging vnder the foundations, where they would haue it to fal, a matter effected with great facilitie, put∣ting fire to the timbers, and in these fortifications, as also in raysing of caualiers and rampires, the Gouernor of the place ought to be the first that taketh a basket in his hande, that by the ensample which he giueth, in seeing himselfe labour, the reste of the soldiers and neighbours of the place may doe it with a better will.

Besides they must pull downe the suburbs, and spoile the gardens round about, least the enimy reape any commoditie therby in finding them, & yet sometimes those of the coun∣trey haue bene founde so affectionate to the seruice of their Prince, as it hath bene a meanes to keepe thē from receyuing this mischief, leauing vnto them their houses entire. And in case they stand about the diche, if the enimie chaunce to sease of them, by making loopholes in them, he wilbe able to kepe his ground almost as well, as they shall doe vpon the walles, without euer spending time in working of trenches, the hou∣ses by boring through the wals, seruing him to passe from one to another, which is done with great readines, and with the same they hang blinders of canuas, alongest the endes of the streetes, that the besieged may not discerne any marke to Page  123 shoot at while they fortifie thēselues with diches & trauesses, to hinder the salies out of the gates vpon the quarters: which they within are to aduenture to stop, if there be men ynough for it, burning the blinders, by putting after the harquebuses are charged, scowring stickes within the barrel, and vpon the ramer, toe, & pyche, to which fire is to be giuen, discharging the harquebuse streight vpon the blinders, which the stick, so that it bee no great distaunce, will set on fire, and burne it: an effect which hath ben wrought with crosbowes and which I haue seene tryed, being present at a time when such a reme∣die serued to very necessarie purpose.

In case that any suspition grow of the naturall borne of the countrey, fearing their small fidelitie,* it is a good meanes to haue the men of warre with ordinarie soldiors to sease vppon the towres of the gates, which serue most cōmodious for it, and to fortifie them the best they can aginst those of the coū∣trey, putting some victuals and some munitions in them, and in this you must proceede with more or lesse circumspectiō, according as the soldiors are that keepe it, and qualitie of mē of the countrey, and disposition of the gate.

Likewise whē you see smal store of victuals to be in a place, and that you are enforced to mainteine it, you must preuent it in time, by putting out all such as are vnprofitable people in a siege, as impotent men that are not able to beare armes, weomen, and children. Vpon like occasions, fearing a siege, so many people may come to begge leaue to departe, and go away with their goods, as it is meete to be cōsidered of, whe∣ther it be to be graunted or no, or to leaue them and persons of marke in the place, to fill vp the guarde with them, if the neighbours vse to doe it, matters which are to be ordained as occasion serueth, foreseeing that the place be not dispeopled by so many, as that the rest shalbe thereby discouraged, who not knowing how to dispose of them selues elswhere, are cō∣tent to tarrie within. The colours in places of garrisons, doe Page  124 euer enter garde,* if necessitie force no other matter, an houre before sunne sett, and vntill the gates be shut, which ought to be done in a good houre, the souldiors may not be permitted to disarme, in which their Capteine, and Alferez are to giue good ensample vnto them.

About the guarde of the keyes of the gates, are diuers cu∣stomes,* the Gouernours, Capteins, Iustices, or other persons, whom it concerneth keeping them, & some times the corde∣guards themselues holde them, the Capteine taking charge thereof, not able to take them to goe open the gates without making the whole cordeguarde priuie, & so no precise order can be kept: Aswell when necessitie requireth it, & that there is great cause of suspition, two or three persons pretending to keepe the keyes of the gates by their preheminence to doe it, it is held for the best, to put so many locks vpon the gates, as there are pretenders, & that these locks be strengthened with a great bolte, or barre, which shall bolte them, with another locke & keye vnto that, which the principall head it to keepe, and to bee the first at the opening thereof: the rest vsing the preheminence of their keyes after him, & this to be obserued for great gates, and posternes: and when it is feared that the men will attempt shamefullie to goe to kill the head, or force him to deliuer vp his principall keye, the best way in such a case is, to giue it euery night secretlie to diuers persons, wher by they can not resolue determinatelie to procure it, because they know not who hath it.

Much suspition being had of the enimie, if the towne bee weake, almost all the men are to kepe guard anights, sleeping vpon the walls, especially if they feare any scale or surprise, & hauing any cauallerie of garrison within it they appoint thē to make round on horsebacke a nights, and betwene the two gates or percullises are those soldiors horses, which are to be put without the town for centinells, if the wayes be fit for it, hauing made barriers, that in case any noyse bee heard, they Page  125 may retire with securitie, giuing intelligence therof, & when not, they put some of the foote bandes for forlorne centinels without the gates, to whō they giue, as I wrote before a diffe∣rent worde, very much therby assuring the guard of places in the night, and in Barbarie they kepe doggs without their for∣tresses, which winding any men, barke in such sort, as the cen∣tinels vpon the walls must needes heare it.

The forlorne centinell hearing any noyse,* is to bring newes thereof, to such as stande vpon the gate or raueline next vnto it, for to giue alarome to the reste, and that the Gouernor or Capteine may vnderstand howe things passe. In many fron∣tires or Castles where streight watch is kept, they vse to hang a bell ouer the gates, which ringing out vpon any aduertise∣ment, is aunswered by the greater bell of the principall cor∣deguard, which hauing commoditie to doe it, is to be hanged on the highest tower, the which the rest of the gates followe. Vpon this greater bell euery man is to arme, and as often as that ringeth, all the rest are to answere, that they may be seene to stand watchfull vpon the ward, & if any bell chaunce not to aunswere, straight the head of the principall cordeguard, is to send to know the cause why it doth not, and when the bell of any gate ringeth, the Capteine which standeth at the guarde, knoweth by that, on what parte the centinells finde the noyse, for that all the bells are not to be touched one aun∣swering another, except that of the principall cordeguarde haue first runge out: the which it is to doe at sundrie howers of the night, by giuing eare vnto the rest, two cētinels stāding alwayes at this bell. In this manner the night watch is conti∣newed vntill day, without retyring the centinells,* vntill they which stande vpon the highest tower make three toles vpon the bell, which is the token to shew that the daylight serueth to descrie from farre of, round about the town, and the guard withdraw from of the wals, & the rest to, sending the keyes of the posternes, to take in the centinells of the raueines & case∣mates, Page  126 turning to shut them, and to open the principall gates, but if any suburbs be near vnto it, caue, hole or place, where any men mought lye hid, then they vse to send centinels out at the posternes to view it, & standing assured of no danger, they returne to giue intelligence to the Capteine, that he may open all the gates, the soldiers standinge in order with their weapons in their handes, commanding the men of the town to goe forth without noyse about their worke, & necessaries, and such as come in from without, to doe the like.

Those centinels of the tower, and principall cordeguard, which stand by day, ought to giue so many toles vpon the bell, as they descrie horssemen, and passinge the number of fifteene, if any suspition be of the enimie, or that they see ma∣ny men, although on foote, they take the alarome, putting vp a small ensigne in that tower, that by that it may be knowne on what parte of the town they are discouered: with which they shut fast the gates, that stand at the guarde thereof.

This warning is in some places giuen by a trompet, and worketh the same effect, & so they make the centinels which stand vpon the gates, to vnderstand that men are discouered from far, and they as they perceaue them from their stande, sound the number of the horse that goe by the way with as many more blastes to warne them that stande at the barres, & warde of the gates. In some place they shut them at dinner time,* the centinels resting in their stādes, & seeing any cartes come into the towne, which cary any great lading, wherein men may lye, they are to be well viewed before any enter in, & when any riuers or chanels of water passe along the town, by which barks may come in frō without, the grates or gates ar not to be opened before some soldier haue searched them: and being ladē with hay, straw, wood, or any such like things, or timber laide in order, they are to sound it with halfe pikes, to bee sure whether any men be therein or no, and not open the gates vntill that be done.

Page  127In this manner is the guard to be continewed in garrisons of townes where they liue with suspect, giuing it in writing to the Serieants maiors, that they may doe the like in their colours, and know the names of the gates, caualiers, stands, & cordeguards, wher they are to be kept, wherby after lots cast, euerie one may goe to his owne roome.

Orders being set downe for the guardes, the Gouernor or Capteine of the place is to take a view of all sortes of victuals, that are within it, distrusting a siege, as wheate, graine, salt-meates, wine, meale, salt, and to count according to number of men and soldiers within the town, how many dayes they may be able to mainteine with them: aduertising Y.H. therof, and what artillerie and armes are there, to the end that accor∣ding to the listes you may cōmaunde they may be furnished, with what is conuenient, artillerie being one of the most ne∣cessarie thinges, with preparation and store of carriges and stockes, wheeles, & workmen to make newe, for them which are spent in a siege, repayring the touch-holes with time, if they be marred, and prouision of some small pieces, and mus∣kets, with rests, which is a necessarie weapen to defend towns withall, for the easienes, with which they may be shot of, and hurt which they doe, holding conuenient munitions for all, as quātitie of pikes, harquebuses, and other armes, and medi∣cines for to cure weake, and hurte men.

