A TREATISE of the Plague: Containing the nature, signes, and accidents of the same, with the certaine and absolute cure of the Feuers, Botches and Carbuncles that raigne in these times: And aboue all things most singular Experiments and preseruatiues in the same, gathered by the obser∣uation of diuers worthy Trauailers, and selec∣ted out of the writings of the best lear∣ned Phisitians in this age.
By Thomas Lodge, Doctor in Phisicke.
LONDON Printed for Edward White and N. L. 1603.
TO THE RIGHT HONORABLE THE LORD Maior, and to the Right Worshipfull the Aldermen and Sheriffes of the Citie of London.
TWo causes (Right Honourable and Worshipfull) haue moued me to pub∣lish this present Treatise of the plague; One is the duetie and loue which I owe to this Citie (wherein I was bred and brought vp, and for which (as the Orator Cicero in his Offices, and the Philosopher Plato in his Common-weale do testifie) euery good man ought to employ his vttermost indeuour: The next is a charitable remorse I haue conceiued to see my poore country-men and afflicted brethren turmoiled and attainted with the greeuous sicknes of the Plague: and left without guide or counsaile how to succour themselues in extremitie: For where the infestion most rageth there po∣uertie raigneth among the Commons, which hauing no supplies to satisfie the greedie desire of those that should attend them, are for the most part left desolate & die with∣out reliefe. For their sakes haue I vndertaken this prouince to write of the plague, to the end that with a litle charge Page [unnumbered] a poore man may haue instructions by a litle reading both to know and to cure all the euil accidents that attend the diseases. It resteth in your Honor & those your right Wor∣shipfull assistance, to haue especiall care that this chari∣table intent of mine may be furthered by your discreet or∣ders, in such manner that these bookes may be dispearsed a∣mong those families that are visited, to the end they may finde comfort and cure by their owne hands and diligence. This is the only reward I require, as Almightie God know∣eth, to whose mercy I commend you. From my house in Warwicke Lane, this 19. of August.
Your Honors and Worships in all affection, Thomas Lodge.
To the curteous and friendly Reader.
THou maist wonder perhaps (Gentle Reader) why amongst so many ex∣cellent and learned Phisitians of this Citie, I alone haue vndertaken to an∣swere the expectation of the multi∣tude, & to beare the heauy burthen of contentious Critiques and deprauers: But when the cause shall be examined, and the reasons considered, I hope to resolue thee so well, as thou shalt haue no cause to condemne me: There haue beene lately certaine Thessali that haue bestowed a new Printed liuery on euery olde post, and promised such myracles, as if they held the raine of desteny in their own hands, and were able to make old Aeson young againe: A∣mongst these, one by fortune is become my neigh∣bour, who because at the first he vnderwrit not his billes, euery one that red them came flocking to me, coniuring me by great profers and perswasions to store them with my promised preseruatiues, and relieue their sicke with my Cordiall waters: These importunities of theirs made mee both agreeued, and amazed; agreeued, because of that loathsome imposition which was laide vppon me, to make my selfe vendible, (which is vnworthy a liberall & gen∣tle minde, much more ill beseeming a Phisitian and Page [unnumbered] Philosopher, who ought not to prostitute so sacred a profession so abiectly, but be a contemner of base and seruile desire of mony, as Galen witnesseth in his booke, Quod optimus medicus, idem sii & Philoso∣phus: amazed, to see the ignorance and error of the multitude, who dare trust their liues to their hands who build their experiēce on hazard of mens liues: and are troubled with the scab of the minde, which Plato in Alcibiade calleth Probrosam imperitiā, and M. A. Natta, in his 5. booke de Pulchro, voluntary igno∣rance. Herevpon (by the earnest solicitation of my friends) and vnder a great desire to doe good vnto my neighbors, I haue faithfully gathered out of the most approued Authors, (especially out of certaine notes which I receiued from Valenolaes sonne now Doctor of Phisique in Arles, in Prouince) a true Me∣thode how to knowe and cure the Plague, which freely and charitably I offer to the reliefe of those who want meanes to relieue their estates in this time of visitation, and the rather because the world might conceiue of me in such sort, that I preferre a common good (according to Platoes counsell,) be∣fore all the gaping desires of gaine and profit in this world. An other reason was, because such bookes as already are past abroad, are confusedly hudled vp, without either forme or Methode, which is an vnpardonable errour in those that indeuour to in∣struct others. For these causes haue I bene drawne to write and expose my selfe to mens iudgements. Now that I study not in this Treatise to hunt after vain-glory, God can beare me witnes, and the plain stile I haue vsed therein may easily make knowne, Page [unnumbered] which had I a mind to bewitch the eares and minds of the reader, might perhaps haue bin better tempe∣red: neither haue I a setled purpose to wound other mens fame, (as all men may coniecture) since ha∣uing iust occasion offered me to reproue them, yet had I rather conceale that wherein they erre, then discouer their Scribendi Cacoethen (as the Poets saith) to their disgrace. Truly my resolution is to prouoke no man, and those that know me inwardly of late time can witnesse, that I resemble the Mauritanian Mare (of whom Plutarch maketh mention) which being led to the water, & seeing her shadow therin, suffereth her selfe afterward to be ridden by Asses: I thanke God I haue indured wrongs, tho I haue had power to reuenge them. But because my desire is to leaue all men satisfied, I must a litle retire my selfe to yeeld men of worth & learning satisfaction in a matter wherein perhaps they might except a∣gainst me. There is a lerned Phisitian that hath lately writtē against Amuteles or cakes of Arsenick, who per∣haps may cōceiue vnkindnes against me, because in this Treatise I haue set downe the vse therof as a so∣ueraine preseruatiue against the Plague, where he hath condemned them; but he must excuse me in this case, for I haue no intent to commend the same because he condemneth it, but by reason of their authoritie and experience who haue bin the lights and honors of Phisicke, as Mercurialis in his book de Venenis, chap. 13. Capiuachius in his book de Febribus chap. 13. & Heurinus in his booke de Febribus, chap. 19. Valeriola and diuers others, who by vniforme consent do allow the same either worne vnder the Page [unnumbered] arme pittes, or about the region of the heart, by reason that by a certaine similitude one venome draweth an other with it, as Arsenick, which voideth the poison of the Plague insensibly, Quod venenum & corpore attrahat & tota forma, & ratione caliditatis. This Antipathie in Arsenick experience doth allow, authoritie doth confirme, and reason (which is an other of the feete whereon Phisicke walketh as Ga∣len testifieth) doth assist it, which he may easily per∣ceiue that readeth Mercurialis, in the place afore al∣ledged. But for that I intend onely to iustifie mine owne actes & not to impugne others, let this suffice. And to conclude, if any man in the ripenesse of his iudgement be more oculatus in this cause, then ei∣ther these Fathers of Phisicke or my selfe am, I enuy him not, but leaue him to his better thoughts, till I may be more fully satisfied. Thus committing you to him on whose mercy I depend, I take my leaue of the gentle Reader, desiring no other reward at thy hands but a fewe deuout praiers for me, which I wil pay thee againe with double vsury whilest God len∣deth me life. Vale.
Thine in all friendship, Thomas Lodge.
The causes and cures of the Plague.
CHAP. 1. Of the nature and essence of the Plague.
THe Diuine Philosopher Plato (declaring vnto vs in diuers of his Dialogues, the perfect way and path, whereby we may rightly intreat, and skilfully procéede, in the discouery of any thing) saith, That it behoueth euery man, that indeuoureth by Art and methode to attaine the perfect knowledge of that whereof he standeth in doubt, or is desirous to instruct an other in any Science what∣soeuer, to begin with the definition of the same, without the perfect grounds and vnderstanding whereof, nothing may be either worthily knowne, or truly explicated: (which lesson of his, both Tully in his Offices, and Gallen in his Booke of the differences of sicknesses haue very carefully obserued:) Since therefore in this Treatise of mine, I am purposed (by the grace and assistance of Almightie God) to manifest vnto you the na∣ture, malignitie, and accidents of the Plague, to the intent and purpose that I may instruct you after what manner you may withstand a sicknesse so gréeuous, and accompanied with so diuers and dangerous accidents, by those meanes and medi∣cines, which God of his mercy hath left vs, by the noble Art of Phisicke, it shall not be amisse, if for your better vnderstanding what the plague is, I take my beginning from the definition Page [unnumbered] of the same. But before I prosecute this my intended pur∣pose, let vs inuocate and call vpon that diuine bountie, from whose fountaine-head of mercy euery good and gracious be∣nefit is deriued, that it will please him to assist this my labor, and charitable intent, and so to order the scope of my inde∣uour, that it may redound to his eternall glory, our neigh∣bours comfort, and the speciall benefite of our whole Coun∣trey: which being now vnder the fatherly correction of Al∣mightie God, and punished for our misdéeds by his heauy hand, may thorow the admirable effects and fruites of the sacred Art of Phisicke, receiue preuention of their daunger, and comfort in this desperate time of visitation: To him ther∣fore king of kings, inuisible, and onely wise, be all honor, ma∣iestie and dominion, now and for euer, Amen.
The Plague then (as Galen witnesseth, is a pernicious and daungerous Epidemie, (that is to say, a generall, or po∣pular sicknesse) which violently rauisheth all men for the most part to death, without respect or exception of age, sexe, com∣plexion, gouernment in life, or particular condition whatso∣euer: And therefore is it worthily called pernicious, because there can be nothing more daungerous then the same, which by the malignitie and violence therof, inforceth sodaine death, and by the proper nature, proprietie and contrarietie it hath with our bodies, killeth mankind no lesse readily, then violent∣ly. But that you may more exactly vnderstand what ye plague is, you ought to note that there are diuers sorts of sicknesses; that is to say Epidemick, Endemick plague, and priuate dis∣ease, (as Galen witnesseth in diuers places:) An Epidemick plague, is a common and popular sicknesse, hapning in some region, or countrey, at a certaine time, caused by a certaine in∣disposition of the aire, or waters of the same region, producing in all sorts of people, one and the same kind of sicknesse; as namely burning Feuers, Tertian Agues, Opthalimes, or in∣flammation of the tunicle of the eies, Carbuncles, or Collicks, or general and gréeuous coughes, accompanied with shortnes of breath, or disenteries, or fluxes of blood, which vniuersally and very often times raigne in some countries about the end Page [unnumbered] of sommer: All which sicknesses when as they are common in any particular place or region, are called Endemick, which is as much to say, as sicknesses happening publikely & popularly in the same region or country, by a certaine euil qualitie of the aire that raigneth therein, and produceth such like infirmities in mens bodies. For as both Galen and the diuine olde man Hypocrates do testifie, euery sicknesse that procéedeth from the aire infected with a venemous qualitie, that is the cause which produceth and begetteth the same, is in his essence Epi∣demick, popular, and pestilentiall. Thus farre according to the fathers of Phisicke haue I truly discouered what Epidemick is. Endemick is a common sicknesse, and yet for all that pro∣per to some one country or region: which is as much to say, as a regional, or prouincial sicknesse: For there are certain re∣gions and places which by a peculiar propertie in themselues engender certaine kindes of infirmities, which are particular only to the inhabitants of that region, either by occasion of the aire, or the waters in that country. As in the new found land (discouered by the Portugalls and Spaniards) in that Iland which is called Hispaniola, and other places of India, there raigne certaine pustules or broad seabs, (not much vnlike the French poxes) wherewith almost all the inhabitants of the country are infected, the remedy whereof they haue gathered from the infusion of the wood of Guaiacum, whence the vse thereof with very fruitfull successe hath bene discouered and proued forcible here in Europe. In Sauoy and the valley of Lucernes, the most part of the inhabitants haue a swelling in the throate. In Pouille and Calabria, for the most part all the inhabitants haue ye Iaundis. And such sicknesses as are these, are called Endemiques, prouintiall or regionall infirmities, yet for all that they are not to be accounted pestilentiall or conta∣gious: The Plague as I haue said, is a pernicious Epidemie, that is to say, a common and popular sicknesse, which is both contagious & mortall. A priuate sicknesse is that which is parti∣cular & proper to any one in priuate, procéeding from particu∣lar indisposition of the body of him that is attained, or by rea∣son of some disorderly dyet by him obserued, or rather by some Page [unnumbered] excesse committed by him, or through the corruption of the hu∣mours in his bodie, yet not contagious; but such an infirmitie as neither is frée from daunger, nor exempted from mortalitie. These are the differences of such sicknesses as serue for our purposes to declare the nature of the Plague, which in her proper signification is a popular and contagious sicknesse, for the most part mortall, wherein vsually there appeare certaine Tumors, Carbuncles, or spottes, which the common people call Gods tokens: which Plague procéedeth from the vene∣mous corruption of the humors and spirits of the body, infected by the attraction of corrupted aire, or infection of euil vapours, which haue the propertie to alter mans bodie, and poyson his spirits after a straunge and daungerous qualitie, contrary and mortall enemy to the vitall spirits, which haue their residence in the heart: by reason whereof it suddainly rauisheth & shortly cutteth off mans life, who for the most part is attainted with such a venemous contagion: And for that we haue saide that the plague is a popular and contagious sicknesse, it shall not be amisse to declare and plainly discouer, what these wordes Popular, and Contagious, do signifie. Popular and Epide∣mich, haue one and the same signification; that is to say, a sick∣nesse common vnto all people, or to the moste part of them. Contagion, is an euil qualitie in a bodie, communicated vnto an other by touch, engendring one and the same disposition in him to whom it is communicated. So as he that is first of all attainted or rauished with such a qualitie, is called contagious and infected. For very properly is he reputed infectious, that hath in himselfe an euil, malignant, venemous, or vitious dis∣position, which may be imparted and bestowed on an other by touch, producing the same and as daungerous effect in him to whom it is communicated, as in him that first communica∣teth and spreddeth the infection. This sicknesse of the Plague is commonly engendred of an infection of the Aire, altered with a venemous vapour, dispearsed and sowed in the same, by the attraction and participation whereof, this dangerous and deadly infirmitie is produced and planted in vs, which Page [unnumbered] Almightie God as the rodde of his rigor and iustice, and for the amendment of our sinnes sendeth downe vppon vs, as it is written in Leuiticus the 26. Chapter, and in Deuteronomy the 28. If you obserue not my Commaundements saith our Lord, I will extinguish you by the Plague which shall consume you. To the like effect is that of Celsus (a man of fa∣mous memorie amongst our Phisitions) who very learnedly saith, that all straunge sicknesses befall mortall men, by rea∣son of the wrath and displeasure of the Goddes, and that the necessary meanes to finde recouery and remedie for the same, is to haue recourse vnto them by intercession and prayer•. The same also testifieth Homer (the soueraigne of all diuine Science & Poeticall perfection) in the first booke of his Iliades. Since therefore it is euident by the testimonies abouesaid, that the Plague is a manifest signe of the wrath of God conceiued against vs, the first and most wholesome remedie is to haue recourse vnto him, who is the Father of mercy, and soueraign Phisition of all infirmities, imploring his grace and mercy, by fastings, praiers, and supplications, by almesdéeds, good works, and amendment of life, to the ende we may appease and pa∣cifie his wrath, and reconcile our selues vnto him, and ob∣taine his grace and mercy, according to the example of peni∣tent Dauid, and the contrite Niniuites. In imitation of whome, if we shall haue our recourse vnto his mercy seat, we may rest assured that he will beholde vs with his eye of pittie, and graunt vs both health of soule and bodie, accor∣ding vnto his promises made vnto those who call vpon him in humilitie and sinceritie of hart and conscience. Sée here the first rule.Page [unnumbered]
CHAP. II. Of the causes of the Plague.
