The vvorke of Pomponius Mela. the cosmographer, concerninge the situation of the world wherein euery parte, is deuided by it selfe in most perfect manner, as appeareth in the table at the ende of the booke. A booke right plesant and profitable for all sortes of men: but speciallie for gentlemen, marchants, mariners, and trauellers, translated out of Latine by Arthur Golding Gentleman.
Mela, Pomponius., Golding, Arthur, 1536-1606.
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❧ The worke of Pomponius Mela. The Cosmographer, concer∣ninge the Situation of the world, wherin euery parte, is deuided by it selfe in most perfect manner, as appeareth in the Table at the ende of the booke. A booke right plesant and pro∣fitable for all sortes of men: but speciallie for Gentlemen, Marchants, Mariners, and Trauellers, translated out of Latine By Arthur Golding Gentleman.

AT LONDON, Printed for Thomas Hacket, and are to be sold at his shop in Lumbert streete, vn∣the signe of the Popes head. 1585.

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❧To the right Ho∣nourable, Syr William Cicill, of the Noble order of the Garter, Knight, Barron of Burgley, Lord high Treasurer of England, and one of her Maiestyes most honourable pri••e Counsell, health, honour and prosperitie.

INtending long since (my very good Lord) for the benefit and delight of my Coun∣trimen, to haue set foorth a description of the whole world in our owne Language, accor∣ding to the consent of the aun∣cient and late VVriters, I thought this mine Author Pomponius Mela, for hys breefenesse, order, and perspicuitie, to bee a very fitte ground to begin with, for those three partes which were knowen in former ages: purposing, therewithall to haue added some breefe collection of the late wryters, concer∣ning the description of the other partes, which beeing ey∣ther vtterly vnknowen, or very lyghtly and darckly glaun¦ced at by the men of auncient tyme, haue since beene better discouered and brought to light, by the continuall Nauigationes of the trauellers of these our latter yeeres. And as my meaning and hope was then, to haue made this first enterpryse of myne as a frame of a buyldinge, to haue beene set vp and finy shed by mee more exactly, after∣ward Page  [unnumbered] at further leysure, accordinge to the small ability of my poore skyll; or as a roughe hewen Image, to haue beene perfected and polyshed by the industry of some other per∣son of greater readyng, better skyll, and longer experience, and finally to haue beene beautifyed and furnished wyth more particular and large discourses, bothe of the places and of the notablest thinges whych eyther the places themselues doo naturally yeelde, or haue beene doon or made in them by the famousest personages, whome the wrytinges of our auncestors haue made renowmed vnto vs: So least this worke of myne (which hath slept now many yeeres) might passe away as it were in a Lethargy, wher∣by I of the performaunce, and my Conntry of the enioying of any fruite of my duety in this behalfe, myght be vtterly bereft, and so consequently my sayd purpose and the tra∣uell taken to the setting forward thereof, should bee of none effect at all: I haue caused the Printer to put to hys helping hand to the preuenting of that perrill, whych thinge wyl easely be doon, if it may please your good Lord∣shippe (according to your accustomed good wyll towar∣des such as any way indeuour, eyther to further others or to profit themselues, in the knowledge of lyberall Artes) to permitte thys my trauell to shroude it selfe vnder the shadowe of your protectyon, that beeing by your ••∣uour after a sort quickned and cheered vp againe, it may if not growe in tyme to full rypenesse, yet at least∣wyse yeeld the pleasure of the infancy, the delight wherof, may chaunce to bee such as shall prouoke some person, y∣ther to traine it vp to full grouth, or to vndertake the doo∣ing of some better worke of the same kynde. And for the more inlarging hereof with substaūce and variety of mat∣ter, Page  [unnumbered] both delectable and profitable, as farre as tyme would permytte: I haue delyuered vnto the Printer hereof the Polyhistor of Iulius Solinus, and certayne trauelles of one Andrew Theuet, lykewyse translated long a goe to bee added as appendauntes to thys worke of Pomponius Mela, that as they treate though diuesly, yet cheefely of one ground, so they may ioyne in one volume to remayne together to the behofe of posterity, vnder the security of your Lordshyps fauour, vnto the whych I most humbly commend my selfe, and these my simple dooinges,

wrytten thys sixt of February. 1584.

Your good Lordships, most humble alwayes to commaund. Arthur Goldinge.

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❧ The fyrst Booke of that worthy Cosmographer, Pom∣ponius Mela, of the scituation of the world.

His Preface.

I Go about to intreat of the scituation of the World, a combersome worke, & which in no wise admitteth eloquēce. For in a manner, it consisteth wholie of the names of Nati∣ons and places, and of the or∣der of them, which is somewhat troublesome, a matter more tedious than handsome to bring to passe: howbeit right woorthy to be séene and knowne, as that (not for the wit∣tie handling thereof by the writer, but in respect of it selfe,) may sufficientlie recompence the labour of such as take heede to it. An other time I will speake of mo things, and more exactlie. As for now, I will meddle but with the notablest thinges, and that bréeflie. And first, I will shewe the platte of the world, which be the greatest partes therof, how eche one of them lie to other, and howe they are in∣habited. Then will I peruse the outermost of them all a∣gaine, and set out the Sea coasts according as they be, both within and without, and according as the Sea shooteth in∣to them, or beateth about them: with an addition of such thinges as are woorthie remembraunce, in the natures of the Countries, and the inhabiters of them. And to the in∣tent Page  2 this thing may the easilier be conceiued and borne a∣way, the summe of the whole shall be repeated somewhat déepelie.

❧ The deuision of the world into fowre partes.

The first Chapter.

ALI this therefore whatsoeuer it be, which we terme by the name of Heauen and Earth, is one: and in one compasse com∣prehendeth it selfe and all other things, & differeth but in parts. From whence the sunne riseth, is called the East: where it set∣teth, is called the West: his race betwéen them, is called the South: and the quarter ouer against that, is called the North. In the middes héer of the Earth rising in height, is enuironed round about with the Sea, and being cut from the East to the West, into two sides, which are named halfe Spheres, it is distinguished with fiue Zones. Wher∣of the middlemost is combred with heate, the two vtter∣most with cold, & the other two being habitable, haue like seasons of the yéere, but not both at one time. The Antyc∣thones inhabite the one halfe Sphere, & we the other. For as much as the plat of the other is vnknowne, by reason of the heate of the Zone, which is betwéene them and vs: we must entreate of the scituation of ours.

This therefore stretching from the East to the West, and (because it lyeth so) being somewhat more in lenght, than in breadth, where it is broadest: is enclosed wholie with the Occean, from whence it receiueth foure seas: one Page  3 at the North, two at the South, & the ourth at the West. The other thrée shalbe mencioned in their places.* This be∣ing narrowe, and not aboue ten myles ouer, openeth the maine Landes, and entreth into them: where spreading farre and wide, he driueth the shores a great way asunder, and maketh them giue roome: the which on both sides growing almost together againe, doo bring him to such a streight, as he is not full a myle ouer: From thence, howbeit verie leysurelie he wideneth himselfe againe, and anon after, wresteth thorowe a narrower gappe than he went before. And when he hath passed that, he wexeth eftsoones great and huge againe, and with a narrow mouth entreth into a poole which commeth against him, and 〈◊〉 either side of him, beareth the name of our Sea in∣to it. All this is called the maine Sea.

The gappes and enteraunce of the Sea where it com∣meth in, we call Streights, and the Gréekes call it Porth∣mos. Where it floweth in widenesse, it taketh diuers syr∣names, according to the places it beateth vpon. Where it first becommeth narrow, it is called*Hellespont. Where it wideneth againe, it is called*Propontis. Where it streightneth againe, it is called the*Bosphor of Thrace. Where it spreadeth out againe, it is called*Pontus Euxi∣nus. Where it medleth with the Lake, it is called the *Bosphor of Cimmeria, and the Lake it selfe is called *Maeotis. With this Sea, and with two noble Riuers, *Tainas and ilus, is the whole Earth deuided into thrée partes.

Tanais procéeding from the North into the South, fal∣leth well néere into the mids of Maeotis: and right against him falleth Nilus into the Sea. Whatsoeuer Land lyeth from the Streightes to these Riuers, on the one side we call Affricke, and on the other side Europe. That is to say, from the Streightes to Nilus, Affricke: and from the saide Streightes to Tanais, Europe. Whatsoeuer is beyonde, is Asia.

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A breefe description of Asia.

The second Chapter.

ON three sides it is bounded with the Occean, which beareth diuers names ac∣cording to their Coastes: At the sunne ry∣sing, with the east Occean, on the south with the Indish, and on the North with the Scithish. The Countrie of Asia it selfe, facing the East with a large and continuall front, dooth there spreade as much in widenesse, as is the breadth of Europe & Affricke, and the Sea that is let in betwéene them both. After it hath procéeded from thence, kéeping his full bredth, it recei∣ueth out of the saide Indish Occean, the Arabian and Per∣sian Sea, and out of the Scithish Occean, the Caspian Sea: and therefore where it receiueth those Seas, it is some∣what narrowed, but by and by it wideneth againe, and be∣commeth as broade as it was before. Lastlie, when it is come to his owne end, and to the marches of other Lands, the middle part of it butteth vpon our Seas, and the rest of it, runneth on the one side vp by Nilus, and on the other side by*Tanais. The vttermost boundes thereof, come downe with the channel of Nilus, along the riuers side into the Sea, & a great while together keepeth chéeke by chéeke with it, as the shore goeth. Then steppeth he foorth to meete the Sea as it commeth against him, and there first bendeth himselfe with a great bought. Afterward he bea∣reth himselfe foreward with a huge front, to the streight of Hellespont. From thence againe he bendeth askew to the*Bosphor, and bowing likewise by the side of Pontus, turneth backe, with an elbowe to the enteraunce of Maeo∣tis: and thencefoorth imbracing the Lake, as it were in a bosome, euen vnto Tanais, he becommeth the banke of Ta∣nais, euen to the head of it.

Page  5We vnderstand that the first men in Asia Eastward,* are the Indians, Seres, and Scithians. The Seres inhabite almost the middle part of the East,* the Indians and Scithi∣ans,* the two vttermost partes: both peoples extending farre and wide, and not onelie toward the East Occean. For the Indians stretch also into the South,* and with sun∣drie Nations of their owne, one by an other, possesse all the Sea coast of the Indishe Occean, sauing where the heate maketh it vnhabitable.* And the Scithians likewise ex∣tende into the North, and to the Scithish Occean, (sauing where they be kept of with colde) euen vnto the Caspian gulfe.

Next vnto India is A••ane,* and Gedrosis, and Persis, euen vnto the gulfe of Persia, this gulfe is enuironed with the people of Persis, and the other with the people of Ara∣bia. All that is from Arabia vnto Affricke, belongeth vn∣to the Ethiopians.* On the other side are the Caspians, next neighbours to the Scithians, beyonde whome are the Amazones, and out beyonde them are the Hyperboreans. The mid land Countrie,* is inhabited by many and diuers Nations: as the Gaudars, and Paricans, the Bactrians, and Susians, the Pharmacotrophies, the Bomarins, the Coa∣mans, the Rophans, and the Dahans. Upon the Scithians, and the Desartes of Scithia, and vpon the Caspian gulfe, are the Comars, the Massagets, the Cadusians, the Hyrcani∣ans, and the Hyberians. Upon the Amazons and Hyper∣boreans, lye the Cimmerians, the Scithians, the Eniochi∣ans, the Georgians, the*Mosches, the Corsites, the Pho∣ristes, the Ryphakes, and where the Countrie passeth a∣long vnto our Seas, the Mardes, the Antibaraeans: and from thence somewhat better knowne names, the Medes, the Armenians, the Comagenes, the Murrans, the Vegets, the Cappadocians, the Galgreekes, the Lycaonians, the Phrygians, the Pysidians, the Isaurians, the Lydians, and the Syrocilicians. Againe, of those that lye Southward, * Nations of one selfe sam name, inhabite the innermost coastes vnto the gulfe of Persia. Uppon this gulfe lye the Page  6Parthians and Assyrians, and vpon the other* gulfe lye the Babylonians. Under Ethyope, the Egyptians possesse all the coast,* along the bankes of Nilus, the riuer of Egipt vn∣to the Sea. Then stretcheth Arabia, with a narowe front, to the next Seacoast. From Arabia, vnto the bought that we spake of before, lyeth Syra, and in the verie bought it¦selfe, lyeth Silicia: and without the bought lye Lycia and Pamphilia, Caria, Ionia, Aeolis, and Troas, vnto Helles∣pont. From thence to the Bosphor of Thrace, is Bithinia. About Pontus, lye certaine Nations with seuerall bounds, called all by one name, Pontians. Upon the Lake of Maeo∣tis, border the Maeotians, and vpon Tanas the*Sauro∣mates.

A breefe description of Europe.

The third Chapter.

EVrope is bounded on the East, with T∣nais, and Maeotis, and Pontus; on the South, with the rest of our Sea, on the West with the Athlantish Occean, and on the North with the British Occean. The Easterne coast thereof, from Tanais to Hellespont, and all along the banke of the saide Riuer, and where it gathereth the bow∣ing of the Lake to the Bosphor, and where it lyeth with his side against Pontus, Propontis, and Hellespont: is not onelie scituate directlie ouer against Asia, but also is lyke vnto it in fashion of shores.

Betwéene that and the Streightes, sometime shrinking a great way backe,* and sometime shooting forward againe, it maketh thrée verie great Bayes, and with as manie great frontes aduaunceth it selfe into the déepe. Without the Streightes Westwarde, it is verievneuen, speciallie Page  7 in the middes: but where it runneth by North, if lyeth al∣most as streight out, as if it were drawne by a lyne, sauing onelie in one or two places, where it retyreth a great waie in.* The Sea which it receiueth, in the first Baie, is called Aegaean: that which followeth in the next, is in the mouth of it called Ionishe, and innermore, Adriatishe: that which is receyued in the last Baye, we call Tuscan, and the Greekes Tyrrhene. Of Nations, the first is Scithia, (an other Countrie that we spake of before) extending from Tanais,* well neere to the one halfe of the side of Pon∣tus. From hence into a part of the Aegaean coast, lyeth ioyntlie the maine lande of Macedonia and Thrace.

Then bolteth out Greece, and deuideth the Aegaean Sea, from the Ionishe Sea. All along the side of the Adria∣tishe Sea, lyeth Ilirike.* Betwéene the saide Adriatishe Sea, and the Tuscan Sea, runneth foorth Italie. In the innermost part of the Tuscan Sea, is Fraunce, and beyond that is Spaine. These lye from the East to the West, vppon the South* It faceth the North also with diuers fronts. For on that side is Fraunce againe, extending all the way from* our Sea thither. From thence stretcheth Germany, to the Sarmatians, and they againe to Asia. Thus much as concerning Europe.

A breefe description of Affricke.

The fourth Chapter.

AFfricke is bounded on the East part, with the riuer Nile,* and on the other partes with the Sea. It is shorter then Europe, in as¦much as it extendeth any where against the seacostes of Asia, nor lyeth side for side a∣gainst the sea▪ coastes of Europe.

Page  8Neuerthelesse, it is more in length then in breadth: and it is broadest, where it boundeth on the Riuer. And as it procéedoth from thence, so rysing higher and higher, with mountaines, speciallie in the middle, it bendeth askew to∣ward the West, and gathereth softlie into a ridge, and therefore in continuaunce, groweth somewhat narrower: where it endeth, there is it narrowest. As much of it as is inhabited, is excéeding fruitfull. But for as much as most places of it are vnmanured, and eyther couered with bar∣reine sandes, or left vntylled, by reason of the drought of the ayre and the soyle, or else with many kindes of beasts: it is rather waste, then well peopled. The Sea where∣with it is inclosed, on the North we call Lybik••, on the South Ethyopish, and on the West Athlantish. On that side that butteth vpon the Lybike Sea, next vnto Nyle, is the Prouince which they call Cyrene.* Then followeth Affricke, whereof the whole Countrie taketh his name. The rest is possessed of the Numidians and Moores: of whome the Moores extend to the Athlantish Occean. Be∣yond are the Nigrites, and Pharusians, vnto Ethyope. The Ethyopians possesse both the rest héereof, and all that side which faceth the South, euen vnto the borders of Asia. But aboue those places that are beaten vpon wth the Lybike Sea, are the Lybiaegyptians, and the white Ethyopians, and the populous and manifolde Nation of the Getulians. From thence lyeth a great wide Countrie together, all vt∣terlie waste and vnhabited. Then the first that we heare of Eastward, are the Garamantes, and next them the Aw∣gyles and Troglodikes, and lastlie toward the West, the Athlant. Innermost (if ye lyst to beléeue it) the Egy∣panes,*Blemyans, Gamphasants, and Satyres (scarce men, but rather halfe Beastes,) wandring vp and downe with∣out house or home, rather haue the Landes then inhabite them.

This is the vniuersall platte of the World, these are the great partes, these are the fashions, and the Nations of the partes. Now that I must speake of the boundes and bor∣ders Page  9 of them seuerally, it is most handsome to begin, where our Sea entreth first into the maine Landes, and specially at those Countries that lye on the right hand, as it cōmeth in, and so to scoure the Sea coast in order as it lyeth, and when I haue perused all thinges that butte vpon the Sea, then also to cast about those quarters that are enuironed with the Occean, vntyll that hauing trauailed about the world, as well within as without, the race of my attemp∣ted worke, returne to the place where it began.

A particular description of Affricke. Of Mauritania.

The fift Chapter.

IT is saide before, that it is the Ath∣lantishe Occean, which toucheth the maine lande on the West. From hence as men sayle into our Sea, Spaine is on the lefte hand, and Mauritania on the right. These are the first parts, the one of Europe, the other of Affricke. The end of the coast of Mauritania, is Mulucha: the head and beginning thereof is the Promontorie, which the Gréekes call*Ampelusia, and the Afres by an other worde, that hath the same meaning. In the same is a caue hallowed to Hercules, and beyond the Caue a very auncient Towne called Tingi,* builded (as men saye) by Antaeus. And there remaineth a Monument of the thing, namelie, a huge Shield, of the hide of an Elyphant, vnable to be wéelded of any man now a dayes, by reason of the greatnesse thereof, which the dwellers thereabouts beléeue, and report for a certaintie to haue béene carried by Antaeus, and therefore they honour it as a Relicque.

Page  10Then is there a verie high Mountaine,* set directlie ouer against that which is in Spaine, That in Spaine is named Abyla, and the other is named Calp, and both of them b called the Pillers of Hercules. Uppon the naming of them so, Fame hath forged a Fable, that Hercules cutte a sunder those two hylles, which erewhiles grewe whole together in one continuall ridge, and by that meanes did let in the Occean, which erst was shut out by the force of the Moun∣taines, vnto the places which it now ouerfloweth. From hence the Sea spreadeth wider, and through his great vio∣lence, eateth winding gulfes into the maine Landes, which he disseuereth farre a sunder: Howbeit the Realme is vnnoble, and hath scarce any thing famous in it, it is inha∣bited with small Uillages, and fendeth foorth small brookes: it is better of soile then of men, & altogether vnrenowmed, by reason of the slouthfulnesse of the people. Notwith∣standing, among the thinges that I maye vouchsafe to re∣port, are certaine high Mountaines, which being set on a rowe one by an other, as it were for the nonce, are (by rea∣son of their number and likenesse one to an other) called the seuen brethren. There is also the riuer Tamuada, and Rusicada, and Siga, lyttle Citties, and a Hauen, which for the largenesse thereof, is syr named the great Hauen. The foresaide riuer Mulucha, is the bound of the Kingdomes of Bocchus and Iugurth, which were puissaunt Realmes in olde time.

Of Numidia.

The sixth Chapter.

FRom the saide riuer Mulucha, to the banke of the riuer Ampsaga, lyeth Numi∣dia: not so large a Country as Mauritania, but better peopled, and wealthier. Of the Citties which are in it, the greatest are Page  11Cirta,* farre from the Sea, now inhabited by the Sittians, and in times past, the Pallace of King Iuba and King Sy∣phax, when it was in greatest wealth: Iol sometime verie base, but now verie famous, in as much as it hath béene the Pallace of Iuba, and is called*Caesarea. On the hither¦side of this Cittie (for it standeth almost in the mid shore) are the Towns of Cartenna and Arsenaria, and the Castle Ampsa, and the gulfe Laturus, and the riuer Sardabale: and beyond it, is the common buriall place of the blood Roi∣all. Then comme Citties of Iasion, and Vthisia, and the brookes of Ancus and Nabar, falling betwéene them into the Sea: and certaine other thinges, which to suppresse with silence, is neither losse of matter, nor preiudice to fame.* Innermost, and a great way off from the shore, (a woonderfull matter, if it be to be beléeued) the backe bones of Fishes, broken shelles of Murreies and Disters, Stones worne, as is woont to be with beating waues, and not differing, Anchors fastened as in rocks of the Sea, and other such like signes and tokens of the Sea, flowing euen vnto those places in times past, are reported to be, and to be found in the barreine féelds that beare nothing.