I doe not write vnto Y.H. in particular, of the sortes of armes, and munitions, nor of the victuals, setting only down the strongest for the sustentation of mans life, for that it is vn∣possible for any soldier how experienced so euer he be, to be able to mention all things that are necessarie for the mainte∣naunce of a siege, and albeit it be an ordinarie fashion among soldiours to amplifie what they thinke fit to defend withall, yet cannot the greatest soldior that is vpon earth, tell, though his King say vnto him, that he must defend such a place, and that he stand satisfied with the fortificatiō therof, asking what Page  128 number of men for guard himself listeth, artillery, munition, victuals, and all other things, which shalbe esteemed necessa∣rie, but when all is graunted vnto him, within three dayes be∣ing besieged, he shall finde want of manie things, wherein he will blame himselfe for not hauing asked them, not being in his power to be able to diuine all: which ariseth from hence, that no man can determinatlie imagine in what manner his enemie meaneth to offend him, nor what men, instruments, engines, and artillerie he will bring with him for it, and ther∣fore it is vnpossible to foresee all things, wherby to be able to resiste him, the which is confirmed, but with cōsidering how momentarilie a towne vsed to haue prouisions euery day brough to it, feeleth the wante of them, if vpon vnseasonable weather, or any other respect, they leaue to come for two or three dayes, the people cōplayning of the trauaile they en∣dure, being many times for things, which they least thought, they should stand in neede of.

*This inconuenience commeth many times to be remedied, very necessitie sharpening witts, by practising things for some effects, & inuenting of other which were neuer before ima∣ginable: a particular which confirmeth such inuentions as men haue helped themselues withall in sieges, when they finde themselues streightned, & in one of the three in which my self was present, cōming in the end to be hardly streight∣ned, and to suffer great hunger, all meanes fayling vs to sende any men out to deliuer our estate to the Kings ministers, our Souereigne, for that the enimie had so seased the diches and gates, as none could goe foorth without falling into their handes, we deuised a riuer running crosse the towne to sende men in a barke a swimming, who passed alongest to the verie outmost parts of the enimie, making semblance of comming out for to swimme, hauing giuen vnto them, a little pellet of leade, in which was a ticket of paper written in cifer, carying the intelligence, and soldered close vp, about the bignes of a Page  229 pill: the which they swallowed, passing freely with the same through the enimies, who did not only search their apparell and shirtes, to see if they could finde any letter in them, or a∣nie thing written in the linnen, but washed their shoulders, when they came a shore, to discouer whether any thing were written on them, a matter which sometime falleth out: and in this maner we both gaue and receyued intelligence, by the care which the men them selues tooke of the pilles which they had swalowed: a piece of worke which seemed vnpos∣sible vnto vs, before such time as necessitie had made it easie. This same, and hunger causeth men to eate such thinges, as would astonishe a man to heare them but named.

Before that the enimie discouer him selfe in planting his siege, or enclosing a Towne,* they ought to marke well all the pieces therof, and on what parte in all reason he is to present him self with his squadrons of cauallerie, playing vpon them, vsing for this purpose, whole and demy Coluerines, in the platformes and caualiers, being pieces which reach and carry furthest: and albeit they teare not so much as a cannon or de∣mie cannon, yet are they verie profitable to defende places withall, and so are many light pieces, for that they are easilie caried to all partes, and brought back aswell when they haue discharged: holding the places besides well viewed, wher to place the harquebuserie out of the estrada cubierta, if there be any vpon the banke of the diche, for to helpe the cauallerie, which shalbe in the towne, which is to salie out to viewe the enimie, & the leaders to aduertise the head, of the siege with what courage the enimie marcheth, & what quantitie of mē shalbe needful to be sent in those salies and other, for that the end of him which is besieged is, to hinder any neighbouring vpon him, entertayning him as farre of as he can, for that hee which cōmeth to besiege, is more powerfull, and to deferre this, there need not be so manie soldiers vētured in the salies, as that they shall come to wante for the defence of the walls, Page  130 which is that, where the laste valour is to be vsed, & whether in the end all the besieged come, a farre inferior number be∣ing able to fight with greater aduantage, and to holde manie men, is to conserue a place, for that a wall of men is held for the best wall, & which is able to defend such fortified places, as of them selues are not able to hold out, prolonging hereby time in defence: which commeth to be an occasion, by that which many times falleth out in armies, and among Princes whose they are, that the place is still mainteyned for him which first possessed it.

*It is to be vnderstoode, that a man should keepe a place, as long as possibly he may, & that not only for dayes & houres to doe it, is a matter of greatest importance, but for the least moment: being well knowne that when any King or Prince shall commaund a towne or forte to be yeelded vp, which a∣nie Captaine or Castellane hath in charge, appointing him to doe it by a day, giuing him a countersigne if he haue anie, that such Captaine or Castellane is to delay it euen to the last of the foure and twētie houres of the day, which is preciselie sett downe vnto him, accomplishing in this sorte both his o∣bedience towards his Prince, and his loyaltie vnspotted, not yeelding the place vp one iott, before he be bound to doe it, nor falter one moment of time in his fidelitie of maintayning it, while it remayneth vnder his charge.

You must haue likewise set at the loope-holes harquebuses a crocke and great muskettes for restes, full leuell against the place where the enimie maketh demonstration to plant his batterie, and to follow the trenches, which are to be dischar∣ged vpon sight of the light of the lanternes, with which they sometimes worke, and at other times at a venture, vppon the hearing of any noyse, the fire of the harquebuses, and pieces giuing light.

*When men besieged come once to be narrowlie streight∣ned, it falleth out that some wil shewe cowardise, which least Page  131 thought therof: These giue out speches among the soldiors, relating the state of the siege, and smal meanes of the defence thereof: for which they hold it a farre better way to take a cō∣position then to perish. To auoyde any such prating, the best meanes the head of a siege can vse, is to haue some soldiors of whose valour and proceeding he hath before made triall, and to disperse them into the cordeguardes & companies of the rest, that by seeing their resolution and constancie, and howe they are the first in putting hand to all perills and labours, the other may be animated to doe the like: and if any soldior wil shame him self, still continuing such pratlinge, lett them be speedily cut of, without suffering them to proceede further: and the better to animate the men within, the chieftaine him selfe must ordinarily visit the cordeguardes and Centinells, shewing him self affable towards all the soldiors, and giuing them good example, being him selfe the first at the fortifying of all defences, which will cause the soldiours to doe the rest with much more will and readines: and in case any soldior be so much past shame, as that cowardise will make him vtter vnseemlie wordes, tending to the rendring vp of the place, or entising and leading others to ioyne with him to aske the same, he is to be punished exemplarily, and that readily, with∣out giuing time to haue the voyce runne further.

At the enimies working of his trenches, and planting of his batterie, it cannot be deliuered vnto Y.H. in what maner they must annoy him for that, besides what I write of, that is to be done according as the disposition of the diches, walls, & de∣fenses are, shooting ordinarelie from them at the Trenches, with harquebuses and musketts, & great vigilance to be vsed in discouering how the trenches runne, whether hasteninge the salies or no, carrying them selues according to the men they haue, & hope of hauing it succoured. In some salies they vse to plant the artillerie on that parte where the quarters are to charge, for to driue them which are besieged back into the Page  132 towne, annoying them worse thereby.

When the batterie is once begun, there must be very good watch both day and night kept on that part,* renforcing it ac∣cording to such effect, as the enimies artillerie hath wrought, and with order that none speak to any without, except he be commmanded. with the same circumspection must no clock sound, nor bell after that the towne is once besieged, and at nights those that are besieged, sticke in the batterie a pole of the length of half a pyke, and an yron, cros barred at the ende therof, where they hang * rundells of ropes, soddē with pitch and tarre, which burneth giuing a very great flame, & serueth sticking the pole without, to discouer whether they be come to the ditch, & view what hurt the batterie hath donn, and to be able to hit thē without, without the light causing any hurt to those within in continuing of their reparations. And in townes where they feare any scale, by reason there be fewe soldiers, and no great confidence held of the place, it is a very good way still to keepe these fiers on the towers of the walls, for to discouer the diches, which I haue tryed vpon like occasion.

The diches being dry, if the batterie continewe long, they goe out alonge the casamats therof to viewe what ruyne and damage it hath done, making it cleane: other times they scat∣ter pricks of yron in it before the assalt, & at other times for to hinder it, they lay wood setting it afterwards on fire: Things which tyeth him that besiegeth, to hasten the working of his trenches, vntill he desemboke out of the ditch, & quit the ca∣samats, and if it hold water to assure himself of the banke, that no barkes passe by him, being very deepe.

*Iointly they make mynes to giue fire when the enimie assal∣teth them by the batterie, making it thereby the more hard, and those without comming to worke, they put the rimme of dromes on the top of the defences, or in the countermines with little hawkes, bels, or beanes which sturr vpon the skin Page  133 of the rimme, by the trembling of the earth when the Pio∣ners digge, wherby it is known which way they take.