THose sicknesses which are contagious and pestilent (euen as al other kinds of in∣firmities) haue their causes. For nothing may produce without an efficient cause that bringeth the same to effect: The Plague then hath his originall & produ∣cing causes, from whence shée taketh ori∣ginall beginning: and is engendred by a certaine and more secret meanes then all other sicknesses. For, for the most part the causes of priuate sicknesses which are not in∣fectious, are either to great repletion, or a generall deprauati∣on of the humours which are in the body, or obstruction, or binding, or putrifaction, as Galen in his Booke, (Of the Causes of sicknesses) hath very learnedly written. But the Plague hath none of these aboue mentioned causes, but only contagious and pestilent: yet notwithstanding together with these causes of repletion, Cachochimie, obstruction, & putrifacti∣on, the Plague may bée annexed and vnited; but yet in such sort, as they be not the proper reputed causes which ingender the Plague, for then if yt should follow, all sicknesses accompa∣nied with such like causes might be reputed pestilentiall, which were both vntrue and absurde: It behooueth vs therefore, to finde out a proper and continent cause of the Plague, and such like contagious infirmities. Let vs then conclude with Ga∣len, in his Booke Of Treacle, to Piso, and Pamphilianus, that all pestilentiall sicknesses, as from the proper cause, are ingendred from the ayre, depraued and altered in his sub∣stance, by a certaine vicious mixture of corrupted and strange vapours, contrary to the life of man, and corrupting the vi∣tall spirit: which vnkindly excretion sowed in the ayre, and infecting the same, communicateth vnto vs by our conti∣nuall alteration of the same, the venome which poysoneth vs. Page [unnumbered] The ready and spéedy chaunges, saith Galen, which happen in the ayre, through the euill corruption of the same, produce the Plague; which like a rauishing beast depopulateth and de∣stroyeth diuers men by death, yea whole cities, because men hauing a necessitie to sucke in the ayre, together with the same sucke in the infection and venome: By this it appeareth that the proper and immediat cause which ingendreth the Plague, is the attraction and in breathing of the ayre, infected and poi∣soned with a certaine venemous vapour, contrary to the na∣ture of man. To his effect before his time, the great M. of Physique, Hipocrates writeth thus, in his Booke Of Humane Nature: The cause (saith he) of the generall pe∣stilence which indifferently attainteth all sortes of men, is the ayre which we sucke, that hath in it selfe a corrupt and venemous seede, which we draw with our in-breathing. Now the causes which engender such vapours in the aire, are diuers and of different kindes, for sometimes such a vapour is lifted vp into the ayre, by reason of the corruption & stench of dead and vnburied bodyes; (as in places where any great battell haue béene fought, it often falleth out, according as diuers Histories testifie.) It is ingendred also through euill vapours that issue from the earth, or certaine Caues thereof, which yéelde foorth exhalations full of corruptions that infect the ayre, where it contracteth by an euill qualitie. It happeneth likewise by a loathsome steame, of certain Marsh in plashie Fennes full of mudde and durt, as also from di∣uers sorts of Plantes, and venemous beastes, whose euill qualitie may produce such an effect in the ayre. But the an∣cient Physitians and Astrologers, (as namely Auicen, with diuers others) report: that the Plague hath two originals and sources, from whence (as from a Fountaine) shée taketh her beginning.
The first is, in the indisposition of the earth ouerflow∣ed with too much moysture, and filled with grosse and euill vapours, which by vertue of the Sunne béeing lifted vppe into the ayre, and mixed with the same, corrupteth Page [unnumbered] the nature and complexion thereof, and engendreth a certaine indisposition in the same contrary to our substaunce, from whence it commeth to passe, that they who sucke this infec∣ted aire are in daunger to be attainted with this contagion and sicknesse of the Pestilence. Especially, if they be of an euil constitution of body, repleate with euil humours, men of vnbrideled dyet, sanguine, and such as haue large and portu∣all pores: They likewise who are weake and delicate, are men ready to be surprised and infected.
An other cause of the Plague saith Auicen, procéedeth from the celestiall formes, that is to say, the starres and their confi∣gurations and malignant aspects, which by their influences cause such sicknesses full of contagion and Pestilence, as in generall all other Astrologians testifie: But in truth as tou∣ching mine owne opinion which is grounded vpon the diuine determination of Plato in his Epinomides, and his Timae∣us, of Plotinus his chiefe follower, of Iamblichus, Proclus, Mercurius, Trismegistus, Aristotle, and Auerrhois, I finde that this opinion, is both false and erronious; as namely, to thinke that any contagion or misfortune, incommoditie or sick∣nesse whatsoeuer may by reason of the starres befall man. Because as Plato witnesseth in his Dialogue intituled Epi∣nomis, The nature of the starres is most goodly to behold, wel gouerned in their motions, and beneficiall to all liuing crea∣tures, bestowing on them all commodities of generation and conseruation: If then the nature of the starres be so good that it meriteth to be called diuine (as in the same place Plato inti∣tuleth it) and yéeldeth so many benefites to these inferiour bodies: how can it be that the starres infuse such infection and contagion vpon the earth and earthly creatures, whereas it is manifest that no cause can produce such effects as are con∣trary to it selfe? If then the good of inferior bodies procée∣deth from celestiall bodies, as namely the generation, production of fruites, and riping of the same: yea and the conseruation of euery ones vertue (as in truth it doth): It shall neuer be truly and possibly concluded that the corruption and Page [unnumbered] extermination of bodies procéedeth from the starres. And ther∣fore Aristotle very aduisedly saith; That this inferiour world is very necessarily coupled and ioyned with the superiour, to the ende that all the vertue therof might be conducted and gui∣ded by the same. If the starres by their vertue conserue all the creatures in this world, how can they by corruption, venome and contagion, dissipate and destroy them? The saide Plato also calleth all the Planets and starres sisters, for their accord in good doing; and saith that it is a great folly in men to thinke that some Planets are euil and malignant, and the rest good, whereas all are good. For as Calcidius the great Platonist saith in his Commentaries vpon Platoes Timaeus,
CHAP. III. Of the signes of the Plague, both impendent and pre∣sent, with the good and euil signes appearing in pesti∣serous sicknesses.
THe signes whereby a man may know the in∣fection of the aire which threatneth vs with Pestilent sicknesses, are, when as we sée the same continuall and accustomably troubled with thicke, cloudy, moyst, and ill smelling vapours, the Skie vnaccustomed to Nor∣thren windes, but sollicited with Southerly blastes; The aire full of fogges and vapours, making a showe of raine without any showers: For such signes as are of that nature engender corrupt Feuours, as Aristotle saith in his Pro∣bleames. If the winter be hote and moyst, and obserue not his naturall temperature, and when the Spring time is ve∣ry dry without raine, and notwithstanding colde, and af∣ter for many dayes charged with Southerly windes, trou∣bled aire, and then cleare, and afterwards suddainly ouer∣cast, the nights colde, and the day very hotte and soultry, It signifieth that we shall haue an euil Plague the Sommer after. Moreouer, if at that time there appeare any increase of such creatures as are engendred of putrifaction, as wormes of the earth, flies, gnattes, eales, serpents, toades, frogs, and such like foretokening corruptiō and putrifaction in the earth and waters, and when the aire the same day chaungeth from faire to foule, and from cleare to cloudy, when the Sunne shi∣neth and afterwards hideth his head in cloudes, in one and the same day, it is a signe that the temperature of the aire is altered. And when as Rats, Moules, and other creatures, (ac∣customed to liue vnder ground) forsake their holes and habita∣tions, it is a token of corruption in the same, by reason that such sorts of creatures forsake their wonted places of aboade. And when as the Birds of the aire fall downe dead, or forsake Page [unnumbered] their nests, it is a signe of great corruption and contagion in the same. Long and continuall raines, accompanied with Southerly windes, dispose the ayre to sicknesses and putrifac∣tion, as Hipocrates, and Galen testifie in their Epidemies. When as Feuers are accompanied with small Poxe, or Me∣sels, with spots, or red markes like to the biting of Fleas, it is a signe of a pestilent Feuer. When the sicke is very much tormented with the passion of the heart, vomitings, soundings, or weaknes, or faintnes of the hart, without great outward but vehement inward both heate and drought, with appearance of swellings, botches, carbuncles, and Mesels, without all que∣stion he is seized with a pestilential Feuer, especially if diuers at the same time and in the same place are attainted with the same griefe: and if so be the partie which is infected hath fre∣quented places both contagious and infected. Sée heere the the principall signes of the Plague and pestilentiall Feuer. The euill, dangerous, and mortall signes in such as are disea∣sed, are féeblenes and weaknes of the regitiue vertue of the bo∣dy (which may be discouered by the pulse when it is weake, vn∣equall, disorderly, lanquishing and intermittent, by often Sin∣copes or soundings, alienation, and frenzie, blewnesse and blacknesse appearing about the sores and carbuncles, and after their appearances the sodaine vanishings of the same, cold in the extreame partes, and intollerable heate in the in∣ward, vnquenchable thirst, cōtinually soundings, vrines white and crude, or red, troubled and blacke: Colde swet about the forehead and face; crampes, blacknesse in the excrements of the body, stench, and blewnes, the flux of the belly, with weak∣nesse of the heart, shortnes of breath, and great stench of the same, lacke of sléepe, and appetite to eate, profound sléepe, chaunging of colour in the face, exchaunged to palenesse, black∣nesse, or blewnesse, cogitation or great vnquietnes. All these signes betoken either certaine death or daunger thereof in the Plague; euen as contrariwise the contrary foretoken recoue∣ry of the sicknesse, by reason they testifie vpon the regitiue power and vertue of the bodie, goodnesse of the complexion, Page [unnumbered] and vertue of the same, with strength of ye hart. For as Auicen sayth: They that are manly, and confidently beare out their sicknesse without any showe of feare, they are those which for the most part escape. Likewise to haue a good appetite to sléepe in repose, without disturbance of the body, it is a good signe. The Botches, and Carbuncles to retaine a good colour, and without great paine to be brought to ripenesse and suppo∣nation, to haue a moderate heate mayntained through all the body: The vrines, in disgestion, colour, substance, & contents, to be good: To haue easie breathing, swet warme, & vniuersall through all the body, appearing on a decretory or criticall day. All these signes appearing in the infected person, giue great hope of his recouery. These bée the signes and tokens by which you may gather a sure and vnfained iudgement of that which shall befall him that is attainted with the Plague.
CHAP. IIII. A Rule and instruction to preserue such as be in health, from the infection.
WHen as (by the will of GOD) the contagion of the Plague is gotten into any place, Citie, or Countrey; we ought to haue an especiall regard of the generall good, and by all meanes to study for their preseruation who are in health, least they fall into such inconueniencie. First of all, therefore it behooueth euery man to haue speciall care that he frequent not any places or persons infected, neither that hée suffer such to breath vpon him: but as Galen hath learnedly aduised, in his Booke De Differentijs Frebrium, Chap. 2. Estrange himselfe as farre as him lyeth, from their societie. The first and chiefest remedie then, is to chaunge the place, flie farre and returne late: Hipocrates, likewise in his Booke De Natura humana, saith: that wee ought to for∣sake the place whereas a generall sicknesse rangeth, accor∣ding to the common Prouerbe, Cito, longe, tarde. And if ne∣cessitie constraineth vs to frequent the infected, (either to be as∣sistant to our friends, or otherwise:) euery man ought to de∣meane Page [unnumbered] himself in such sort that the sick mans breath doo not at∣taint him: which may very easily be done, if a man haue ye skill to choose & take the winde that properly bloweth towards the sicke & infected, and not from the infected to the healthfull: And therefore in that case the healthfull ought to kéepe themselues vnder, not ouer the winde. The first part of preseruation, is to purifie and purge the ayre from all euill vapours, sentes, stench, corruption, putrifaction, and euill qualitie. For which cause, it is necessary to make good fumes in our houses, of swéet and wholesome wood, as Rosemarie, Iuniper, and Lawrell, or Bayes, and to perfume the whole house and chambers with the fume of Rosemary, Iuniper, the parings of Apples, Sto∣rax, Beniamin, Incence, dried Roses, Lauender, and such like, both Euening and Morning. It is not amisse likewise at eue∣ry corner of the stréet, (at least twise in the wéek) to make cleare and quicke Bonefires to consume the malignant vapours of the ayre, according as Acron the great Phisitian, commaun∣ded to be done during the mortall plague in Greece: As Pau∣lus Aegineta testifieth in his second Booke, Chap. 35. It is good also to weare swéet sauors and perfumes about vs, such as in Winter time, are Marcorame, Rosemarie, Storax, Beniamin, or to make a Pomander after this sort that en∣sueth, and to weare it about vs to smell too vpon all opertuni∣ties. Take of the flowers of red Roses, of Violets, of Bu∣glos, of each halfe a little handfull, of the thrée Sanders, of each a Dramme; of the rootes of Angelica, Gentian, and Zedoary, of each foure scruples; of white Encens, Cloues, Nutmegs, Calamus, Aromaticus, of each a dram, of Storax, Calumit, and red Beniamin, of each a dramme and a halfe, of orientall Muske a scruple, of Amber-greece halfe a scruple, of Ladaum infused in Rose-water one ounce, mixe all these together in Rose-water where in the Gum Dragacanth hath béene infused, and with a little of Rose-vinegar make a paste, of which you may forme certaine rounde Pomanders, to weare about your necke, and smell vnto continually. Or take of Rose-water thrée ounces, Page [unnumbered] of white Vinegar, of Roses ij, ounces, of white Wine, or pure Malmosie two spoonfuls, of the powder of Cloues, of the roote of Angelica and Storax of each halfe a dramme, mixe them all together, and with this liquor it shall not be amisse to wash your hands, bedeaw your forehead & nostrils, and the pulces of your armes, for such an odour and of so wholesome a qualitie, vehemently repulceth the venome that assaileth the heart, and altereth the pestilence of the ayre. It shall not be amisse like∣wise to carrie an Angelica roote in your mouth, or a Gentian or Zedoary roote, or else the rine of an Orange, Lemon, or Pomecitron, which as Auicen testifieth haue soueraine ef∣fects in this case. The continual vses of these good odors com∣forteth the heart and vitall spirites, driueth away all vene∣mous vapours, and rectifieth the ayre that whirleth about vs, as Auicen testifieth in his Booke, Of the Forces of the Heart. For which cause, they which desire the continuance of their health, ought neuer to be vnprouided of these things. Amongst all other medicines that haue the propertie to com∣fort and reioyce the heart, the Easterne Hyacinth, béeing worne about the brest, and next vnto the naked skin, or else held in the mouth is very effectuall, as Auicen testifieth, in his Booke, Of the Forces of the Heart, (in that Chapter wherein hée entreateth of the Hyacinth,) where hée saith; that the sayd Stone hath not only a propertie to fortifie the heart, and quicken the vitall spirites, but also to resist all ve∣nomes. For which I aduise all such as haue both meanes and maintenance to get such a iewel, to carrie the same either in their mouthes, or continually about their neckes, neare vnto the region of their hearts, by reason of that ex∣cellent propertie which all Authors by vniforme consent attribute vnto the same.Page [unnumbered]
CHAP. V. The meanes and preseruatiues which are to be ministred inwardly against the Plague.