The lesser Affricke.

The seuenth Chapter.

THe Countrie that followeth from the Foreland of Metagonium, to the Philens al∣tars, dooth properlie beare the name of Af∣fricke. In it are the Townes of Hippo Rhegius, and Rusicade, and Tabraca. Then thrée Forelands, called the white Mount, Appollos Mount, and Mercuries Mount, shooting hugelie into the déepe, make two great Bayes. The hithermost is called Hippon of Hippo Diarrhytus, which is a Towne standing vppon the riuadge of it.

Page  12At the other are Laelyes campe, Cornellis campe, the ri∣uer Bragada,* the Citties of Vtica, and Carthage, both fa∣mous, and both builded by the Phaenicians: Vtica innobled with the destruction of Cato, and Carthage for the destruc∣tion of it selfe: now a frée Towne of the Romanes, and in old time a striuer with them for their Empire: euen now againe wealthie, and euen now more famous for her for∣mer destruction, then for her present recouery. From hence the*Syrt, stand Leptis, Clupea, Abrotanum, Taphre and Naples, as among bace thinges the famousest. The mouth of the Syrt,* where it taketh in the open Sea, is almost a hundred myles broade, and it is thrée hundred myles com∣passe by the bankes of it: but it is harbroughlesse and rough, and partlie by reason of the numbers of shallowes, quicke sandes, and flattes that are in it, but more for the changeable alteration of the sea, in his ebbing and flowing, it is excéeding daungerous.

Aboue this is a great Poole, which receyueth into it the riuer Triton, and the Poole it selfe is also called Triton, Whereof Minerua hath one of her syr names,* because (as the inhabiters thereabouts suppose) she was bred there. And they make the tale to haue some likelyhood of trueth, because they kéepe holie the same daye, which they thinke she was borne on, with solemme Ioustes and Tourneies of young Maidens. Beyond that, is the Towne Oea, and the riuer Cimphis, which runneth through most fruitfull féeldes.

Then is there an other Leptis, and an other Syrt, of like name and nature to the former,* but almost halfe as bigge againe as the other, both at the mouth and in the compasse of it. Unto this belongeth the Foreland of Boreon: and the coast beginning at the same,* (which the Loteaters are reported to haue possessed,) from thence foorth to Phycus, (which also is an other Forelande) it is altogether har∣broughlesse.* The Altars aforesaide, tooke their name of two brethren, called Philes, who being sent from Car∣thage against the Cyrenians, to make a finall end of warre Page  13 that had béene long betwéene them, for the bounds of their Countries, to the great slaughter of both partes: when couenaunt was not kept according to agréement, (which was, that wheresoeuer the Ambassadours mette, which were sent out of both Citties at a time prefixed, there should be the boundes of both the Realmes) vppon coue∣naunting a new, that whatsoeuer was on this side, should fall to the lotte of their owne countreyfolke, suffered them selues to be buried quicke in this place: a wonderful thing, and right worthy to be had in remembraunce.

Of Cyrenaica.

The eight Chapter.

FRom thence to Catabathmos, is the Pro∣uince of Cyrenaica, wherin are the Oracles of Hammon, famous for the assured trueth therof, and a fountaine which they call Son∣newell,* and a certaine Mountaine, holie to the South winde. For if this Hyll be touched with mans hand, the winde ryseth excéeding boistrous, and turmoy∣ling the sandes, as it were waters, rageth as the sea dooth with waues.* The Well at midnight, is scalding whote: afterward by lyttle & lyttle, falling to be but luke warme, at day light it becommeth colde: and as the sunne ryseth in heigth, it wexeth colder and colder, so that at noone it is most extreamelie colde. From that time it gathereth heate againe, and in the beginning of the night becommeth warme, and as it groweth further in the night, it encrea∣seth more in heate, so that at midnight it is sealding where againe.

Upon the shore, are the Forclandes of Zephyrion and Naustthmos, the Hauen of Paraetonie,* and the 〈◊〉, Hesperia, Apollonia, Ptolemais, A••moe, and 〈◊〉 it selfe, whereof the whole Countrie taketh his 〈◊〉Page  14Catabathmos, (which is a slope valley, shoring downe to Egipt-ward) is the vttermost bound of Affricke.

Thus are the coastes inhabited,* for the most part with ciuill people, after the manner of our Countries, sauing that some of them differre in languages, and in the seruing of their Goddes, which they kéepe of their owne Countrie, worshipping them after their owne Countrie fashion. There are no Citties neere one to an other, howbeit there be houses which are called Uillages. Their fare is harde and without cleanlinesse. The Noble men and Gentle¦men goe in Cassockes, and the common people are cladde in skinnes of Cattell and wilde Beastes: the grounde is their bedde to rest on, and their Table to feede on. Their vesselles are made, eyther of woodde or of barke: their drinke is milke, and the iuice of berries: their meate is for the most part Uenison, for they spare their Cattell as long as they can, because it is the onelie best thing which they haue.

The vplandishe folke doo yet after a more rude fashion, wander abroade following their Cattell:* and according as pasturage leadeth them, so remoue they themselues and their sheddes from place to place, and wheresoeuer day ai∣leth them, there they abide all night. And albeit that be∣ing thus euerie where scattered by householdes, and with∣out any lawe, they consult not in common vpon any thing: yet notwithstanding, for as much as euerie of them hath many Wiues at once, and by reason thereof many Chil∣dren and kinsefolke, there neuer liueth any small company of them together in one place.

Of those sortes of people,* which are reported to be be∣yonde the Wyldernesse, the Athlantes curse the Sunne, both when he ryseth, and when he setteth, as noysome both to themselues and to their groundes. They haue no names seuerallie, neither feede they of any thing that beareth life, neither is it giuen them to see such thinges in their sleepe, as other men sée.

Page  15The Troglodites,* possessing not any goodes at all, doo rather iabber than speake, dwelling in Caues vnder the ground, and séeding vpon Serpentes.

Among the Garamants,* also are those kinde of Cattell that graze sideling, with their neckes awrie, for their hornes growing downe to the groundwarde, will not suf∣fer them to féede right foreward. No man there, hath any Wife of his owne. They that are euerie where borne, of this vncertaine and confused companying together, take those for their fathers, whome they most resemble in coun∣tenaunce and making.

The Awgyles thinke there are none other Gods,* but the Ghostes of dead men. By them they sweare, at them they aske counsell, as at Oracles: and when they haue prayed what they would haue, they lye downe vppon their graues, and receyue dreames for aunsweres. It is a solempne custome among them, that their Women, the first night they are married, shall abandon themselues to the common abuse of all men that come with reward: and it is counted the greatest honour that may be, to haue had to doo with many, at that tyme: but euer after, they kéepe themselues excéeding chaste.

The Gamphasantes are naked,* and 〈◊〉 vtterlie ignoraunt o all manner of armour: knowing neither howe to shun a Darte, nor yet howe to throwe it: and therefore if they méete any bodie, they runne away, and dare not eyther come in companie, or 〈◊〉 communicate with any other, then such as be of their owne disposition and nature.

The Blemmyes are without headdes,* and haue theyr faces in theyr breastes.* The Satyres haue nothing of man, sauing shape. The shape of the*Aegypanes is such, as it is reported to be. And thus much of Af∣fricke.

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A particular description of Asia. Of Egipt.

The ninth Chapter.

EGipt, the first part of Asia, lying between atabathmos and Arabia, draweth altoge∣ther inward* from this shore, and runneth styll Southwarde, vntyll it beare vppon Ethyope with his backe. This Land is al∣waies without raine, but yet woonderfull fertyle, and a very fruitfull mother, both of men & other li∣uing wights.* The cause héereof is Nilus, the greatest riuer of all those that fall into our Sea. This streame springing out of the Desartes of Affricke, is neyther by and by sayle∣able, nor by and by called by the name of Nile: but when he hath come downe a long way, single, and yet rough: a∣bout Meroe a verie large Iland, it is sheaded into Ethy∣ope, and on the one side is called Astaboras, and on the o∣ther side Astapus. Where it commeth together againe into one channell, there it taketh the name of Nile. From thence, partlie rough, and partlie sayleable, it falleth into a great Lake, through which it sweepeth with a violent course, and imbracing another Ile called Tachempso, run∣neth downe to Elephant, a Cittie of Egipt, all the way as yet styll rough and raging. Then at length wexing some∣what mylder, and now in manner sayleable: first about the Towne of Cercassye, it beginneth to haue thrée chan∣nelles. Afterward, deuiding it selfe once or twise more, at Delta and Metilin, it passeth on wandring, and dispear∣sed through Egipt, and at length parting it selfe into seuen channels, and yet continuing verie huge in euerie of them, it falleth into the* Sea. It dooth not onelie wade through Egipt, but also ouerflowing it in the chéefe of summer, Page  17 moysteth it with waters so effectuall to engender and nourish,* that ouer and besides that it swarmeth with Fish, and bréedeth Water-horsses and Crocodiles which are huge monstruous Beastes, it also sheadeth life into the cloddes, and shapeth liuing creatures of the verie moolde. Which thing is héereby manifest, for that when he hath ceased flowing, and is fallen againe within his channell, there are séene in the moyst féeldes, certaine creatures as yet not perfect, but then first beginning to receyue breath, in some part hauing already their full shape, and in part as yet starke earth.

Moreouer,* it increaseth, eyther because the snowe, being melted with the great heate, falles more aboundantly from the great high Mountaines of Ethyope, then that it can be receyued into his bankes: or else because the Sunne, wich in winter time was néerer the ground, and therefore abated his spring, now in summer time mounteth higher, and suffereth it to ryse whole and full, as it should be: or else for that the North east windes, which ordinarilie blo∣wing in that season of the yéere, driuing the clowdes from the North into the South, doo powre downe showres vpon the head of his spring, or méeting his streame by the waye with contrarie blastes, doo staie his course in the comming downe, or else stoppe his mouthes with sande, which they driue to the shore together with the waues: and so it be∣commeth greater, eyther because it loseth nothing of it selfe, or because it receyueth more then ordinarie, or be∣cause it vttereth lesse than it should doo.

But if there be an other World, and that the Antictho∣nes. goe féete to féete against vs in the South, it were not much vnlyke to be true, that the riuer rising in those Landes, after it hath pearced vnder the Sea in a priuie channell, should vent againe in our World, and by that meanes increase at the standing of the 〈◊〉, for as much as it is winter at that time he springeth.

Other meruailous thinges also are in this Land.* In a certayne Lake, there is an Ile* called Chimmis, which Page  18 bearing Woods and Forrests, & a great Temple of Apol∣los, floteth, and is driuen which way so euer the winde blo∣weth. Bridges builded of Stones▪ thirtie foote square a péece,* whereof the greatest (for there are thrée of them) con∣taineth well néere foure acres of ground at the bottome, and is full as much in height.

Maeris,* sometime a plaine féeld, and now a Lake of twen∣tie myle compasse about, déeper of water then any great Shippes, full fraughted doo drawe. Also a Maze* made by Sammetichus, conteining (within the compasse of one whole entire wall) a thousand houses and twelue Palaces, builded wholie of Marble, roofe and all: which hauing but one going downe into it, had within it waies almost in∣numerable, turning hither and thither, with many wind∣lasses, altogether doubtfull with continuall steppes, and of∣ten réere-vaultes, which winding rounde one aboue an o∣ther, and eftsoones retyring backe, as much as they had gone foreward, made it so busie and entangled, that a man could not deuise how to winde himselfe out.

The inhabiters of the Realme,* demeane themselues farre otherwise then other men. In mourning for theyr dead, they besmere themselues with doong, and they thinke it not lawfull to burne them or burie them: but by the ad∣uise of Poticaries, they kéepe them preserued in their pri∣uie chambers. They write their Letters awkelie. They temper claie with their hands, and knéede dowe with their féete. Their Women pleade matters in Courtes, and looke to forreine affayres, and the men spin and carde, and take charge of the house at home. The Women beare bur∣thens on their shoulders, & the men on their heads. When the Parentes fall in pouertie, the women are bounde of necessitie to finde them, the men are at choice. They eate their meate openlie, and without their doores, and doo their naturall néedes in the innermost partes of their houses.

They worshippe the shapes of many Beastes,* or (to saye the trueth) the verie beastes themselues, some one Beast, Page  19 and some an other: in so much as it is a matter of life and death to haue kylled some Beastes, euen vnwares. And when they die either by disease or by mischaunce, it is their custome to burie them and mourne for them.

The common God of all the people is Apis, a blacke Bull, marked with certaine spottes, and vnlyke other Bulles in tongue and fayle. It is a rare matter to finde one of that bréede. For (as they holde opinion) he is not engendered by a Beast of the same kinde, but is concey∣ued by supernaturall power of heauenlie fire, and the daye that he is calued, is helde for a most holie and Feastiuall daye, of all the whole Nation.

They being (by their owne assertion) the auncientest of all Nations,* haue registred in autentike Chronicles, thrée hundred and thirtie Kinges before Amasis, and the continuaunce of aboue thirtéen thousand yéeres. And they kepe it written in good Recordes, that in the tyme that the Egiptians haue continued, the Starres haue foure times altred their courses, and the Sunne hath twise gone down where it now ryseth.

In the raigne of Amasis,* they inhabited twentie thou∣sande Citties, and nowe also they inhabite verie many. The notablest of them, farre from the Sea, are Say, Memphis, Syene, Bubastis, Elephant, and Thebes, which hath (as is reported in Homer) a hundred Gates, or (as other saye) a hundred Pallaces, the houses of so ma∣ny Princes, eche of which Pallaces (as the state of af∣fayres required) was wont to send foorth ten thousande armed men.

On the shore standeth Alexandria,* by the Marches of Affricke: Pelusium cutteth the borders of Arabia. The names of the mouthes of Nyle, are Canopicum, Bolbi∣ticum, Sebenuiticum, Pathnuiticum, Mendesium, Tani∣cum, and Pelusiacum.

Page  20

Of Arabia.

The tenth Chapter.

ARabia, extendeth from thence to the redde Sea: and being thencefoorth more pleasaunt and plentifull, it aboundeth in Frankinsence and Spices. In the hither part (sauing where Mount Casius maketh it high) it is altogether plaine and barren: and there it receyueth the Hauen of Azotus, which is the Mart Towne and vent for the wares of that Countrie. Where this hyll mounteth in height, it is so high, that from the toppe of it, a man maye sée the Sunne in the * fourth watch.

Of Syria.

The eleuenth Chapter.

SYria runneth a great way along the Sea coast, and verie farre also into the mayne Land, and is called by sundrie names.* For it hight Caele, and Mesopotamia, and Da∣mascene, and Adiabene, and Babilonia, and Iewrie, and Sophene: furthermore, it beareth the name of Palestine, where it butteth vpon Arabia and Phaenicia, and where it ioyneth to Cilicia, it is called Antioche. In olde time and a long while together, it was a puissant Realme: but most puissant when Semiramis reigned ouer it. There are surelie many notable workes of hers,* but two of them passe all the rest: namelie, the building of that wonderfull great Cittie Babilon, and the letting in of the riuers Eu∣phrates and Tigris, into those Countries which before time were drie. Howbeit in Palestine, there is a great and strong Page  21 fortified Towne called Gaza,* for so the Persians terme a Treasorie: and thervpon it tooke that name, because when Cambises inuaded Egipt with warre, he bestowed his pro∣uision for the warres and all his Treasure there. There is also Ascalon,* as bigge as the other. And there is*Ioppa builded (by report) before the flood: where the dwellers by, affirme that Cepheus reigned, vpon likelihood, for that certaine olde Altars, with great shewe of holinesse, haue in them styll ingrauen, the names of him and of his brother Phineus.

And besides that, for a more assuraunce of the thing so renowmed in verses and olde tales, and of the sauing of Andromade by Perseus: they shewe for a plaine Monu∣ment, the excessiue great bones of the Monstar of the Sea.

Of Phaenicia.

The twelfth Chapter.

PHaenicia, is renowmed for the Phaenici∣ans, a pollitique kinde of men, and both in feates of warre and peace péerelesse.* They first inuented Letters, and Letter matters, and other Artes also: as to goe to the Sea with Shippes, to fight vpon the water, to reigne ouer Na∣tions, to set vp Kingdomes, and to fight in order of battell. In it is Tyre,* sometime an Ile, but nowe ioyned to the firme Land, since the time that Alexander made workes about it to assault it. Further foorth, stand certaine small Uillages, and the Cittie of Sidon,* euen yet styll wealthie, and in olde time the greatest of all the Citties vppon the Sea coast, before it was taken by the Persians.

Betwéene that and the foreland of*Euprosopon, there are two Townes, called Byblos and Botris: and beyonde them were thrée other, ech distaunt a furlong a sunder, and therefore the place was of the number called Tripolis:**Page  22 then follow the Castle Simyra, and a Cittie not vnrenow∣med, called Marathos. From thence the Countrie being not crooked with the Sea, but lying right foorth side by side vnto it, bendeth his shore into the maine Land, and recei∣ueth a great Baye. About the which dwell ritch people, the cause whereof is the scituation of the place, for that the Countrie being fertyle, and furnished with many Riuers, able to beare Shippes, serueth well for the easie exchaunge and conueying in of all kinde of wares, both by Sea and Land.

Within that Baye,* is first the residue of Syria, which is syrnamed Antioche, and on the shore thereof, stande the Citties Seleuca, Paltos, Beritos, Laodicia, and Arados: be∣twéene which Citties runne the Riuers Lychos, Hypatos, and Orontes. Then followeth the Mountaine Amanus, immediatlie from whence beginneth Myriandros, and Cilicia.

Of Cilicia.

The thirteenth Chapter.

IN the innermost retreite, there is a place, sometime of great renowme, as a beholder and witnesse bearer of the dis∣comfiture of the Persians by great A∣lexander, and of the flight of Darius: at that time hauing in it a famous great Cittie called Issos, whereof the Bay▪ is named the Bay of Issos,* but now hauing not so much as a lyttle Towne. Farre from thence lyeth the Foreland A∣manoides, betwéene the Riuers Pyramus and Cydnus, Pyramus being the néerer to Issos, runneth by Mallon, and Cydnus, runneth out beyond through Tarsus. Then is there a Cittie possessed in olde time by the Rhodians and Argiues, and afterward at the appointment of Pompey by Page  23 Pyrates, now called Pompeiople, then called Soloe.

Hard by, on a lyttle hyll,* is the Tombe of the Poet Ara∣tus, woorthy to be spoken of, because it is vnknowne, why stones that are cast into it doo leape about. Not farre from hence, is the Towne Corycos, enuironed with a Hauen and the salt water, and ioyned with a narrowe balke to the firme Land.

Aboue it is a Caue named Corycus,* of singular nature, and farre more excellent, then may with ease be described. For gaping with a wide mouth, euen immediatlie from the toppe it openeth▪ the Mountaine butting vpon the Sea, which is of a great height, as it were of a ten furlonges. Then going déepe downe, and the furder downe the lar∣ger, it is gréene round about with budding Trées, & casteth it selfe into a round vaulte on both sides, full of wooddes, so meruailous and beautifull, that at the first it amazeth the minds of them that come in to it, & yet maketh them thinke they haue neuer séene inough of it. There is but one going downe into it, narrow and rough, of a mile & a halfe long, by pleasaunt shadowes and couerts of wooddes, yéelding a certaine rude noyse, with riuers trickling on either hand. When ye come to the bottome, there againe openeth an o∣ther Caue, woorthy to be spoken of for other things. It ma∣keth the enterers into it afraide with the din of Timbrels, which make a gastly and great ratling within. Afterward, being a whyle lightsome, & anon the further ye go, wexing darker, it leadeth (such as dare aduenture) quite out of sight, & carrieth them déepe, as it were in a Mine: where a mightie riuer rysing with a great brest, dooth but onelie shew it selfe, and when it hath gushed violentlie a while in a short chanell, sinketh downe againe, and is no more séene. Within is a waste space, more horrible then that any man dare pearce into it, and therefore it is vnknowne. It is al∣together statelie and vndoubtedlie holie, and both woorthy, and also beléeued to be inhabited of Goddes. Euery thing presenteth a statelynesse, and setteth out it selfe with a certaine Maiestie.