The same effect is wrought by hanging at a rope, harde stretched needles, and putting vnder euery needle a Barbers bason, that by their stirringe of the earth, which mine, the needle may found in the bason, & sometimes they fill basons and little dishes full of water, and by the mouing therof know which way they goe. It serueth euē as well to make a litle hole in the earth and stouping down, you shall finde the noyse by your eare.

When they which besiege come to goe with the mattocke,* digging the foūdations of the walls or towers, the remedie is to set a good guard there, and to goe digging aswell to seeke them out, to driue them from their grounde, and alwayes to repaire the batterie by the best meanes that you can. For this purpose sackes of wooll (if there be anie) serue very well, and flocke beddes, as also chestes of wood filled with earth, or pipes, with wet straw or hay mingled with earth, casting fea∣therbeddes into the one and the other, being a compounde which incorporateth verie well, treadding downe the earth,* and when it is clammie, and not drye, the strawe and haye is wrethed like halters, more then two handfulls broad, & they fasten them into the earth with yrons, as a man plāteth trees one neare vnto another. Wherewith they greatlie fortifie rampires, so that it be wrought sometime before the batterie.

These things be the cōmon defences vsed, but when there is no matter to make them of, then must they be fayne to doe as necessitie requireth, & inventeth, taking such to serue their turne, as they can finde. Likewise they doe laye tables thicke wrought with pikes of yron, like harrowes in the breache, a∣gainst the assault, and they lett them downe for that purpose with engines made with wheeles, at such time as the enimie assaulteth, hauing cheynes made of woode, which are faste∣ned, at the same instant, & at ease may be put to & takē away. Page  134 Some vse them of yron alone, on the topp of the breach, and at the time of their assalte rayse them vp with pulleys, and o∣ther engines, helping them selues with garlands and balles of wildefire, molten leade, scaulding oyle, and such like: and in the ende they must be fayne to defend them selues, notwith∣standing that these and many other engins annoy the enimy much with the trauesses and strength of the pikes, on whom the foundation is to be builded, and to procure that the wall be alwayes mainteyned, (without giuing place to feare, who is a powerfull Lorde, as often as he findeth way giuen vnto him) for to forme behind that new ditches, defences, or halfe moones, which seldome times wilbe able to defend a town, if the wall thereof be loste.

*The state of the batterie being viewed, and demōstrations which the centinells discouer them without to make, for to giue the assault, by drawing togither more colours, thē they were wonte, to the trenches, being no hower of watche, nor out of order as they were wont to doe whē they would ren∣force thē, to enioy th'occasiō of some myne, or tower, which they are desirous to holde, the chief of the siege standing in the ditch, or some other place, is to marke whither the eni∣mie, not being able to come to the breach without a bridge, haue the night before throwne it in, or that it be to doe. Be∣cause that if it be made of barkes, and that it betokeneth good store of water in the ditch, he must procure sending some sol∣diors along the casamates & salies, that they swimming, may sinke them, making tronell holes in them, and being to bee throwne in before the assault, made of barrells, boates, or any other light stuffe, and with invention that the bridge holde a dore drawne vp, to serue for a defence to those which throw it in, letting it afterwards fall downe, to make it the larger, thē must he haue in readines, good store of fireworkes, whiche may flame in the verie water, and burn it, and in case that the bridge be couered with hides, therein they must helpe them Page  135 selues with pieces from the trauesses, if they haue bene able to preserue them, for to break the bridge withall. And if they haue lost them, then to put one, if it be possible, in the fronte, wherewith to doe the deed, and the bridge comming to the verie breache, to see if by casting of great stones or pipes of them, lightning round about it, they may be able to split and breake the bridge. Iointlie they are to furnishe the breach, be∣side the ordinarie guarde, with a number of soldiors and en∣signes, which are to be picked out for the same purpose, ren∣forcing the weakest part thereof with soldiors, of whose cou∣rage and resolution good proofe hath bene made, the whole putting them selues with such weapons as they are to fight withall, into a squadron, and vppon some occasion they laye pikes alongest the groūd for such as brought none, to be able to serue with them, necessitie binding them therevnto, as a weapon which is to be vsed euen to the verie last, against thē which assault.

This done, he must furnish the rest of the cordeguardes in such maner as he held them before ordered, according to the qualitie of the towne, appointing a particular leader to euery one, in such sorte, as they may be at hande to helpe one ano∣ther, and succour thē selues, going, if it be possible, with their men in good order: and in the principall cordegarde of the market place, the men must be put into a squadrō, as in all the rest, where the head is to stand to prouide for what should be most conuenient, and if the Towne be great, to be on horse∣backe: visiting the batterie, walls, and cordeguard, to animate them more, to doe their busines with greater readines, execu∣ting in his owne person, what is conuenient, and in case that the defence of the place binde him to doe it, he shall doe well to take a pyke him selfe, and stande in the breache.

Likewise he is to dispose of the weomen and men of the town, which doe not beare armes, aswel near vnto the corde∣guardes, as the breach, that they may cast with ladles, and o∣ther Page  136 instrumēts, scalding water, oyle, moltē lead, wildfires, & such like, when their be anie to doe it, and when not, then to giue them to the soldiours, casting downe great quantitie of stones, which if there be many in the town, and doe it with dexteritie is not the worst defence, & in this, that the troupes of men and weomen may haue particular leaders to gouerne thē, so as no cōfusion be made, in their seruice, nor disorder.

Iointly the town being litle, and in danger of fire, for that the houses are all builded of timber, they are to haue caudrōs in readines at the gates, and pipes full of water, and men ap∣pointed of purpose for to quench it, foreseing that the enimie by intelligence had, nor any cowarde set them on fire at the time of the assaulte.

Whē they that are besieged come to be narrowlie streight∣ned, it is a very hard case for thē which are within, to giue any intelligence of their estate, or of the qualitie of succours, which is to be required. For this cause they preuent it in the beginning thereof, by agreeing vpon signes with fires in the night, & smoake in the day, or ensignes of sundrie colours, & fashions, to shew what they stand most in want of, or succour they desire: & they get from out of the countrey, swallowes, doues, and dogges, which naturallie returne to the place where they first bred, putting vnder the wings of the birdes, or tying to their feete, aduises, and in the collers of doggs put vp in a pellet of waxe, and in like sorte they haue aduertised againe by these meanes & preuentions, those within, at what time they should bee succoured, encouraging them to abide it out, vsing like meanes and industries.

For the most part townes come to be lost thorough want of men, powder, artillerie, munition, and victuals, and if they which are besieged make instance for any of these thinges,* whē they come to want, assuring that the enimie must needs enter, if they be not succoured, Y.H. is to consider in assisting of them, that the succour of men is the most easie, for that in Page  237 marching they can defend themselues, but powder alone can not, & there must be men to carrie that in wallets vpon their sholders, or vpon the horse buttockes, when it is most secure to carry any cauallerie. The succours of artillerie, munitions and victualls bee very cumbersome, if they goe not by water (being then caried with ease) and of great danger thorough the toyle and trouble about them, beinge thinges of so great bulke, and when the supplie marcheth by land, they are en∣forced to haue a great quantitie of cartes, and horse to carrie it, and much force and men to attende it: whereby when you are desirous to supply any town with victuall, you must bee faine to make a whole iourney of it.

The armies being retyred for to winter, the hardnes of the time not yelding commoditie for to encampe, they put such men as they dismisse not, into holdes, and garrisons vpon the frontiers, aswell to make them reste from the wearines of the field, & refresh themselues, as that they may warr neare vnto the townes, wherin the Gouernors are not only to contente themselues in keeping of them for a defensiue warre, but to procure the endemnifying of the enimie, by as much as may be possible for them, weakning of his forces.

To this end they must be fame to help thēselues with such maner of spies as according to the qualitie of the Prouince or countrey or peopling thereof,* they shall iudge to be most conuenient, entertayning them, within the enimies towns & countreys, to be able to aduertise his desseine, if he assemble together his men, what store hee hath vpon the frontires, the estate of his fortification, what maner of guarde hee keepeth both by day & night, whether they goe out ordinarily a free∣boating or no, & such other occurrents as they desire to be re∣solued of by spies, according as occasions fal out, whom they must pay very well, giuing vnto them all satisfaction, as long as no dubble dealing is discouered in them, or treacherie su∣spected, and in small time they shalbe able to iudge of those which are faithfullest, and of best vnderstanding.

Page  137To looke deepely into this, besides that they are to haue diuers spies cōparing their intelligences together, they must marke with great heed, in the circumstances which they de∣liuer in telling their newes, how they haue come to vnder∣stand them, and if they haue bene able, conformable to the qualitie of their estate, to communicate with such persons as they giue out to haue heard thē of, whether they be matters likely to passe thorough many handes or no, or whether vn∣derstood by priuate conference. * Because that in war, by the outward preparations of men, artillerie, munition & victuals, such as are soldiers wil most commonly discouer the end of the enterprise. And albeit that in frontires and places of mo∣ment they vse to giue order vnto centinels, that they suffer no strangers to walk vpō the wals, nor ditches, nether with∣in nor without, yet whosoeuer will but set his minde to bee informed of like fortifications, although hee neuer before thought therof, shall alwayes finde meanes paying those well that make him knowe what he desireth, for that mony is the thing, which can doe most in generall with mankinde.