GAlen in his first booke of the differences of Feuers, and in that Chapter where∣in he intreateth of the pestilent Feuer, saith: That to preserue the body from infection, it shall be very necessarie to clense and purifie the same from al cor∣ruptions and superfluities, by sit pur∣gations, and to take away these oppilations, and stop∣pings, which are the meanes that naturall heat cannot bee dispersed, & to dry the body from humidities, and to main∣taine such bodyes as are drie in their Estates. In imitation of whose opinion and direction, it shall be good to euacuat and expell those superfluities of humours, which abound accor∣ding to there natures, age, complexion, vertue, quantitie and qualitie, who are forced with the same superfluous humours. It is therefore note worthy, in suspected and dangerous times that no accustomed euacuations either by fluxe of Hemeroi∣des, or of the belly, old vlcers, menstruall blood, itches, or such like should be restrained. For those purgations which are of this kinde doo clense the vnnecessary humours, and by this meanes maketh the body healthfull, whereas such humours being either repressed by astringent medecines or such like ointments, might greatly hurt the principall members, and produce strange sicknesses in the same. And for this cause, Ga∣len, and Hipocrates write: That it is a good signe when as any defluxion is expelled, from the inward and principall parts of the body: where contrariwise, if the same be trans∣ported from the outward to the inward parts▪ it is a most euil and sinister signe. For which cause in the Plague time it is the surest way, rather to suffer those superfluities to haue their course, then to stop or stay them by any medecine because by the voydance thereof, the body is purged from the same Page [unnumbered] superfluities which being retained might wonderful annoy it. Which counsaile of theirs, may serue for an aduertisement to all those that shall be so disposed and affected in the time of the Plague. It behooueth therefore such as be Sanguine, full in loue, and youthfull in yeares, to be let blood after a competent manner, thereby to diminish their replexion and aboundance of blood. Those that are chollerique, ought to be purged with an infusion of Rubarb; if they be wealthy: and if poore, with the Electuary of the iuice or Roses, by taking thrée Drammes, or halfe an ounce thereof in Sorrell, Endiue, or Purslane wa∣ter, or else by Diacatholium, Diaprunis, Laxatiue, the sirope of Roses, Cassia, or the pilles of Rubarb, Femetorie, or those that for their gentle working are called (by the Phisitians) Au∣reae. The Flegmatique, ought to be purged with Agaric, Diaphenicon, Diacarthami, the pils Aggregatine, Cochiae, according to the strength of their bodyes, the qualitie of the hu∣mor which are offensiue▪ at the discreton of the learned & expe∣rienced Phisitians, by whose directions and prescriptions such medecines are to be ministred, & not according to the custome of this time, by foolish Idiotes and ignorant Emperiques. Such as are melancholy should be purged with the infusion of Sena and Epithemum with a little Anice seede, and Diaca∣thelicon, with the Confection, Hamech, Diasene, Solutiue, the pilles of Femitory, and Aureae. I forbeare to call the pils, De lape Armeno, and Lasuli into vse, because they are too vio∣lent, and scarcely well prepared. Such as are weake and delicate persons (As woman with childe, children, and aged people,) it shall suffice to purge them with an ounce of Cassia, extracted with halfe or a whole dramme of Rubarb, or two ounces of Manna, or thrée ounces of sirope of Roses, or with the sirope of Sucery with Rubarb, but with this Prouiso al∣wayes, that the direction be taken from a learned and diligent Phisitian, and not according to the fancie of foolish chare wo∣men, and ignorant practizers. To those litle children that are subiect to the wormes, you shal giue this pouder in the Plague time, which is both fit to correct the one, and expell the other, the vse thereof is in Purslane or Sorrel water, with one ounce Page [unnumbered] of sirope of Limons. Take Worme-seed, Citron, or Pome∣citron-seed, of the séeds of Sorrell and Purslane, of each halfe a dram, of the hearbe called Scordion one scruple, of Rubarb a dram, of bole Armenus one scruple, make a small powder of all these, whereof in the aforesaid waters giue halfe a dram or a scruple to the child, acording to former direction.
CHAP. VI. A Rule and direction, whereby, by Potions, Pils, Pow∣ders, Opiates, and Losenges (which are most fit, apt, and conuenient to preserue the body from Contagion,) the Plague may be preuented.
THe Diuine prouidence of God, being care∣full for his creatures, and the preseruation of mankind, hath produced many remedies to represse and preuent the daungerous insultes and assaults of ye Plague, or any other vene∣mous contagion whatsoeuer: (which reme∣dies our ancient Phisitians haue called Antidotes, that is to say, certaine medecines which in their nature and hidden pro∣perty inclosed in them, are contrary vnto them, as Galen in ij. books of Antidotes hath learnedly declared.) Of these reme∣dies I wil set down some, and those the most effectuall in this Chapter, as well for the rich as for the poore, whose miserie and distresse we ought more inwardly to releiue then the rest: partly because God hath especially enioyned vs no lesse, part∣ly because they of thēselues haue no meanes to succour them∣selues, for which cause we are in charitie bound to relieue thē, as herafter shalbe proued. And of these remedies we ought to vse some change, to the ende, that nature making vse of one of them do •ot dispise the vertue thereof, as Galen writeth in his fift booke, de Sanitate Tuenda. The body therefore being first of all well purged, it is good to make vse of Guidos Electuarie Theriacal, especiall in Winter or Autumne, namely in those who are of a colde and moyst complection, especially where it may euery waies be commodiously applyed. The Apotheca∣ries either haue or may conueniently haue the Species therof ready prepared, of which a man may take a drā at once in Bu∣glos,Page [unnumbered] or Sorrel-water, or in good White wine, or in the win∣ter time with Claret wine. This powder is very effectuall in this case, if it be wel and faithfully dispensed, neither is the price ouer valued for the poore: of this powder may you make vse two or thrée dayes, either with some fit water, or else in the forme of Losings. This powder also which ensueth is a very singular remedie, which in stead of the former, and in way of chaunge, you may vse for two or three dayes space. Take the rootes of Tormentill, the rootes of Zedoary, and Angelica, of each a Dramme; Fine Cinamon, yellow Sanders, of the séedes of Citrons and Sorrell, of each a Dramme and a halfe, of the shauings of Iuorie, of Cardus benedictus, & the rindes of Citron, of each foure scruples, of bole Armenus prepared two Drammes, of fine Sugar as much as shall suffice: make thereof a a very fine powder, of which those that are strong and in yeares may take a dram, & the yonger sort, half a dram in Scabious water, and Sorrell water, or in three good spoone∣fuls of good White wine. Galen, (in his second booke of An∣tidotes) setteth downe this singular remedie for the poore, which was made and composed by Apollonius. Take twen∣tie leaues of Rew, two common Nuttes, two dried and fatte Figges, a little Salt, mixe all together and take euery Mor∣ning a morsell, and drinke a little pure White wine after: If any one fasting taketh this medecine, no venome may hurt him that day, as Galen (according to Appolonius opinion) testifieth, in the place afore alleaged. There is an other easie and excellent medecine which followeth, the which King Ni∣comedes vsed against all venome and poyson. Take of Iu∣niper berryes two Drams, of Terra Sigillata as much, make hereof a powder, & incorporate the same with good Honie, and reduce it to the forme of an Opiate, of which a man may take a bole or bit to the valew of ij. drams for the rich, & for the poore, in stead of Terra Sigillata, you may vse as much bole Arme∣nus prepared. This remedy is set down by Galen, in the fore∣said place, & is of great efficacy. The Electuary de bolo Arme∣no, also is commonly vsed, & hath no vnpleasant taste therwith. Page [unnumbered] The Pilles of Rufus also are an excellent preseruatiue against the Plague, which are made after this manner following: Take Aloes and Armoniack of each two drammes, and make a composition thereof with white Wine and vse the same, for they are of Paulus Aeginetas description: but if you wil more properly dispence the same, leaue out the Armoniac, and in stead thereof, put therto a litle Saffron, according to the forme which ensueth, and you shall make a most excellent medicine to this effect. Take of Aloes washed in Rose water, one ounce of Mirrh and Saffron, of each two drammes, of Bole Arme∣nus two drammes, make Pilles thereof with white Wine, or the iuice of Limons in Sommer. Of this composition you may forme fiue Pilles for a dramme, and take them euery morning. An other preseruatiue, and very profitable for the poore, is this that followeth. Take one or two handfuls of Sor∣rell, stéepe them in a Uioll in good Rose-Wine Uinegar, and kéepe it close stopped, and in the morning when you rise, take thrée of foure leaues of the Sorrell thus stéeped, and eate the same, for it is a profitable medicine: the reason is, because Sorrell by his vertue represseth the heate of the blood, and resisteth against all putrifaction. And if you drinke a spoonefull or two of the saide Uineger in the morning: Or stéepe a toste of white bread in the same, and ouerspread it with Sugar, it is both comfortable and wholesome at all times: Some there are that vse the leaues of Rew after the same sort, but this me∣medicine is not allowable but in the cold time of the yeare, and in such bodies as are cold and phlegmatique by reason of the heate thereof, Iuniper berries also being stéeped in Rose Ui∣neger and taken in the morning, as wonderfully profitable to that ef••ct.
These remedies which ensue are very excellent and appropriate for the Plague.
A Pomander of excellent sent and sauour good a∣gainst Pestilent aires.
Page [unnumbered]TAke pure and swéete Ladanum, Beniamin, Storax Ca∣lamite, of the Trocisques of Gallia Moscata, of Cloues, Mace, Spikenard, the wood of Aloes, the thrée Saun∣••rs, the rootes of Orace, of eache halfe an ounce, let all these 〈◊〉 beaten to a fine powder and searsed, and then incorporate the whole with liquide Storax, adding therevnto of Muske •nd Amber, of each a dramme, of Ciuet two drammes, make ••aste hereof with the infection of Gumme Tragacents in •ose water.
• prettie preseruatiue to be carried in a mans mouth du∣ring the time of infection, which procureth a sauoury and sweete breath.
TAke of fine Sugar one ounce, of Orace halfe an ounce, of the shell of an Egge the inward skin being taken away halfe an ounce, put the shell of the Egge into Muske Rose water till it be mollified for the space of eight dayes, beat 〈◊〉 these to a fine powder, and with Rose water wherin Gum Tracagant hath bene infused, make prettie Pellets according so what bignesse you please. These are very wholesome, and make the breath swéete, and comfort the heart inwardly, and are of a temperat qualitie, which you may kéep in your mouth some thrée houres.
An admirable and excellent defensatiue in forme of an oyntment to defend the heart in time of infection, pro∣fitable both for the healthy and diseased, and of admi∣rable effects.
TAke of the best Treacle you can get, or in stead thereof Methridate (but Treacle is the better) take I say two ounces. The iuice of sixe Limons mixed together, and put them into a litle glassed pipkin, and let them boyle therein till halfe the iuice be consumed. Then suffer it to coole, and af∣terwards take two drams of beaten Saffron, of Caroline and white Diptamy, of each two drammes, incorporate all these things together after they are well pounded, and bring them to the forme of an ointment, wherwith euery day annoint the Page [unnumbered] region of the heart vnder the left pappe, making a circle with the same round about the pap. Afterward take an ounce of Christaline & pure Arsenick, and wrap it in Gossapine Cotton and red Taffata, after the forme of a litle bag, carry the same about you, being bounde vnderneath or hard vpon your left pap: by this meanes each man may be assured that he shall not be infected, if so be he vse those interior remedies which I shal set downe and haue heretofore declared for the good of my Country.
An other excellent preseruatiue against the Plague.
TAke of the leaues of Mary-golds, which the Latines call Calendula, of Uerveine, Scabious and Sorrell, of each a handfull: of the rootes of Gentian, Zedoary, and white Diptamy, of each two drams, boyle them all together for two houres space in good and pure fountaine-water, from the va∣lue of a quart to a pinte, adde thervnto the iuice of sixe Limons and as much Sugar as shal be sufficient, make a sirope here∣of, and aromatise it with Cinamom, and take thereof euery morning foure or fiue spoonefulls.
A singular water both for the healthy and diseased in the time of the sicknesse, whereof they may take an ounce euery morning with much comfort.
TAke Ualerian, Carline, Zedoary, good Mirrhe, Bole Armenus, Gentian, of round Birtwoort of Aristolochia, of Calamus Aromaticus, of white Diptamy, Impera∣toria, of each one ounce and a halfe: of fiue Aloes two drams, of Saffron a scruple, beate all these to a fine powder, and af∣terwards stéepe them in fiue pintes of excellently wel r•ctified spirit of Wine, and let them in•use therein sixe houres, and sée the body wherein you put them be well luted. After the sixe houres be past, adde thervnto fiue pintes of good Malmessie, and straine the same, or rather you may leaue the simples in Page [unnumbered] the bottome and dreine it clearly and gently: Of this water euery morning fasting, take two or thrée spoonefulls, for it is an excellent and well approued remedy.
Excellent Pilles against the Plague.
TAke of Aloes one ounce, of Mirrh and Saffron, of each thrée drammes, of Bole Armenus, Terra Sigillata, Zodoarie, white Diptamus, the rootes of Tormentil, of each a dramme, make Pilles of these, being all of them well poudered and mixed with the iuice of Mary-goldes or redde Coleworts, of which, euery day take one, and once euery mo∣neth a dramme.
An excellent and approued remedie allowed by diuers learned mens experience.
TAke the rootes of Tormentil, and of white Diptamus, the rootes of Ualerian, and white Daises (and if it be pos∣sible to get them gréene it shal be the better:) Take these aboue named rootes, as much of the one as of the other, pound them and make a fine pouder of them: Then take the decocti∣on of Sorrel, and let the aboue named pouder be infused in the same, then let it be taken out and dried in the Sunne; Af∣terwards beate it to pouder againe, and infuse it anew, and afterwards dry it in the Sunne as before: which when you haue done thrée or foure times, reserue the same pouder clear∣ly in some conuenient vessell, and when as any one feeleth himselfe strooken with the Plague, giue him presently halfe an ounce of this pouder in Rose water, or Scabious water, or in nine houres after he shall séele himselfe infected. This remedy in diuers persons and very oftentimes hath bene ex∣perimented, and hath wrought wonderfull effects, if it were giuen within the time prescribed.
A singular and secret Remedie the which I receiued from a worthy man of Venice, admirable for his learning in all Sciences, who of curtesie imparted the same vnto me, with protestation that he had seene wonderfull ef∣fects of the same.
TAke of the Rootes of Tormentil and white Diptamy, as much of the one as of the other, of Bole Armenus washt in Rose water, the quantitie of a great Chestnut; of ori∣entall Pearles one dramme: of the sharings of Iuory one dramme and a halfe, beate all these into a fine powder, and incorporate them with conserue of Roses in a marble Morter, reserue this confection in a vessell of glasse well couered. Take hereof the quantitie of a great Nut in the Morning, and drinke a spoonefull of the Iuice of Mary-golds or Lemons with Sugar after it. The Gentleman that gaue me this, assured mée that hée had giuen it to many in the time of the great Plague in Venice, who though continually con∣uersant in the houses of those that were infected, receiued no infection or preiudice by them. A Remedie worthy the vse and noting.
An Opiate against the Plague, extracted partly out of Galen, partly out of Dioscorides, and others of excellent effect.
TAke twentie common Nuttes, of dried Figges, to the number of 15. and of Rue and Scabious, of each twen∣tie leaues: Of the rootes of both sorts of Aristolochia, the round and long, of each halfe an ounce, of Tormentil, white Diptamy, Pimpernell, Bay Berries, Borage flowers, the Kinde of the roote of Capres, of each two drammes & a halfe: of Galingale, Harts horne, Mace and Mirrhe, of eache two drammes: of Bole Armenus, Terra Sigillata, common Salt, of each two scruples, beat all these to fine pouder, and incorpo∣rate them with two pound of pure clarified Hony, and make an Opiate therof: wherof in the morning take the quantitie of a Nut, and drinke thereafter a litle white Rose Uinegre and Rose water, and you shall find this medicine very effectuall.
A perfume for to aire the Chamber of him that is infec∣ted, correcting the venemous aire.
TAke blacke Pitch, Rosin, white Frankincence, of each sixe ounces, of Mirrhe foure ounces, of the wood of Aloes halfe a dramme, of Storax and Beniamin, of eache a dramme, of Iuniper berries, and the leaues of Rosemary, of each two drammes, make a grosse powder of these, and in a Chafingdish and coales cast of the same & perfume the Cham∣ber.
A powder of great vertue against the Plague, which was sent by Philip King of Spaine, to Charles the ninth King of France, in the yeare 1564. when as almost the whole kingdome of France was infected with the Plague.
TAke chosen and perfect Mirrhe, the wood of Aloes, Ter∣ra Sigillata, of Bole of Armenia prepared, of Mace, Cloues, and Saffron, of each an ounce, beat them to a fine powder, of which you may take a dramme in Rose wa∣ter, or the iuice of Limons in sommer, and in winter with good wine. This powder was sent to the King and Quéenes Ma∣iestie for a soueraine remedy. Valleriola in his third booke of his Phisicall obseruations the first Enarration, setteth downe a composition to this effect, taken out of the best Authors in Phisicke, especially out of Galen, Paulus, Aegineta, Diasco∣rides, and Auicen, according to this forme following.