Page  24There is an other beyond, which they call Typhos* caue, with a narrow mouth, and (as they that haue tried it doo report) verie lowe, and therefore dimmed with continuall darknesse, and not easie to be sought out: howbeit, because it was sometime the chamber of the Giant Typho, an be∣cause it nowe out of hand stifleth such thinges as are let downe into it, it is woorthy to be mencioned for the nature thereof, and for the tale that is reported of it. Beyond that, are two Forlandes, that is to say, Sarpedon, some∣time the bound of King Sarpedons Realme, and Anemu∣rium, which parteth Cilicia from Pamphilia, and betwéene them Celendris and Natidos Towns builded and peopled by the Samians, whereof Celendris is néerer to Sarpedon.

Of Pamphilia.

The foureteenth Chapter.

IN Pamphilia, is a Riuer able to beare Shippes, called Melas,* a Towne called Sida, and an other Riuer called Eurimedon.* At this Riuer, Cymo Captaine of the Atheni∣ans, gat a great victorie of the Persians and Phaenicians, in a battell vpon the water. Into the Sea where this battell was fought, out of a verie high hyll loo∣keth the Towne of Aspendos, which was builded by the Argiues, and inhabited by the people of the Countrie about it.

Then are there two other mightie streames, called Oestros and*Cataractes. Oestros is easie to be sayled: the other hath his name of his headlong fall. Betwéene them is the Towne Perga, and the Temple of Diana, which of the Towne is syr named Pergaea. Beyond them is Mount Sardeisos, and Phaselis a Towne builded by Mopsus, which is the end of Pamphilia.

Page  25

Of Lycia.

The fifteenth Chapter.

SVccessiuelie, Lycia so called of Lycus, the sonne of King Pandion, & (as report goeth) annoyed in olde time with the fires of Chi∣maera, encloseth a great Bay, betwéene the Hauen of Sida, and the Foreland of Taurus. Mount Taurus it selfe rising of a huge height at the Ea∣sterne sea shore,* procéedeth streight foorth in one continuall ridge from thence into y West, with his right side toward the North, and his left side toward the South, boūding ma∣ny great Nations▪ where he runneth out in bankes, and where he deuideth the Countries, he passeth to the Sea. As Taurus is the generall name of him whole together,* so is it also his name, where he faceth the East: next he is cal∣led Haemodes, and Caucasus, and aropamisus: then Cas∣pian Streights, Niphates, and the Streights of Armenia, and (where he butteth vpon our Sea) Taurus againe. Be∣hind his saide Foreland, is the riuer Lymira▪* and a Cittie of the same name, and a number of Towns of no great re∣nowme, sauing Patara, which is ennobled by the Temple of Apollo, sometime like to that at Delphos, as well in ritches as also for the truenesse of the Oracle. Beyond is the riuer Panthus, and the Towne Panthos: the Mountaine Crag, and the Cittie Telmisos, which endeth Lycia.

Of Caria.

The sixteenth Chapter.

AFterward followeth Caria, inhabited with people of an vnknowne beginning: some thinke them to be bred in the Land, some thinke they were Pelasgians, other∣some thinke they were Candians, a kinde of Page  26 people louing feates of Armes and fighting, so well, that for wages they serued also in forreine and strange warres. Héere are a fewe Castles, and then the two Forelandes of Pedalion and Crya, and by the Riuer Calbis syde, the Towne of Caunus, diffamed for the ••••thinesse of the inhabiters.

From thence to Halycarnassus, lye these thinges, cer∣taine Townes of the Rhodians: two Hauens, the one na∣med Gelos, and the other Thissamissa, according to the name of the Cittie that it enuironeth. Betwéene them is the Towne of Larumna, and the Hyll Pandion shooting into the Sea. The thrée Bayes on a rowe, Thymnias, Schaenus, and Bubessus. The Foreland of Thymnias, is Aphrodisium: Schaenus enuironeth Hylas: and Bubessus compasseth about Cynotus. Guidus standeth in an angle of a péece of ground, enclosed almost altogether with the Sea. betwéene it and the gulfe of Ceranie, in the retreit of Euthana,* is Halycarnassus, a Towne inhabited by the Ar∣giues. woorthy to be had in remembraunce, not onelie for the founders thereof,* but also for the Tombe of King Ma∣solus, which is one of the seuen woonders of the world, and was builded by Artemisa.* Beyond Halycarnassus, are these thinges: the shore of Leuca, the Citties Myndus, A∣ryanda, and Naples: and the Bayes of Iasius, and Basili∣cus. In Iasius is the towne of Bargylos.

Of Ionia.

The seuenteene Chapter.

BEyond the Bay of Basilicus, Ionia win••deth it selfe in certaine Angles, and first of all, beginning to fetch about the Foreland of Possideum, it enuironeth the Oracle of Apollo,* called in olde time the Oracle of Branchide, and now the Oracle of Didymus. The Cittie Page  27Miletus, sometime the chéefe of all Ionia, both in feates of warre and peace, the Countrie of Thales the Astrologer, and of Tymothie the Musician, and of Ana••mander the naturall Philosopher, and woorthelie renowmed or the ex∣cellent wittes of others that were borne there: is ater a manner called Ionia. There is also the Cittie Hyppis, where the Riuer Meander falleth into the Sea, and the Mountaine Latmus, famous for the Fable of Endymion, whome (as men saye) the Moone was in loue with. After∣ward bowing againe, it enuironeth the Cittie P••ene, and the mouth of the Riuer Gessus, and anon after as it casteth a greater circuite, so it comprehendeth mo thinges. There is the holie Land called Panionium, so named, because the Ionians occupie it in common. There is the towne Phy∣gela, builded (as some saye) by fugitiues, to which report, the name séemeth agréeable. There is Ephesus,* and the most famous Temple of Diana, which the Amazons are reported to haue consecrated, when they helde the souerein∣tie of Asia. There is the Riuer Cayster,* there is Lebedos, and the Cappell of Apollo, Clarius, which Manto the Daughter of Tyresia builded when she fled from the Epi∣gons, that had gotten the victorie of the Thebanes: and Co∣lophon which Mopsus the sonne of the saide Manto buil∣ded at the Foreland wherwith the Bay is enclosed, which on the other side maketh an other Baye called Smyrnie, and shooteth out the rest with narrowe shankes. From thence it spreadeth wider, in manner lyke a Nesse, aboue the Streightes, on the hither side to Teos, and on the fur∣ther side to Clazomen. And because the hinder partes are streightened and knitte together with the néerenesse of the Sea, with diuers frontes they face diuers Seas. In the varie Nesse, is Coryna. Within the Baye of Smyrnie, is the Riuer Thermodon, and the Cit∣tie Leuca: and without it is Phocis, the vttermost part of Ionia.

Page  28

Of Aeolis.

The eighteene Chapter.

THe next Countrie, since the tyme it be∣gan to be inhabited by the Aeolians, tooke the name of Aeolis,* whereas before tymes it was called Mysia: and where it boun∣deth vpon Hellespont, as long as the Troi∣anes possessed it, it was called Troad. The first Cittie they call Myrina, after the name of Myrinus the founder there∣of. The next, Pelops builded▪ at his returne out of Greece, when he had ouercome Oenomaus. Cyme,* a Captaine of the Amazons, driuing away the inhabiters that dwelt be∣fore at Cyme, named it so, after her owne name.

Aboue runneth the Riuer Caycus, betwéene Elea and Pitane,* where Archesilas was borne, that most famous president the Academie, which affirmed the knowledge of nothing. Then is the Towne of Cama, scituate in a fore∣land: & as soone as men are past that, there receiueth them a Baye of no small bignesse, which boweth a great way of and softlie withdraweth by lyttle and lyttle into the land, euen vnto the foote of Mount Ida. The Streight be∣twéene the Seas, is sprinckled with a fewe Citties, of which the notablest is Cistena. In the innermost part of the Baye, a féeld called Thebes, conteineth the Townes of Adrimittium, Austra, and Teressa, lying one by an other in the same order, as they be rehearsed.

In the other side is Anandros.* There are reported two causes, of the naming of this Towne so. Some saye that Ascanius the sonne of Aenaeas reigned there, & being taken prisoner by the Greekes, gaue them this Towne for his raunsome. Other thinke it was builded by such as in a tumult and insurrection, were driuen out of the Ile of Page  29Andros. These would haue Antandros taken for Andros, and the other would haue it taken as it were for a man. The coast following, reacheth to Gargara & Aslos Towns builded and inhabited by the Aetolians.* Then an other Baye called the Gréekishe Hauen, windeth his bankes not farre from Troye, that Cittie most renowmed for the warres and destruction thereof. Héere was the Towne Sigae, where the Greekes encamped, during the time of the warre. Héere*Samander, running downe from Mount Ida, and Simois, Riuers of greater Fame then streame, fall into the Sea.

Mount Ida it selfe being renowmed with the contention of the Goddesses,* and the iudgement of Paris, sheweth the rysing of the Sunne after an other sort, then it is woont to be séene in other Landes. For vnto such as looke out of the toppe of it, there appeare (almost at midnight) dispearsed fires glistering euerie where, and as the daye light appro∣cheth, so séeme they to méete and ioyne together, vntyll that being assembled more and more, afterwarde they growe feawer, and lastlie, burne all in one flame. And when it hath so shined a good while together bright, and lyke a fire, it gathereth it selfe rounde, and becommeth a great globe.

The same also appeareth a great whyle huge, and ioy∣ned with the earth, and afterward by little and little wexing lesse, and the more it decreaseth wexing brighter, last of all it chaseth away the night, and becomming the Sunne, riseth with the day.

Without the Baye, are the Rhetaean shores renow∣med with the famous Citties of Rhetaeum and Darda∣nia,* but most of all with the Tombe of Aiax. From hence the Sea wexeth narrower, and nowe no more washeth away the Land, but deuiding it againe, cutteth through the banke that méeteth it at the Streightes of Hellespont, and maketh the Landes where it runneth, to haue sydes againe.

Page  30

Of Bithynia.

The nineteene Chapter.

INnermore are the Bithynians and Mari∣andynes. On the Sea coast are the Greeke Townes of Abydos, Lampsacum, Paion, and Priapos. Abydos is famous for the in∣tercourse of* great Loue in olde time. The Phocans gaue Lampsacum that name, vpon this occasion, because when they asked counsell of the Oracle, into what Countrie they should chéefelie goe, aunswere was made, that they should there take vp their dwelling place, where it first shned.

Then againe the Sea becommeth more open, which is called Propontis.* Into it falleth the Riuer Granike, fa∣mous for the first battell that was fought there, betwéene the Persians and Alexander. Beyond the Riuer, in the necke of a péece of ground, which is almost an Ile, standeth Cyzicum, a Towne so named of one Cyzicus, vanquished in battell and slaine (as we reade) vnwares by the Minyes, as they went to Colchos ward. After are Place and Scy∣lace, lyttle Townes builded by the Argiues, on the backe part whereof hangeth the Hyll Olympus of Mysia,* as the the inhabiters call it, which sendeth foorth the Riuer Rhin∣dacus into those quarters that follow.

There abouts bréede Snakes of vnmeasurable bignesse,* woonderfull, not for their hugenesse onelie, but also for that when they haue retired into this channell of the saide Ri∣uer, to auoide the heate of the Sunne, there putting vp their heads and gaping, they swallowe in the Birdes that passe ouer, flie they neuer so high and so swiftlie.

Beyond Rhindacus is Dascylos, and Myrlea, which the Colophonians builded. From thence are two good mea∣surable Bayes. The one of them being namelesse, com∣passeth Page  31 in the Cittie Cion, a most commodious Marte Towne of Phrygia, which lyeth not farre from thence: the other Baye compasseth in the Olbians. In the Foreland it beareth the Chapell of Neptune, and in the bosome the Towne of Astacon builded by the Megarians. Then the Land strikes before againe, and maketh a narrowe channell for the Sea to passe out at into Pontus: and the Bosphor of Thrace (as is aforesaide) disseuereth Europe fiue furlonges from Asia.

In the verie mouth of the Streightes is a Temple, and a Towne called*Chalcedon. The founder of the towne was Argias Prince of the Megarians: the Idoll of the Temple is Iupiter, and the builder thereof was Iason. Héere the Sea spreadeth it selfe wide (sauing where the Forelandes be) stretching out on both sides, with a long and direct shore, and then foorth bending inward. But because it extendeth not so much foreward, it wideneth on both handes, the bowing inward of it with smooth points vntyll it growe to a narrowe issue on both sides, is as lyke as can be to a*Scythish bowe.

It is short, rough, mistie, fewe harboroughes in it, not inclosed with softe and sandie shores, bleake vppon the North winde, and because it is not déepe, full of waues, and euer raging, in olde time called*Axenus, of the nature and disposition of the dwellers about it, which was verie cruell, and afterward, as their manners began somewhat to amend and wexe milder, through hauing traffique with other Nations, it was called*Euxinus.

First of all, the Mariandines inhabite a Cittie there, giuen them by Hercules of Argos, (as the report goeth) which is called Heraclea,* and therefore made the report to haue so much the more likelihood of trueth.

By the same is the Caue Acherusia, that leadeth (as they saye) to hell: and it is supposed that Cerbeus* was drawne out thereat.

Page  32

Of Paphlagonia.

The twentie Chapter.

THen foloweth the Towne of Tios, some∣time inhabited by the Milesians, but nowe altogether Paphlagonish, as wel the people as the soyle: in the midde shore whereof al∣most is the foreland Cerambis, on the hy∣ther side whereof is the riuer Parthenie, and the Citties Sesamus, and Cromna, and Cytoros buil∣ded by Cytorus the sonne of Phrixus. Then followeth Ci∣molis, and Armine, which endeth Paphlagonia,

Of the Chalybies.

The xxi. Chapter.

THe Chalybies, who were next neighbors to Paphlagonia, haue two right famous Cit∣ties, Amysos and Synope, the place where the doggishe Diogenes was borne:* and the Riuers of Halys and Thermodon. By Ha∣lys, is the Cittie Lycast: and along by Thermodon, is a plaine wherein was the Towne Themyseyre, and the campe of the Amazons, and therfore they call it Amazonia, Upon the Chalybies, doo border the Taberenes, whose chéefe felicitie is in laughing and playing.

Beyond Cerambis dwell the Mossynaekes, in Towers of timber,* printing all their bodies with markes, eating their meate abroade, and companying with their women in common. They choose their King openlie by voices, and kéepe him most streightlie in prison and gyues: and if he offend in misgouernement, they make him fast all a whole day for his penaunce. But they are churlish, vnmannerlie, and verie hurtfull to such as arriue among them. Further∣foorth Page  33 are people lesse sauadge, but they also are vnmanner∣lie and vnciuill as wel as the other, which are called Long∣paes, Dischers, and Buxers: and a fewe Citties, whereof the notablest are Cerasus, and Trapaesus.* From thence is a place where the Coast that is drawne along from the Bosphor taketh his end, and so foorth bowing himselfe for∣ward in the bosome of the shore ouer against it, maketh the narrowest angle of Pontus. Héere are the Colchians:* from hence issueth Phasis. Héere is a Towne of the same name that the Riuer is of, builded by Athenistagoras a Milesian. Héere is the Temple of Phryxus, and a wood famous for the old Fable of the golden fléece.*

From hence rise certaine Mountaines, which stretch out with a long ridge, vntyll they ioyne with the Ryphaean Hilles, which running with the one end toward Euxinus, Maeotis, and Tanais, and with the other of the Caspian Sea, are called*Ceraunii. The same are called by sundrie other names, as Taurish, Moschian, Amazonish, Caspian, Coraxincian, and Caucasean, according to the sundrie Na∣tions that border vpon it.

But in the first turning of the winding shore, there is a Towne which the Merchauntes of Greece are reported to haue builded: and because when they were tossed with a darke tempest, & knew not what Land it was, the crowing of a Swan gaue them knowledge, they called it*Cygnus. The residue of it along the waste Sea, is inhabited by cru∣ell and vnciuill Nations, called*Melanchlaenes. The vpland Countrie is inhabited by the Sepolites, Coraxes, Phthirophagies, Eniochyes, Achaeans, and Cercetikes: and in the borders of Maeotis dwell the Syndones. In the mar∣thes of the Eniochyes, is Dioscurias* builded by Castor and Pollux, when he entred the Sea with Iason: and Syndos in the marches of the Syndones, builded by the inhabiters of that Land. Then the Country writhing aside, and sprea∣ding somewhat in breadth, shooteth foorth betwéene Pontus and Maeotis to the Bosphor, which rūning with two chan∣nelles into the Lake and the Sea, maketh CorocondamaPage  34 almost an Iland. There are fowre Citties, Hermonassa, Cepoe, Phanagoria, and in the verie mouth Cimmerium.

When men are entred heere, the large and wide Lake receiueth them, which (where it toucheth the firme land) is enclosed with a bending shore, and where it is néerer the Sea, being as it were ouer-dréeped with a banke (sauing where the mouth of it is) it is almost like vnto Pontus, but that it is not so bigge. The coast which bendeth from the Bosphor vnto Tanais, is inhabited by the Toreates, the A∣richies, the Phicors, and (next of all to the mouth of the ri∣uer) by the Iaxamathians, which Nations are called by one generall name Maeotians.

Among the Iaxamathians,* the women exercise the same feates that the men doo, insomuch that they be not priueled∣ged from the warres. The men fight a foote with arrowes, and the women fight on horsebacke. Neither encounter they with weapons, but such as they can snare with ropes, they strangle with drawing them after them. They mar∣rie: howbeit, to the intent they may be counted marriage∣able, the matter consisteth not in their yéeres, for they abide vnmaried vntyll they haue killed an enimie. The Riuer Tanais being sheaded out of the Mountaine Ryphey,* fal∣leth so headlong, that when all the streames néere abouts, yea, and Maeotis & the Bosphor, and some part also of Pon∣tus are frosen with the winters cold, he onely bearing som∣mer and winter a like, runneth alwaies at one staye, both full and swift. The banks therof, and the Countries adioy∣ning to the bankes, are inhabited by the Sauromats, which is one nation of diuers peoples, and diuersely named. First are the Maeotians, called the Women-seruers, the King∣dome of the Amazons. The Budines possesse the fatte pa∣sture grounds, which otherwise are but barreine and naked féeldes. The Gelones inhabite a Cittie built of Timber. Hard by them,* the Thyrssages and Turkes hold the waste Forrests, and liue by hunting. From thence foorth to the Arymphaeans,* lyeth a large Countrie, rough with conti∣nuall hilles, and altogether Desart. These ArymphaeansPage  35 liue most vprightlie. In stéede of houses, they haunt woods. Their foode is berries: and as well the women as the men goe bare headed. They are therefore counted holie: and so farre is any man of those so many cruell Nations from dooing them harme, that if other folke flie vnto them, they be as safe as in a Sanctuarie. Beyond them riseth the Mountaine Riphey, and beyond the Mountaine lyeth the oast that butteth vpon the Occean.

❧ The second Booke of that woorthy Cosmographer, Pomponius Mela, concer∣ning the scituation of the world.

Of Scithia, of Europe.

The first Chapter.

THE marches▪ and scituation of Asia, extending to our Sea and the riuer Tanais, are such as I haue shewed be∣fore. Now to them that rowe backe againe downe the same riuer into Maeotis, on the right hand is Europe, which was di∣rectlie on the left side of them, as they sailed vp the streame: & it butteth vpon the moun∣taine Riphey▪ for the same also extendeth hither. The snow which falleth continually, dooth make the Coūtrie so vntra∣uellable, that a man is not able to sée any farnesse into it.