Likewise they doe suffer men vpon the frontires, to whom they giue no other pay then leaue to freeboate, and to liue in the town, bringing their booties to sell thither, and these be commonlie men naturally borne of the same prouince, and by knowing the wayes and passages, annoy the enimie great∣lie, taking prisoners by whom they come to vnderstand many things: to this kinde of people they are to giue leaue to free∣boote according to the qualitie of the warr, & proffit which may be reaped by their seruice.

Vpon some occasions they spoyle and destroy the villages round about the town,* if the inhabitants be not wel affected, to binde them, by hauing no houses of their owne, to flie vn∣to the frontirs of their neighbours, and so the enimie findeth himself ouercharged by giuing victuals to them, their wyues and children. But when laborours and husbandmen of the Page  138 countrey round about, cannot bee dispeopled for some rea∣sons, and are contented to victuall the townes with the fruits of their labours, it is to be considered that all contentment be giuen vnto them, and that the soldiors when they salie a free∣booting out of the towne, doe not misuse them, for that by this they will bee able to giue good intelligence, and to prie with great care into the enimies actions, imagining that by his endemnifying their owne profit will arise.

For to know and view the field round about, the enimies frontires, ordinarilie they send soldiors to freebote vpon thē, for the first dayes carrying good guides alongest with them, whereby they come to be well practised in the wayes & pas∣sages, and to consider the estate of the field, to see, if cōming nearer vnto the town, taking men & cattell, they within will salie forth to defende, or recouer them, and what ambushes may bee laid, according to the men which salie out, and in what maner they gouerne them selues.

In going out a freebooting, it must be kept very secret,* the men them selues not knowing at what hower they are to sa∣lie, but onely to stand prepared, assembling them togither af∣ter the shutting of the gates, and if it be necessarie, to sound a trumpet for it, as they vse to doe at the guardes, or a sordine, that it may not be vnderstood although there be spyes in the towne, when they salie forth, but the best of all is to warne them to be readie by mouth.

The men and guides being geathered togither with the greatest secrecie that may be, the Capteine or Leader which goeth a freeboting with them, shall name vnto them two or three places whither he would go, to see whither they know the wayes, & to be sure they be perfect in them. This done, they shall open the gates, and at their salie out of the towne, shall send an officer, or soldior that is well practised with sixe or eight soldiors, to whō they shall deliuer a guide, that they may goe before the freeboters, willing them to carry thē the Page  140 closest way he can from the high waies, and villages, vntill they be a good way from the towne, and being by day, the Captaine shall march with another guide, and the greater troupe of the men in the sight of the carriers, but at night nearer, because they are to serue to goe a discouering, and he shall leaue another practised soldior with sixe or eight soldi∣ors more in the rereguarde, & a guide with them: the which are to march in sight of the greater troupe, seruing (if occasiō require) when they chaunce to discouer any enimies on that part, in stead of corriers: prouided that at the opening of the gate, if it be by night, or in the day time, no other person salie out, then those which goe to freebote, that no intelligence may be giuen to the enimie thereof, and in case that the free∣boters carrie but one guide alongest with them, when they light vpon two wayes, if the night be darke, the first troupe is to leaue a soldior there, to teach the seconde which way they are to take, and the second to leaue another for the thirde to followe, and not to lose their way.

Likewise whē there goe mē of diuers garrisons, or troupes, at different houres, vpon a piece of seruice, and that all are to passe by a crosse way, thē they take order, as euery one passeth by that way, to leaue a marke or token behinde them, as to pitch vp some stone, cut of bowes, or somewhat els, that they may vnderstande, the troupes are gone before, & this is to be done when it is not fit to leaue any of them selues behinde.

In this order they are to marche, and the Captaine must send some soldiors of his troupe euer & anon, to see what the van∣guard saith, and if they march carefullie. And in case they be to passe by any way where the enimie may annoy them be∣fore their returne backe, by spying the print of their horsses feete, if the weather be dry, it is a good way to putt it out, by the troupe which tarrieth behind, carying of great boughes, and trayling them after them.

When there is an intent to haue any ambushes, or lay men Page  141 in stealth, they are to vse the same meanes of boughes to blot out the print of their footsteps,* and that they may not be per∣ceyued to haue trod there, looking as neare as is possible to the horses that they neigh not, whereby manie times they come to be discouered, the best remedie being whē the hor∣ses are not many, to seuer those that most are giuen to ney.

Being come to the stande of the ambushe, they are to viewe wel the salies therof, to chuse the best for their purpose, aswel to charge vpon the enimie, as to retire themselues if he be the stronger. This being viewed, they are to cause a soldiour to clyme vp into a tree, whence he may descrie furthest, and to giue them notice of what they see, another soldiour standing on horsebacke at the foote of the tree, to carrie worde to the head of the ambushe, what he in the tree sayeth, and in case they be not able to discouer ynough from one place alone, then are they to set mē vp in two or three trees, that they may serue as a watch tower, soldiors on horsebacke stāding at the foote of euery one, and the like may be done in villages vpon the topps of towers and high houses. In this maner they may cōtinue the ambush, and refresh their horses, if need require, so as the watchmen discouer farre of, for that then they shall haue time to bridle them. This ambush being laid neare vnto anie frontire, with intent to doe any damage to the people therof, it must be prouided that the ambush come neare be∣fore it growe daye, and as many men as they meete, to keepe with them vntill two or three houres of the day be past, then is the leader of the ambushe to sende an expert soldiour with such as he shall think fitt, by a differing way about the coun∣trey, taking as many cattell as they can, & to retire themselues by the same way where the ambush lyeth, in such manner as by the hast which they make, they may make the enimie be∣leeue that they feare they shall not be able to bring it home, who will followe them with the more furie, and the ambush is not to salie out vpō them, vntill they be cleare passed them, Page  141 and then they may be able to charge vpon their backs, with∣out giuing meanes vnto thē to be able to returne, which they are to doe, salying in good order, & to hasten or no the charg, by trot, or gallop, according to the matter they would exe∣cute, holding it for good, they are to put the bootie and pri∣soners before, the Captaine with troupe remayning in the re∣reguard, and corriers behinde him, making good speed vntill they gett themselues out of the enimies countrey, and put themselues in safetie, considering, that, by the standing of the soldiers busied about the guard of the prisoners, and weari∣somnes hauing trauailed all night, and the horses not so lustie to combate withall, the troupe can not be so strong as when they came forth.

*The bootie being safelie brought home, it is to be diuided according to the custome which the place carieth, & as euery nation vseth: Because in some places the fifte is giuen to the Prince, the Generall, or Gouernour taking a peece, diuiding the rest among the whole, proportionable to their payes: in such sorte as an equall part may fall to the Captayne, officer and soldior, which taried at home vpon the guard, as well as to them that went abroade. Among other nations the Cap∣tains take the tenth out of the booties which the soldiers get, albeit they be not present at it, and at other times they diuide the companies and they sende so many soldiours a freeboo∣ting at one time, and afterwardes other differing from them, running ouer all the companies to salie by course, that they may trauaile equallie, & thē the bootie which euery troupe getteth, is diuided among the soldiers of their owne compa∣nie, without any of the rest hauing share therein.

Besides the freebootings which they vse & damage grow∣ing to the enimie thereby, trade is to be endeuoured to bee had within his country, which is a thing most to be practised with great warines and consideration, and for the most part with persons whose chiefe foundation must grow by falsify∣ing Page  142 their faith towards those whom they serue: wherby smal assurance can bee giuen to what they offer, except the same cause & occasion set them at libertie from their first faith, by which they may hold some more securitie of the seconde which they vowe, weighing all circumstances, as who he is you treat with, for what cause, and in what manner, and whe∣ther he that hath charge of the place be a soldiour or no, be∣cause being one, it may bee himselfe peraduenture which sendeth to treate with you to discouer to what ende you meane to make your salie, and when, that the damage may growe greater and double therby, and sometimes to the end that the greater parte of the garrison may be drawne to salie out of the town, for the execution of the plott which is offe∣red, and then may he with much more ease execute what he list him selfe in the same place, by reason of the intelligence he hath had, or in any other, whiche hee would neuer haue durst to haue conceyued otherwise, for the many guardes & souldiours, a matter easilie brought about by such a strata∣geme or deuise.

They surprise townes in like sorte by scale:* And to that end they must send soldiors of experience and trust to viewe the wayes vnto them, the bredth and depth of the diches, & how farre it is to the water, the height of the walles, qualitie of the warde which the enimie keepeth, disposition of the Centi∣nells, with what circumspection they stande in the places, what distance is betweene one another, whether one may be able to discouer the whole wall ouer or no, at what hower the roundes vse to passe, and whether they tarrie long before they meete one with the other, in such sorte as one may bee able by gayning or killing of the Centinell, to stande assured of the wall or tower before the rounde come to it.