Take of the best Bole of Armenia one ounce, of perfect Ci∣namom halfe an ounce, of the rootes of the hearbe called in La∣tin and Gréeke Pentaphillon, or else Tormentil, of each halfe an ounce, of the roote of Gentian thrée drammes, of the rootes of both the sorts of Aristolochia the round and long, of the rootes of Florentine Lillies, of each two drammes, of the rootes of Enula, Campana, thrée drammes, of the dried rinde of O∣ranges or Pomecytrons (which is farre better and more ef∣fectual) Page [unnumbered] thrée drammes, of Pomecytron séeds, or in stead therof Orange or Limon, of Tornep séede, and Sorrel séede, of each two drammes. Of Iuniper berries, Cloues, Mace, Nutmegs, Zedoary and Angelica, of each two drammes, of the leaues of Rosemary, Sage, Rew, Bittony, and Chama Pilis, of each a dramme, of Bay-berries, Saffron, Masticke, Frankinsence, the shauings of Iuory, orient Pearles, white, red, and yealow, Saunders, of each a dramme, of the flowers of red Roses, of Uiolets, of water Lillies and Buglosse, of each two drammes: let all these be beaten to a fine powder and with clarified Ho∣ny, or the iuice of Limons, make an Opiate thereof. The dose of the powder to those that are in health is a dramme for pre∣seruation: and in those that are sick two drammes, with Sca∣bious or Rose water in sommer, and with good wine in win∣ter, and if a man desire to haue it in an Opiate, he may well take halfe an ounce.
A soueraine and excellent Remedie ta∣ken out of Alexis.
TAke Iuie berries of the oake in their full maturitie, (ga∣thered if it be possible in such places as are Northward) dry them in the shadow, and afterwards kéepe them in a boxe or leather Sachell, and reserue them for an especiall Re∣medy, and when you would make vse thereof, you shall giue of this pouder to those that are infected to the value of a dram, as much as will couer a French Crowne, mixe this powder with good white wine, and let the Patient drinke thereof, and couer him wel in his bed, that he may sweat so long as he may endure, and afterwards cause him to change his shirt, shéetes, and bed, if it be possible. And by experience it will profite, for proofe wherof the Author produceth maruellous effects of this medicine, especially of a Millanors being at Allep in Siria, who witnesseth that he tooke this medicine, and that sodainly the Carbuncle or Botch brake. And this was in the yeare 1523.
The Almaines and Flemmings in the time of the Plague, vse this Remedie that ensueth.
TAke one part of Aqua Uita of the best, thrée partes of Malmesie, or other pure wine, of Iuniper Berries halfe a handfull, or of common Nuttes thrée or foure, these doo they stéepe in the abouesaid Liquor thrée houres, and after∣wards eate them morning and euening. This Remedie in old folkes & in the winter time is not to be misliked: Treacle and Methridate, are excellent remedies in the Plague time, if you take a dramme in sommer time in Rose water, or Sor∣rell water, and in winter with good Wine. But those that take the same ought to abstaine from meate for the space of sixe houres after, and to suppe little or nothing at all the day be∣fore: for otherwise the saide medicines takes no effect.
See here the most soueraigne and exquisite remedies that may be found to preserue those that are in health, as well the rich as the poore in this contagious time, which interchangea∣bly vpon all opportunities a man may vse. But aboue all things it is behoueful to kéepe a good diet & order euery waies, and to sée the body be soluble, for that it is one of the most prin∣cipall points to preserue & continue the body in health. But a∣mōgst those things that are most necessary & requisit towards the continuance and preseruation of health, and auoydance of contagion, nothing is more to be respected then sobrietie and an orderly course of life: for continence is the mother & fostresse of all good disposition in mans body, by reason that by sobrietie the health is confirmed and continued in his estate; the hu∣mors are well tempered, and naturall heate fortified, the na∣turall passages of the body entertained in their due harmony, the operations of nature euery one in themselues well and duly accomplished: and by these reasons sobrietie is the foun∣dation to warrantise the body from all euils: as contrariwise, intemperance is the source and and originall of all mishap and fatall infirmitie. All which is confirmed by Hypocrates and Page [unnumbered]Galen, in the second booke Of the Aphorismes: Aphorisme, 17. and Hipocrates himselfe in the sixt of his Epidemies, where he saith, That the chiefest care that is to be had for to continue health, consisteth principally in this: to liue sober∣ly, to vse conuenient exercise, and not to gorge a mans self with surfets. The like also is confirmed by Galen and Plu∣tarch, in their writings and Bookes, De Sanitate Tuenda, wherein the error & folly of the common sort appeareth most manifestly, who dare in the time of infection and pestilence, to ouercharge themselues with wine, and fill their stomackes in the morning before they goe out of doores, thinking by this time to coniure the time, (according to their lewd discourse) and abate the euill vapour of the ayre, whereas in effect, they effect nothing but the contrarie. For wine being taken fa∣sting, maketh the body more apt to conceiue infection through the heate thereof, and the piercing qualitie and opening it, cau∣seth in the parts & vessels of the body, namely the vaines and arteries, making thē by these meanes more capable to receiue the euill influence of the ayre, if any raigne at that time. Let therefore all men be curious to obserue this commendable so∣briety, if they be desirous to auoyd the dangers of the Plague, by forbearing al diuersities of meats, and surceasing to fil their stomackes with vnmeasurable repastes, and let them féede so∣berly, and no more then is néedfull to sustaine life, obseruing a temperate exercise in pleasant and delightfull places. Let them leade their life in peace, and quiet of minde, in ioy, dis∣port and honest pleasure, auoyding all perturbations of the spirit, and especially sadnesse, melancholy, wrath, feare, and suspect, which are the most daungerous accedents that may encounter a man in such like times: as Galen in his Booke, (Of the Art of Medecine) hath written, and of this kinde of temperate life, I wil make a particular discourse in the Chap∣ter ensewing, to the ende that euery one may vnderstand what meanes he ought to obserue, in the maintenance of his health by good diet and order.
CHAP. VII. A briefe Methode and rule of life, how to preserue the healthfull in the time of sicknesse.
THE Principall meanes to continue a man in health, consisteth in an orderly obseruation of diet, elections of meate, measure and opportunitie in receiuing the same, and in the quantitie and quali∣tie thereof, (which shall be the argument of this present Chapter.) It is therefore especially to be considered and prouided, in this cause, that the body abound not in superfluities and ex∣crements, which may yéelde matter and foode to putrifaction and contagion in humours, which may no better wayes bée performed, but by a good regiment in life. Men that are cu∣rious of their health, will take héede of all immoderate repleti∣on of meates, and in suspected times diuersitie of meates is to bee eschewed, leaste the stomacke should bee ouerchar∣ged thereby, by which meanes diuersities of humours may be ingendred; but it behooueth a man to féede of one only dishe or two, that in qualitie and nourishment may be con∣formable to his nature. He ought likewise to beware in these times of such meats as may easily putrifie in the stomack, such as yéeld but grosse nourishment, and bréed oppilation and ob∣struction that heate the blood and humours, and make them vicious and sharpe. Of this sort are salt meates, Porke, Béefe, Scalions, Colewortes, Garlike, Onions, Spice, Mustard, old Chéese, such▪ Fish as are caught in standing Pooles and Marshes: strong, hote, hie and troubled wines. Such meates as are conuenient, are of delicate flesh and easily digested, as Capon, Chickens, yong Pullets, the broth whereof doth rec∣tifie and temper the humours of the body, as Mesue testifieth. Also the flesh of Ueale, Kid, or yong Mutton are allowed, and the birds of the field, such as are Partridges, yong Pigeons, Turtells and such like are to be admitted. And in the broth of such like things, you ought to séeth Sorrel, Purslane, Borage, and Marigoldes, which according to Alexander Benedictus,Page [unnumbered] in his Treatise of the Plague, is an excellent medecine. The iuice of Sorrell likewise and sowre Grapes are allowed, and Oranges, and Limons with Sugar are not amisse, in the iuice whereof you may dip your meat or bread at your meales, and such like. Rose vineger in this time is commended. As for all bakt meats (as Pasties or such like are forbidden,) both for the gluttonous substance that is in them, as for that they engen∣der obstructions. Fresh and reare Eegges sod in water are of good nourishment, Sea fish, as the Soale, the Mullet, Gurnard and such like may be admitted, yet ought they not too often∣times bée vsed by reason they bréed humidite and waterish blood. Amidst the sowrer fruite, the Proyne, Straberries, and muscadine Peare are to be eaten, so they be taken in a little quantitie, as for al other fruit they may wel be omitted, because they fill the vaines with watrish blood, and such as easily cor∣rupteth, except the Raison which is very good. In vse of wine, Claret and white (not fuming nor ouer hye coloured, but tem∣pered with good water) are very fit to be drunke at meales and no otherwise. For exercise, it ought to be cōuenient and tempe∣rate accustomed in the morning in places delightfull and plea∣sant, in the shade in Summer-time: in Winter-time in the Sunne. Touching apparell, each one ought to vse decencie and comelinesse therein, and oftentimes to shift both woollen and linnen, especially in Summer, in which time if those that are of ability shift once a day it is not amisse. Care likewise is to be had, that men heat not their blood by violent trauell, but to vse a cōuenient rest after their repasts. It is behooueful like∣wise (as hath béen said) to kéepe the body soluble, so as once a day or twise in 21. houres, either by the benefite of nature or the vse of the pilles aboue mentioned the belly may be loosned, & the body no wayes suffered to be bound. Especially in those times al vse of women is forbidden. For there is not any thing during this contagious season more forcible to enféeble nature, then such vnbridled desires which stirre and distemper the hu∣mors and dispose the body to receiue infection. Briefly, to liue in repose of spirit, in al ioy, pleasure, sport & contentation amongst Page [unnumbered] a mans friendes, comforteth heart and vitall spirits, and is in this time more requisite then any other things.
This is the order and maner which euery one ought to ob∣serue, in his manner of life in these suspected times, with this finall Prouiso, that the houses be kept cleane and well ayred, and be perfumed with water and vinegar in Summer time, and in winter time with perfumes, of Iuniper, Rosemarie, Storax, Beniamin, and such like. That the windowes there∣of be kept open to the East, towards the shining Sunne and the Northren winde, shutting out all Southerly windes, and such as blow from contagious places.Page [unnumbered]
The order and policy that ought to be held in a City, during the plague time, and wherin the Lord Mayor and Sherifs, and such as vnder them haue care of the infected, ought to shew their diligence in the maintenance and order of their cittizens. Chap. VIII.
AS order conducted by good aduice and counsaile, is in all things, that concerne the administration of a Com∣monweale most necessary, so in this cause, (which is one of the most vrgent) order, policy and serious diligence, is not onely profitable, but also necessary; because the sick∣nes of the plague & contagion inuading a city, is the totall ruine of the same by reason of the danger and spoile of the cittizens, as we reade in Thucidides of the great plague in Greece, which for the most part rauished the inhabitants of the same, and in Titus Liuius, of diuers horrible pesti∣lences that happened in Rome, which by their greatnesse and cruelty made that mother Citty almost desolate and destitute of the better part of the cittizens thereof, bringing with it both famine and fatal indigence. For which cause such as are in authoritie in Citties, as Mayors, Sherifes, and those that haue the charge to ouersée the sicke, ought aboue all things to procure that their Citty remaine in health, to the end that their cittizens remaining in security, may communicate the one with the other by traffike and following their businesse, whereby there redoundeth a common profite and vtilitie to all: whereas on the contra∣ry side (their City being infected by a popular and pernici∣ous disease,) their traffike ceaseth, and that which is most dangerous and important of all, the life and health of all men is brought in danger. Now to withstand this incon∣uenience with prudence and foresight, it behooueth the Ma∣gistrates, first of all diligently to examine what places, ei∣ther Page [unnumbered] néere or remote, are visited or infected, to the end to warrantize themselues from that infection, not suffering any of those to enter their Citty that come from such pla∣ces as are suspected, except they be men of note, of whose prudence and securitie they may be assured. For it is not alwayes a consequent, that all the inhabitants of a Citty are alwayes infected, especially when they are men of re∣spect, who haue the meanes, and obserue the methode to preserue themselues: whereof it is very necessary that the gouernours, and such as haue the kéeping of the gates, should haue respect: but for such as are vagabonds, master∣lesse men, and of seruile and base condition, for such I say, they ought not to be admitted. And if by chance, or by the will of God the Citty becommeth infected, it ought not incontinently to be made knowne: but those that haue the care and charge of such as are attainted, ought in the beginning to kéepe it close, and wisely conceale the same from the common sorte, imparting it onely to such, who by their good aduise and counsaile may assist them in the time of danger, which counsaile and aduice diuine Hipocrates setteth downe in his oath and attestation to Phisitians, and consequently to all those that haue the charge of the sicke, forbidding them to reueale that which ought to be hidden for the common profit: which being considered by the diuine Philosopher Plato, in the third booke of his com∣mon weale, he auoweth that it is lawfull for Magistrates & Phisitians to lie for the safety and conuersation of their Citty. For oftentimes to conceale a truth to this intent, is no error in such men, whenas by such means the common weale is conserued and profited: which counsaile I thoght good to make knowne to you, to thend I might re∣straine the superstitious fantasies of some men, who are of the opinion, that nothing ought to be concealed in these times, but made knowne vnto all men, for feare their re∣putation shuld be touched, and themselues estéemed liers. The magistrates in these times ought to cōmit the charge of Page [unnumbered] their gates to good and discréet citizens, on whose trust and fidelitie the Citty may relie: and therefore the best citizens both in place and reputation ought to haue this place, and not they, who are yong, indiscréet & inconsiderate. Which thing hath beene wisely noted by the diuine Philosopher Plato in the third booke of his common weale, where hée saith, that he that hath the charge of a citty, ought to be strong in person and prowesse, and a Philosopher in his spirit, that is to say, sage, prudent, and well aduised. For by such a gouernour and so well qualified, there redound∣eth a great profite vnto all men, where to one of the con∣trary disposition all things fall out frowardly. Moreouer the Magistrates ought to haue an especiall care, that their city be kept cleane & neat from al filth, dunghils and stink∣ing rubbige that may bréed infection, because the steame of such vncleane heaps and places being drawne vp into the aire, do for the most part infect and contaminate the same. And to this effect Hipocrates counsaileth vs to vse the aire in these times, which is most pure and cléere, and to flie the contrary. The like confirmeth Galen in his first Booke, de Sanitate tuenda, and in his Commentaries on Hipocrates booke, de Natura humana. And therefore the Magistrate ought to giue charge, that in euery place the streets should be kept cleane, and daily purged, forbidding euery one vn∣der a penalty to cast out any vncleanenesse or filth out of their dores. They ought also to take order, that the slaugh∣ter houses (for the prouision of the citty) be not continued and vsed within the citty, but placed in some remote and conuenient place néere vnto the riuer of the Thames, to the end that the bloud and garbige of the beasts that are killed may be washed away with the tide. This aduice the nobles of Arles obserued by Valenolaes aduise, to the great good of their common-weale, who to the westward of the city vpon the riuer of Roane haue builded their slaugh∣ter-houses. It is no lesse necessary also to take note of such sicke folkes as resort vnto the city, and to know with Page [unnumbered] what sicknes they be seazd with, & whether it be dāgerous or no. For which cause it is requisite to appoint certaine discréet and skilful men in euery quarter and parish with∣in the citty, who may haue the charge to take particular notice of euery housholder, in what estate their family is, or rather to visite them themselues, and if they finde any sicke in these houses, to make a true report vnto those that haue the charge and ouerlooking the sicke, to the end they may cause them to be visited by expert Phisitians, who may informe whether the disease be infectious or no, to the end they may be attended and cured according as their disease requireth. And for that in all suspected citties, it is a common custome for the Magistrate to shut vp those that are surprised with the sickenesse, or to send them to the hos∣pitalls or pesthouse, for feare lest by conuersing with the healthy they should spred the contagion by breathing on them and touching them: because, as Galen saith, it is dangerous to conuerse with them, and God himselfe also giueth an expresse commandement in Leuiticus chap. 13. and Numb. chap. 5. where speaking of the leapers, he commandeth that they should be seperated from the host and company of the healthy. Me thinkes it is very neces∣sary at this time to speake somewhat hereof, and to exa∣mine euery circumstance, to the end that it may be knowne what is to be done in this case. Now the truth is, that our duty commandeth vs to seperate such as are sicke from the whole, for feare lest they should be infected with their disease, neuerthelesse in this case we ought not to vse such seperation before it be truely knowne to be that disease, and that the sickenesse is of the quality, that it deserue shutting vp.