Page  36Beyond is a Countrie of a verie ritch soyle, but vninhabi∣table notwithstanding,* because the Griffons (a cruell and eger kinde of wilde Beastes) doo woonderfullie loue the golde, which lyeth altogether discouered aboue the ground, and doo woonderfullie kéepe it, and are verie fierce vppon them that touch it. The first men are Scithians, and of the Scithians, the first are the Arimaspians:* which are repor∣ted to haue but one eye a péece. From thence are the Esse∣dons vnto Maeotis. The Riuer Buges* cutteth the com∣passe of the Lake, and the Agathyrsies,* and the Sauromats, inhabite about it, who because they dwell in Cartes, are named*Hamaxobits. Then the coast that runneth out a∣skew to the Bosphor, is inclosed betwéene Pontus & Maeo∣tis. The side toward the Lake, is possessed by the Satar∣ches. The brest toward the Bosphor of Cimmeria, hath the townes of Myrmecion, Panticape, Theodosia, and Her∣mesium. The other side toward Pontus Euxinus, is posses∣sed by the Taurians. Aboue them is a Baye full of Hauens, and therefore is called the fayre Hauen, and it is inclosed betwéene two Forelandes: whereof the one called the Rammes head, butteth against the Foreland of Cerambis, which we saide before to be in Asia: and the other called *Parthenion, hath néere vnto it a towne called Cherrone∣sus builded (if it may be beléeued) by Diana, and is very fa∣mous for the Caue Nymphaeum in the toppe therof hallo∣wed to the Nymphes. Then the Sea fléeteth vnder a banke, and following continuallie vppon the shores flying backe (which the Satarkes and Taurians possesse) vntyll he be but fiue myles from Maeotis, maketh a Nesse. That which is betwéene the Lake & the Bay, is named Taphre, and the Bay it selfe is called Carciuites. In the same is the Cittie Carciue, by the which doo run two Riuers, Gerros & Hypacyris, which fall into the Sea in one mouth, but come from two seuerall heads, and from two seueral places. For Gerros swéepeth betwéen the Basilids and Nomades. Then are there woods, wherof those Countries beare very great store, and there is the Riuer Panticapes, which disseuereth Page  37 the Nomades and Georgians.* From thence the land wide∣neth farre, and ending in a slender shanke, ioineth with the Sea shore. Afterward enlarging againe measurablie, it sharpeneth it selfe by little & little, and gathering his long sides as it were into a point, groweth into the likenesse of the blade of a sworde laide flatlinges.

Achilles entering the Sea of Pontus with a Nauie like an enimie, after he had gotten victorie, is reported to haue made a gaming in the same place for ioy therof, and to haue exercised himselfe & his men in running, while they rested from warre, and therefore the place is called Achilles race. Then runneth Boristhenes by a Nation of the same name,* the pleasauntest of all the Riuers of Scithia. For whereas all the other are thicke and muddie: he runneth excéeding cléere, more gentle than the rest, & most pleasaunt to drinke of. It cherisheth most fine and batling pasture, and great Fishes which are of very delicate taste, and haue no bones. He commeth from farre, aud springing from an vnknowne head, beareth in his channell fortie daies iorney: and being all that way able to beare Shippes, he falleth into the sea▪ hard by Borysthenides and Olbis Gréeke Citties.

Hypanis,* rysing out of a great Poole▪ which the dwellers by call the mother of Hypanis, incloseth the Callipeds, and a long while together runneth the same that he was at his head. At length, not farre from the Sea, he taketh so bit∣ter waters out of a lyttle Fountaine▪ called Exampaeus, that from thencefoorth the runneth vnlike himselfe, and al∣together vnsauerie. The next which is called Axiaces, com∣meth downe among the Calli••des, and Axiakes. The Ri∣uer Tyra seperateth these Axiakes from the Istrians: it springeth among the Neures, and falleth into the Sea, by a Towne of his owne name. But that famous Riuer which parteth the Nations of Scithia from the Natiōs folowing, rysing from his spring in Germanie, hath an other name at his head than at his falling into the Sea.* For through huge Countries of great Nations, a long while together he beareth the name of Danow. Afterward, being diuersely Page  38 termed by the dwellers by, he taketh the name of Ister, and receyuing many riuers into him, wexeth huge, and gi∣uing place in greatnesse to none of all the Riuers that fall into our Sea, sauing onelie to Nile, he runneth into the sea with as many mouthes as he,* whereof thrée are but small, the rest are able to beare Shippes. The natures and beha∣uiours of the Nations differ. The Essedones* solemnize the deathes of their Parents merelie, with sacrifices, and fea∣sting of their neighbours and acquaintaunce. They cutte their bodies in péeces, and chopping them finelie with the inwardes of beasts, make a feast of them and eate them vp. The heads of them, when they haue cunninglie pullished them, they bind about with gold, & occupie them for Cups. These are the last dueties of naturall loue among them. The Agathyrsies paint their faces and their lyms: and as any of them commeth of better Auncestors,* so doth he more or lesse die himselfe: but all that are of one lynnage, are died with one kinde of marke, & that in such sort, as it can∣not be gotten out. The Sarmates, being altogether vnac∣quainted with Golde and Siluer,* the greatest plagues in the world, doo in stéede thereof vse exchaunge of one thing for an other. And because of the cruell coldnesse of the winter, which lasteth continuallie, they make them houses within the ground, and dwell either in Caues, or else in Sellars. They goe in long side garmentes downe to the ground,* and are couered face & all, sauing onely their eies. The Taurians (who be chéefelie renowmed with the arri∣uall of Iphigenia and Orestes) are horrible of conditions, and haue a horrible report going of them, namely, that they are woont to murther straungers, and to offer them vp in sacrifice. The originall of the Nation of the Basilides,* com∣meth from Hercules and Echidna. Their manners are Princelike, their weapons are onelie arrowes. The wan∣dring Nomades,* follow the pastures for their Cattell: and as féeding for them lasteth, so is their continuaunce of abi∣ding in one place. The Georges* occupy tillage of the groūd and husbandrie. The Axiakes* knowe not what stealing Page  39 meanes: and therefore they neither kéepe their owne, nor touch that is an other mans. They that dwel more vpland,* liue after a harder sort, and haue a country lesse husbanded. They loue warre and slaughter, and it is their custome to sucke the blood cleane out of the wounds of him that they kyll first. As euerie of them hath slaine most, so is he coun∣ted the iolliest fellowe among them. But to be cléere from slaughter, is of all reproches the greatest. Not so much as their loue-daies, are made without bloodshed. For they that vndertake the matter, wound themselues, and letting their blood drop out into a vessell, when they haue styrd it toge∣ther, drinke of it, thinking that to be a most assured pledge of the promise to be performed. In their feasting, their greatest myrth and commonnest talke, is in making report what euerie man hath slaine. And they that haue tolde of most, are set betwéene two cuppes brim full of drinke: for that is the chéefe honour among them. As the Essedones make cuppes of the heads of their Parents: so doo these of the heads of their enimies. Among the Anthropophages,* the daintiest dishes are made of mans fleshe. The Gelones* apparell themselues and their horsses, in the skins of their enimies: themselues with the skins of their heads, their horsses with the skins of the rest of their bodies. The Me∣lanchlaenes* goe in blacke cloathes, and thereof they haue their name. The Neures* haue a certaine time, to euerie of them limitted, wherein they may (if they will) be chaunged into Woolues, and returne to their former shape againe. The God of them all is Mars, to whome in stéede of I∣mages, they dedicate Swords and Tents, and offer to him men in Sacrifice.

The Countries spread verie large, and by reason that the Riuers doo diuers times ouerflowe their bankes, there is euerie where great store of good pasture. But some places are in all other respectes so barreine, that the in∣habiters, for lacke of woodde, are faine to make fyre of bones.

Page  40

Of Thrace.

The second Chapter.

NExt vnto these is Thrace, and the same extending wholy inward from the front that beareth vpon the side of Pontus, euen vnto the Illyrians, where spreading into sides, it butteth vpon the Riuer Ister and the Sea. It is a Countrie chéerefull neither in ayre nor soyle, and (sauing where it approcheth to the Sea,) vnfruitfull, cold, and a verie euill cherrisher of such thinges, as are eyther set or sowen. Scarce any where dooth it beare an Apple trée, but Uines somewhat more commonlie, howbeit the Grapes ripe not, ne come to any good verdure, vnlesse it be where the kéepers haue fenced them with boughes to beare of the colde. It is somewhat more fréendlie in cherrishing of men, though it be not to the outward showe: for they be harde fauoured and vncomelie shaped. Howbeit, in respect of fiercenesse and number, to haue them many and vnmer∣cifull, it is most fruitfull. It sendeth fewe Riuers into the Sea,* but those verie famous: as Hebrus, Nestos, and Strymon. Innermore, it rayseth vp the Mountaines Hae∣mus, Rhodope, and Orbele, renowmed with the Ceremo∣nies of Bacchus, and with the flocking of the Maenades, when Orpheus first gaue them orders, and trained them to that Religion. Of the which hilles, Haemus mounteth to such a height, that in the toppe thereof, a man maye sée both the Sea of Pontus, and the Sea of Adria.

One onelie Nation of the Thracians inhabites the whole Countrie,* termed by sundrie names, and endewed with di∣uers dispositions. Some are vtterlie wilde and verie wil∣ling to die,* namelie the Gets, and that is stablished through sundrie opinions. For some of them thinke, that the soules of them that die, shall returne into their bodies againe. An other sort thinke, that though the soules returne not, yet Page  41 they die not, but passe into a blessedder state. Others thinke they die, but that dying is better then to liue. And therfore among some of them, the childebeddes are sorrowfull, and they mourne for them that be borne: and contrariwise, the burialles are ioyful, and solemnized with singing and play∣ing, as if they were high holie dayes. Not so much as the women, haue cowardlie or faint courages: for they sue e∣uen with all their hearts, to be killed vpon the carkases of their dead husbandes, and to be buried with them. And be∣cause the men haue many wiues at once, they pleade verie earnestlie before Iudges, which of them may come to that honour. It is imputed to their good behauiour, and it is the greatest ioye to them that can be, to get the vpper hand in this kinde of sute. The rest of the women fall a wéeping, and shréeke out with most bitter complaintes. But such as are minded to comfort them, bring their armour and rit∣ches to the Hearse, and there professing themselues ready to compound with the destinie of him that lyeth dead, or else to fight against it, if they could come by it, when neither money nor fighting can take place, continew wooers at the pleasure of the widdowes whome they like of. The May∣dens when they shall marrie, are not bestowed at the dis∣cretion of their Parents, but are openlie either let out to be married, or else solde. Which of these shall befall vnto them, procéedeth of their beautie and behauiour. The ho∣nest and beautifull yéeld a good price: the other are faine to buie husbandes to marrie them. The vse of Wine is to some of them vnknowne: neuerthelesse, when they are making good chéere, as they are sitting about the fires, they cast in a kinde of séede, whose sent prouoketh them to a cer∣taine mirth like vnto droonkennesse.

On the Sea coast next vnto Ister, is the Cittie Istrople: and next vnto that, Galatis builded by the Milesians, and Tritonice, and the Hauen Carie, and the foreland Tiristris, immediatly beyond the which is an other Angle of Pontus, directlie ouer against the Angle of Phasis: and it were like vnto it, but that it is larger. Héere perished Bizone by an Page  42 earthquake. There also is the Hauen Crunos, and the Citties of Dennysople. Odessos,*Messembria, Anchialos, and (in the innermost bosome of the Baye, where Pontus finisheth an other of his windinges with an Angle) the great Cittie Apollonia.* From hence it goeth with a di∣rect coast, sauing that almost in the middes, it shooteth out a Foreland called Thin••a, and turneth inward to it selfe with crooked bankes, and beareth the Citties Halmydesse, and Phyleas, and Phinople. Hitherto is Pontus: and héereafter is the Bosphor, and Propontis.

In the Bosphor, is*Bizance, and on Propontis are Se∣lymbria, Perinthus, Bathynis, and running betwéen them the Riuers Ergine and Atyras: Then followeth a part of Thrace, where sometime reigned King Rhaesus and By∣santh, a Towne builded by the Samians, and Cypsella, sometime a great Cittie.

After that, ensueth a place called of the Gréekes, Long∣vvall,* and (in the necke of a Nesse) the Towne of Lysi∣machia. The Land that followeth, being no where broad, runneth foorth narrowest héere betwéene Hellespont and the*Aegean Sea. The Streights thereof they call Isth∣mos, and the front thereof Mastusia, and the whole toge∣ther Chersonesus. It is woorthy to be had in remem∣braunce for many thinges. In it is the Riuer Aegos, re∣nowmed with the Shipwracke of the Athenian Fléete. There is also Sestos, scituate against Abydos, verie fa∣mous for the loue of Leander. There is also the Countrie, where the Persian hoast aduentured to make a bridge ouer the Sea that parteth the one maine land from the other, (a woonderfull enterprise) and passed ouer the Sea, out of Asia into Greece on foote, and not by Ship. There are the bones of Protesilaus consecrated with a Temple. There is also the Hauen Caelos, renowmed with the destruction of the Laconish Fléete, at such time as the Athenians and La∣cedemonians, encountred there in battell on the Sea. There is also Dogs-graue,* the Tombe of Quéene Hecuba, which place receyued that homely name, either of the shape Page  43 of a Dogge, whereinto Hecuba is reported to haue béene transformed, or else of the misfortune that shee fell into. There is Macidos, and there is Eleus which endeth Hel∣lespont.

By and by the Aegean Sea beateth hugelie vpon a long shore, and with a great compasse fetcheth leysurelie about the Lands which it seuereth farre a sunder, vnto the Fore∣land of Sumum. Such as sayle by that coast, when they are passed Mastusia, must enter into a Baye: which wa∣shing by the other side of Chersonesus, is enclosed lyke a valley, with the ridge of a hyll: and being called Melas of the Riuer Melas which it receiueth, it imbraceth two Citties, Alopeconesus, on the one side of the narrowe Streights, and Cardie on the other side. Aenos* is famous, builded by Aenaeas, when he fled from Troy.

About Hebrus are the Cycones,* and beyond it is Doriscos where Xerxes (because he could not number his armie,) is reported to haue measured them by the space of the ground. Beyond, is the Forelande of Serrium, out of which, the wooddes of Zona are reported to haue followed Orpheus,* when he soong. Then is the Riuer Scaenas, and (adioyning to his banckes) the vpper Countrie of Maronie, which brought foorth Diomede,* that was woont to make straun∣gers, prouinder for his cruell Horsses, and in the ende, was by Hercules cast to them himselfe. The Tower which they attribute to Diomede, remaineth as a remem∣braunce of the Fable: and a Cittie which his sister Ab∣dera* named after her owne name. But that Cittie is woor∣thier to be had in memorie, for bréeding of Democritus* the naturall Philosopher, than for her sake that builded it.

Beyond that, runneth the Riuer Nestos: aud betwéene it and the Riuer Strymon, are the Citties, Phillippos, Ap∣pollonia, and Amphippolis. Betwéene Strymon and mount Athos, are the Tower Calarne, the Hauen Caprul∣lon, and the Citties Acantos, and Oesyma. Betwéene A∣thos and Pallene, are Cleone and Olynthus.

Page  44Strymon (as we haue saide before) is a riuer,* which ry∣sing a farre of, and running slender, becōmeth greater and greater with forreine waters: and when he hath made a Lake within a little of the sea, he bursteth foorth in a grea∣ter channell than he came in.

Mount Athos is so high,* that it is thought to reach a∣boue the place from whence the raine falleth. The opinion hath a likelihood of trueth, because the ashes are not washed from the Altars in the toppe thereof, but continue in the same heape whole as they were left. This Hill shooteth not with an elbowe into the Sea, as other Hilles doo, but it kéepeth on whole, and aduaunceth with a whole breast, a great length into the Sea. Where it cleaued to the maine Land, it was cutte through by Xerxes, when he made his voiage against the Grayes, and was sayled ouer, & an arme of the Sea conueied through it, to make way for his ships. The neathermost partes of it, are furnished with small Towns, builded & peopled by the Pelasgies. In the top was the towne Acroathon, the inhabiters whereof were woont (by report) to liue halfe as long againe as other men. Pal∣lene is of such a large soyle, that in it are fiue Citties, with their territories. It riseth all in height, somewhat narrow where it beginneth, and there is the Cittie Potidaea. But where it wexeth wider, there are the Townes of Mend and Scione, woorthy to be spoken of, Mend builded by the Eretrianes, and the other by the Greekes, as they returned from the taking of Troy.

Of Macedonia.

The third Chapter.

THen the people of Macedonia inha∣bite many Citties, of the which, Pella is the most renowmed, for her two oster children Phillippe the subduer of Greece, and Alex∣ander the conqueror of Asia also. In the Page  45 shore, the Bay of Mecyberne betwéene the Forelandes, de∣uideth Canastreum and the Hauen that is called Cope: and encloseth the Citties of Toron and Physcell, and also Me∣cyberne, whereof it taketh the name. Scione is next vnto the Foreland of Canastre: and Mecyberne Baye entreth somewhat within the Land in the middes, where it giueth way like a bosome. Howbeit casting foorth long armes in∣to the déepe, it becommeth a great gulfe betwéene the seas. Into it runne Axius through Macedonia, and Peneus through Thessalie. A lyttle aboue Axius, is the Cittie *Thessalonica. Betwéene them both are Cassandria, Cydna, Azaros, and Derris. Beyond Peneus, are Sepias, Cordynia, Melibaea, and Castanea, all of like renowme, sa∣uing that Phyloctetes* who was fostered at Melibaea, beau∣tifieth that towne. The inner Landes are renowmed with the names of famous places, and containe almost nothing that is not notable. Not farre from hence is Olympus, and héere is Pelion, and héere is Ossa, Mountaines renow∣med with the Fables of the Giantes warres. Héere is Pieria,* the dwelling place and mother of the Muses. Héere is the ground that Hercules of Greece trode last vppon, namelie, the Forrest of Oeta: Héere is Tempe ennobled with holie wooddes. Héere lyes Lebethra, and the versify∣ing fountaines.

Then followeth Greece, shooting foorth hugelie and mainlie, and bearing from the North into the South, till it butte vpon the Myrtean Sea. Where the Sunne ryseth, it faceth the Aegean Sea, and where the Sunne goeth downe, it faceth the Ionish Sea. Next that, lyeth a large Countrie, named Hellas, which steppeth foorth with a large front, and anon after is cutte off almost by the waste, with both the Seas: whereof the Ionish entereth furthest into his side, vntill the Land becommeth but fiue myle wide. Then againe the Landes widen on both sides, and shoote into the déepes, but more into the Ionish Sea than into the Aegean Sea: and stretching foorth, not altogether so broad as they began (howbeit verie great) they become a Nesse, Page  46 which is called*Peloponesus: which by reason of the Bayes and Forelandes wherewith the shores thereof are fretted, as it were with lyttle veines, and therewithall because it spreadeth out a toside with a slender stalke, is verie like the leafe of Plane trée.

In Macedonia, the first Countrie is Thessalye,* the next Magnesia,* and then Phthiotis.* In Greece are the Coun∣tries of Doris, Locris, Phocis, Beotis, Attis,* and Megaris: but the most renowmed of them all is Attis. In Pelopo∣nesus, are Argolis, Laconice, Messenia, Achai, Elis, Ar∣cadia: and beyond it are Aetolia,*Acarnania, and Epyrus, vnto the Adriatish Sea.

Of the places and Citties scituate in the maine Lande, these are the woorthiest to be touched: In Thessaly, Laris∣sa,* sometime called Iolos: in Magnesia, Antronia: in Phthiotis, Phthia: in Doris, the Cittie Pindus, and harde thereby the Cittie Erineon: in Loris,*Cynos and Callia∣ros: in Phocis, Delphos, and Mount Parnasus, and the Temple and Oracle of Apollo: in Baeotia, Thebes, and Mount Cytheron* most renowmed in Fables and Poetry: In Attis, Eleusis.* hallowed vnto Ceres,* and the noble Cit∣tie of Athens,* more famous of it selfe, then it néede to be set out: in Megaris, Megara,* whereof the Countrie hath his name: in Argolis, Argos, and Mycene,* and the Temple of Iuno verie famous for the auncientnesse and Religion thereof: in Laconce, Therapne, and Lacedemon,* and A∣myle, and Mount aygetus: in Meslenia, Messene, and *Methone: in Achaia and in Elis, sometime Pises, the Pallace of Oenomaus, and Elie, and the Idoll and Temple of Iupiter of Olympus, renowmed for the ga∣ming of exercise, and for the singular holinesse, but most of all, for the Image it selfe, which is the worke of Phi••dias.

Arcadie* is enuironed round about with the Nations of Peloponesus. In it are the Citties Psophis, Tenea, and Orchomenon: the Mountaines Pholoe, Cyllenius, Par∣thenius, and Maenalus: and the Riuers Erymanthus,Page  47 and Ladon. In Aetolia,* is Naupactus: in Acarnania, Stratos:* in*Epyre, the Temple of Iupiter of Dodon, and a Well which in this consideration* is counted holy, for that whereas it is colde, and quencheth sirebrandes that are put into it, as other waters doo: If ye holde brandes without fire a good waie off from it, it kindleth them. But when men scoure the Sea coast, theyr waie is to sayle from the Foreland of Sepias, by Demetrias, and Boion, and Phtheleon, and Echinon, to the Baye of Pagasa: which imbracing the Cittie Pagasa, receyueth the Riuer Sperchus: and because the Minyes (when they made their voyage into Colchos) launched foorth there with their Argosie, it is therefore had in estimation.