As well doe men endeuour to gayne townes by channels of water, which run thorough them,* low casamates in the ditches or secret gates, vsinge patardes to breake, and blowe Page  144 them open, which is a kind of artillery, which hath bin inuē∣ted fewe yeres since in these partes, which in a moment wor∣keth great effect, in throwing down of gates, if a man may come to fasten the patarde in it, and the strōger they be, with the more violence doth the patarde worke, ouerthrowinge one, or two gates at once, albeit there be a distance betweene one and other, and a valte in the middst, except they be buil∣ded in such maner, as the patarde shall loose his force, hauing a vente by which the violēce of the powder doth euaporate.

The particularities set downe being knowne, which are to be looked into, comparing one with the other, with great cō∣sideration, and the number of men, thought vpon, wherwith the scaladoe is to be giuen, they are to assemble togither after the gates bee shutt, if they goe all forth of one towne, if not to appoint a place and hower where to meete, and this, ac∣cording to that in which you are to effect it, whether it must be at the hower of cētinell, which they terme Modorra, or be∣fore,* or at the Diana, being verie fit that the day peepe by that time you come within the place, putting the troupes or com¦panies of men in order which are to bee diuided into van∣guarde, batayle and rereguarde, with a particular leader to each one, that may be a soldiour of resolution, for that this is an action which requireth no lesse courage and valour then the canvisadoes, not only in the heads thereof, but in the sol∣diers which are to execute, who of force howe valiant soeuer they bee, can not but bethinke within themselues whether they goe sold or not, or there be any treacherie, or the entrie haue bene well viewed, or the going vp good, or fortified since: stumbling blocks which the obedience of command∣ment, and resolution of their owne courage must be faine to make plaine and euen: And for that in many places it is not onely necessarie to carie scaling ladders for such enterprises, but bridges of pieces of tymber to frame them of, and boates for any arme of the water or ditch, I wil write in what maner Page  145 it is good to proceed, being forced to carry all three alongest with them.

The ladders for such a purpose are to be only of the height of the walls, because that if they be longer,* it is an easie matter for them aboue, catching at the vpper stepps to turne them ouer with as many as are vpon them, and if they bee shorter, then can they not clime vp to the top by them: To remedie this there must be great care taken, many townes hauing mis∣sed being wonne, by reason their ladders were to short, ha∣uing taken measure to the iust height of the wal, but not from that parte of the ground where the ladders were faine to stande. The vanguarde of your men must bee deuided into fower parts, & the first rancks are to be laden with the scaling ladders, deuiding them according to their bignes and num∣ber, in the second parte of the same vanguarde must the tim∣bers of the bridge be carried, and in the thirde the boates, the fowerth parte consisting of those which are to clime vp first, as the least wearie among them, and by the reason of warre so required: which notwithstanding, there is no soldior of pun∣tilloe, who if hee come to set vp the ladder, will suffer any o∣ther to clime vp before him, except it be such as haue helped to carry it, or his Capteine or Officer: the boates are made sometime of leather, that they may be light,* and other of tim∣ber parted into fower quarters or more, ioyning them after∣wards together, with vices of yron, which some annoint with oyle, to kepe them from taking ruste, although they lye many dayes in the water, closing the pieces in such order together with the vices, as the boate remayneth tyte, calking with speede the ioynts thereof

The leaders being set down, order is to be giuen for their marche, and for those rancks which are first to set vp the lad∣ders, or cast the boats or timbers of the bridge into the water, that they make no confusion or noyse in doing it, being a∣mong all the rest of the orders which are to bee made, most Page  146 preciselie enioyned, that whē they shall haue gottē the walls, no soldior be so hardie as to go to sacke, vntill they be assured of the town, because then they shall haue time enough. This being done, they are to sende corriers out of the towne, who are to goe discouering before, the cartes or moyles following with the ladders and boates, in case the way be so farr, as that it is not good for the souldiours to carrie them, who are to marche according to such order as their heades shall enioyne them, euer carrying the ladders and boates before.

Being arriued neare vnto the town, which they are to scale, they shall vnlade the ladders, barkes & bridges in such places as no noyse may be heard, he that is appointed giuing order for euery thing, & they which carie the barkes shall put them into the water, taking halters and ropes to drawe the tymbers of the bridge for to frame it, which are to be cast into the wa∣ter by such as carrie them. The bridge being framed, the lea∣der of those which hold the ladders (who should be he which had viewed all, or to haue him in his companie which had done it) is to goe before to assure himselfe of the entry, and if it bee arising, to carry with him a small ladder of cordes with a staffe or halfe pike to fasten them to, and then to clime vp on high to viewe whether they are perceyued or no, & finding not, they shall set vp the ladders in the securest place against the wall, clyminge vp by them, so as it may bee done with greatest diligence and facilitie, and least noyse. The walls be∣ing gayned, they shall goe to the next gate to the place where they first gaue the scaladoe, carrying with them pincers, files, hammers, crowes of yron, and other instruments to open the gates with: a busines which is to bee done with diligence, that the cauallerie or fanterie may enter into the town, which for this purpose taryed in the rereguard of all, and stoode in squadron in the field, that vpon any ill successe, they might be able to helpe the soldiers running backe, who continually must followe on without loosing ranke, to get vp by the lad∣ders: Page  147 and in case there bee any Citadell or Castell within the town, they must repaire to that place, stopping that none of their men retyre themselues in, and when there is no Castle in the towne or place appointed to ioyne themselues toge∣ther in cordeguards, becomming entirely Lords of the town, then are they to giue it to sacke, & to fortifie it, placing a good garrison: and when the Castle or Catadell, if there bee any hath not yeelded, then to preuente that no succour enter in at those gates, vnto them, which Castles commonly haue to∣wards the countrey for that purpose, placing good watch at the entrance of the streets which lead thither, fortifying them with trauesses, and other things conuenient, as to make loop∣holes out of houses, rampyring if it necessare, to defende the shot of the artillerie, whereby they of the Castle will growe cleane out of the harte from thinking to bee able to recouer the towne againe, and by that distrust will hold it a farre bet∣ter course to yeeld themselues.

Those cōquests which Kings & Princes attempt by sea hap∣pen at such time as they haue shippes,* mariners and other ne∣cessarie thinges for it, much more easie then by land, for the commoditie which they haue in carying in a small time great number of soldiers, munitions and artillerie from sundrie countries & farr distant. By this meanes our Lord God doth open the way to such Kingdomes & states, as possesseth anie sea coastes to expect their greatnes and encrease, which in our times hath bene sufficiently proued, by that the Crownes of Castile and Portingall hath done, which the K. our Soue∣raigne Lorde father vnto Y.H. possesseth, spredding out his empire & rule through the East and West Indies, with such a multitude of conquests though ther were no more examples of the time past: a matter which the Castilian prouerbe a∣med at, saing Reyno sin puerto, chimenea sin fuego: A considerati∣on, which bindeth Y.H. to fauor and honor the sea soldiers,* rewarding them and the Pilotts and mariners, and to enter∣taine Page  148 great Armies in ordinarie, proportioning the forces of them with those of the lande,* which is that by which conser∣uation of Empires standeth assured, being Lordes of the sea, and the foundatiō (according to mans reason) of their great∣nes enduring, thorough the necessitie which most Prouinces holde to respect them, for maintenance of their trades and traficques, & facilitie with which he that is powerfull on the sea may offende in sundrie partes at one instant. And albeit this in generall will not binde Y.H. yet the monarchie which you are to possesse, and qualitie of your Crownes and estates requireth for their scituatiō sake to hold Armes by sea, wher∣by to succour them vpon anie distres and offend the enimie, since of their verie selues, euery one holdeth by him selfe forces sufficient to holde out attending succor: which is one of the reasons that causeth many to iudge Empires deuided into sundry Prouinces to be more firme, then in one bodie, where corruption once entring causeth a farr greater ruyne, then in the deuided, and distant, being seldome times all in∣fected at once with one morion, as it may fall out where they stande vnited.

The preparation of your Y.H. fleete in the number of shippes, soldiors and artillery, is to be according to the enter∣prise you purpose to vndertake, & to consider therin the sea∣son, the power of the enimie, what cōfederates he may haue, and the rest of the considerations which I haue set downe in common to bee obserued in forming of armes by lande, the which will tell you of what burthen shippes wilbe most con∣uenient for nauigation, whether they are to vse Gallyes or Boates of ores only, or carying likewise of higher caruing, if they bee to carrie cauallerie, which will require conuenient shipps for this purpose, & by consequence for the carriadg of munitiōs victuals & the rest of the prouisions. Prouided that when it is an armie of round ships, and that the winde which serueth you to sayle, will bringe with it, as mariners terme Page  149 it, growne seas, the nauigation when the armie is great must needes be much longer then with an other wind, which ma∣keth faire weather, or that there were but a few shipps which bindeth you to cōsider that albeit light Pinishes may in so ma∣ny days performe the voyage, a great armie must be fain with the very same wind to spend many more therin, in which care must be giuē to mariners which are of experience, & practise in the same trade, folowing their opinion, for the time which shalbe best to sayle, and in particuler the * Admiralls, who is Y.H. Lieuetenant at the sea: An office which holdeth more or lesse preheminence in some prouinces, then in an other, according vnto the authoritie which it hath pleaced Princes to giue vnto them. And whē he doth not exercise his office, Y.H. is to name a generall at the sea, and sometimes he is the same which is on land, and at other times no, whose office is to ioyne together and compound the armie, and to fit the shippes with artillerie, arming them with * carriges and other preparations, according to the burthen, and men which are to fight in them, and forme which euery nation caryeth, ac∣cōmodating things more carefully in that, then in an other. Furnishing likewise with victualls, placing in the office of a generall victuler, a person of trust, much diligence, & litle co∣uetousnesse considering that by stincking victuals fleets & ar∣mies haue many times receyued more losse, thē they needed to haue feared by tempests or enimies, & the couetousnes of officers haue bin the only cause, who looking only into their own profit, haue procured vnto their Princes the destruction of their armies and men of warre.