For in truth it is a great amazement, and no lesse hor∣ror to seperate the Child from the Father and Mother; the Husband from his Wife; the Wife from her Husband; and the Confederate and Friend from his Adherent and Friend: and to speake my conscience in this matter, this Page [unnumbered] course ought not to be kept, before that by the iudgement of a learned Phisition the sickenesse bee resolued on: And when it shalbe found it is infectious, yet it is very néede∣full to vse humanitie towards such as are seazed. And if their parents or friends haue the meanes to succour them, and that fréely, and with a good heart, they are willing to doe the same, those that haue the charge to carry them to the Pest-house, ought to suffer them to vse that office of charitie towards their sicke, yet with this condition, that they kéepe them apart, and suffer them not to frequent and conuerse with such as are in health. For, to speake the truth, one of the chiefest occasions of the death of such sicke folkes (besides the danger of their disease) is the fright and feare they conceiue when they sée themselues voyde of all succour, and as it were rauished out of the hands of their parents and friends, and committed to the trust of stran∣gers, who very often are but slenderly and coldly inclined to their good, wanting both seruice and succour. And ther∣fore in this cause men ought to procéed very discréetly and modestly. And in regard of the time wherein the suspected and sicke, or rather those who frequented and serued them, there ought some rule and moderation to be held. For wheras by ancient custome and obseruation they are wont to haue the prefixed terme of fortie dayes giuen them, yet ought not this terme, equally and rigorously be obserued in all.
To those that are sicke of the plague this limitation of time ought to be prefixed and furthered for more assurance; besides the forty dayes, they ought ouer and aboue re∣maine inclosed twenty dayes, which are in all sixty, before they be suffred to returne to their houses, or frequent the company of their fellow Citizens. Before which time they that are infected, after their recouery ought to change the place where they haue béene sicke: and to take the ayre in a more healthful place, farre distant from infection, and change their garments, and put off their olde, or rather Page [unnumbered] burne them, for feare they should infect those that might happen to put them on. For in truth, the keeping of such things is very dangerous, and whereas after the plague is ceased, it oftentimes without any manifest occasion be∣ginneth anew, it oftentimes procéedeth from such like ac∣cidents: In preuention whereof the Magistrate ought to haue no little care and diligence. Heeretofore haue wee set down what terme should be prefixed to the sicke; it now likewise concerneth vs to prescribe a time and terme to those that haue had the kéeping of them, for both publike and priuate securitie, wherein in my iudgement (which I submit to those of more reuerend authoritie) wee ought to obserue other rules following. If the sicke be dead in his house, and hath continued all the time of his sickenesse in that place, and his parents and friends cohabitants with him, haue continualy assisted him and ministred vnto him, they ought to remaine inclosed the saide terme of fortie daies, or else transport themselues to their country houses, if they haue any, or to liue apart & seperated from others in their garden houses, and not to frequent amongst the people, during that time. If the sicke hath remained in his house but two or thrée dayes, and hath had but small accesse vnto him, and the assistants that were with him, be men of discretion, knowing wel how to defend and pre∣serue themselues by good remedies and dyet, being men of respect & marke, they ought not to be shut vp so long time; but it shal suffice in this case to kéep them close some twen∣ty or foure and twentie dayes, or somewhat longer. For in that space by naturall reason, the venome ought to haue wrought his worst, if any of the assistants hath béene sea∣zed therewith: Likewise, if they haue béene well purged, and haue taken remedies to preserue themselues in that time. For in truth, if a vapour or contagion be in the bo∣dy, it cannot so long time remaine inclosed, but that in fortie dayes space it will shew it selfe. And if in the space of xxi. dayes it discouereth not it selfe (as nature molested Page [unnumbered] with any vehement sickenesse or contagious infirmitie is accustomed to fulfill and execute his forces and expulsi∣on to driue out the same (as Galen declareth in his booke de diebus Cicitis) it will hardly shew it selfe in any time after the xxi. day, for that the venom hath already lost his force, and nature maketh no more account to expel the same, but euaporeth it insensibly without any hurt, if there hath not some new occasion beene offered that causeth such an acci∣dent, as it oftentimes happeneth. If any one vnwittingly hapneth to visit one that is sicke in his house, and that but once or twice, we ought not to prefixe him that terme, but to suffer him to kéepe himselfe close some fourtéene dayes or more, prouided that hée obserue a good diet: And to speake my absolute opinion what ought to be done in this case of kéeping the sicke and their assistants inclosed in the plague time, it is necessary to resolue vpon the effects and accidents, which apparantly happen in the saide houses, and according to the rule obserued by those that are shutte vp, as also according to their qualitie and condition, and e∣specially, wée ought to haue regard, and rely on the iudge∣ment of a faithfull and learned Phisition, who according to his Art, and the effects that he shal discouer in those that are inclosed, may yéelde an assured iudgement of the mat∣ter, to whom we ought to giue credit, as to him that is the fittest and truest iudge in such a matter. For in truth this custome hath béene but newly brought in, and was neuer heard of in the ancient and autentike writings, eyther of Greek, Arabian, or Latin phisitions, but only by some late Practitioners as Guainerius & some other which Guaine∣rius in his Treatise of the Plague, Chap. 3. de tertia diffe∣rentia hath set downe this terme of forty daies, speaking of the terme wherein a man ought to returne into the house of him that is infected. And in his opinion (which is not answerable to truth) he prefixeth three moneths. For if the infected house shalbe cleansed from all infection, and perfu∣med and ayred by those that haue the charge, a man may returne into it after forty dayes, prouided, there remaine Page [unnumbered] nothing in the saide house that is infected or contagious, as the garments, shéets, beds, couerlets, or such like of the diseased. For such things as these kéep the infection inclosed in them long time, especially fetherbeds, as Alexander Be∣nedictus testifieth in his booke of the Plague, where he ma∣keth mention of a featherbed of one that was sicke of the plague in Venice, which kept the venome seauen yeares, & the first yt slept vpon the same at the end of the same terme were sodainly surprised with the plague, as he reciteth in the third Chapter of his Booke. Loe héere, what I haue thought requisite to be spoken touching the sayd terme▪ ne∣uerthelesse I submit my iudgement to those that are more learned, to whose mature resolution I shal subscribe when with better & more substantial reasons they shall reprooue me. Which purpose of mine, euery true louer of learn∣ing ought to follow, as for that I haue said it is but onely my opinion, set downe to aduise the ignorant, and to be censured by the learned. The gouernors also ought to be carefull of those, whom in this sort, and for this cause they haue shut vp or sent vnto their Pest-house, foreséeing that they want nothing of that which appertaineth to their health. And if those that are sicke be poore and indigent, let them be supplied by the charity and liberality of the cit∣ty. And if they be rich and by reason of infection shut vp, they ought to be supplied with al things necessa∣ry till such time, as being at liberty they may make recompence for that they haue receiued.Page [unnumbered]
Chap. IX. Of the building of an Hospitall for the Plague.
THat which is most necessary in great Citties, is to haue a certaine selected place, whither they may con∣uey the sicke men in time of the plague, when God inflict∣eth sickenesse vpon them. And therefore it concerneth a weale publike before necessitie happen, to prouide a house to this purpose answerable to the charitable intēt of those good men, who haue already contributed to the same. The forme wherof, since as yet I perceiue it vnfinished, should (in my opinion) be after this manner: It ought to be sci∣tuate, (as already it is begunne) without the Citty in a se∣perate and vnfrequented place, and not so néere the high wayes or walkes of the Citizens as it is, for feare lest the Passengers should be infected. It ought also to be builded very amply and largely, that it may be able to receiue the number of the sicke, the aspect thereof ought to be betwéen the orient equinoctiall and the north, to the intent that the heate of the midday warme it not too much, and that in summer it may haue competent fresh ayre: which it will haue if it be thus builded: for it highly concerneth that such a house should receiue the northerne winde, for that it is the most dry, and healthfull, and such a winde as pur∣geth and driueth away all euill vapors and infection, be∣cause the ayre thereof is colde and drie, which consumeth the superfluities of the body, as Galen and Hippocrates testifie in the third booke of the Aphorismes, and Hippo∣crates himselfe in diuers places witnesseth. The like al∣so doth Auicen auerre at large, where hée speaketh of the north winde, to which he attributeth this property, to cor∣rect all pestilentiall and corrupted ayre. And therefore it is necessary that the aspect thereof should be after this ma∣ner: It ought also to be more long than large, to the in∣tent Page [unnumbered] the vpper story may containe eight and twenty or thirty chambers aboue, and as many beneathe. For in regarde of the multitude of the sicke that are likely to bée brought thither, there ought to be many lodgings, and so many, if not more. These Chambers ought to be sepera∣ted the one from the other, and yet adioyne one an other after the manner of the Dortuaries in Religions houses. Each of these ought to haue a chimney, and be so disposed, that they may receiue lights from the East and the North. In each of these chambers there ought to be two beds, that the sicke may change from the one to the other vpon opor∣tunitie. The scituation and place of the Hospitall ought to be in a pure aire, and in no place that abutteth on dong∣hils: it ought likewise to haue many springs deriued into the same, that the ministers that attend the same, may the better cleanse their cloathes and houses: The Chambers of the Phisition, Surgeon, and Minister appoynted to at∣tend the sicke, ought to be builded apart from the sickmens lodgings: and likewise the Apothecarie, who must haue his shop furnished apart with all necessaries at the Cities charge, which custome in all well policied Citties is ob∣serued. It behooueth also that all the doores of the Cham∣bers open into some Gallery, where in the sicke may take ayre for their recreation, and beate their cloathes and bed∣ding, when néede requireth: some fifty foote aparte from that Hospitall, an other body of building should be made, wherein they that are recouered may make their proba∣tions. It is also requisite that a Chapell be builded some∣what seperated from the body, & after such a manner, that the diseased may heare their Preacher, and assist him in his deuotions. This is the order I thought méete to ad∣uise in the building of a Pest-house, which by the particu∣lar liberality and faithfull performance of the deceaseds will, may be builded and furnished. Towards the finish∣ing whereof, all they that haue the zeale of our Lorde in their heartes, and that haue the means to distribute their Page [unnumbered] goodes to the poore, ought to be diligent and charitable, to the end they may receiue the rewarde which is promised vnto them, whereas Christ saith, Come vnto me you bles∣sed of my Father, because that being sicke you haue visited mee, and being hungry you haue giuen mee meate, I was a stranger and you receiued me; Possesse the kingdom which is prepared for you from the beginning of the world. This is a maruelous rewarde for a litle pelfe and worldly plea∣sure bestowed on their neighbour, to obtaine the eternall glory of heauen, which is a treasure of incomparable felici∣tie. Thus much as concerning this matter.
Chap. X. Of the manner how to gouerne and heale such as are sicke of the plague, as well in diet, chamber beds, as in fit reme∣dies, both for their botches and carbuncles.
AS soone as the sicknes hath seazed any patient (which by the proper signes & accidents is presently known) as a burning feuer outwardly of litle appearance, but gen∣tle and easie, but inwardly malignant, full of anguish and very tedious to the sicke; disquiet of the bodie, passions of the hart, vomit, soundings, extreame thirst, paine and lassi∣tude through the whole body, with appearance of spots or markes, or swellings vnder the arme pits, or in the groine or vnder the eares, or in any part of the body, then is it e∣uident that the person so affected is infected with the plague, by reasons of such signes or accidents (especially if he that is surprised, hath cōuersed with any, or in any place that hath béen infected.) By these signes and accidents wée may easily know the nature of that sickenesse, as Auicen and Ra•is do testifie: otherwise the sayd sicknesse is verie often times so fraudulent and deceiuable, that for the most part it deceiueth the patient and the Phisition, as AuicenPage [unnumbered] after Galen doth testifie. For diuers of those that are in∣fected, supposing themselues to be frée frō the plague, make no account thereof in the beginning, nay, during the first and second dayes, they onely suffer a gentle feuer without any other appearance, so that nature desisteth not to per∣forme hir functions, being as yet vnassailed by the ve∣nime. For which cause the patient will haue a good pulse, and healthful vrine, almost as perfect as when they were in health, when as sodainly they are séene to die without any manifest occasion, which bréedes doubt and trouble in the Phisition, as Galen and Auicen do testifie. For this cause men ought not to maruell though the Phisitions in this case are pusseld and doubtful, since this sicknes in his nature, is so doubtfull, fraudulent, and deceiuable. This notwithstanding, whenas with the feuer, the tokens, tu∣mor, or carbuncle do appeare, there is no cause of suspition or doubt of the disease. Then ought they readily to with∣stand the same by a fit and conuenient diet, and by exquisit and proper medicines sodainly and exquisitely ordained; for a sickenes of that nature admits no delay without cer∣taine danger of death. And therefore Hipocrates saith that it is expedient in such sickenesses to minister euacuations and other meanes the very same day: Now for that it is one of the principall intentions of a Phisition, in this case, to correct the aire, and prohibite the venime, that it may haue no operation in the body, we will beginne with the same, and so consequently discourse vpon the rest.
The preparation of a Chamber.
FIrst therefore, men ought to make choice of a chamber for the patient, that is wel aired, if it be possible, hauing the windowes towards the North or East. And if it be in summer time, it is good to kéep those windows that regard the North opened, to the end that the ayre of the chamber Page [unnumbered] may be purified and cleansed. Care likewise must be had to haue the Chamber cleansed twoo or thrée times a day, and that the floore be sprinckled, & the wals bedewed with good Rose-vineger, mixed with common-water, or with Rose-water, if the patient be rich. The said chamber like∣wise must be strewed with odoriferous flowres and swéete smelling hearbs, namely in Summer time, with roses, vi∣olets and pinkes, with the leaues of willow and the vine. It is good also to haue quinces & citrons to smell to, to the end that the ayre may be more odoriferous. Neyther is it amisse at what time soeuer it be, to make a light fire in the Chamber in Summer time, for it purgeth the infected ayre very much. And if it be in Winter, it is not amisse to make a great fire in the Chamber of Rosemary; bayes, Iuniper, and such like, perfuming the Roome with Benia∣min, Storax, Frankinscence, Cloues, Iuniper-berries, or such like. And if the patient be of abilitie, so as he may change chambers, it shal not be amisse to do it oftentimes, so as it be prepared, as we haue aduised.
The bed of the patient ought to be large, cleane, and perfumed with good odors according to the season of the yeare, as is aforesaide. He ought also oftentimes to change his shéets and his shirt if he haue meanes twise or at least∣wise once in the day: Round about his bed if it be summer time, and on the top of his couerlets you shal strew floures and odoriferous fruit and boughs, and the sicke party shal haue by him diuerse orenges, quinces, limons, or citrons to smell to: And if he be rich, he shall cause certaine shéets to be stéeped in vineger and water, and hung round about his bed, not onely to refresh the place, but to repulse the e∣uill vapour of the chamber: He shall likewise oftentimes wash his hands, his pulses, and his face and forhead with this mixture. Take of white rose vineger foure ounces, or halfe a pinte of rose water, a pinte of good malmsey, claret, or white wine foure ounces, of the powlder of zodoarie, cloues, dried roses, and muske, of each two graines, let al Page [unnumbered] these be beaten and mixed together, and let him rubbe his nose, his eares, handes and face therewith, for it will comforte and quicken the heart and vitall spirites, and driue away all euill vapours: Lo here the preparation of the chamber and bed of him that is diseased and sick of the plague. Hereafter insueth the maner of his diet.