From thence as men sayle to Sunium, they must passe by these thinges: namelie, by two great Bayes, the one of Malea, the other of Opus, and in them the Monumentes of the slaughter of the Lacedemonians: By Theropile, Opaes, Scarphia, Cnemides, Alope, Anthedon, and La∣rymna: by Aulis, the Hauen where the Fléete of Aga∣memnon and the Greekes that conspired against Troye, did harborowe: By Marathon, a witnesse of many vialent déedes, euen from the tyme of Theseus, but most chéefeli renowmed with the slaughter of the Persians: By Rham∣nus, a little Towne, but yet famous because of the Temple of Amphiarus, and the Image of Nemesis, made by Phidias, which are in it: and finallie, by Thoricos and Brau∣ron, some time Citties, and now but bare names.

Sunium is a Forelande, which finisheth the East side of*Hellas. From thence the Lande leaneth South∣ward vnto Megara, now facing the Sea with his front, lyke as before it laye with his syde against Attica. Then is Pyrrheus the Hauen of Athens, and Scyrons rockes, euen at this daye diffamed▪ for the cruell enter∣taynement▪ that Scyron gaue there to Straungers in olde tyme.

The boundes of Megaris, extend euen to the Balke, Page  48 which is so tearmed, because it parteth the Aegean Sea but fiue miles space from the Ionish Sea, and knitteth Pe∣loponesus vnto Hellas, with a narrowe balke. In it is the towne of Cenchree, the Temple of Neptune, the famous gaminges called the Blke games, and Corinth* sometime renowmed for ritches, but afterward more renowmed for the destruction thereof, and now newlie builded againe, and peopled by the Romanes: which Cittie out of the top∣castle thereof called Acrocorinth, vieweth* both the seas. As we saide before, the Sea coast of Peloponesus, is in∣dented with Bayes and Forelands: on the East side with Bucephalos and Chersonesus, and Scyllion: on the South syde with Malea, Taenaros, and Ichthys: and on the West with Chelonates and Araxos. From the narrowe balke to Scylleon, inhabite the Epidaurians, renowned with the Temple of Aesculapius:* and the Troiezenians, famous for their faithfull continuaunce in league & fréend∣shippe with the Athenians. Also there are Saronike Ha∣uen, and Schaenitas, and Pagonus. The Townes of Epi∣daure, Troizen, and Hermion, stand vpon this shore. Be∣twéene Scylleon & Malea, is the Bay of Argolis: betwéene that and Taenarus, is the Bay of Laconia, from thence to Acritas, is the Bay of Asine, and from thence to Ichthys, is the Bay of Cyparissus. In the Bay of Argolis, are the knowne riuers of Erasmus and Inachus, and the knowne towne of Lerne. In the Bay of Laconia, are the Riuers Githius, and Eurotas. On the head of Taenarus, are the Temple of Neptune, and a Caue like vnto the Caue of A∣cheruse* in Pontus, that we spake of before, both in fashion and Fable. In the Bay of Asine, is the Riuer Pamisse, and in the Bay of Cyparisse, is Alpheus: These two Bayes take their names of two Citties, Cyparissus, and Asine, that stand vpon their shores. The Messemans and Pylians, inhabite the Landes, and Pyle it selfe standeth néere the Sea, and so doo Cyllene* and Callipolis. The Cit∣tie Patre, standeth vpon that shore where Chelonates and Araxos, runne into the Sea. But Cyllene is notable, be∣cause Page  49 men thinke that Mercurie was borne there. Af∣terward Rhion (it is the name of a Baye) falling lyke a Lake with full mouth, as it were in at a narrowe gap be∣twéene the Aetolians and Peloponesians, breaketh in euen to the Balke. In it the shores beginne to looke North∣ward.

Héere abouts are Aegian, and Aegira, and Oluros, and Sicyon: and in the coastes ouer against them are, Page, Creusis, Auticyra, Oeanthia, Cyrrha, and (whereof the name is better knowne) Calydon, and the Riuer Euenus. Without Rhion in Acarnania, the notablest thinges are the Towne Leucas, and the Riuer*Achelous.

In Epire,* nothing is more noble, than the Baye of Am∣brace. The cause héereof in part, is the Baye it selfe, which at a narrow gappe, lesse than a mile wide, letteth in a great Sea: and partlie, the Citties Actium, Argos▪ built by Amphilocus, and Ambrace the Pallace of the posteritie of Aeacus, and of Pyrrhus, which stand by it. Beyond is Bu∣troton, and then the Hilles*Ceraunii, and from them the winding toward Adria. This Sea being receyued farre into the Land, and spreading verie broade, but yet broadest where it pearceth in▪ is besette with the Countries of*Il∣lyricke vnto*Tergestum, and the residue with the Nati∣ons of Italie and Fraunce.

The Parthines and Dassarets, possesse the first partes of it: The next by little and little, is possessed y the Euche∣lies and Pheakes: afterward, are they that be properlie called Illyrians: then the Pyreans, and Lyburnes, and Hi∣strich. Of Citties, the first is Oricum, the second*Dyrra∣chium, called before Epidamnum, vntil the Romanes chan∣ged the name, because it séemed to them to be a forespea∣king of euil lucke, towards them when they went thether. Beyond are Apollonia, Salon, Iader, Naron,*Tragurie, the Baye of Pola, and the Cittie Pola, inhabited (as report goeth) by men of Colchos, and now (as thinges altar) peo∣pled by the Romanes. Also, there are the Riuers Aeas, and Nar, and Danow▪ which is spoken of before by the name Page  50 of Ister. But Aeas falleth into the Sea by Apollonia: and Nar, betwéen the Pyreans and Liburnes: and Ister, through Istrich. Tergestum, which is scituate in the innermost nooke of Adria, endeth Illyrich.

Of Italie.

The fowrth Chapter.

SOmewhat shalbe saide of Italie, rather because order so requireth, then for that it néedeth any setting out: for all thinges are known. At the Alpes, it beginneth to mount in height, and as it procéedeth, raysing it selfe in the middes, it runneth foorth with a continuall ridge be∣twéene the Adriatishe and Turkishe Seas, or (as they are otherwise tearmed, betwéene the vpper Sea, and the nea∣ther Sea) a great while whole: but when he hath gone farre, he splitteth into two hornes, whereof the one faceth the Sea of Sicill, and the other the Inishe Sea. It is through out narrowe, and in some place much narrower than where it began.

The inner partes thereof are inhabited by sundrie Na∣tions. On the left side, the Carnies and Venetians possesse *Gallia togata. Then follow Italian people, the Picents, the Frentanes, the Daunians, the Appulians, the Calabri∣ans, and the Salentines. On the right side vnder the Alpes, are the Ligurians, and vnder Appenine, is Hetruria. Af∣ter that, is Latium, the Volscies, Campane, and aboue Lu∣canie, are the Brutians.

Of Citties inhabited farre from the Sea, the wealthiest on the left hand, are Padua,* builded by Antenor: and Mu∣tina, and Bononi, builded by the Romanes:* and on the right hand Capua, builded by the Thuscanes, and Rome in olde tyme founded by Shéepheardes, but nowe (if it Page  51 should be treated of according to the woorthinesse) an other whole worke of it selfe.

In the Sea coast next to*Tergestum, is Concord. Through it runneth the Riuer Timauus: which rysing from nine headdes, falleth into the Sea with one mouth. Then the Riuer Natiso, not farre from the Sea, passeth by the ritch Towe Aquileia, beyond which is Altine. The Riuer Po,* occupieth a large space in the vpper shore. For he ryseth out of the verie foote of the Mountaine Ve∣sulus, and gathering himselfe at the first of lyttle springes, runneth a while lanke and leane: but anon after he so in∣creaseth, and is so fedde with other Riuers, that at the last he emptieth himselfe with seuen mouthes. One of these, they call great Po, and he gusheth out of it so swiftlie, that beating aside the waues, he carrieth his streame a great while in the same sort that he sent it out of the Landes ende, and kéepeth his channell styll euen in the Sea, vntyll the Riuer Ister flushing with lyke violence, out of the shore ouer against him, dooth méete with him. Héereby it comes to passe, that as men sayle through those places, where the saide Riuers come on both sides, they drawe vp freshe wa∣ter among the waues of the Sea.

From Po to Ancona ward, the waye lyes by Rauenna, Armne, Pisaure, the fraunchised Towne of Fane, and the Riuers Metaurus and Esis. And in the verie skirt of those two Forelandes, méeting one against an other, standeth the saide Towne of Ancona,* which hath that name giuen it by the Greekes, because the scituation thereof resembleth the bowing of a mans elbowe: and it is as a bound betwéene the Marches of the French and Italian Nations.

For when men are passed this Towne, they come vpon the coast of Picene, wherein are the Citties, Numana, Potentia, Claterna, and Cupra: the Castles of Firmum, Adria, and Truent, with a Riuer running thereby of the same name. From thence is the Sea coast of Seno∣gallia, vnto the mouth of the Riuer Aterne: the Citties whereof are Bucar and Histon.

Page  52The Daunians haue the Riuer Tiferne, the Citties Cli∣terne, Lucrine, and Theane, and the Mountaine Garganus. There is a Baye in Appulia, inclosed with a whole shore, which is called Vrias, of small roome, and for the most part rough to come vnto. Uttermore, is Sypunt, or (as the Greeks call it) Sypius, & a riuer that runneth by Canusium, and is called Aufidus. Afterward are Barium, Egnatia, and Rudie, ennobled with Ennius,* who was of that Cittie. And in Calabria, are Brunduse, Valece, Lupie, and Mount Hy∣drus, together with the plaines of Salent, and the Sea coast of Salent, and a Greeke Cittie, named Gallipole. Hitherto extendeth the Adriatishe Sea, and hitherto extendeth the one side of Italie. The front of it (as we haue saide) split∣teth into two hornes. But the Sea that is receyued in betwéene them both, being once or twice disseuered with thin Forelandes, is not enuironed with one whole banke, nor receiued open and at large on leuell shore, but in Bayes. The first is called the Baye of Tarent, which lyeth betwéene the Forelandes of Sale and Lacinium: and in it are Tarent, Metapont, Heracle, Croto, and Turium. The second, is called the Baye of Scyllace, betwéene the Forelandes of Pacinium, and Zephyrium, wherein are Petilia, Caecine, Scyllace, and Mistre. The third, which is betwéene Zephyrium and Brutium, enuironeth Consiline, Caulone, and Locres. In Brutium are the Kinges Pillar, Regium, Scylla, Taurian, and Metaure. From hence is the turning into the Tuscan Sea, and to the other side of the same Land, on the which side are Terine: Hippo now cal∣led Vibon: Temesa: Clampetia: Blanda: Buxent: Velia: Palinure sometime the name of ye Maister of Aeneas Ship, and now the name of a place: the Baye of Pesta, and the Towne of Pesta: the Riuer Silarus, the Cittie Picentia, the Rockes which the Mermaides dwelt in, the Foreland called Mineruaes Mount, the fatte groundes of Lucanie, the Baye of Puteolis, the Citties of Surrent and Hercule∣an, the view of the Mountaine Vesuuius, the Pompeyes, Naples, Puteolis, the Lakes of Lucrine and Auerne, the Page  53Bathes, Missene▪ now the 〈◊〉 of a place, sometime the name of a Troiane Souldiour: Cumes, Linterne, the Riuer Vulturne, the Towne Vulturne, the delectable Sea coast of Campane, Sinuessa, Liris, Minturne, ormie, Fundie, Tarracine, Circes house sometime called Circey. Autium, Aphrodisium, Arde, Laurent, and Ostia on the hither side of Tyber.

Beyond it are Pyrgie, Anio, Newcastle, Grauiske, Cossa, Telamon, Populon, Cecine, and Pises, places and names of Hetruria. Then Luna, igurum, and iguria, and Geane, and Sabatia, and Albigaunum. Then hath it the Riuers Paule and Varus, both falling from the Alpes, but Varus is better knowne, because it endeth Italie.

The Alpes themselues,* spreading farre and wide from these shores, doo first run a great step into the North: and when they haue touched Germanie, then turning their race, they goe foorth into the East, and disseuering cruell Nations, extend euen into Thrace.

Of the Prouince of Narbon.

The fift Chapter.

GAllia being deuided by the Lake Leman,* and the Moūtaine Gebenna, into two sides, whereof the one butteth vppon the Tuscan Sea, and the other vpon the Occean, exten∣deth on the one side from Varus, and on the other side from the Rhine vnto the Moūtaine Pyrene. The part that bordereth vppon our Sea, was sometime called Braccata, and is now called the prouince of*Narbone, and is more inhabited and tylled, and therefore also more chéer∣full. Of the Citties that it hath, the wealthiest are Vasio of the Vocontians, Vienna of the*Allobrogians,*Aue∣nio of the Cauars,*Nemausus of the Arecomikes, TolousPage  54 of the*Tectosages,*Aurasio of the Secundanes,*Are∣late of the Sextanes▪ and Blitera of the Septumanes.

But before them all steppeth the place where the Ata∣cines and Decumanes dwelt, from whence succour was mi∣nistred to all those Countries: which place is nowe the Martiall Narbo,* the name-giuer and beautie of the whole Prouince. On the Sea coastes, are a fewe places of some reputation. But the Citties stand thinne, because there are fewe Hauens, and all that quarter lyeth open to the South and South-west windes.

Nicea toucheth the Alpes, and so doth the Towne of De∣ceate, and so dooth*Antipolis. Afterwardes is Iulius Mar∣kette, a Towne builded by the Octauians, and then foorth Athenople, and Olbia, and Glauon, and Citarist, and Ha∣lycidon, the Hauen of Marsilles,* & in it the Towne of Mar∣silles it selfe. This being founded by the Phoceans, and builded in olde time among boistrous Nations, hath now brought them in awe, and made them good neighbours, farre vnlyke to that they were before. It is a woonderfull thing, how easilie it then tooke sure setling, and vnto this daye kéepeth the olde custome. Betwéene it and Rhone, lyeth Marius Ditch, vpon the Sea side néere vnto the Poole of the Auatikes, That shore carrieth a part of the saide Ri∣uer into the Sea, in a channell able to beare Ships: other∣wise it is but a rascall banke all stonie, where the report goeth that Hercules fighting against Albion and Bergion▪ the sonnes of Neptune, and hauing spent all his Artille∣rie, called vppon his Father Iupiter, who rayned downe stones to helpe him with: and a man would beléeue it had rained stones in déede, there lye so many, and that euerie where, and so farre of.

The Riuer Rhone* springeth not farre from the heads of Ister and Rhyne, and then being receyued into the Lake Losan, he holdeth on his race, and forcing himselfe whole through the middes of it, passeth out as great as he entered in. From thence being carried backe into the West, he deuideth Gallia a while, and then turninig his course Page  55 Southward, kéepeth so foorth on, and becomming nowe great with the resort of other Riuers, and continuallie wexing greater, runneth ut at the Landes nd, betwéene the*Volscies and the Cauers.

Beyond are the Pooles of the Volscies, the Riuer Lede, the Castle Latara, and the Hyll Mesna, enuironed almost round about with the Sea, and (but that it hangeth by a narrowe Cawsie to the Land) a verie Ile. Then Soan falling out of the Mountaines of Auuene,* runneth into the Sea by Agatha, and Obris by Bliters. Atax com∣ming downe from the Mountaine Pyrene,* as long as he hath none but the waters of his owne spring, runneth smal and shallowe, and yet a great channell, howbeit not able to beare a Shippe any where, sauing where he passeth by Narbone.

But when he swelleth with winter showres, he is woont to ryse so high, that his bankes be not able to holde him in. A Lake receyueth him▪ named Rubresus, verie large, but where the Sea entreth into it narrowe mouthed. Be∣yond is Leucata, as shore so named, and the Fountaine of Salsusa, which sheadeth water, not swéete, but more brac∣kishe than the water of the Sea.

Hard by, is a Féeld verie gréene with short and slender Réede,* but floting vpon a Poole that is vnderneath it. That it is so, the middle part of it plainlie proueth, which being cutte off from the rest about it, swimmeth lyke an Ile, and suffereth it selfe to be shooued and drawne too and fro. Moreouer, by those places that are cut through, appeareth the Sea sheaded vnderneath it. Wherevpon, whether it were through ignoraunce of the trueth, or that they were purposelie disposed to make a leasing, it lyked as well our Authors, as also the Greekes, to leaue in writing vnto such as should come after, that Fishe was digged out of the whole ground in that Countrie, which in déede comming out of the déepe Sea thether, and there being killed by such as babbed for them, was drawne dead out of the foresaide holes.

Page  56From thence is the coast of the Sardones, and the lyttle brookes of Thelis and Thicis, which are verie noysome when they rise with any rage of water: and Ruscinum, a Towne of the Romanes, and the Uillage Eliberris, which sometime was a great Cittie, and nowe is but a slender Monument of great wealth. Then betwéene the Fore∣landes of Pyrene, is the Hauen of Venus▪ in a Baye of salt-water, and a place called*Ceruaria, which is the ende of Gallia.

Of Spaine.

The sixt Chapter.

THe Mountaine Pyrene, first runneth from hence into the Britishe Occean: and then turning with a front into the mayne Land, breaketh into Spaine, and shutting out the lesser part of it on the right hand, stretcheth out a long in one whole ridge, vntyll such tyme as hauing passed a long race through all the Countrie, it come to those shores that are butting vppon the West. Spaine it selfe (sauing where it boundeth vppon Fraunce,) is enuironed round about with the Sea. Where it clea∣ueth vnto Fraunce, there is it narrowest, then widening it selfe by little and little into our Sea and the Occean, and wexing larger and larger, it runneth into the West, and there becommeth broadest. It is so plenteous and fruitfull of Men, Horsses, Iron, Leade, Brasse, Siluer and Golde, that if in any place it be fruitlesse and vnlike it selfe▪ for want of water, yet it beareth Flaxe and* Spart. It is distinguished by thrée names, one part is called Tarraco∣nensis, an other Boetica, and the thirde Lusitania.*Tar∣raconensis, butting with the one headde thereof against Fraunce, and with the other vpon Boetica and Lusitania, thrusteth out his sides Southward to our midland Sea, Page  57 and Northward to the Brittish Occean. The Riuer*A∣nas parteth Boetica from Lusitania, and therfore*Boetica looketh into both the Seas, that is to saye, Westward into the Athlantish Occean, and Southward into our midland Sea.*Lusitania lyeth onelie against the Occean, that is to wit, with his side into the North, and with his front in∣to the West.

Of vpland Citties, in Tarraconensis, the famousest in olde time were*Pallance, and Numance: and nowe the famousest is*Caeauragusta: in Lusitania, Emerita: and in Boetica, Astigie*Ispalis, and Corduba. But if ye goe along the Sea coast, next beyond Ceruaria▪ is a Rocke which thrusteth Mount Pyrene into the déepe. Then fol∣loweth the riuer Thicis vnto Rhoda, and Clodian to Em∣puries; beyond which, is Iupiters Mount: the West part whereof, (by reason of the stones that rise with a little di∣staunce one aboue an other like greeces) they call Hanni∣balles Stayers.*

From thence to*Tarracon, are the little Townes, of Blanda, Illuro, Betullo,*Barchino, Subur, and Tholobie: and the little brookes of Betulo▪ next to Iupiters Mount, and Rubricate, somewhat bigger at the shore, betwéene Su∣bur and Tholobie. The Cittie Tarraco, is the wealthiest of all that stand vppon these coastes. Aboue it runneth a meane Riuer called Tulcis, and beneath it runneth the great riuer*Iberus. From thence the Sea windeth it selfe into the Land, and entering at the first with great force, is anon after deuided into two Bayes, with a Foreland cal∣led Ferrar. The first Bay is named Sucron, which is the greater of both, and receyueth the Sea at a verie large mouth, wexing styll narrower the further it goeth. It re∣ceyueth Serabis and Duria, and Sucron, riuers of no great bignesse. It embraceth other Citties, but the best knowne are Valentia, and that famous Towne of Saguntum, re∣nowmed both for faithfulnesse, and for the miseries it en∣dured. The other Bay following▪ called Illce, hath Alone and Lucence, and Illice whereof it taketh the name. Page  56〈1 page duplicate〉Page  57〈1 page duplicate〉

Page  58Héerhence, & from those things that are spoken of already, vnto the Marches of*Boetica, there is nothing woorth the writing, except it be*Carthage, which Hasdruball Cap∣taine of the Carthaginenss builded. On those coastes are base Townes, which are not woorth the naming, but for orders sake: as Virgie, in the Baye called Virgie Baye: and without it Abdera, Suell, Hexie, Menoba,*Malaca, Salduba, Lacippo, and Berbefull. Afterward followeth the * opening of the narrow Sea, where the two Mountains, Abyla & Calpe doo in manner ioyne the shores of Europe & Affricke▪ together, as we said at the beginning. They are called the Pillers of Hercules, and both of them (but Calpe more, and in manner wholie) beare foreward into the Sea. The same being woonderfull hollowe on that part that is toward the Sunne setting, openeth almost his midde side, where into there shutteth a Bay, which is almost altoge∣ther passageable as farre as it goeth, and beyond it is a Caue. In that Bay, Carteia in times past (as some thinke) called Tarteslus, and Mellaria enuironed with the Sea, a Towne which the Phenicians passing out of Affricke in∣habite, (the place where I was borne) together with the Townes of Bello and Besippo,* occupie the rest of the coast on that narrow Sea, vnto*Iunos Mount. This rising in∣to the West into the Occean with a bowing ridge, and fa∣cing the Forelands of Ampelusia which we told you to be in Affricke, is the ende of Europe toward our Seas.