Your shippes and men standing readie for the enterprise, a fewe daies before their departure, Y.H. is to commaund that your Standart be arboled, which some * Prelate is before to haue for to hallow, and at the doing of it, order is to be giuen to all the shipps, in what maner they shall giue the Salue, at the aboling of it, which ordinarilie is, that it may make the more Page  150 shewe, to discharg the harquebuserie, the musketerie folow∣ing, & then the smal pieces, & after in proportion the greater. I will not be tedious to set downe in what maner the shipp is to be dressed vp in which Y.H. person goeth, nor what fashiō of streamers or flagges it is to carrie, being to be more or lesse and according to the ostentation & magnificēce which Y.H. meaneth to vse in the iorney: particulars which * Admiralls and Generalls are to looke vnto, according to the pleasure & motiue of the Prince, whether him selfe be present or no in the enterprise, which causeth to adde or diminish, frō the re∣lations which are made of other Armies, in respect of this, & of the maner, how the Prince is to be saluted, embarking him selfe or no, or going to visite the armie, and at his departure from the Porte, if he goe him selfe in person.

The Captana is to carrie besides the * Royall Standart, an other flagg on the top of the maine maste, & the Admirall an other in the top of the foremaste, flaggs which no other ship may carrie, and before they goe out of harbor, the squadrons must be diuided, to the end they may be known: the Armie being great, the shipps of euery squadron are to carrie a strea∣mer of such colour as his squadron carieth, and that is to bee hanged on the maine yarde Arme of the Starbord side.

Likewise an order of fight must be agreed vpon, that euerie ship may know his place, giuing the same to all the Captains of the ships in writing, shewing in what maner thei are to go∣uerne thēselues, as things fall out, & to be able to vnderstand by such signes as the Capitana shall make, what they are to doe, in which I will write downe the most principal pointes.

*When Y.H. would haue the Armie, weather seruing for it to be put in battaile, there shalbe hung out in such a place of the Capitana as hath ben appointed before, a flagge of such colour: And if you would haue the Captaines of the shipps to come abord you, thē another flagge is hanged vpon some maste of a different colour, vpon which they will lanch their Page  152 Skiffes, and come to the Capitana, bringing along with them the Pillotes and Mariners of most experience.

In case a schip of the armie should discrie another, they are wonte to put vp a flagg hanging it on that side of the ship on which he discouereth her to lye, & being more then one, two flagges, the one higher then the other, by which it shall giue notice not only to the Capitana, but to the rest of the fleete. At other times with this signe they are wont to shoote of a piece when the armie is very great, and that they can hardlie perceyue the flags, by the distance that they make in sayling.

If any small Barks, sent out at any time by the Capitana to discouer, make shewe that they haue discried some, and that you would haue them to passe onwards to viewe them bet∣ter, they are wont to put a colored flagg on the forecastle, by which meanes they shall vnderstande what they are cōman∣ded to doe: and if Y.H. pleasure bee that all the shippes shall make way and doe their best, a square flag is wont to be han∣ged betweene the main top and the foretop, & at other times the same flag is put on the top of the foretopmast that it may be seene further, being an armie of many ships & that all may decerne it, although they be far a sunder, whereby they shall know that they are to make way, and to vse all diligence.

Likewise the first ship which discry the land, ought to put on that side of his ship which he seeth it a square flagg vpon the main topmast, enclining it alitle towards that part, wher he saw the land, and to discharge a great shott or two.

If any ship be in danger of splitting, by running a ground or knocked vpon any rocke, or other misfortune, she shall dis∣charge three great shott one after an other, & cause a man to goe vp to the main top and to goe roūd about with a flagg in his hand, by which they may vnderstand shee is in danger, & demandeth succor. And if any shipp of the enimies should fortune to come among the great armadas to view them, and Page  152 that they are willing to see whether it be one or no, the Capi∣tana vseth to hang vp a flag of a different colour, in some part of the ship, & then all the rest of the armie doe the like, wher∣by the enimie is discouered.

For sailing by night, they likewise giue instructiō, for what∣soeuer should happē, the Capitana carying one lāterne alone, and if the Admiral cary any thē is the Capitana to cary two, that she may be known: and if the weather waxe boysterous in such sorte as it may proue dangerous that any fire should chaunce to light out of the lanterne vpon the poope, they change it to the foremast, and any storme growing, the Capi∣tana lighteth two or three, which serued for a signe that euery ship should light his, & especially if they be Gallies or shipps of ores, preuenting that they doe not grow fowle one of an∣other by the darknes and hausines of the weather: and any tempest growing vpō the storme, the Capitana is to discharg one or to cannon shott, to giue warning that euerie Gallie shift the best she can for her self, without following of her, ha∣uing instruction in writing (if the iourney bee resolutelie ap∣pointed) in what place or hight they are to returne to ioyne, in case that by stormes the shipps should come to be seuered and dispersed.

The Capitana making another bord in the night, or chaun∣ging her course, they vse to hang a lantern in the shroudes, & shake of her bonets, or take in her topsayles: and when she ta∣keth in all her sailes and meaneth to hull, they put in the shrowds tree lanternes, & in case a leake be in any ship of the armie, or that a maste or yard be sprong, they vse to discharge a great shot, and being in great extremitie, three.

In discouering any ship of the enimies, they fling fire into the sea, or set vp a lantern in such part of the ship as it may be well discerned, discharging some great shott: and if there be many shippes, he shall shoote of fower or fiue times together, setting vp three lanternes vpon the poope, and an other vpō the forecastle.

Page  153If one ship alone happen to discrie land in the night, and not the rest, they vse to shoote of one or two pieces, & setting vp a lanterne tackes into the sea, with small saile whereby the rest of the shipps followe, plying vp and down in this maner vntill morning.

If you would haue the shipps come togither in the night, the Capitana must shoot of a piece, putting vp two lanternes vpon the corners of the highest parte of the Poope, and ano∣ther vpon the mysine mast, a signe wherby they will draw to∣gether, these being the principall points for which instructi∣ons be to bee giuen in writing vpon any accasion that may fall out by day or by night in nauigation, with such tokens as are thought most conuenient, these which I haue sett downe being but to serue as a paterne to make other by.

Iointly order must bee giuen to euery Captaine in what maner he is to arme his ship, if he haue cause to fight,* & that he execute it with precisenes, appointing the leaders and sol∣diers which are to fight expresly their places, so disposing the men which he caryeth in his ship as that they may serue both the decks, the poope, galleries, maintop and forecastle, apper∣tayning to the head of the ship to stand vpon the poope with some particuler soldiers, of whō he holdeth a good conceite, allotting the principall places set down to such officers as are in the companies, giuing order to such soldiers as he hath, that they obey them in their places as if it were his own per∣son, and giue hand one to help another, or come whether ne∣cessitie shall require, & that in euery one of these standes they haue two dozen of half pikes, which are to haue the thirde part of them talowed ouer, towards the head, that the enimie catching at them may fasten no holde, & that he cause such persons as are ther to fight to take pikes, not knowing how to manage a harquebuse, because otherwise they should serue with them first, & take pikes after, & that there be mē in time of bording appointed to the place of Armes, which is to bee Page  154 betweene the maine mast and the prowe.

Likewise Y.H. is to command, that among such persons as are known and haue skill to vse them, may bee bestowed the artificial fires, and tronkes and balls of wild fire, and such like, for the danger which may ensewe if they should not knowe to vse them as they ought.

Iointly you must command that such a one may be put in charge with the powder, as will looke vnto it with great care and circumspection, that by no meanes any touch it or come neare that caryeth any fire, and that two or three trustie per∣sons may bee appointed to assist him which hath charge of the powder.

Likewise it must be ordayned that whē they come to fight, the Clarks and Religious men, Phisitions, Surgions, and the rest whose turne is not to fight, may be stowed in hold vnder water, who are to haue a head to gouerne them, and sheets of lead, hammers, nayles, skuppers, hides, pluckes of wood, and other necessaries, that in case they should receyue any shott, they may quicklie remedie it, and caucke it, employing all di∣ligence in this, which a matter of so great perill importeth.