Chap. XI. The Diet of him that is strucken with the Plague.
BEcause in this sickenesse the appetite is deiected, and the vertue of the stomacke and all other members is much enféebled, it behooueth those that are sicke, to enforce themselues to eate, to the end they may resist the sickenes, and strengthen nature, as Auicene commaundeth, where he saieth, that they who manfully enforce themselues in this disease, and eate couragiously, are they who escape. The Diet therefore of the patient ought to be in quantitie moderate, taken by little and little, and often, and in qua∣litie substantiall and nourishing, and tempered with such things as resist venome. Let his meate be of good nou∣rishment, of easie digestion, and pleasant to the taste, as shall be hereafter declared. His meate shall be caponets, chickins, and pullets, yong kidde, veale and mutton, par∣tridge, plouer, turtle, fesant, and quaile, and the pottage made of them very nourishing, shall be altered with sor∣rell, lettuce, borage, pimpernell, and the leaues of marie∣goldes, for in this sickenesse they haue great vertue, as A∣lexander Benedictus testifieth in his 23. chap. de peste, yet must you not mixe them all together, but it shall suffice to vse one or other: and in the saide broathes it shall not bée amisse to mixe some little quantitie of the iuyce of limons, orenges, or sowre grapes in their seasons:
Page [unnumbered]The bread and meate which they eate, should be taken with the Iuyce of lemmons, citrons, oringes, pomegra∣nats, rose vineger, veriuyce, the Iuyce of sorrel vsing one or the other at seuerall repasts: And if sharpenesse be dis∣pleasant to his stomacke, you may vse a little of the Iuice of mintes with suger and alittle sinimon: Barly, creame, Almond milke, and panatels, are fit meates in this cause, as also fresh and new egges poched in water, and taken with the Iuice of sorrel and alittle suger.
And among other restoratiues our ordinary candles of white wine, rose water, yelks of Egs, sugar and cinamon is much commended. A coulis also is of very good nourish∣ment, whenas the sick man cannot eate, for then must we restore him with cordiall & strong broths. His drink shal be good white or claret wine, such as fumes not, but is wel qualified with pure fountaine water, for by reason of the weaknes of the vertue in this cruell sicknes, & to resist the operation of the venome, it is not necessary to take from them the vse of wine except the sick be very sanguin, yong, ful, and of an able body. In which case it shalbe better to forbid than to licence them to vse it. Betwéene meales they may drink barly water, in which they may stéep and infuse some leaues of sorrel, and with their barly water, they may mix sirrop of limons, sirrop of sowre grapes, sir∣rop of the Iuice of Citrons, sirrop Alexandrine, or sirrop of violets. And if the patient wil not drinke barly water, let him drinke fountaine water, or raine water boiled and mixed with the sirrops aforesaide. The patient likewise may in this feuer drinke water very fréely, and his fill, to the intent he may extinguish the inward heate of the pesti∣lent feuer, and not by little and little, but fréely, as Paulus Aegineta and Auicen thinke necessary in this disposition. For which cause let this serue, both to aduise the sicke & his kéeper to alow drinke fréely, & the vse of water, after which let the patient be wel couered to prouoke sweate, which is one of the best euacuations that profiteth in this sicknes.Page [unnumbered]
Chap. XII. Rules as touching bloud-letting, the potions and Euacu∣ations which are necessary for him that is sicke of the plague.
AS soone as the sicke man by the signes aforesaid féels himselfe strooken, he ought very spéedily séeke out for some remedy for this sickenesse, neither leasure nor delay without danger of death, by reason of the maligni∣tie thereof opposed against mans life: wherefore we ought with all diligent care to withstand the same, and prohibit the venime, and breake the forces thereof, lest it woorke the vtter ruine of our bodies. As soone therefore as any one féeleth himselfe seazed, giue him this potion. Take of the iuice of marigolds the quantity of two or thrée ounces, giue it the patient to drinke, with a little white wine or sorrel-water, and couer him wel, that he may sweat. This Iuice maketh a man frée and assured from the venime, as testifieth Alexander Benedictus in his treatise of the plague, and it is a most tryed and notable secret. And if he sweat after he hath taken the same, hée shall be assured by the grace of God of perfect health In stead of the said hearbe you may take the iuice of veruine in like quantity, or the Iuice of the hearbe called Scabious, which hath great force and efficacy in this case, giue two ounces of the said Iuice with white Wine, Rose-water, or Sorrel-wa∣ter, and you shall sée a wonderfull effect. But these reme∣dies ought to be giuen sodainly. For if the sicke man dal∣ly a day or two before he complaine, they haue no effect or force.
AS soone as the sicke féeleth himselfe strucken, if he be sanguine, yong, and full, you ought to let him bloud Page [unnumbered] by those rules that ensue hereafter. If the signe or tumor appeare not as yet, you ought to let him bloud in the Me∣diana of the right arme rather than of the left, to prouide lest the venime haue recourse to the hart, and to take blood according to the repletion and vertue of the patient. Or to worke more surely, wée may take the veine in the foote called Saphena, to diuert the venime from the noble parts, or instéede of letting bloud apply cupping-glasses with sca∣rification on his shoulders and buttocks. From the strong, able, and well complexioned, you may take some sixe oun∣ces of bloud, or at the least thrée or foure: but for such as are weake, they must not be dealt with. And note, that in this sickenesse, we ought not to be busie in taking bloud although bloud-letting be necessarie, because bloud is the treasury of life, whose assistance nature néedeth to combate with the venime. As also for that by much letting bloud mens forces are weakened, and the venime worketh with more aduantage, as shalbe hereafter declared.
And whenas the patient is letten bloud, wee ought to cause him kéepe in his mouth either a little péece of an o∣renge or a lemmon, or a cloue or some cinnamon, or else a little rose vineger, and rose water mixed together, to comfort his heart and vitall spirites. But if the markes or botch do appeare, the blood is to be drawne on that side of the body on which the tumor sheweth it selfe, namely, if the swelling beginneth to shew behinde the right eare, drawe blood in the Cephalica of the right arme, and so of the left. If the signe appéere vnder the arme pits, you shal cut the median of the same side, namely on the right arm, if the impostume be vnder the right armehole, and that on the left: likewise when the impostume sheweth it selfe vn∣der the left arme hole. But in trueth the surest way is ra∣ther, in this case, to open the veines of the féete then of the armes, to the end you may draw the venime farthest off: if the signe appéere vnder the groyne, strike the Saphena on the same side, or rather the inward veine of the ham, Page [unnumbered] if it may be found, the like ought also to be done in the car∣buncle when it appéereth, yet ought not the bloodletting be redoubled, but onely vsed on that side where the car∣buncle appéereth. But note in this case of bloodletting, that it ought to be done before the patient hath remained infected foure and twenty houres, for after the terme is past, blood letting is both hurtfull and pernicious, because that by the same the contagion is inwardly drawne into the body and heart. Whence it happeneth, that the most part of those that are let blood doe die, as by Hierome Fra∣castorius an excellent and noted Phisitian is sufficiently testified in his treatise of the Plague, the third Booke and fift chapter, who testifieth that all they, who in the pesti∣lent yéeres of 1505. and 1528. were let blood, died all of them by the reason aforesaide, because that where the in∣terior séede of the venime is scattered and mixed with the blood and humors of the body (which is done in two daies space or thereabout after a man féeleth himselfe infected) letting blood is greatly harmefull, because it causeth agi∣tation of the blood, and augmenteth by this means the pu∣trifaction, and by such agitation and motion the contagi∣on doth more inwardly mixe it selfe with the humors, and maketh them, of pure and sincere, corrupt and infected: after no other maner than whenas stincking mud is moo∣ued, it venteth out the more, and maketh the aire infected and stincking, as is séene by experience, or whenas a man shaketh or shoggeth a vessel full of salt or bitter water, the water becommeth more bitter and salt than if it had béen suffered to be settled, without moouing it: For euery mat∣ter that is mooued, is worse then that which remaineth in quiet, as testifieth Galen in his fift booke de Symptomatum causis. And by these reasons the said Fracastorius and Fer∣nelius likewise, men both of them excellently learned, are of opinion, that blood is not to be let in this case, to whose iudgements I subscribe. And for mine owne part, and in trueth I finde it more expedient, instéede of letting blood, Page [unnumbered] to vse cupping glasses with scarrification, for after the se∣cond day is past, phlebotomy is to be omitted. Sée héere our instruction as touching blood-letting.
AS touching purgation, it ought to be administred in the beginning, but rather with gentle and pleasing medicines than violent, which doe weaken and force Na∣ture, and with them we ought to mixe some powlder, as the powlder of the electuary Theriacal of Guidon, or the powlder of Bole Armenus, with Iuniper berries: or for the rich, with Terra sigillata, or treacle, or good mithridate. If then the patient be poore, thou must giue him halfe an ounce of the electuary of the iuyce of roses, or asmuch of Diaprunis solutiue, or an ounce of Diacatholicon, if hée be cholerike. And if he be phlegmatike, thrée drachmes of Diacarthamum, or Electuary de Citro solutiue. And if he be melancholike, the confection Hamech dissolued in water of scabious, or sorrel, or buglosse, an ounce of sirop of limons, or a drachme of good treacle, or the powlder of bole Arme∣nus prepared, or the séedes of Citron or Iuniper berries. The richer sort ought to be purged with manna Rubarbe, sirrop of roses solutiue without scammony with Cassia and Mirabolans, and if néede require, you may mixe a little dose of the electuary of the iuyce of roses, or Diaprunis so∣lutiue in those that are cholerike, as in the phlegmatike, a litle Diaphenicon: or in the melancholike alitle of confecti∣on Hamech, mixing with the saide potions for the rich, halfe an ounce, or a drachme of Terra sigillata, or of the powlder of Diamargariton, or of the powlder Theriacal of Guidon, with the abouenamed waters, and the sirrope of limons, or the iuyce of citrons. And if they take more con∣tentment to be purged by pils, they may vse the common pils of Rufus, made of aloes, mirrhe and saffron, adding Page [unnumbered] thereunto a little Rubarbe: for the rich, Agaric, with a lit∣tle Terra sigillata, or Bole Armenus prepared, The poore may vse pilles Aggregatiue, or Aurea, or Cochia, to the quantitie of a drachme or foure scruples, and when their medicine hath wrought his operation, they may take half a porrenger of the broath of a chickin, and make a light meale: And during the working of their medicine, they may alwayes holde in their handes to smel to roses, oren∣ges, limons, marioram, rosemary, and such like, and may oftentimes wash their hands and wet their nostrilles in rose water mixed with vineger and the powlder of cloues or Angelica or Zedoary as hath béene before times decla∣red: Sée héere the methode in purgation.
Potions against the Plague.
AND to accomplish this chapter, it remaineth to set downe certaine necessary potions to minister to the sicke that may resist the venime, which during the time of their sickenesse, ought very oftentimes to be ministred vnto them, vntill such time as nature ouercommeth the force of the infection, being assisted by the vertue of natu∣rall heate, and by cordiall Antidotes, that is to say, by me∣dicines, that are altogether contrarie to the venime of the plague: (which the Arabians in their tongue are accusto∣med to call Bezoatici, and the Latines Antidotes.) Euerie morning and euening therefore, and if néed be, at midday or midnight (if the accidents be violent) you may cause the patient to drinke these potions folowing. If he be poore, take Iuniper-berries, and Bole Armenus, of each a drachme, powlder them wel and mixe them with scabious, buglosse, or sorrel water, and one ounce of sirop of limons, cause him to take it euening and morning, euery day, or else take the powlder of the Electuary of Guido, giue him a drachme after the same manner: you may also vse Page [unnumbered] with good effect the poulder of betony, dried to the quantity of a drachme or 4. scruples, taking it in summer time with rose water, and in winter in good white wine, and it work∣eth wonderful effects, if the patient kéepe himselfe well co∣uered, and sweate therevpon, for it causeth the venime to euaporate by sweat. Treacle and Mythridate also are so∣ueraine medcines to this effect, being taken to the quanti∣tie of a drachme with rose water in summer, or succorie or sorrel water, and in winter with good white or claret wine. For the rich, let this powlder be dispensed.
Take the rootes of tormentil, the roote of Diptamus Creticus, if it be possible, the roots of Angelica Zedoari and Gentian of each a drachme, of the seedes of citrons and sor∣rel two drachmes, of true Bole Armenus prepared twoo drachmes, of Terra sigillata thrée drachmes, of pearles two drachmes, of red corall foure scruples, of the rinde of the citron or Oringe dryed a drachme, beate all these to a fine powlder, of which you may giue the patient in the waters aboue named, the weight of a drachme, or a drachme and a halfe. If you will make an opiate thereof, you may confect the powlder with conserue of roses, or bu∣glosse, or sirrop of limons, and make an opiate, of which you may giue the patient halfe an ounce at a time. This poulder is of most excellent vertue and great effect, if it be wel dispenced, which amongst all other medicines is most appropriate, as by the vertue of the ingredients, the ex∣pert and learned Phisitian may easily coniecture. These are the remedies which in potions are most assured and are both experimented and alowed (laying aside the super∣stitious and vaine opinions, of the vnicornes horne, of which the common sort make so great reckoning.) For in truth it is a méere folly to beléeue that the pieces of horne, which diuers men beare about them, is the horne of that beast which the Gréekes called Monoceros, and the latins Vnicornu, (as the simple sorte, vnicornes horne) for it is a beast so rare to be séene, and in places so strange, that Page [unnumbered] scarsely Alexander the great could recouer one to his great charge and expence, (as Plinie, Aelian and Philostratus te∣stifie) neither may it be taken aliue, for that it liueth in places desart and solitary in the extreamest parts of India and the East. But leauing these things apart, I say that we ought to trust to perfect tried & experienced medicines, such as are those, which heretofore I haue faithfully set downe for the common good, and the loue I beare vnto my neighbours. In prosecution of which matter, I say by the authoritie of Galen Lib. 9. de simpl. fac. cap. 14. V.T. that Bole Armenus is by him singularly commended amongst all other simples for the plague: For in that great plague which in his time was in Greece, all those that drunke Bole Armenus were sodainely healed, as the said Galen te∣stifieth, who aduiseth vs to take it with good white wine, somewhat qualified and mixed with water, the quantitie ought to be some two drachmes: And here you are to note that in those who are already taken with the plague, it be∣hooueth to giue them a greater dose of your Antidotes, then those whom you intend to preserue. For in the venime of the plague is already inclosed in their bodies, it is necessa∣ry that the medicine should be more forcible to ouercome and subdue the same, then before that it seazeth the body. And therefore if to the healthy you will ordaine a drachme to preserue him, you ought to giue eare to those that are sicke. And this may serue for an aduertisement to the com∣mon sorte, how they should gouerne their sicke in time of visitation.
This water that enseweth, is likewise of great vertue, and allowed by many experiences.