The Iles of the mid-land Sea.

The seuenth Chapter.

THe Ile*Gades, which meeteth men when they passe out at the Streightes, put∣teth me in remembrance, chéefely to speake of the rest of the Iles in our mid-land Sea, before I procéede to treate of the coast of the Page  59 Occean, and the vttermost circuite of the maine Lands, as I promised at the beginning.

There are but few in Maeotis, (for it séemeth most hand∣some to beginne there) and yet all of them are not inhabi∣ted, for they yéeld not sufficient sustenaunce. Héerevpon it comes to passe, that the inhabiters of them, drie the fleshe of great Fishes in the Sunne, and braying it into fine pow∣der, vse it in sléede of meale. There are also but fwe in Pontus, Leuke, a verie little Iland, scituate against the mouth of Boristhenes, is syr named Achille,* because A∣chilles lyeth buried there. Not farre thence is Aria,* which being consecrated to Mars, did (as is reported in Fables,) bréede Birdes▪ that cast foorth feathers as it had béene Dartes, and therewith made great slaughter of such as arriued on that coast. There are six at the mouthes of Ister, of which Peuce* is the best knowne, and the greatest.

Thynnias* facing the borders of the Mariandynes, hath a Cittie, which (because the Bithynians builded it) is cal∣led Bithynis. Against the Bosphor of Thrace lye two lyttle Iles,* distaunt a small space asunder, sometime belée∣ued and reported to haue runne together, called Cyanies and Symplegades. In Propontis,* onelie Proconesus is inhabited. Without Hellespont, the notablest (of such as lye vpon the coast of Asia) are Tenedos,* ouer against the Foreland of Sigaeum, and such as are scituate against the Foreland of Taurus, whereof I will speake in order as they stand, which were called Macarons Iles,* eyther be∣cause they haue a happie ayre and soyle, or else because one Macar and his Uicegerentes, helde them vnder theyr dominion.

Upon the coast of Troad is Lesbos,* and in it some tyme were fiue Townes, Antissa, Pyrrha, Eressos, Ciraua, and Mitylene. Upon Ionia, lye Chios, and Samos:* vpon Ca∣ria, Cos:* vpon Lycia, Rhodes: and in eche of these Iles, is a Cittie of the same name. In Rhodes where ere-while thrée:*Lindus, Camius, and Ialysus.

Page  60The Iles that lye against the head of Taurus, being com∣bersome to sayle vnto, are named Chlidonies. In the greatest Baie that Asia receiueth, almost about the middes thereof lyeth Cyprus:* which stretching it selfe from the East into the West, shooteth with a streight ridge betwéen Cilicia and Syria, and is verie great, as which sometime▪ conteined nine Kingdomes. And at this day it beareth cer∣taine Citties, whereof the notablest are Salamis, and Pa∣phos, and Palaepaphos, where the folke of that Countrie holde opinion, that Venus set first foote a lande out of the Sea. There is a lyttle Ile in Phenicia,* called Arados, conueied all in one Towne as much as is of it, but plenti∣fullie peopled, because it is lawfull for men to dwell, euen vnder other mens roofes. Canope* also is a lyttle one, at the mouth of Nile▪ called Canopicke. Menelaus Ship∣maister, Canopus, dying there by chaunce, gaue that name to the Ile, and the Ile gaue name to the mouth of Nile, Pharos* is nowe ioyned with a bridge to Alexandria, but in olde time (as is reported in Homers worke) it was dis∣seuered a whole dayes sayling from that coast. And if it were so in déede, it maye well be coniectured, that Nile hath béene the cause of so great alteration: who bringing mudde continuallie downe his channell (and that chéeflie when he floweth) and beating it to the shore, encreaseth the Landes, and enlargeth the plat of them, by growing fore∣ward into the next shallowes.

In Affricke, against the greater Syrt, is Cuteletos.* a∣gainst the Forelandes of the lesser Syt, are Meniux, and Cercinna:* against the Baye of Carthage, lye Tarichie,* and the Aegates▪ renowmed with the Shipwracke of the Ro∣manes. Many mo are scituate against the coaste of Eu∣rope.

In the Aegean Sea, néere to Thrace, are Thasos, Im∣bros, Samothrace, Scandille, Polyegos, Scyathos, Halone∣sos and Lemnos,* where the women in olde time are re∣ported to haue murthered all the men, and to haue helde the Realme alone. Lemnos lyeth ouer against the Moun∣taine Page  61Athos: the Bay of Pagasa, faceth cyathos, and em∣braceth Cicyneton. Euboea thrusteth out the Forelandes of Geraestos,* and Caphareum, into the South: and Coene∣um into the North. It no where beareth any breadth: and where it is narrowest, it is two miles ouer: but it is long, and lyeth against all Baeotia, being disseuered from the shore thereof, with a verie narrowe arme of salt-water, which they call Euripus, a swift Sea▪ ebbing and flowing seuen times a daye, and as often euerie night, with so vn∣measurable strong tides, that it disappointeth Ships which haue the winde full on their sayles.

There are a fewe Townes in it, as Hestiaea, Eretria, Pyrrha, Nesos, and Occhalia: but the wealthiest, are Ca∣rystos and Chalcis. In Attis, is Helene knowne,* for the adultrie of Quéene Hellen, and Salamis* better knowne, for the destruction of the Persian Fléete.

About Peloponesus, yet still in the Aegean Sea, are Phitiusa, and Aegina,* scituate against the shore of Epidau∣rus. Against Troiezen (among vnrenowmed thinges) is Calauria,* renowmed otherwise with the death of Demost∣henes. In the Myrtoan Sea,* is Cythera set against Ma∣lea, and Theganusa* against Acritas. In the Ionish Sea, are Prote, Hyria, Cephalenia, Neritos, Same, Zacynthos, Dulychium,* and (which is not to be reckoned among the base sort) Ithaca, most chéefelie renowmed with the name of Vlysses. In Epyre, are the Echinades, and the Stro∣phades,* in olde time called Plottes. Against the Bay of Ambrace, is Leucadie, and néere vnto the Adriatish Sea, Corcyra: and these lye against the Lands of the Greekes,* and the Thracians.

But innermore are Nelos, Olaros, Aegina, Cahon, Ios, Thera, Hyaros, Hippuris, Donysa, Cianos, Chalcis, Icaria, Pinaria, Nisyros, Lebynthos, Calydne, and Asine,* and all these (because they lye scattering) are called Sporades. Af∣them follow Sicynus, Cythnos, yphnos, Sriphos, Rhene, Paros, Scyros, Tenos, Myconos, Naxos, Delos, and Andros:* which (because they stand round, as it were in a cyrcle to∣gether) Page  62 are called ••clades. Aboue them in the mid Sea, *Crete, (furnished sometime with an hundred Citties) sendeth out into the East a Foreland called Samon, and in∣to the West an other, called the Rammes-head. But that is greater then Cyprus, it were lyke it. The same thereof is blazed abroade▪ with many Fables: as the 〈◊〉 of Europa, the Loues of Pasiphae and of Ariadne,he cruel∣nesse of Minotaure and his death, the workes of Dedalus▪ and his flight in the ayre, and moreouer▪ his arriuall and death: but most of all, for that the inhabiters yet doo showe the Tombe of Iupiter* with his name grauen therevppon, as an uident Monument of his buriall there.

Of the Citties therein, the best knowne are Gnosus, Gortyna, Lyctos, Lycastos, Holopixos, Phaestos, Cydon, Manethusa, and Dictyna. Among the Hilles, the same of Mount Ida excelleth, because it is saide that Iupiter was nourished there. By the same Hill are Asticle, Nauma∣chos, Zephyre, Crise, Gaudos,* and thrée Townes called all by the one name of Musagories, and Carpathus, whereof the Carpathian Sea taketh his name.

In the Adriatishe Sea,* are Absoros, Celaduse, Absyr∣tis, Issa, Trucon, Hydria, Electrides, blacke Corcyra, Tra∣gurie, Diomedia, Aestria, Asine, and an other Pharos lying to Brundusium as the other did to Alexandria. Sicill (by report) was sometime maineland, and ioyned to the Coun∣trie of Brutia, but afterward it was cut off by an arme of the Sicilian Sea.* The same being narrowe and sharpe, runneth with interchaungeable course, one while into the Thuscane Sea, and an other while into the Ionish Sea, rough, cruell, and renowmed with the terrible names of Scylla and Charybdis. Scylla is a Rocke, and Charybdis a Sea. both of them perillous, for such as passe by them.

The Ile it elfe being great, and shooting foorth with thrée headdes thrée sundrie wayes one from on other,* ma∣keth the shape of the Greeke Letter called Delta. That which looketh toward Greece, is named Pachynus: that Page  63 which looketh to Affricke ward, is called Lilybie: and that which enclineth to Italie, and is direct against Scylla, is cal∣led Pelorus of Pelorus a Shippe Maister, buried there by Hanniball. For when Hanniballledde out of his Coun∣trie, as he was passing at waye into Syria, because that to his sight a farre of, the shores séemed to ioyne all in one as if there had béene no Sea to passe through, thinking him¦selfe to be betrayed by Pelorus, he killed him. The coast that extendeth from thence to Pachinus, along the Ionish Sea, beareth these notable thinges: Messana, Tauromini∣um Catina, Megaris, yracuse, and among these the woon∣derfull Arethusa.

It is a Fountaine wherein are séene againe,* such things as are cast into the Riuer Alpheus, which (as we haue saide) sinketh into the Sea-banke of Peloponesus. Wher∣vpon it is beléeued, that the saide Riuer mingleth not him∣selfe with the Sea, but sinking downe, carrieth his streame in a channel, vnder Sea and land hither, and héere sprin∣geth vp againe.

Betwéene Pachynus and Lilybie, are Acragas, Heracle, and Therme. Betwéene Lilybie and Pelorus, are Panor∣mus and Hymera. Innermore are the Leontines, Centu∣ripine, Hybla, and many others. Enna* hath the chéefe fame, for the Temple of Ceres. Of Mountaines, the most renowmed is Eryx▪* for the Temple of Venus builded by Aenaeas▪ and Aetna▪* which in olde time nourished the Cy∣clopes, and now burneth with continuall fire.

Of the Riuers, Hymera is woorthy to be spoken of,* be∣cause that rysing in the verie harte of the Countrie, it run∣neth two contrarie wayes, and cutting it into two halfes, falleth with the one mouth into the Lybish Sea, & with the other into the Thuscane Sea. About Sicill, in the narrowe Sea of Sicill, is the Iland*Aeoee, where Calypso is re∣ported to haue dwelled. Toward Affricke are Gaulos,*Melita, and Cosura: and toward Italie, Galata, and those seuen which by common name and reputation, are called. Page  64Aeolus Iles,* that is to wit,*Osteodes, Lipara, Didyme, Phaenicusa, Ericusa, Hiera, and Strongyle, which burne with continuall fire like Aetna. But Pithecusa, Leuco∣thea, Venaria, Sinonia, Capree, Prochyta, Pontia, Panda∣taria, Phytonia, and Palmaria, lye against the side of Italie, on this side the mouth of Tyber. Beyond are certayne little ones, called Dianium, Iaginium, Carbania, Vrgo, Ilua, and Capraria. Then are there two great ones, deuided with the Hetruscan Sea: of which Corsica,* néerer to the shore, being long and slender betwéene the sides, is inha∣bited by barbarous people, sauing where the Romane Townes, Aleria, and Marian are.

Sardinia,* butting vpon the Sea of Affricke, sauing that it is narrower Westward than Eastward, is alike square on all sides, and euerie where somewhat larger than Cor∣sica where it is largest. It is fruitfull, and of better soyle then ayre: for as it is fruitfull, so is it almost pestilent. In it the auncientest people, are the Ilians, and the auncientest Citties, are Calaris and Sulchie.

But on the coast of Fraunce, there are none woorthy to be treated of, saue onelie the Stechades,* which are spread from the coast of Ligurie, vnto Masilia. The Baleards in Spaine,* scituate against the coast of Tarraconensis, are not farre distant one from an other: and of their bignesse they take their agréeable names of Maiorica and Minorica. In Minorica, are the Castles of Iamno and Mago: and in Ma∣iorica, are the Romane Townes, Palma and Polentia. The Ile Ebusus,* being scituate directlie ouer, against the Foreland of Ferrara, which is in the Bay of Sucron, hath a Cittie of the same name, onelie barreine of Corne, but of other thinges plentifull, and so cléere from all noysome creatures, that it suffereth not somuch as those that of wild thinges are made tame, to bréede and encrease, neither can abide them to be brought in.

Of a contrarie nature is Colubraria,* wherof it commeth to my minde to write. For although it swarme with ma∣ny kindes of hurtfull Serpents, and be therefor vninha∣bitable: Page  65 yet notwithstanding when men arriue there, if they bring of the earth of Ebusus with them, as many as are within the precinct▪ that is strowed about with that earth, are safe without perill, and the Serpentes (which o∣therwise would aduenture to méete them and assault them) shunning the sight of the dust (or rather some other secret power thereof) flie farre of for feare.

❧ The thyrd Booke of that woorthy Cosmographer, Pomponius Mela, concer∣ning the scituation of the world.

The vttermost shores of Spaine.

The first Chapter.

THE coast of our mid-land Sea is already spo∣ken of,* and the Iles that it con∣teineth are spoken of also. Now remaineth that circuite which (as we haue saide at the begin∣ning) is enuironed with the great Occean, that vnmeasu∣rable Sea, which raging with great tydes (for they so terme the mouinges thereof) one while floweth into the féeldes, and an other while leauing them a great way bare, flieth backe, from one to an other successinelie, and not turning by enterchaungeable course, Page  66 eft into one and eft into an other. But when he hath powred himselfe whole together out of the middes into all shores, as well of Ilandes as of maine landes, though they be contrarie one against other, he gathereth from them a∣gaine into the middes, and retireth into himselfe, rushing foorth alwaies with such violence, that he driueth backe hudge streames, and eyther taketh the Beasts of the Land vnwares, or else leaueth the Beasts of the Sea waterlesse. Neither is it yet certainlie knowne, whether the world cause it with his panting, and vttereth out on all sides a∣bout him the water that he had drawne in with his breath, for (as it seemeth to the learned sort) the world 〈◊〉 a ly∣uing wight: or whether there be some hollowe Caues in the ground▪ for the ebbing Seas to retire into, and to lyft themselues out againe when they are too full: or whether the Moone be the cause of so great fléetings. This is cer∣taine, that according to the rysing and going downe of the Moone, the course of the Occean varieth, and kéepeth not one ordinarie time, but as she mounteth or falleth, so we perceiue it to go and come.

When men are come out hither, and pursue those parts that are on the right hand, the Athlantish Occean, and the coast of the front of*Boetica, receyueth them, which lyeth in manner streight vnto the Riuer Anas,* sauing that once or twice it withdraweth a lyttle into it selfe. The Tur∣dules and Bastule, inhabite it. In the hithermost Bay, is a Hauen which they call Gad•• Hauen, and a Wood which they call▪*Oleastre. Then on the shore▪ is the Castle of Ebor, and farre from the shore▪ is the Romane Towne Asta, and without the Baye is the Temple and Altar of Iuno. In the verie Sea is the Tombe of Geryon, set ra∣ther vppon a Rocke, then in an Ile. The Riuer Boetis comming out of the Countrie of Tarracon,* runneth a long while▪ almost through the middle of this Countrie, in one channell as he sprang vp at his head. But afterward ha∣uing made a great Lake. not farre from the Sea, he ryseth double▪ as it were out of one spring, and issueth out as great Page  67 in either of them, as he came in single in his owne. Then boweth there an other Baye inward vnto the ende of the Shore, vpon the which Baye stande the little Townes of Olitingie and Onoba.

Beyond the Riuer Anas,*Lusitunia (on that side where it looketh into the Athlantishe Occean) steppeth out at the first with a great bulke into the déepe, and afterward shrin∣king backe againe, retireth further inward than oetica. Where it beareth foreward, it receyueth the Sea twise in∣to it, and so is deuided into thrée Forelands. That which is next the Riuer Anas, (because it passeth foorth from a broad base, and by little and little groweth into a narrowe point) is called*Cueus Ager. The second, they call Holy Head: and the third, Great Head. In the Wedge, are Mtylis, Bal∣sa, and Ossobona: In Holie Head, are Lacobriga, and Han∣niballes Hauen: and on the Great Head, is Ebora. Be∣twéene these thrée Heads, are the Bayes: in the hithermost wherof is Salacia, & in the other is the City*Vlisippo, and the mouth of the Riuer Tagus, which ingendreth Gold and precious Stones. From these Forelandes to that parte which retired backe, is opened a great winding gap, wher∣in be the olde Turdules, and their Townes: and the Ri∣uers, Monda and Durius, of which Monda runneth out al∣most through the middest of the side of the last mentioned Foreland: and Durius swéepeth by the verie roote of it. That Front for a while hath a direct shore, which after∣ward making a little winding, shooteth foorth anon againe, and then shrinking in once or twise, procéedeth right foorth with a direct banke vnto the Foreland which we call*Cel∣ticke. All this Coast is inhabited by the Celts, from the Riuer Durius, to the bought of Gronium, & through their borders runne the Riuers Auo, Celandus, Nebis, Minius, and (which beareth the name of forgetfulnesse) Limia. The bought it selfe imbracing the Cittie Lambriaca, receyueth the Riuers of Iena and Via. The foremost part of the bought, is inhabited by the Presamarkes, through whose Country, the Riuers Tamaris and Srs, hauing their heads Page  68 not farre one from an other, doo runne into the Sea, Tama∣ris▪ at the Hauen of Artabrie, and Sars at a Towre renow∣med with the name of Augustus.

The rest of the Countrie beyond, is inhabited by the Ta∣marikes, and Nerians, who be the last on that coast. For hi∣therto the shores lye full vpon the West: and from thence∣foorth, the Land turneth with full side to the North, from the Celtike Foreland, to the Foreland of Scithia. From this Celtike Foreland, vnto the*Cantabers, the Coast is al∣most right out, sauing that there be a few small Bayes and little Forelandes. On that coast, are first the Artabers, and Ianasum, Celtike Nations, and next them the Asturians. In Artabria, a Bay with a narrowe mouth▪ receyuing the Sea into a large roome, bendeth about by the Cittie Adro∣bike, and the mouthes of fowre Riuers: whereof two be but smallie regarded▪ euen of the dwellers by: and by the other two, the Riuers Mearus and Narius run into Libun∣ca. On the shore of the Asturians▪ standeth the Towne of Naega: and in a certaine Nesse there are thrée Altars▪ which they call Sestians, which are ennobled with the name of Augustus, whereby they ennoble these Lands also, which were vnnoble afore.

Neuerthelesse, from the Riuer which is called Salia, the coast beginneth to drawe backe by little and little, and more and more to streighten the widenes of Spaine, which yet notwithstanding is wide still, gathering the Landes in∣to so narrowe a roome, that betwéene the two Seas where Spaine butteth vppon Fraunce, Spaine is narrower by the one halfe, than where it reacheth into the West. That Coast is helde by the Cantabers and Vardules. Among the Cantabers are diuers people and Riuers, howbeit, whose names can not be vttered by the mouth of vs Ro∣manes.