Also that they commaund all emptie caske to bee sawed a sunder in the midste, and in fight fill them with salt water, and all the rest of the caske which hath bene emptied in the ship, putting them in places where the soldiers fight, prouiding by this means to be able to quench the fire, and to haue buckets to carrie the water, and all other thinges which the artillerie shall stand in neede of, appointing a leader to take counte of these things, & persons to helpe him. The topps of the maine and foremastes of the great shipps are to be coyled with ould cables without, & within with beds for the defence of those which are to fight in thē, whether they are to carry vp stones, pieces of yron, or lead, to fling down at time of fight: things which Y.H. is to commaunde that euery Captaine be proui∣ded of by himself in his ship, in such sorte as he shall not stand Page  155 in neede thereof at the very instant.

At sunne sett the whole fleete commeth to hayle the Capi∣tana vnder her lee, and vayleth their sailes, and she answereth them againe, giuing them the word for that night: when by occasion of weather that cānot be done, they haue a word in writing sett down for euery day in the weeke, whereby they know one an other, and the Admirall tarieth last in the rere∣guard to gather the Fleete vp togither. When night cōmeth, and that they haue song the * Salue in the shippes, they putt out all the candells, leauing none stirringe but such as must needes, which shalbe lampes of oyle for the danger of fire, or candels within lanternes, whereby they may sett nothing on fire, which done, the men withdrawe them selues to bedd, all saue the watch, and centinels abyding in their standes.

At morning by breake of day, the trumpets sound the daw∣ning, and all the Fleete cōmeth alee, & haileth the Capitana: whereby it is knowen if any be missing out of the fleete, and in case she be not perceiued, some light Pinnish which atten∣deth a sterne, is sent out to looke her, following the course or point of the compas which was giuen for sayling, & the Ca∣pitana continuing hers, the rest of the Armie sayle a sterne of her, and with such distance, as they may not loose sight.

Offring to giue battayle, which is the most dangerous mat∣ter of all whatsoeuer doth concerne the warres, aswell for the facilitie with which the shipps are sett on fire, as that of neces∣sitie he which will subdewe his enimie, must enter him: and when he hath not done it by force of Artillerie, he then com∣meth to fight with so much disaduantage, as hauing grappe∣led the shippes, to leape vpon the shrowdes, maystering the poope, forecastle, and both the deckes: A perill to which an other not the least is added, fighting vpon the Sea, which is the greatest enimie of all, sparing none that falleth into her, which is not so vpon the lande.

In setting the shippes in battayle, when they doe not fight Page  156 in Channels,* and streames of sholes and shelffes, where of ne∣cessitie they must dispose the fleete according as the roome will afforde, making vanguarde battaile, and rereguarde, all mariners are of opinion that fighting with round ships, the best forme of battaile is to make one Fronte, putting the Ca∣pitana in the middest, and of each side of her (when there are but fewe shippes) the greatest and of most bulcke, one lying as neare the other as may be. Prouided that they come not so to meete togither, as to waxe fowle with their shrowdes, as it sometimes happeneth, and causeth verie much trouble.

And the Armie being great, others compounde the bat∣taile of one fronte, the shippes of euerie squadron following their head, deuiding them as they iudge most conuenient, according to the qualitie of the shippes, and at other times for this consideration & the greatnes of the shippes, without caring to haue them of any squadron, in sayling they mingle one with another, appointing them what place they are to holde when they come to fight: and this cōsidering that the Armie being great, and by cōsequent the front great, which is to be made vpon putting them selues in battaile, it is neces∣sarie the Capitana being in the middest, to disperse those per∣sons which carrie the greatest shipps, through the whole bat∣taile and front, garnishing the horne to windeward, with the greatest and strongest, to the end they may defende the smal∣ler ships which are to fight on the lee on the contrarie horne, and be able hereby to animate the rest, and guyde them to borde, for that the Capitana by reason of the great distaunce which a great Armie must of necessitie occupie, can not at∣tende at such a time vpon all, with such readines as is to bee required.

In one of these formes they saile in the best order that can be, without anie one shipp going before an other, And if the weather will suffer it, so farre a sunder as two or three shippes may be able to goe betweene euery one. For which cause Page  157 those which are best of saile doe fitt their sayles in striking thē lower, wherby they come to make no more way; the sluggie seeking to gaine the winde on both sides to fight, & to come in order of battailes before written, to borde, which is that which most importeth at sea, he which hath gottē the winde being able to giue a greater thrust at bording, and to cast the smoke of his artillerie vpon the contrarie shipp, and to helpe him with more advantage by the fires, anoying the other thereby, and in case he list to shoote at the enimie before bor∣ding; he may commodiouslie doe it, by reason of the winde, discharging both his brode sides at the time of his bordinge, which is where the shippes carry most pieces: and to preuent this he which findeth him selfe able in the burthen of his shippes and number of men to borde, goeth assoone as euer he hath gotten the winde, with the greatest speed he can in a fronte to doe it, and if he be desirous to shunne bording, by reason his shippes be lower, he entertayneth time shooting of still his Tyres by making Bordes, which is to annoy the e∣nimie, without aduenturing to come to hande strokes with him, for the disaduantage which he knoweth he shall gett by it, not hauing so high shippes, nor multitude of souldiours, whose handes and force vpon bording getteth the victorie, because they discharge no other artillerie then Cannons pe∣riall and smal pieces in their vpper works where they vse not alreadie slinges, shooting of all the artillerie he can at such time as he is readie to borde, when bullets worke most effect, and almost none at all before, the rest being but short into the ayre, of which great consideration is to be had. For this cause some are of opinion, if the winde serue, that the Capitana should delay bording him selfe, vntill the rest of the shippes had done, and in the meane time to be able to succour, wher need should most require, gouerning him self therin, as they doe vpon the lande in dayes of battayle, where the Generalls squadron is the last which commeth to shocke. A particular Page  158 in which a great inconuenience ceasseth not to offer it selfe, and that is, that at sea euery shippe is to fight by it selfe, and to be a matter of greatest moment for obtayning of the victory to get some one of the enimies in as short time as may be, for which of force they are to gage their greatest and strongest shippes at first, to come to hande strokes, and to seeke out the Capitanas, which by reason ought to be the best shippes on both sides; and in shippes it is not the harte of the Captaine, which goeth in them that gouerneth them, but the Maister or Pilote taketh many times occasion thorough their owne cowardise to put of the Capitana from bording, with that re∣solution which the Generall desireth: And likewise that whi∣che is most conuenient, is, to haue the Capitana of the firste shippes to borde the Capitana of the enimies armie, appoin∣ting some other to succour her, if neede should bee. In the iudgement of the greatest Mariners and soldiers at sea, when there is an vnequalitie in the number of shippes, they esteme it a matter ouer daungerous to fight with them, groundinge them selues vpon this, that one ship is but to fight with ano∣ther, and the aduantage in number doth easilie make them to fight two against one, and if they chaunce to yeelde, yet shee must be faine to come to helpe the rest, and therfore they ne∣uer blame any that shall refuse to fight with like disaduātage, and if one doe it, and winne, yet doe they holde him for o∣ueruenturous, and of no great gouernement, when the qua∣litie of his shipps & men be not answerable to the number of the rest. These the mariners affirme to be the cōsiderations of greatest importāce in giuing of battaile, disposing it so, as one shippe may borde another without pusling two against one, except they be more in number, looking into the qualitie of the pieces of artillerie which the enimie carieth, and whether his shippes be buylded to be able to serue with it or no, with two or three tyres on the sides, according to the burthen of such ships, and whether they be of brasse or the greater parte Page  159 of cast yron, which reacheth nothing so farr, * and is sooner heated.

In time past they kept a great sturr in arming the topps for the mischief which was done to the enimie therby, and now they doe not hold it to be of so great moment, since muskete∣rie is growne in vse, against which they which stande in the tops can hardlie defend themselfes, and as men which stand naked are hurt easelie. For this cause they fit them selues bet∣ter by placing blinders to couer their men, saue such onlie as are necessarie for the gouernement of the shippe, and the rest to abyde in their places, preseruing them selues as long as they can before they come to the push of the pike. This same, & to procure that the poope and prowe may be reared for to combat and defend the entrie, hath made to heythen them with bords on both sides, making them hollow, a little lesse then a geometrical foot, filling vp the hollow with ould netts of fishermen, that may serue to be of muskett prooffe, without clogging the ship much with carging, & when ships haue a long time grapeled, seeing themselues run a ground, and not able to enter to make her yeeld, by reason that her poope is so high, they vse to cast out of them vpon the other shippe, ashes, scalding oyle, and molten lead, to anoy those which stande defending vpon the decke, and running tho∣rough the shrowdes to offende the rest.

They likewise defend with woolbeds & bolsters, or wol∣sackes, if there be anie, those places in the shippes which are most conuenient at such time as they goe to fight, ordayning after that the men stande bestowed in the fower principall places, that they fight in order, and not running them selues out of breath: for that it hath fallen out after grapeling, that shippes haue fought without being able to iudge which was likeliest to haue the victorie, a whole day and a night, & more time too, & serued their turne with wildefire vpon good oc∣casion, because if one haue not the winde, it is a most dange∣rous Page  160 mischiefe to fling fier into his enimie, his owne shippe being likelie to take it, and very hardlie able to lose him selfe.