TAke two pound of the iuyce of limons, of rose vine∣ger, as much of Bole Armenus prepared two ounces, of the dried rinde of orenges one ounce, infuse them a day Page [unnumbered] naturall, or xxiiii. houres in the saide vineger, and afterwardes distill them in Balneo Mariae, giue of this water foure ounces with sirrope of limons, or sirrope of sowre grapes, for it is an excellent medicine, as Fracasto∣rius in his third Booke de morbis Contagiosis, chap. 7. whose name I héere set downe, to the end I may no waies seeme to defraude any one of the praise due vnto them, or chal∣lenge to my selfe other mens inuentions. Hitherto haue we sufficiently spoken of those medicines which are to bée taken inwardly, it remaineth that we speake of those that are to be applied outwardly. But before that I intreate of them, I will describe in this place a confection or resto∣ratiue to be ministred vnto him that is infected with the plague. Take conserue of roses, conserue of water lillies, conserues of sowre grapes, and buglosse, of each an ounce, of pouldered pearles one drachme, of Bole Armenus pre∣pared foure scruples, of fine suger as much as sufficeth, re∣duce all these into the forme of a Conduite, with leaues of golde for the rich. As for the poore, it shall suffice to giue them the foresaide conserues, with a little of the poulder of Bole Armenus, or Triasantali, or the séeds of sowre grapes, or citrons, or the barke thereof. It is good also to giue them oft times a tablet of losenge of Diamargariton, when they haue the fainting of the heart, with a little buglosse water, or white wine: and if they fall into soundings, giue them confection Alchermes after the same maner: for it is a miraculous medcine in strengthening the heart, and re∣uiuing the spirites. And in this case it is good to restore them with good broaths, wine caudles, and egges, as wée haue héeretofore aduised. Manus Christi perlata also is good in this case, and pleasant to the eater, which you may giue in brothes, in buglosse water, or in the forme of a ta∣blet. To comfort the heart outwardly, vse this Epitheme that followeth. For the rich take rose water, sorrell wa∣ter, buglosse, and balme water, of each foure ounces, of good white wine or malmsey thrée ounces, of the powlder Page [unnumbered] of Diamargariton, and de Gemmis, of each one drachme, of powlder of scarlet which we call vermilion, of cloues, of each halfe a drachme, of powlder of zedoary and Bole Ar∣menus, of ech a scruple, of the trochisques of camphre halfe a scruple, make an Epitheme for the heart, the which you shall apply with a péece of fine scarlet vppon the region of the heart morning and euening: For the poore it suffi∣ceth to make an Epitheme of sowre grape-water or sorrel water, of balme-water, and rose water, with alittle white wine, and the powlder of sanders and alittle powlder of Iuniper-berries: Instéed of the said Epithemes, you may make certaine bagges of silke for the hart after this fashi∣on. Take dryed red roses, flowers of violets, water-lilies and buglosse, of each a little handful; of rosemary flowers as much, of the powlder of scarlet cloues, sāders, the powl∣der of Diamargariton, of each a drachme, of Citron séede, Bole Armenus of each foure scruples, of muske and amber of each fiue graines, beate all these to powlder, and baste them with cotton in red taffatie, and make a bag thereof which you may easily besprinckle with rose water, and a little white wine, and apply to the hart.
An Epitheme for the liuer.
TAKE of the distilled water, of endiue, succory, sorrel, rose, and wormewood water, of each thrée ounces: of good white rose, wine, vineger, thrée siluer spoonfuls, of the powlder of sanders, one drachme, of the séeds of sower grapes, two scruples, of spicknard a scruple, make an E∣pitheme hereof for the poore, and for the rich you may adde powlder of Diamargariton, pearles, corall, and Zedoary, of each halfe a drachme. Mathiolus of Siena a notable Phi∣sion of our age (principally in matter of simples) in his sixt booke of his Commentaries vpon Dioscorides writing vpon the preface, sets down an excellent ointment of great virtu to withstand the operation of venim in those that are Page [unnumbered] sicke of the plague: the description whereof is long and dif∣ficult to be made, and serueth but for Princes and great Lords, in that it is very chargeable: Therefore to auoyde prolixitie, we haue thought good to referre the Reader to that place, if he thinke good to cause it to be dispensed: The name thereof is the oile of scorpions, which in trueth is of maruelous vertue to expel poison and venime, as by the maruellous composition and art in making that oile may be séene. But instead thereof, we will set downe an other oyle of scorpions, of a more easie composition set downe by Alexander Benedictus in the xx. chapter of his booke of the plague: the description whereof hereafter ensueth: Take of oile oliue, the oldest that may be gotten one pound; then take thréescore liue scorpions, and put them in a violl of glasse, in the said oyle, and boyle them ouer a soft fire nine houres, or set the said oyle in our Ladies baine, and when they haue thus boyled in the oyle, thou shalt adde vnto them of treacle two ounces, and let it boyle in the said oyle a quarter of an houre, then straine all of it, and kéepe the said oyle in a violl well closed and stopped with waxe, and parchment, and with it annoynt the sicke vnder the arme∣pittes, behinde the eares, on the breast, the pulses of the armes, the temples, and nosthrilles twice or thrice a day. This is a most excellent remedy, and of great force, as the aforesaid Authors testifie, who writes, that if this vn∣ction be applied sodainly to him that is sicke of the plague, before 24. houres be past he shal be deliuered, vsing the re∣medies aforesaide. The same Author likewise reporteth that this oyntment is of great effect: Take a glasse that containeth a pint and a halfe and more, fil it with oile that is old, in which oile you shal infuse of elder floures six litle handfuls, of the floures of walworth two handfuls, of the leaues and floures of Hipericon, or S. Iohns wort a hand∣ful, (but let the oile couer the hearbs, and be more in quan∣titie:) set this vessel closely luted in the sunne for the space of fortie dayes, or a whole summer, and reserue it to the Page [unnumbered] abouenamed vses to annoynt the sicke, as hath béen saide. But after you haue annoynted him, you must couer him close, for the oyle procureth sweate, and by such euacuati∣on causeth the venime to vapor outwardly: and, if to the said oyle you shal annex twenty or thirty scorpions, it wil be farre more excellent, if besides you adde two or thrée ounces of good treacle, and boyle them in our Ladies bayne, it will haue more force Sée here the best outward remedies that you may vse in this strange sicknesse.
How a man ought to proceede in curing the plague sore.
WHenas the plague sore appéereth in any of the e∣munctories, it is a signe that Nature by her po∣wer would discharge the member principall of that venim which assaileth it, and therfore hath she by her prouidence created in the heart, the braine, and liuer, certaine glanda∣lous and spungy parts, which are apt to receiue the super∣fluities that are hurtful to those members. For vnder the arme pittes there are certain kernels that serue the heart, and these are the emunctories of that member, as behinde the eares also there are the like which serue to discharge the braine, and in the groines, for the liuer. And when as the venime inuades any of these principal members, na∣ture, (to warrantize the nobler part) dischargeth, and sen∣deth the venime to his proper emunctory: wherefore, if the hart be attainted with venim, the plague sore will soon ap∣péere vnder the arme pits: if the braine be infected, the sore wil appéere behinde the eares: as also, if the liuer be in∣dempnified, the sore wil breake out in the groine: and be∣cause it is an expulsion which nature maketh to the exteri∣or and vilder parts, to defend the interior & principall, we ought to take great héed, lest by cold repercussiue or astrin∣gent medicines, we driue the sore inwards, but rather, bicause the said sore is of a venimous nature, it ought to be Page [unnumbered] driuen and forced outward by medicines that draw, and are in qualitie hote and fitte to draw the sore to ripenesse and matter if it be possible. When as the tumor appeareth in any of the saide emunctories, you shall sodainly make incision round about the tumor after the manner of sca∣rification made with the rasor to auoyde the inuenimed bloud, and shall sodainely apply a cupping-glasse therevp∣on to draw out the venimous poison, if that place be capa∣ble of a cupping-glasse, as in the groine and behinde the eares, but vnder the arme-pittes very hardly. And after∣wards you shal apply suppuratiue & ripening medicines, and such as draw after this forme. Take a white onion and cut out the inward kore with your knife, and make a sufficient hollow therein, fill it with very good treacle, or the theriacall powlder of Guidon, couer and close it, and roast it gently vnder the ashes, till it be soft and hote, as it comes from the fire, or as the patient may indure it, apply it to the sore. This is one of the best remedies that a man can apply: Or take the hearb scabious, bruise it betwéene two stones, and apply it on the sore, either of it selfe or mi∣xed with salted hogges grease. You may also make a cata∣plasme according to this forme folowing: take of the roots of white lillies wel cleansed, halfe a handfull of the leaues and roots of mallowes and holy-hocks, twoo handfulls; of fat figges, to the number of thirty, of linte-séede and fenu-gréek séed, of each halfe an ounce, of leuaine one ounce, of bran, halfe a handfull, of scabious, halfe a handfull; boyle al these in water, stamp and straine them, and afterwards adde vnto them wheate floure, of lin-séede and fenugrée séede, of each an ounce, boyle them as before with a little water and hony, Galbanum twoo drachmes, armoniac a drachme, the yelkes of egges, two in number, common salt, a drachme; oyle of white lillies, as much as néedeth, of hennes grease, one ounce; of safferne a drachme, make a cataplasme of all these, and apply it on the sore with fat wooll, remoouing it two or thrée times a day. This also is Page [unnumbered] very good: take the crummes of white bread, to the quan∣titie of halfe a pound, fatte figges, xxx. in number, leuan, two ounces, liue snayles with their shells xx. in number, fenugréeke séede one ounce, seethe all these together in wa∣ter, then beate them together, and adde vnto them of sal∣ted hogs grease one ounce, of oyle of white lillies as much as néedeth, make a cataplasme heereof, which is very good to ripen and breake an impostume. The ancient Phi∣sitions vse the implaster of Diachilon magnum, and spread it on the sore, & of that I haue made proofe. For it is a good drawer by reason of the gums that are ingredient. It is likewise very allowable to draw out the venime from the sore to take a chicken or cocke, and to pull the feathers from his taile, and to apply him to the soare, for by this meanes, he driues out the venome, and when he is dead, apply another: In stead of this remedy, some vse to take great pullets and pigeons, and cutting them in two along the backe, apply them hote as they are vpon the tumor or carbuncle, for this is an appropriate remedy, both for the one & the other. When the kore shalbe ripe, you must open the same with an actual cautery, which is better thē the lancet or cold yron, because it comforteth the member and driueth out the venome by the actuall heate and vio∣lence of the fire: I likewise aduise all those that are sicke of the plague, to endure the same, notwithstanding it shal af∣fright them somewhat, for it is the best and most wholsom remedy that may be giuen, as both Albucatus and Auicen do testifie in that place, where they discourse of the actuall cautery: And instéed of the actuall cautery, if the patient will not endure the same, you must proceede with famili∣ar ruptories, of which the best is that which is made of ashes and quicke lime boyled together, till such time as the water is consumed, and there remaineth nothing but the ashes and lime incorporated and vnited together, which is a strong and excellent ruptory, and such a one as work∣eth his operation without any, or very little payne, as at Page [unnumbered] diuers times, and in many patients I haue approoued: And note that in these pestilent tumors, you must not ex∣spect the intire maturation thereof, but must open the same before it be thorowly ripe, to the end that the ve∣nome remaine not long time in the body, and there tho∣rough steame vp to the principall members and commu∣nicate the venome with them to the danger of him that is diseased, and therefore it is better to open them sooner than later. And whenas the sores or sore is opened, you must not thrust bigge tents of lint into them, but little ones, to the end that the venimous matter may the better issue forth & make no stay in the sore. And in this case Alexan∣der Benedictus councelleth in the 14. chap. of his booke de peste not to put any tents of linte or other linnen into the sore, lest the venime be forced backe, and in effect the rea∣son is very good. He likewise willeth vs, not to bind vp the sore too straight, when it is opened, thinking the ligature sufficient which kéepeth the plaisters to the sore. And for mine owne part, I am truly assured that it is far better to vse certaine tents of hollow siluer, lead, or tinne, then of lint altogether, to the end that by the hollow tents, the ve∣nime may the better and the sooner be euacuated, and not stayed within, which is the intention that a good and aduised Surgeon ought to haue. And this may serue for aduise and counsaile hence forward, although that diuers will thinke this matter somwhat strange vnto them who are accustomed to vse an other fashion, but the truth in all things ought to haue place, and should not be any wayes disguised. After that the sore is opened, you must mundifie the same with these cleansing abstersiue medicines folow∣ing: and note, that you ought to kéepe these sores open a long time, and to suffer them to purge out their venime by the vse of these cleansing medicines following. Take of the mundification of rozen, and put it vppon the saide sores within them by hollow tents: or take barley meale sod in water, and honny, an ounce or two, incorporate Page [unnumbered] with good honny of roses, annexing the roote of the lilly of Florence and a little salt, make a clensing medicine hereof: or take Sarcocolla beaten to powlder, sodden honny, of each a like quantitie, incorporate them togither and make an ointment thereof, for it is a mundifier. But amongst all other vnguents that cleanse loathsome vlcers and such as are of a venimous and euill quality, I haue not found any more excellent, or that cleanseth the loathsome, stink∣ing, and euil matter, then this which I composed my selfe, and haue often vsed and tried the same with good effect.
Take of the iuices of daffadill and wormewood, of each foure ounces, of hony of roses clarified, eight ounces, boyle these together vntil the iuices, be consumed, then adde thervnto of turpentine of Venice, washed in rose wa∣ter, or aqua vitae, foure ounces of the rootes of the Floren∣tine lilly and Aristolochia the round, of ech thrée drachms, of the flower of Lupins two drachms, make an oyntment of these: in truth I can assure you that I haue séene this me∣dicine work admirable effect in the vlcers of the french pox and such like, cleansing them very purely, not only of their grosse and euil matter, but of the dead flesh and kores in∣closed in the said vlcers, as I haue often times tried: Or do thus: Take of Venice turpentine washed in aqua vitae in winter, and barley water in summer, halfe a pound of oyle of roses three ounces, of honny of roses foure ounces, of good and gummy mirrh, aloes, mastike, Aristolochia the round, of ech one drachme and a halfe; of barly meale, thrée drachmes, make an oyntment hereof to mundify these vl∣cers, for it is very good. Sée here the order of cleansing ointments. After the vlcer is wel mundified a long time, you must skinne with the emplaister of Diacaletheos, or the plaister of Seruse, or the red desiccatiue plaster of Tu∣tia, but this is the best. Take betony, centory the lesse a∣grimony, Aristolochia the round, of ech one ounce, of déere suet halfe an ounce, of masticke thrée drachmes, of aloes halfe an ounce, of new waxe two ounces, séethe the hearbs Page [unnumbered] in good red wine, and straine them, then adde the pitch, the wax, and sewet, and séethe it againe, and in the end, adde Aloes and masticke, and make a good incarnatiue hereof: And note, that if the sore be very painefull, you must as∣swage the griefe therof with a cataplasme of bread crums boyled in milke, and afterward with the yelkes of egs saf∣fron, and oyle of roses as much as sufficeth, apply it to the painefull sore. Or foment the place with the decocti∣on of mallows, holihocks, camomile and melilote floures, and branne sodde in water, and apply it in way of fomen∣tation to the pained place. Lo héere the cure of the plague sore, it followeth, that we intreate of the carbuncle.
Of the cure of the Carbuncle.