Through those Countries, comes downe the Riuers▪ Salenos, and Saurium: and through certaine people, called the Autrigones, and Origeuiones, commeth downe the Ri∣uer Nesua. The Riuer Deua runneth by Tritium▪ Tobo∣licum,Page  69 and beyond that, Magrada passeth by Iurissa, and Iason. The Vardules being one entyre Nation, extend from hence to the head of Mount Pyren, and so close vp 〈◊〉 the Countrie of Spaine.

The vttermost coasts of Gallia.

The second Chapter.

NOw followeth the other side of Gallia, whose Coast shouing somewhat forewarde into the déepe, and anon stepping foorth, well∣néere as much into the open Sea, as Spaine had retired backe, bresteth the Lands of Can∣tabrie, and winding about with a great circuite, turneth his side vnto the West. Then turning againe to y North, it spreadeth out with a long and streight coast, vnto the bankes of the Rhyne. It is a Land verie fruitfull, théefelie of grasse and corne, & pleasant to behold for great Forrests. Whatsoeuer kind of séede can away with n cold, the coun∣trie yéeldeth it not euerie where, neither is there any great store of hurtfull Beasts. The people themselues are proud, superstitious, and sometime also they haue béene outragi∣ous: insomuch that they haue beléeued, that the Sacrificing of men, was the best and acceptablest thing to the Goddes. There remaine yet still some remnants of their foreworne crueltie: insomuch, that although they abstaine from vtter ••eaing of men, yet notwithstanding, they bring them to the Altars, and taste of their blood. Neuerthelater, they haue their kinde of eloquence, and teachers of wisedome, whome they call Druides. These professe themselues to know the greatnesse and fashion of the world, the moouinges of the Heauen, and of the Starres, and the will of the Goddes. They teach many things, to the men of chéefe Nobilitie in Page  70 that Nation, priuilie and a long time together, euen by the space of twentie yéeres, in some Caue of the earth, or in vn∣séene corners.

One of the thinges which they teach, is escaped into com∣mon knowledge: namelie, that mennes soules are euerla∣sting, and liue an other life after they be departed out of their bodies: and that is to the intent, that men should be the better for the warres. And therefore when they bur∣ned or buried their dead, they sent with them an account of their affaires, agréeable to their state aforetime when they were aliue, yea, and also a demaund of the debtes, which they owed or had owing vnto them: yea, and there were some which did willinglie cast themselues into the fyres▪ where their fréendes corses were burnt, as folke that looked to liue together with them.

The Countrie which they inhabite, beareth wholie the name of Gallia Comata. Of Nations, are all comprehended vnder thrée chéefe names, and are limitted by great Riuers. For from Mount Pyren▪ to the Riuer*Garumna, is A∣quitane, from thence to*Sequana, dwell the*Celtes: and from thence to the Rheine, inhabite the*Belgians. Of the Aquitanes, the most renowmed are the Auscianes: of the Celtes, the Heduanes: and of the Belgians, the Treuires. The wealthiest Citties, are among the Treuires, Augusta: among the Heduanes, Augustodunum: and the Auscians, Elusaberris. The Riuer of Geround▪ falling out of Mount Pyren, runneth a long while shallowe▪ and scarce sayleable, sauing when he swelleth, by reason of winters rayne, or of the melting of the snowe. But whn he is once increased▪ by méeting with the comminges in of the flowing Occean, and carrieth both his owne waters, and the Occeans also▪ in their going backe againe: he becommeth somewhat ful∣ser, and the further he goeth, still the wider. At length, be∣ing like a great arme of the Sea, he not onelie beareth reat Shippes, but also swelling after the manner of the aging Sea, he tosseth the Sailers, and that very cruellie, if Page  71 the winde and the tide be one against an other. In this Sea is an Iland called Antros, the which the Inhabitants ther∣of doo thinke to hang loose, and to be lift vp with the rysing of the water, because that when it séemeth high, it ouer∣dréepeth the water, and when the waues are vp to their full, they not onelie inuiron it as afore, but also ouerpéere it: and the thinges which at other times would not be séene for the bankes and hilles, doo then lye open to sight, as from a higher place.

From the going out of Geround, beginneth the side of the Land that shooteth into the Sea, and lyeth right ouer a∣gainst the coast of Cantabria. The midde partes thereof are inhabited by sundrie sortes of people, bending downe∣ward from the Santons, vnto the Osismians. For from thence againe, the front of the shores faceth the North a∣gaine, and so holdeth on to the*Morines, which are the vt∣termost people of Fraunce. And the Morines haue not any thing that is better nowne, then the Hauen that is called *Gessoriacum.

The Rhin falling downe from the Alpes, maketh two Lakes within a lyttle of his head, namelle,*Veet, and *Acronie, from thence running a long time whole againe, and in one channell, he is dispearsed asunder againe▪ within a lyttle of the Sea, Howbeit yet Riuer-lyke styll on the left hand, euen vntyll he runne out into the Sea.

But on the right hand, at the fyrst he is narrowe, and lyke himselfe: but afterward, his bankes giue waye, so as he becommeth not a Riuer, but a great Lake, and hauing fylled the féeldes, is called Fluo, and imbracing an I∣land of the same name, he becommeth narrower againe, and falleth lyke a Riuer a∣gaine into the Sea.

Page  72

Of Germanie.

The third Chapter.

FRom hencefoorth to the Alpes, Germanie is bounded on the West, with the Rhyne, on the South, with the Alpes themselues, on the East, with the borders of the Nations of Sarmatia, and on the North, with the Oc∣cean Sea. The Inhabitants are huge of bo∣dy, and hautie of minde, and according to the sauadgenesse that is bredde in them, doo inure both of them, as well their mindes to battell, as their bodies to the custome of paines taking. In the greatest colde that is, they goe naked, tyll they growe to mans estate, and childe-hood is verie long a∣mong them. The men goe cloathed in Mandilions, or in barkes of Trées: and be the winter neuer so sharpe, they not onelie can endure to swimme, but also haue a delight in it. They be at warre with their next borderers, and they picke quarrelles to them of pleasure, and not of desire to raigne, or to inlarge the thinges which they possesse, (for they doo not greatlie manure the grounds which they haue) but to make Countries about them waste. Force is their Lawe, insomuch that they be not ashamed euen of robberie and murther: onely they be good to Straungers, & mercifull to suppliaunts. They be so hard and carelesse of their fare, that they féede euen vpon rawe fleshe, either new killed, or softened by kneading it with their handes and féete, in the skinnes of the Cattell and wilde Beastes themselues, after it is stiffe for colde.

The Land is troublesome with the multitudes of Ri∣uers, combersome with the multitude of Mountaines, and for a great parte vntrauelable for Wooddes, Fennes, and Marishes. Of Fennes and Marishes, the greatest are Su∣cia, Mesia, and Melsiagum. Of Wooddes, the greatest is Page  73*Hercynia. There are some other also that beare name, but as Hercynia is the greatest, for it is thrée score dayes iourney ouer, so is it also the best knowne. The highest of the Mountaines, are Taurus and Rhetico, sauing those which it is scarcelie possible for the tongue of a Romane to vtter.

The notablest Riuers, of them that runne foorth into o∣ther Nations, are*Danubius, and*Rhodanus: of them that runne into the Rhyne, Maenus, and Lupia: of them that fall into the Occean,*Amisius,*Visurgis, and Albis. Uppon the Riuer Albis, is the great gulfe called Codanus, full of Ilandes, both great and small. The sharpe Sea▪ which is receyued into the bosome of those shores, dooth no where beare any great breadth, nor any likenesse of a Sea, but is shed out wanderinglie and dispearsedlie, after the likenesse of Riuers, by waters that runne into it, and oftentimes runne cleane through it. Where it beateth vpon the shores, it is hemmed in with the bankes of Ilands not farre distant asunder, so as it is euerie where almost of a lyke scantling, narrowe, and resembling an arme of the Sea, bowing and bending from place to place▪ with a long brew. In it are the Cimbrians, and Theutons, and beyond them the*Hermions, which are the vttermost people of Germanie.

Of Sarmatia.

The fourth Chapter.

SArmatia being broader innermore, then at the Seas side, is deuided from the former Coūtries, by the riuer Visula, from whence it extendeth backe to the riuer*Ister. The people in their behauiour and Armour, re∣semble much the Parthians. But as their Countrie is of sharper ayre, so be they of fiercer disposition. They abide Page  74 not in Citties, no nor in any certaine dwelling places: but as pasturage prouoketh them, or as the enimie fléeing or pursuing, giueth them cause, so doo they euer conuey their goodes and Cattell with them, dwelling alwayes in Tents lyke warriers, frée & vnbridled, and so vnmeasurablie fierce and cruell, that euen their women goe to battell with the men, & to the intent they may be the fitter for the purpose, as soone as they be borne, their right pappes are seared, that the hand which is to be put foorth to seruice, maye be the more at libertie to strike, and their breast become the more manlike. To bend a bowe, to hunt, and to ride, are the tasks of Maidens. To encounter the enimie, is the wages of wo∣men growen: insomuch, that not to haue stricken an eni∣mie, is counted a heinous crime, and for their punishment, they be enioyned to liue Maidens still.

Of Scithia.

The fift Chapter.

FRom thence-foorth, the Sea coastes of Asia, sauing where the snowe lyeth continu∣allie, and where the colde is intollerable, are inhabited by the Nations of Scithia, called almost all by one name, vniuersallie Sages. The first vpon the Sea coast of Asia, be the Hyperboreans, furthest North beyond the Riphoean moun∣taines, vnder the verie North-pole: in which Countrie the Sunne dooth not rise and set daylie, as it dooth with vs: but it ryseth in the Lenton equinoctiall, and setteth not a∣gaine, tyll the Haruest equinoctiall, by reason whereof, it is daye by the space of sixe whole monethes together, and like∣wise night, by the space of other sixe monethes. The Land is narrowe, open to the Sunne, & fruitfull: the Inhabiters are most vpright dealers, and liue both longer, & more hap∣pilie than other men. For they enioying alwaies feastfull Page  75 peace, can no skill of warre, nor of quarelling, but doo buste themselues about matters of Religion, specially cōcerning Apollo, the first fruites whereof, they be reported to haue sent to Delos, at the first by certaine Uirgins of theirs, and afterward by their neighbour Nations, deliuering them from one to an other, styll further & further, which custome they kept long time, vntill at length it was restrained, through default of those Nations. Their dwelling is in Woods and Forrests: and when suffizance, or rather wea∣rines of life commeth vpon them, then decking themselues with garlands, they throwe themselues chéerfully headlong into the Sea▪ from a certaine rocke, which vnto them is the honourablest buriall that can be.

The Caspian Sea breaketh into the maine Land, at the first with a narrowe and long gutte like a riuer, and when it is flowne in after that manner▪ in a streight channell, it sheadeth abroade into thrée Bayes: namelie, into the Hir∣canian▪ directlie against the mouth, into the Scithian on th left hand, and on the right hand into that which peculiar∣lie, and by the name of the whole, is called the Caspian Baye. It is altogether rough, cruell, harborlesse, open on all sides to winde and weather, and more replenished with noysome Beastes, then other Seas are, and therefore lesss nauigable.

At the right hand as ye enter in, the Scithians syr named *Nomades, possesse the Sea shores. Within it to the Caspi∣an Bay, are the Caspians, & the Amazons, otherwise called Sauromats. At the Hircaniā Bay, be the Abanes, Mosks, and Hircanians. At the Scithian Bay, be the Amards, & Pesiks, and at the enteraunce it selfe, the Derbiks. Many Riuers, both great and small, do run into that coast: but the famou∣sest is Araxes, which springing out of the side of Moūt Tau∣rus, commeth downe from the Thunder-hilles in one chan∣nell, and issueth out into the Caspian in two. So long as he cutteth through the féelds of Armenia, he glideth calme and styll, so as although ye looke neuer so wistlie vppon him, ye cannot discerne which way he unneth.

Page  76But when he commeth downe into the rougher places, then being pinched in on either side with Rockes, and the more he is pent becomming the more swift, he breaketh himselfe against the stones, that lye vp in his way, and by reason thereof, tumbleth downe with great flushing and noyse, so swiftlie, that by reason of his forcible fall, he slyp∣peth not plum downe to the ground vnderneath him, but spowteth a farre of without any channell, carrying his wa∣ters aloft more then the space of an acre, and bearing him∣selfe vp in a hanging streame without channell, at length commeth bowing downe againe like a bowe, and becom∣ming calme againe, passing on quietlie, and scarse mouing, from thence into the foresaide Bay.

Cyrus & Cambises, springing out of the foot of the next hil▪ which is called Coraxus, run two sundrie waies, & passing on a great while through Iberia and Hyrcania in channels farre distaunt, afterward being receyued into one Lake, not farre from the Sea, they runne out into the Hyrcanian Bay, both at one mouth. Iaxartes and Oxos passe into the Scithian Bay, out of the Countries of the Sogdianes, from the Desartes of Scithia: Laxartes being great from his ve∣rie spring, and Oxo becomming greater by the falling of other Riuers into him, who kéeping his course a whyle from the East into the West, turneth aside first among the Dahanes, and taking his course into the North, openeth his mouth betwéene the Amards, and Pesikes. The Forrests of Hyrcanie bring foorth other ouglie beastes, but speciallie the Tiger, a cruell kinde of wilde beast, and so swift, that they be woont euen with ease to ouertake a horse man▪ that is gone away vpon the spurre, and that not once or twise, but diuers times▪ after they haue gone backe againe to the place they came out from. The cause héereof is, that when the horse men hauing caught vp a whelpe of theirs, makes haste to carrie it away, and to eschewe the furie of them, when they come néere, dooth of pollicie laye downe one of many that he had taken away: the damme catching vp the whelpe that was cast downe, carries it home to her kennel, Page  77 and comming backe againe dooth the lyke oftentimes, vntyl the robber haue escaped by flight into places of more resort, then the Tygers dare aduenture into. What was beyond the Caspian Bay, was a long time doubtfull, namelie, whe∣ther the foresaide Occean, or whether some Land incom∣bred with••• cold, hauing neyther bound nor end, were cast out beyond it. But besides, Homer, and the naturall Phi∣losophers, who haue affirmed the whole world to be be∣cléeped with the Sea: Cornelius Nepos, though later in time, yet certainer of credite, reporteth the same. And for witnes thereof, he sciteth Quintus Metellus the Swift, declaring that he made such a report as this: namelie, that when he had the gouernemēt of the Galliaze as Proconful there, the King of the Sweuians sent him certaine Indians for a pre∣sent: and that when he asked by what means they came in∣to those Countries, he vnderstood that they were brought a∣way by force of tempest from the sea coast of India, and that hauing passed ouer the space that is betwixt that & Sweue∣land, at length they arriued vpon the coast of Germanie. Now therefore remaineth the maine Sea: but the residue of that side is frozen with continuall frost, and therefore is vninhabited.

The Ilandes of Spaine, and of the North-partes.

The sixt Chapter.

AGainst the sayde Coastes which I haue glaunced at from the angle of Boetica hither∣to, there lye many vnrenowmed, yea, and also namelesse Iles. But of those which I am loth to ouerpasse, Gades butteth vpon the dery Streightes, and being cutte off from the verie firme Land by a narrowe space, and as it were but by a Riuer, Page  78 carrieth almost a direct shore, where it is néerest the maine Land. Where it faceth the Occean, there bolting out with two heads into the déepe, it shrinketh in his mid-shore, in one of the which it beareth a wealthie Cittie of the same name, and in the other a Temple of the Egiptian Hercules, noble for the builders, for the Religion, for the Antiquitie, and for the ritches thereof. The builders thereof were the Tyrians: the holinesse of it, groweth of the bones of him that lyes buried there: as for the yéeres, what a number is there of them? The beginning of them, comes from the times of Troy: and continuaunce of time, hath nourished the wealth.

Against Lusitania, is Erythia,* where we reade that Ge∣ryon dwelt: and other Iles without peculiar names, so fruitfull of soyle, that when Corne is once sowen, the séede that sheadeth as they fell the harnest, springeth vp againe from time to time, and yéeldeth at the least, seuen croppes one after an other, and sometimes mo. On the Celtishe coast are some,* which (because they abound with Leade and Tinne) are called all by one name, Cassiterides.

Sena, being scituate in the Britishe Sea, against the coun∣trie of the Osismydes, is renowmed with the Oracle of the God of the Galles, whose Uowes in number nine, are hallowed to continuall Uirginitie. They call them Galli∣cens, and are of opinion, that through the singular wisdome wherewith they are endued, they rayse the seas and winds with their charmes, and transforme themselues into what Beastes they will, and heale such diseases as to others are incurable, and knowe thinges to come, and prophesie of them, but not vnto any other, then such as sayle thither for the nonce, and come of set purpose to demaund 〈◊〉 counsell of them.

What manner of thing Brittaine is, and what manner of folke it bréedeth, we shall shortlie be able to make more tried report. For beholde, our most puissaunt Prince is now disclosing of it, which hath so long béene shutte vp, and as a conquerour, not onelie of vnsubdued, but also of vn∣knowne Page  79 Nations before his time, his bringing home the certeintie of his owne exploytes, to be declared and publi∣shed in Triumph, in lyke sort as he endeuored to come to them by Battell.

Howbeit, as we haue hitherto heard of it,* shooting be∣twéene the North and the West, it faceth the mouth of Rhyne, with a great Angle, and then withdrwing his sho∣ring sides, butteth with the one of them vpon Fraunce, and with the other vpon Germanie. Afterwardes being pul∣led backe, with a continuall banke of a direct shore, it shar∣peneth it selfe againe into diuers Angles, and is thrée cor∣nered verie like Sicilie, plaine, great, and fruitfull: how∣beit, of such thinges as are rather for the foode of Cattell, than for the sustenaunce of men. It beareth Wooddes, Forrests, and verie great Riuers, which ebbe and flowe af∣ter the manner of the Sea, whereof some bréede Pearles, and precious Stones.

It beareth Nations, and Kinges of Nations, but they are all vnciuill, and the further they be from the mayne Land, somuch the more vnacquainted with the wealth of other Nations: onely ritch of Cattel and Land: and (whe∣ther it be for to beautifle themselues; or for some other pur∣pose) they be stained all their bodies ouer. They séeke oc∣casion of warre, and picke quarrels one with an other from time to time, speciallie, for desire of soueraigntie, and to en∣large those thinges which they possesse.* They fight not onelie on horsebacke and on foote, but also in Wagons and Chariottes, and are armed after the manner of the Galles. They call those Chariots Couines, which are set with sithes round about the naues.

Aboue Brittaine is Ireland, almost of lyke space,* but on both sides equall, with shores eelong, of an euyll ayre to ypen thinges that are sowne, but so aboundant of grasse, which is not onelie rancke, but also swéete, that the Cat∣tell maye in a small parte of the daye, fyll themselues, and if they be not kept from féeding, they burst with grazing ouer-long.

Page  80The Inhabiters thereof are vnnurtured, and ignoraunt of all vertues, more then other Nations, but yet haue they some knowledge, howbeit altogether voide of godlinesse. There are thirty Ilandes,* called Orchades, disseuered with narrowe spaces, one from an other. There are seuen also called Hemodes, scattered against Germanie, in that gulfe which we called Codan. Of these, lyke as Codanonia, which the Theutons inhabite to this day, excéedeth the rest in bignesse, so also it excelleth them in fruitfulnesse. Those that lye against Sarmatia, by reason of the interchaunge∣able comming and going of the Sea, and because the space that is betwixt them, is sometimes couered with water, and sometimes left bare, séeme one while to be Ilands, and an other whyle all one with the maine Land. Moreouer, that in them are Oones,* which féede onelie vpon egges, of water-fowles, & Oten cakes: and the Hyppopodes,* with féete like Horsses: and the Satmales,* which haue sowsing eares, so side and large, that they are able to wrappe in their whole bodies, and serue them to cloath them with, being o∣therwise naked: besides that, it is reported in Fables, I finde it also in such Authors, as I am not ashamed to fol∣lowe. *Thule is scituate against the Coast of the Belgies, renowmed in the Poetries, both of the Greekes and of vs. In it, because the Sunne riseth and setteth farre of, the nightes are verie short: in Winter-season darke, as in o∣ther places, and in Sommer lightsome, because at that time the Sunne mounting somewhat high, although he be not séene, yet sheadeth a glimmering light into the partes néere where he goeth. But in the heart of Summer, there is no night at all, because at that time being néerer sight, he she∣weth not onelie a brightnesse, but also the greatet part of himselfe.