It may sometime fall out to be in an harbor, and that a more powerfull enemie commeth to fight, in this case it fal∣leth into consideration, according as the harbor is, in which he findeth you, whether it be friend or enimie. Being enimie they must in reason ancker where they are likeliest to receiue least annoyance from the lande, and make them selues readie to fight at sea, one shipp comming as neare to the other as is possible to be ioyned togither, by this meanes standing pre∣pared to defende them selues on all partes, keeping a shipp or pynnes at sea for watch, to giue notice of such as they should descrie: if it be friend, then doe they put the poopes of their shippes as neare shoare as they can, and as close one by ano∣ther, the weather seruing for it, because by doing thus, the e∣nimie shall not dare to come neare them, for feare least their shippes runne a ground, for that they can not be able to staie them comming vnder sayle so neare the shoare without stri∣king or casting Anchor, and the dispositiō of the place so ser∣uing, they drawe Artillerie a shoare to defende the shippes withall, frō whence it reacheth further & with better marke, Being a calme, if the shippes can stande very close togither, they put bridges ouer one another to succor them selues by, and lanche their squiffes and barkes into the sea to stopp that no enimie come to cutt the cables of their anchors, nor to set their shipps on fire, and when the tyde and winde serueth, to keepe anie from sending shipps with artificiall fiers, & mynes wrought in them, which when the fire cōmeth to the mynes should blow vp huge stones, and other like things put vppon the topp of the worke thereof: with which it doeth not only great annoyance, but burning it selfe, setteth all the rest on fier that commeth neare. These boates are to carrie artillerie, and some bring blinders to fight the better with them, and to keepe away shippes of such fyres and inuentions, where no Page  161 bodie goeth in them, they carrie in their boates long ropes, and at the end of them pieces of yron chaines with great gra∣ples to fasten to the ship of fiers, which, after the yron graples haue taken holde on, they may easilie toe, whether they list.

So doeth an Armie of shippes fall out to sayle,* standing in feare, least the enimie sett vpon them in time of calme with a number of gallies; then the best meanes they can vse, if with the calme they be distant one from another, is to lanche out the squiffes, and long boats into the water, and giuing a towe with them to bring the shippes togither, putting them in the best order they can, and the gallies cōming to shoot at them, they serue their turne with the Artillerie, one helping ano∣ther by standing neare togither, procuring in this manner to equall the aduātage which the gallies haue in shooting lowe, & almost leuell with the water, by discharging so great store of pieces, as the gallies must be enforced to loofe of, not able to come to close.

The armie being all of gallies and shipps of oares, they vse to place their wast bordes to fight with them, garnishing well the * rombadas, and to repaire with trauesses, bolsters, and beds the boate and mast, for that in case the enimie should gaine the foreparte, yet he should finde fightes able to turne him out againe, the poope being well renforced with men, and the ladders pulled vp where they putt some litle pieces, the Captain of the gallie standing at the standeroll, which is his place to gouerne, the soldiours keeping their balesteras with their harquebuses, & in the spaces betweene the bankes they are wont to putt trunkes or balls of fire, lighted, to vse them, if occasion require, and pikes, targetts, and halbardes vpon the Cruzia for the same purpose, the men which are not to fight, standing in holde, and the Surgions to cure those that are hurte, and the Carpenters with their instruments, to remedie anie hurte, which might happen on that parte by the fall of anie shott.

Page  162*To order Battayles of shipps of ores, is done, in a front, or in forme of a halfe moone, The Capitana standinge in the middest, garnishing the hornes or wings (as they terme thē) with some gallies of the most strength. In this manner they goe, hauing gotten the weather by ores in the handes, one as near vnto another as they can be permitted for to saile with, hastening way according to the motiue which the enimie discouereth, and when there are a great number of gallies, they leaue squadrons at the sterne of the Capitana, and so at the gallies of most strength others, wherewith to bee able to succour them. In case the enimie should borde them with more gallies, and carrie as they terme it, the winde in his handes by the ores, there can not be a matter of greater mo∣ment to annoy him, thē to blinde him with the smoke of the Artillerie, all the while it lasteth, & to helpe them selues with fires, if occasion serue to borde, a matter which round shipps doe as they can, but those with ores when they liste: and hee which refuseth it must of force receyue the chase, puttinge him selfe in flight, with which they come to borde one ano∣ther, & if there be a disequalitie in number, two against one.

In shooting of the Artillerie before bording, it is to bee considered that it be at such a distance, as to be able to charge the seconde time, because that discharging the Artillerie af∣ter bording, it doth not onely come to hurt with more cer∣teintie, but with a farre greater losse, for that a blowe is of great force at full, a matter which the verie reason of shoo∣ting proueth, through the motion whiche the violence of powder giueth to the bullet, a manner in which the artillerie is mounted in the gallies: And if in assaultes by lande they staie shooting anie piece out of the trauesses, vntill the men be clambered vnto the toppe of the breach, that they may do the more hurte by the certeintie of the shott, two gallies be∣ing borded, which is to come to assalte one another, without all doubt shee shall haue most aduātage which in that season Page  163 and instance is able to helpe her selfe with her full Artillerie: a particular of which great consideration is to be had, and to be esteemed of great moment at that instant to vse artillerie, then before with shooting off great shott, which come all to be lost, and none of that force they are when they come to borde.

If the Armie be compounded of galliasses,* & high round shippes, you must frame the battayle according to the dispo∣sition which the enimie carieth. Prouided that the galiasses, and rounde shippes, in case the weather serue them, shoote first off their Artillerie, because necessarilie it must doe much hurte, and when they shall come to borde such shippes with their gallies, it shall tende much to their aduantage, by the nature of the boording, and likewise the same occasion is to giue lawe, in what maner the battayle shall be disposed, and without doubt the shippes of high building will put the eni∣mies to flight, if some gallies or rowing vessells goe in the vanguarde, and when not, it prouoketh the enimie to borde them.

The Armie being arriued in harbour,* or place where you would lande your men, the Capitana is to giue order to all the shippes, that as soone as they see a flagge put forth of such a colour, they lanche their squiffes and long boates, & em∣barque such men in them as the Generall shall appointe: in which consideration is to be had of the qualitie of the coun∣trye, whether it aske a great quantitie of harquebuserie, and fewer pikes, or more of them, a squadron being presentlie to be made, for feare of the enimies cauallerie, or a golpe of men ioyned togither, the number being cast which euery skiffe can carrie a shoare, then is it to bee ordered, that in euerie squiffe or long boat, a thirde parte of pykes, and two of har∣quebusiers, in such sorte as being tenne pikes, there may bee twentie harquebusiers, The Capitana lanching her owne squiffe or longe boate, and therein such soldiours putt as are Page  164 to goe, an ensigne is to be caried in the prowe of that squiffe onely, which all the rest are to followe, and comming neare vnto the shoare, they holde water turning their poopes vnto it, to vse such little pieces as goe in them, shooting them off if neede be, giuing a tire vpon the enimie to make him stande further from the sea side, and when he will not, then to thrust them a shoare, where a squadron is instantlie to be made, the harquebuserie gayning the most conuenient stand, and with this order the squiffes returne againe to sea to fetche the rest which are to desembarke, an effect which he that is on lande cannot withstand, the inuador being the more powerfull, when he holdeth no place fortified, or furnished with artille∣rie nor that it bee inaccessible, for that he which commeth to land carieth litle pieces, and they on lande being to remoue theirs from one place to another, cannot weilde them with that readines that they are caryed vpon the water: and when their is a place fortified where the men must needs land, then doe they arme their boats with blinders, which couereth the fore parte and serued for a defence, and then letting it to fall when they come to land, it serueth for a bridge, helping them selues with this, and such other maner of barkes, which they defend with sundrie sortes of instruments.

*Albeit that I haue made no profession of a Mariner, the hauing bene a soldiour in some voyages by sea, and present where I haue seene armies inough ioyne, sundry sortes of shippes hauing bene prepared for them, shall excuse mee for entreating of the gouerment thereof, and maner of fight, without writing more at large of marinershippe, for that it is not my profession, referring my selfe as well in this, as in that of the lande seruice to those, whose iudgement is better, and knowe more thorough their great experience, of which I for those yeres I followed the warre in, haue signified vnto Y.H. in seruice of lande and sea, my iudgement, to be most conue∣nient for a Prince like Y.H. to haue the Theorique and pra∣ctise Page  165 thereof, and to aduantage more by this the experience, which occasions may bring, the which hath bene my ende in scribling of these papers, ledde with the desire I holde, that not onelie your souldiors should admire in Y.H. your wise∣dome, and consideration in vndertaking enterprises, liuelines and diligence, in executing of them, dexteritie in camping, and forme of gouerning your Armies and forces, but that it may be an example to the rest of the Princes and Kings, for to come to be called renowmed Captaines of warre, which Y.H. will attaine vnto, and manie other things worthie of so great a Prince, if you will fixe the ende of your Actions, in the seruice of our Lord God,* offering vnto him the greatnes of forces who hath put them into your handes for the aug∣mētation of his glorie and honor, and maintenance of peace and Iustice within your Kingdomes, with which he will be least offended, and most praysed. A blanke on which all men are to looke, euerie one following the vocation of his estate.

Laus Deo.
Vni soli & semper.