Talga, in the Caspian Sea, being plentifull without tyl∣lage, hath aboundaunce of Corue and all fruites: howbeit, the people néere aboutes, thinke it vnlawfull, and as yll as Church-robbing, to touch any of the thinges that growe there, for they thinke they are prepared for the Goddes, and Page  81 that they are to be spared for the Goddes. Also, against those coasts which we saide to be Desart, ly some Ilandes that are Desart likewise, which being namelesse of them∣selues, are called the Scithish Iles. From these the Coast turneth againe into the East, and extendeth to the Coast that beholdeth the Sunne rising. This from the Scithish Foreland, lying directlie against the same side, first is alto∣gether vntrauelable for snowe, and afterward for sauadge∣nesse of the Inhabiters, vnhusbanded.

The*Anthropophages and Sages, and Scithians, disse∣uered with a Countrie which is a wildernesse, by reason it swarmeth with wilde Beastes. Beyond againe be waste groundes, annoyed with Beasts, vnto the Foreland of Ta∣bis, which hangeth into the Sea: farre from thence ryseth Mount Taurus in height. Betwéene them, are the Seres, a Nation ful of vpright dealing, as appeareth by the exchange of wares. that they make by leauing of their thinges in the wildernesse, and going their way.

Of India.

The seuenth Chapter.

INdia, a Countrie right famous, which butteth not onelie vppon the East Occean, but also vppon the Southerne, which wée haue called the Indishe Occean, and on the West, is bounded with the ridges of Mount Taurus, occupieth as much space along the Sea coast, as a Shippe with full Sayles, maye passe in thrée score dayes, and as many nightes.

It is so farre distaunt from our Countries, that in some part thereof, none of both the North waies appeare, and contrariwise to other Regions, the shaddowes of thinges fall into the South. Howbeit, it is fruitfull, and replenished Page  82 with sundrie sortes of men and beastes.* It bréedeth Antes, full as bigge as the greatest sort of Mastiues, which after the manner of Gryffons, are reported to kéepe Golde dig∣ged out of the innermore partes of the earth, and to put them in daunger of their liues, that dare aduenture to touch it.

Also,* there be some so vnmeasurable great Serpentes, that they ouerthrowe Elephantes, with byting them, and with winding their tayles about them. In some places, the Soyle is so fatte and fruitfull,* that Hunny droppeth from the leaues of Trées, Wooddes beare Wooll, and the Réedes being claued in the middes, make Boats betwéen knot and knot, able to carrie two men a péece, and some thrée men.

Of the Inhabiters, the Apparell and manners are diuers. Some are clad in lynnen,* or with the wooll aforesaide, some with the skinnes of Beastes and Birdes: some goe naked: some hide onelie their priuie members: some are lowe of stature and small: othersome are so tall and hudge of body, that they take the backes of Elephantes, and ride vpon them as easilie and handsomelie, as we doo vpon our Hor∣ses, and yet the Elephantes are verie great and large there.

Some thinke it good to kill no liuing thing, nor to eate any fleshe. Some liue onelie by Fishe: some kill their neighbours and parents, in manner of Sacrifice, before they pine away with age and sicknesse, and thinke it not onelie lawfull, but also godlie, to eate the bow∣elles of them when they haue killed them. But if they bee attached with olde age or sicknesse, they get them out of all companie into the Wildernesse, and there with∣out sorrowing for the matter, abide the ende of theyr life.

The wiser sort of them, which are trained vp in the pro∣fession and studie of wisedome, •••ger not for death, but hasten it, by throwing themselues into the fire, which is counted a glorie.

Page  83Of the Citties which they inhabite (which are verie ma∣ny,*) the famousest and greatest is Nysa: ad of the Moun∣taines, Meros, (which is hallowed vnto Iup••er) hath the théefe renowme. Nysa, because Bacchus is supposed to haue béene borne in it, and Meros, because Bacchus was supposed to haue béene fostered in the Caue thereof. Wher∣vppon, either good grounded matter, or else vaine report was ministred to the Greeke Authors, to say that Bacchus was sowed in Iupiters thigh.

From the Riuer Indus, to the Riuer Ganges, the Pa∣libotranes inhabite all the coast. From Ganges, to the Foreland of Iolis, dwell the Nysians, where the heate is more feruent, then that it maye be inhabited, there doo dwell Nations swart, and in manner all one with the E∣thyopians. from Iolis to Cudum, the shores are streight, and the people fearefull, and weltering in ritches of the Salt-water.

There is a Foreland called Tamos, which Mount Tau∣rus rayseth: it is the Angle of an other part, and the begin∣ning of the side toward the South. There are the Riuers of Ganges and Indus.*Ganges springing out of many heads in Haemodes, a Mountaine of Inde, as soone as he com∣meth in one channell, becommeth of all Riuers the grea∣test: and being in some place broader, where he runneth narrowest, he is ten myles ouer, and dispearseth himselfe into seuen coastes.

Indus rysing out of the Mountaine Paropamisus,* recey∣eth into it other Riuers also, whereof the noblest are Co∣phes, Acesines, and Hydaspes, and in broade channell, car∣rieth the water that he hath receiued out of many streams. Hencefoorth he almost matcheth Ganges in bignesse. Af∣terward, when he hath gyrded the hill oftentimes with ma∣ny great windlasses. He commeth downe againe hudge, streight, and in one channell, vntyll at length splitting him∣selfe to the right hand and to the lefte, he empties him∣selfe at two mouthes, farre distaunt one from an other.

Page  84At Tamos, is an Ile called*Chryse: and at Ganges an other called*Agyre. The soyle of the one is Golde (so haue auncient Authors reported,) and the soyle of the other Siluer: and so it comes to passe, of most likelihoodde, that eyther the names of them are giuen them of the thing, or else the Fable is forged of their names.

Taprobane,* is reported of Hypparchus, to be either some verie great Iland, or else the hithermost part of the other world. But for as much as it is inhabited, and no man by report is néere about it, it shooteth néere the trueth. On the contrarie parte,* there are the mouthes, called the Gates of the Sunne, so vninhabitable, that as soone as men enter into them, the outragious heate of the caulme ayre, smothereth them by and by.

Betwéene the mouthes, lyeth a scattered countrie, some∣where voide of inhabitaunts, by reason of the intollerable heate. From thence to the entraunce of the redde Sea, lyeth a way-lesse and Desart ground, more like ashes then duste, and therfore there run out of it verie fewe streames, and those not great, whereof we heare say, the notablest are Tubero, and Arusaces. The Greekes (whether it be be∣cause it is of that collour, or because one Erythras reigned there,)* call the redde Sea, Erythran Thalassan. It is a stor∣mie, rough, and déepe water, and nourisheth hudge beastes, more then all other Seas.

At the first, it beateth euenlie vpon the vttermost banks of the earth giuing waye, and if it entered not somewhat inner, it were but some broade Bay. But where it had bowed the bankes, it breaketh twice in, and ope∣neth againe two other gulfes, whereof that which is néerer to the foresaide Countries, is called the Persian gulfe, and the further is called the Arabishe gulfe.

Page  85

Of the Persian gulfe.

The eight Chapter.

The gulfe of Persia, where it taketh in the Sea, comprehendeth a great mouth, with streight iawes on both sides, in likenesse of a necke: and then the Lande (which euerie way shrinketh in a great space, and euerie where a like) enuironeth the Salt-water within the com∣passe of a great round shore, and maketh the likenesse of a mans head.

The mouth of the Arabishe gulfe is narrower, and the breadth lesser, but the retreit is somewhat bigger, and the sides much longer. It runneth farre into the maine Land, vntill it attaine almost vnto Egipt and Mount Casius of Arabia, wexing lesse and lesse wide into a point, and the further it pearceth, the narrower.

From these saide things to the gulfe of Persia, all is wil∣dernesse,* sauing where the Chelonophagies doo dwell. In it, on the right hand as men sayle, are scituate the Carma∣nians,* without Apparell, without Corne, without Cattell, and without houses, who cloath themselues with Fishes skinnes, and féede on their ••eshe, and are rough all their bodies ouer, saue their heads. The inner partes are in∣habited by the Gedrosians, and foorth on by the Persians. Through Carmania runneth Cethis, and aboue them run Andanis and Corios, into the Sea.

In that part, that is ouer against the mouth of the Sea, are the boundes of the Babylonians, and Chaldyes, and two noble Riuers, Tygris* néere vnto Persia, and Euphrates* further of. Looke how Tygris springeth, so runneth he all the way to the Sea coast. Euphrates, opening an excéeding wide mouth, dooth not onelie passe foorth, from whence he ryseth, but also falleth mainlie: neither dooth he by and by Page  86 cut through the féeldes, from place to place as he goeth, but spreading wide into Pooles, and becomming slowe with long settled waters abroade without Channell, afterward when he hath broken out of his brimme, becommeth a Ri∣uer in déede, and purchasing bankes, runneth swift and fo∣mie Westward through the Armenians and Capadoci∣ans, as though hee would come into our Seas if Mount Tauus letted him not. From thence he is turned of to the South, and entring first into Syria, and afterward into A∣rabia, holdeth not out into the Sea, but one while béeing great and able to beare Shippes, and anone after becom∣ming lanke, dyeth a pelting Brooke, and no where runneth out againe with issue to be séene, as other Riuers doo, but soketh away into the ground. The other side is enuironed with a Countrie shooting foorth betwéene bothe the Seas, named Arabia,* and surnamed the Happi. It is but narrow howbeit most plentifull of Cinnamon, Frankincence and other Spices. The Sabaeans* possesse the greater part ther∣of next vnto the mouth, and the Maces the part ouer against the Carmanians. That which lyeth betwéene the mouthes is roughe with Woodes and cragged Cliffes. In the mids are certaine Iles of which Ogiris is more famous then the rest, because the Tumbe of King Erithras is in it.

Page  87

The gulfe of Arabia.

The ninth Chapter.

THe other Gulfe is enclosed round about by the Arabians. On that side which is on the right hand as men enter in, are the Citties Carre, Arabia, and Gaudam. On the otherside in the innermost An∣gle are, first Beronice betwéene Heroopoliticum and Stro∣bilum: next Philoteris and Ptolemais, betwéene the pro∣montories Merouenon and Colaca: beyond them, Arsino and another Beronice: then the Forrest that beareth the Wood Ebonie, and the spices, and a Riuer made by mans hand, and therefore to be spoken of, because that béeing drawne by a Dich from the Riuer Nile without the Gulfe. (Howbeit bending, and as no part at all of the red Sea) it is annoyed with beastes, and by that meanes desert also. Part hereof is inhabited by the Candanes, which people (because they féede vpon Serpents, are named Ophiopha∣gies.* Innermore were the Pigmies a kinde of Dwarfes,* which were destroyed in a battell that was fought against the Cranes for theyr Corne that was sowne. There be ma∣ny kinds of wild fowles, and many kindes of Serpents.* Of Serpents the worthiest to be had in remembraunce, are those which béeing very little (and whose stinginge is pre∣sent death,) are reported to come foorth of the mudde of the frozen Fennes at a certaine time of the yéere, and from thence flying in flockes toward Aegipt, are in the ente∣raunce thereof incountered with another flocke of Birdes called Ibisles, which fight with them and destroy them. Of Birdes the worthiest to bée spoken of is the Phoenix,* which is euermore but one alone: for it is not conceyued by trea∣dinge or disclosed by hatching. But when he hath continued the full time of fiue hundred yéeres, hée brooth himselfe vp∣pon a Neste that hée hath timbered of diuers spyces, and there wasteth away. Afterward growing againe of the matter of his rotting flesh, hée conceiueth himselfe and brée∣deth of himselfe againe. When he commth to be full fledge he carieth the bones of his olde body wrapped in mirre into Page  88Egipt,* and there in the Cittie which they call by the name of the Sunne, he layeth them vpon a Herce of swéete smel∣ling Nardus, and consecrateth them with honourable Fu∣neralles, The Foreland, wherewith that Sea is inclosed, hath no waye to it from the*Ceraunish Hilles.

Of Ethyope.

The tenth Chapter.

BEyond them dwell the Ethyopians. The Meriones haue the Land which Nylus em∣braceth about, in the first windlasse that he fetcheth, where he maketh an Iland. Some of them (because they liue halfe as long a∣gaine almost as we doo) are called Macrobians: and some of them (because they came out of Egipt) are named Auto∣males.

They are beautifull of personage,* streight bodied, and somewhat more honourable of countenaunce, then other men, as the followers of most excellent vertues. It is a custome among them, to choose him that they will obey, by his beautie and strength. Among them is more Gold then among the Persians, and therefore they count that to be the preciouser▪ whereof they haue the lesse store. They make their ornamentes of Brasse, and their fetters for offenders of Golde. There is a place continuallie furnished with meates readie dressed to eate, and because euerie man may eate thereof at his pleasure, they call it the Table of the Sunne,* and they affirme that such thinges as are set there in Messes, doo come thither by the prouidence of God.

There is a Lake,* with the water whereof▪ if men washe themselues, their bodies become as crispe and shining as if they were annointed with Oyle. Yet is the same droonke also: and it is so shéere, and so weake to beare vp thinges Page  89 that fall into it or are borken into it, that it is not able to beare vp the leaues that fall from the Trées about, but that by and by they sincke down to the very bottome. There are also most cruell beasts,* as Licaons spotted with all kinde of colours, and Sphinxes in such sort as we haue read of them. There are also wonderfull Birdes,* as Tragopomones which haue hornes, and Pegasies which haue eares like hor∣ses. But as men sayle along the coastes into the Eastward, they méete with nothing worth remembraunce, all is wast, all is full of stéepe cliffes, and there are rather bankes then shores. From thence is a great Coast inhabited. It was a doubtfull matter a good whyle, whether there were a Sea beyond, and whether the land might bee coasted a∣bout, or whether Affricke béeing altogether voyd of fruite, extended so farre as that there were none ende of it. But Hanno of Carthage béeing sent by his countrimē to search the coastes,* when he had passed out at the mouth of the O∣cean, saylinge about a great parte thereof, reported that he wanted not Sea roome, but victuall. And in the time of our graundfathers, one Eudoxus fléeing from Latirus King of Alexandria, passed out of the gulfe of Arabia, and (as Nepos affirmeth) was brought by this Sea euen vnto the Gads,* by meanes whereof some thinges of that coast are come to knowledge. Beyond those places which wée sayd euen now to bée desert,* there are dumbe people which vse signes in stéede of spéeche. Some haue no sound of tongue: some haue no tongue at al: some haue their lippes growing together, sauing that they haue little rounde pipeholes in their Nosethrilles at which they sucke in drinke: and when they haue list to eate, they are reported to drawe in one graine of Corne at once, which groweth euery where. There are people towhom (before ye comming of Eudoxus) fire was so vnknowne,* that they were wonderfully deligh∣ted with the vse thereof, and gladly embraced the flames and put burning coales in their bosomes, vntill such time as they felt it hurt them. Aboue them the shore fetching a great compasse, encloseth a great Ile, wherein are reported Page  90 to bée none but women, heary ouer al their bodies, which of their owne nature beare children without the companie of men:* and they bée of so ferce and boystous kind, that some of them can scarce be restrained from strugling, no not e∣uen with chaines.

This report was made by Hanno, and because he brought home the skinnes of some that hée had killed: hée was the beter beléeued. Beyond this gulfe is a highe Hill called of the Gréekes Gods Chariot,* which burneth with continuall fire. Beyond this mountaine is another Hill with a long ridge fresh and gréene, lying all along the Sea side, from whence is a prospect into a Champion Countrie of much more widenesse, then that a man may sée to the ende of it. The opinion of the Pannes and Satires* tooke credit herevp∣pon, for that whereas in this quarters, there is nothing til∣led or husbanded, no place for men to dwell in, nor print of mans foote, but a day times waste solitarinesse, and there∣withall more waste silence: in the night time there appear many blasing ires, and as it were Campes pitched farre a∣brod, with noise of Trumpets and Dromes, and Shalmes, which are heard much lowder then those that men vse.

Then againe are the Aethiopians,* not ritch as those wée spake of heretofore, nor like them in bodies, but lesser, vn∣nurtured, and called by the name of Westerne Aethiopi∣ans▪ In the Countrie of these men is a fountaine supposed of some to bée the head of Nile.* The inhabiters call it Mu∣chull, and it may séeme to bee all one name with Nilus, though more corruptly pronounced of the barbarous pople. It nourisheth a Riuer also, which breedeth the same kindes of beastes that Nile dooth, though somewhat lesser: whereas all other runne toward the Ocean, this onely Riuer goeth into the hart of the land toward the East, and no man can say where his issue is.

Herevpon it is coniectred, that Nilus béeing conceiued in this spring, and caried foorth a while through wailess places, and therefore vnknowne where he becommeth, sheweth himselfe againe when he hath procéeded into the Page  91 East: but by meanes of béeing hidden so longe, it comes to passe, that men thinke that this fountaine runneth to some other place then to Nile, and that Nile springeth from some other head then from this fountaine. Among them is bred a beast of no great bignesse, but hauing a great and ouergreat béetle head, and therefore hanging his muzell (for the most part) alwayes downeward to the ground, called a Cato∣blepe,* worthie to be intreated of for his singular power. For whereas by stinging or bitinge hee is able to doo no harme at all, yet to behold his eyes is present death. Ouer against them are the Iles Gorgones,* sometime (by report) the dwelling place of the Gorgones. The maine land it selfe taketh his ende at a promontorie, called Hesperion∣keras.*

The coast and Ilandes of the Athlantishe Ocean.

The eleuenth Chapter.

FRom thence beginneth that same front which shoreth toward the West, and is bea∣ten vppon with the Athlantish Ocean. The first part thereof is inhabited by the Aethio∣pians, the middle by no body, for either the Countries are burnt vp with heate, or ouerwhelmed with sande, or annoyed with Serpentes. Against the scorched Countries lie the Ilandes where the Hesperides* are repor∣to haue dwelled. In the sandy Countries is a Hill rysing very highe of it selfe, which is stéepe downe on all sides with ragged cliffes, not possible to bée traueled ouer, and taper-shapē vp to the toppe. The which because it reacheth higher then a man can sée, euen vnto the cloudes, it is sayd not onely to touch the Skye and the Starres with his top: 〈2 pages missing〉

Page  [unnumbered]

❧ A Table containing the Con∣tentes of this Booke.

    The first Booke.
  • THe deuision of the world into fowre partes. Cap. 1, fol,
  • A breefe description of Asia. Cap. 2. fo, 4
  • A breefe description of Europe. Cap, 3, fol, 6.
  • A breefe description of Affricke. Cap. 4. fol. 7.
    A particular discription of Affricke.
  • Of Mauritania, Cap, 5, fol, 9
  • Of Numidia. Cap, 6, fol, 10
  • The lesser Affricke. Cap, 7, fol, 11
  • Of Cirenaia. Cap, 8, fol, 13
    A particular description of Asia.
  • Of Egipt. Cap, 9, fol, 16
  • Of Arabia. Cap, 10, fol, 20
  • Of Siria. Cap, 11, fol, 20
  • Of Phoenicia. Cap, 12, fol, 21
  • Of Cilicia. Cap, 13, fol, 22
  • Of Pamphilia. Cap, 14, fol, 24
  • Of Lycia. Cap, 15, fol, 25
  • Of Caria. Cap, 16, fol, 25
  • Of Ionia. Cap. 17, fol▪ 26
  • Of Aolis. Cap, 18, fol, 28
  • Of Bithynia. Cap▪ 19, fol, 30
  • Of Paphlagonia. Cap, 20, fol, 3
  • Of the Chalybies. Cap, 21, fol, 32
    The second Booke.
  • Of Scithia, of Europe. Cap, 1, fol, 35
  • Page  [unnumbered]Of Thrace. Cap, 2, fol, 40
  • Of Macedonia. Cap, 3, fol, 44
  • Of Italie. Cap, 4, fol, 50
  • Of the Prouince of Narbon▪ Cap, 5, fol, 53
  • Of Spaine. Cap, 6. fol, 56
  • The Iles of the mid-land Sea. Cap, 7, fol, 58
    The third Booke.
  • The vttermost shores of Spaine. Cap, 1, fol, 65
  • The vttermost coastes of Gallia, Cap, 2, fol, 69
  • Of Germanie. Cap, 3, fol, 72
  • Of Sarmatia. Cap, 4, fol, 73
  • Of Scithia, Cap, 5, fol, 74
  • The Ilandes of Spaine, and of the North-partes. Cap, 6, fol. 77
  • Of India. Cap 7. fol, 81
  • Of the Persian gulfe. Cap. 8. fol. 85
  • The gulfe of Arabia. Cap. 9. fol. 87
  • Of Ethiope. Cap. 10, fol. 88
  • The coast and Ilandes of the Athlantish Ocen. Cap. 11. fol. 9