THE Carbuncle is a malignant pustule procéeding from bloud very hote and grosse in substance, which causeth the adustion thereof, an vlcer with an Eschare or crust in the skin, swelling and red, raising thorow the in∣flammation thereof, those partes that are néere about it, and procuring excéeding paine in him that is possessed therewith. Which by Galen in his second booke, ad Glau∣conem the sixt chapter, hath very learnedly taught. And of these, though euery sort of carbuncle be malignant and dangerous, (as testifieth the same Author in his third co∣mentarie, on the the third booke of Hippocrates his Epi∣demes the xii. Aphorisme,) yet notwithstanding those that haue not with them a contagious and pestilent venime in∣termixed, are not so dangerous of death, as they that raine in the time of the plague, by reason of the venome which is introduced into the humors and masse of blood, infected by the euil quality of the aire, which maketh such pustules ouer and aboue their naturall malitiousnesse more ma∣ligne, dangerous, & deadly, and accompanied with great and mortall accidents. And therefore in such pustules Page [unnumbered] it is necessary to take great care and diligence in curing them readily, and rooting out and extinguishing their ve∣nime, as soone as may be possible, which by the meanes heerevnder written, may be orderly performed accor∣ding to methode: When as therefore the carbuncle shall appéere in any part of any person, the most soueraigne re∣medy is by actuall fire applied vpon to pustull, to consume and abate the venome; for there is not any thing that sooner mortifieth and extinguisheth the venime, than fier: And therefore the actuall cautery, applied vpon the pustull, is the souerainty and sure remedy to cure the same: But diuers fearefull patients wil not endure the same, in∣stéede thereof, therefore you shall apply vpon the carbun∣cle these folowing remedies, which haue a cautsike vertue: Take an olde nutte or two, barly flowre, small reasins, without their stones, fat figges dried, of each one ounce, beate them all together in a morter, and afterward séethe them in wine and oyle of poppy, and apply it vpon the car∣buncle, for it mortifieth the venome, and helpeth to rotte the euill flesh: Take also two or thrée yelks of egges, of pepper, a drachme, of common salt, a drachme and a halfe, of soot of the chimny or ouen, halfe a drachme, mixe al to∣gether, and make an oyntment thereof: or this, Take of the leaues of rew, halfe a little handfull; of fat figges, sixe in number, of pepper a drachme, of soote of chimny or ouen, halfe an ounce, two yelks of egges, of safforne, halfe a drachme, of fresh capons greace without salt, one ounce, and with the Iuice of scabious, make an oyntment which is very excellent. For it suffereth not the venime to procéede any further, but openeth the carbuncle very quickly and maketh a good eschare: Or do thus: take of fat figs, halfe a pound, of mustard-séed thrée ounces, of oyle of white lillies, as much as sufficeth to incorporate them, make a plaster hereof, and apply it vpon the carbuncle. The oyntment called Basilicon mixed with halfe an ounce of good treacle of mythridate and the iuyce of Scabious is Page [unnumbered] maruellous good, and appropriate, as also the yelke of an egge, incorporate with salt; and the iuyce of scabious is a singular medicine, and very common. The simple medi∣cines that are conuenient in this case is scabious pounded betwéeue two stones, and applyed; the hearbe also which is caled Cauda Equina, that is to say, horse taile, which is a kinde of comfery, and Verbascum which the Apoticaries call Tapsus Barbalus & the english, hearb Mullen, is a good remedy: The like qualitie is by diuers of our Maisters ascribed to the Saphire, which hath the vertue to extin∣guish the venime of the carbuncle, if the sore be diuerse times touched with that stone: Mythridate also or treacle are very good to be layd therevnto, and old nuttes applied with dryed figges. And note, that as soone as the carbun∣cle appéereth, it is good to scarifie it round about, with the rasor (as Galen in the xiiii. booke of his Methode saith) or to apply horse-leaches to draw the venimous blood outward: these are the remedies which you must presently lay vpon the carbuncle. But round about the partes that are néere the sore, you must apply repercussiue medicines, for feare lest the venime attaint them; to which effect the vnguent de bolo is the chiefest and most ordinary meanes applyed round about: For it conforteth the part, and repulseth the venime. You shall therefore do thus: Take of oyle of ro∣ses thrée ounces, of rose vineger one ounce, of Bole Ar∣menus, an ounce and a halfe, make an oyntment thereof, and apply it round about the carbuncle: Or thus: take oyle of roses Omphacine (made of gréene oliues) wine of pom∣granats one or two ounces, Bole Armenus (and Terra Si∣gillata for the rich) of each halfe an ounce, make an oynt∣ment thereof, and apply it round about the carbuncle: Galen maketh a plaster of plantane & pomegranets with theyr rindes and houshold bread, and boyleth them in strong wine, adding lintels vnto them: Or take lintells, crummes of browne bread and bran, and boyle them in vineger & make a plaster of them; you may make the like Page [unnumbered] also of sowre pomegranets, cut into quarters, with their rinde, and sodde in vineger, til they be brought to a pulpe, beate them and apply them about the carbuncle: Or else thus: Take of oyle of roses as much as sufficeth, dissolue in it Bole Armenus, Sanguis Draconis or beaten galls, and make an oyntment to the same vse. The whites of egges likewise beaten, with rose vineger & rosewater, and clouts stéeped in that liquor, may be ministred round about the sore: Then are those medicines that defence the partes from the venime of the carbuncle. Hitherto I haue taught both what should be applied vppon, and round about the sore; it remaineth now to set downe the meanes how to breake the carbuncle, which are these: Take of Opopo∣nax thrée drachmes, of fat figs, an ounce; of currans, as much; of leuen, halfe an ounce, beate and mixe al together and apply it on the carbuncle. The doung of a man also is a fit remedy, but for that it is filthy, vse better▪ yet wan∣teth it not his effect. Take the yelke of an egge and a little salt, and incorporate them with the iuyce of scabious, and minister it. Or do after this maner: Take strong leuen one ounce, of scabious and the greater comfery, of each one ounce, of smal reasins without their stones, half an ounce, Cantarides, sixe in number, of sparrowes doung thrée drachmes, incorporate all with oyle of white lillies. This also is good: Take of fatte figges, thrée ounces; of leuen, two ounces; of mustard seede, the leaues of rew, common salt, the roots of Aristologe the round, of ech an ounce, and a halfe, of the meale of wheate and fenugreeke, of each an ounce, of common hony as much as sufficeth, mixe al toge∣ther and apply it.
To make the Eschare or dead flesh to fall out of the carbuncle.
TAke fresh butter and capons greace, of each one ounce, and the yelke of an egge, mix them together, and mi∣nister Page [unnumbered] it: you may likewise adde an ounce of Basilicon: take also of the roots of holihockes two handfulls, of buglosse, a handfull, séethe them in water, and beat them togither, and straine them, and adde vnto them of the powlder of fenu∣gréeke and lin-séed, of each an ounce, of fresh butter wash∣ed in water, of fresh hogs-greace, of each an ounce, make an oyntment. Or take of holi-hocke roots, of beare-foote, of mallowes, and Herbe Robert, called storcks-bill▪ of each a handfull, séethe them together in water, stamp and strain them, mixe them with fresh butter and capons greace, ap∣ply them to the sore till the eschare fall. Rasis made a pla∣ster of hony and Sarcacoll of each a like, and ministred the same: After the Eschare is falne, you must mundifie the vlcer with one of those mundifiers, which are described in the twentieth chapter, and then when the carbuncle shal∣be well purged from matter and corruption and yéeldeth no more, incarnate the same with this vnguent folowing. Take of mastike full of gum, white incense, Aristoloch the round, mirrh, of the flowre of Orobus, Litharge, Ceruse, Aloes, of each a like, of déere suet as much as sufficeth, a little oyle of roses, make an oyntment of these according to art, and apply it till the sore be thorowly cicatrized: And because in carbuncles, there ordinary happeneth some de∣formed cicatrice, after they are healed, to repaire and cor∣rect the same, you may vse these remedies following: take of Borax two drachmes, of Camphire one drachme, of white corall halfe an ounce, of gumme dragacanth, starch, cristall, of the stone called Dentalis, white incense, common salt, of each thrée drachmes, of white marble twoo drachmes; Let the gumme dragant be beaten in a marble morter, and the rest be beaten and serced, afterwards adde hogges-greace clarified, goats-greace, capons-greace, of each an ounce and a halfe: melt al together in a leaden vessell, and straine it thorow a cloath, and after mixe the powlders except the Camphire and Borax, séeth all toge∣ther on a gentle fire, stirring it often with a spatula, and Page [unnumbered] when it beginneth to séethe, put to the camphire, and when they are all of them well incorporated together, kéepe this oyntment in a vessell of lead, for it hath a maruelous effect. For the poore to the saide intent you may take fresh chéese mixed with hony, and a little powlder of Ceruse: Like∣wise take hogges grease to the value of a pound, prepared after this manner, boyle it in a little white wine, and af∣terwardes straine it thorow a cloth, and incorporate the same in a marble morter with goates milke, or plantane water, then adde vnto it litharge of gold, vnmelted brim∣stone, of each three ounces, of white incense one ounce, of quicke siluer quenched and killed in the iuyce of limons halfe an ounce, of Borax two drachmes, of Camphire a drachme, make an oyntment hereof: Take likewise as much lime as you list (that is quenched and slacked in wa∣ter) wash it sixe times in plantane or raine water, vntill such time as all the sharpenesse thereof be taken away, mixe the same with oyle of roses in a leaden morter, and stirre it well, and you shall haue a good oyntment to re∣paire the deformed cicatrises which are left after carbun∣cles. This is the whole forme of the cure of a pestilent carbuncle.
Chap. XV. The maner how to withstand the most vrgent accidents that happen in the pestilent feuer, the Botch and Car∣buncle.
THE most troublesome and dangerous accidents in this sickenesse, are weakenesse of vertue, faintings of the heart, soundings, rauing, or frensie, extreame drith, profound sléepe, or continuall waking, crampes, coldnesse of the extreame parts, which we ought diuersly to correct, according as the nature of each of them requireth. The Page [unnumbered] féeblenesse of vertue (which may be knowne by the weak∣nesse of the pulse, palenesse of the face, and dulnesse of the patient) may be preuented or corrected by comforting the sicke by good and cordiall broths and colices, cawdles, or such like, with good wine also, (as Galen commandeth in the twelfth booke of his Methode) ministring it but little in quantitie, and alayed with water, or to make him take a toste of bread with sugar & cinamon stéeped in good white or claret wine: you shall giue him Diamargariton Manus Christi with pearles, and amongest al the medicines that are proper to comfort the vertue, the confection Alcher∣mes described by Mesue in his Antidotary) is allowed, which hath maruelous force and efficacie to restore vertue almost extinct in the sicke, as by diuerse experiments I am able to auow, to the valew of a drachme in buglosse water or white wine: It shalbe good also to comfort the patient, to incourage him with friendly words, to embolden him, & extinguish his feare, for these meanes both quicken and strengthen vertue. The faintings of the heart (which the Gréekes call Lipothimiae) may be eased by the Electuary of Diamargariton, or the powlder thereof, annexing vnto it the powlder of Electuarium de gemmis, or a little of the powlder of Diamosci dulcis giuen in white wine, or bu∣glosse, or scabious water, to the valew of a drachme. And in this accident you must comfort the sick with good odors, and rubbe the pulses of his armes and his temples with rose water and rose vineger, or with the mixture of rose water, rose vineger, the powlder of cloues and cinamon: and if the patient be bound, it wil be good to giue him a cli∣ster of the decoction of mallowes, béetes, borage, mercury, mellon séedes, and a little annice séede, and branne, and dissolue therein an ounce of Catholicon, or Cassia, oyle of violettes, and grosse sugar. If the sicke fall into a sound, giue him sodainely two or thrée spoonefuls of pure wine, (as Galen commaundeth in the twelfth of his Methode) and in such a case it is good to giue him foure graines of Page [unnumbered] muske, dissolued in good wine and buglosse water, if the Feuer be not ouer vehement: or instéede of this remedie, giue him this drinke folowing: Take of powlder of cloues halfe a drachme, of the powlder of pearles and corrall, of each halfe a drachme, make a drinke with buglosse water, and a little good white wine or claret wine. And in such an accident you must crie vpon the sicke, rubbe him vio∣lently, make him smel rose water and muske, or giue him a drachme of the confection Alchermes, with buglosse wa∣ter, and a little wine: and halfe a drachme of pearles for the rich: and for the poore, the powlder of cloues. And if he abound in cholerike humors, purge him with a little rubarbe, or the Electuary of the Iuyce of roses, or the sir∣rope of roses. It is good also to cast fresh water very often∣times in his face, for it quickeneth the decayed spirites: These are the remedies for soundings: If the patient fall a rauing, you must giue him some spéedy euacuation to di∣uert the humors lest they mount to the braine, you must therefore rubbe the lower partes very often, and apply li∣gatures to the extremities, and make him take sirrope of poppy with water of the decoction of lettuce, purselane, or sorrell, and wash his féete and armes with the warme de∣coction of the leaues of willow, vine leaues, lettice, floures of roses and lillies, camomile, and the tops of white pop∣py, boyled in water: and kéepe the patient in silence and in a secret place, and to beware that he speak not, as much as is possible: and if the raging be ouerfurious, you ought to binde him, and to take all thinges from him that may hurt him, as all sorts of armor, and other offensible things finally to procure him to sléepe. The extreame thirst that presseth the patient, must be eased by drincking fréely, (as Paulus Aegineta and Auicen commaund) and his drinke shall be fresh water in great quantitie, if the patient be yoong and strong, or mixed with sirope of limons, or sow∣er grapes, or sirop of violets: And note that he must drink largely and aboundantly to extinguish the heate of the fe∣uer Page [unnumbered] that burneth him inwardly: for, to drincke in little quantitie, rather inflameth, then cooleth the same: And therefore the aboue named Authors will, that in the pe∣stilent feuer we should allow aboundance of drinke, for it either prouoketh vomite, or sweate, or extinguisheth the feuer: heauinesse of sléep must be remedied by strong rub∣bings of the féete and handes, by often calling on the sicke, by kéeping him in a lightsome chamber, by clapping cup∣ping glasses, with scarification to the nape of his necke, by sharpe clisters made with the decoction of mallowes, holi∣hockes, béetes, hisope, bitony, rew, sage, and the lesser cen∣tory, of each a handfull; agaric two drachmes, polipody an ounce, coloquintida a drachme, branne a handfull, let all be boyled in water, and strayned, to which you may adde of catholicon one ounce, of the electuary of Indie, or Hiera piera composita halfe an ounce, of salt a drachme, of common hony, halfe an ounce: make hereof a clister, which he may take in the morning, or after supper, during his heauines, Subeth and déepe sléepe. It is good also to make him smel to the powlder of burnt haire mixed with vine∣ger, for it awaketh him much. And if contrariwise the pa∣tient cannot sléepe, you shall giue him two ounces of the sirope of poppy, or one ounce, an houre before he take rest, with the decoction of lettuce, and poppy séede, and you shal annoynt his forehead with vnguentum populeonis, or alit∣tle of the séedes of white poppy and annice: you may an∣noynt his nosthrills also with the oyles of poppy and vio∣lets, with a graine of Opium, and saffron incorporated to∣gether, if necessity require it, and not otherwise: If the patient be seazed with the cramp (which is a mortal signe, and after which few escape, as Hippocrates testifieth in his second booke 2• Aphorisme) yet must we notwithstan∣ding assist all that wée may, and annoynt the nape of his necke with oyles of white lillies and violets, and make him holde in his mouth a péece of nutmeg, and chew it of∣ten, you shall likewise giue him lenitiue and no sharp cli∣sters, Page [unnumbered] and make him drincke barly water with sirrope of violets, and moysten him with good brothes, for the cramp very often commeth of emptines, and is commonly mor∣tall: if the extreame partes be colde in a pestilent feuer, or other sharpe sickenesse, it signifieth the weakenesse and mortification of naturall heate, and (for the most part) be∣tokeneth death. In this case we must minister vnto his handes and féete with hote cloathes, and chafe them, and giue him a little wine to quicken naturall heate, and make him holde a clowt in his mouth, and giue him the powl∣der of Diacameron, or Diamoscum, and kéep him warme in his bed, and take héede that no colde touch him: But when the poore patient is come to this estate, there is litle hope of them, as testifieth Hippocrates in the fourth of his Aphorismes, Aphorisme 48. for it is a signe that death is at hand.
Chap. XVI. The order and gouernment they ought to obserue who assist and serue those that are sicke of the plague.
IT is a matter most euident, that they that dwell conti∣nually with those that are infected with the plague, are in great danger to receiue the same infection from those that are sicke, by reason they haunt with them night and day, receiue their breaths, and smell their corruptions, and sucke the infected ayre of the infected houses wherein they conuerse; which is a thing very dangerous, as Galen witnesseth in the first booke de differentijs febrium cap. 2. For which cause, they that are resolued to kéepe them that are sick of the plague, ought to haue a great care of themselues for feare they be infected. And first of all, they must haue recourse vnto God, beséeching him to preserue them, to the Page [unnumbered] end that being thus assisted by his grace they may the bet∣ter accomplish this charitable office to the sicke, and succor and serue them to their vttermost; which is an action that pleaseth Almighty God. Folowing then the order prescri∣bed in the second, third, fourth, and fift chapter of this trea∣tise, he shall vse those preseruatiues there described accord∣ing to his complexion, age, strength, and the nature of these humors that abound in him, taking fit medicines or pills, powlders, opiates, or tablets against the plague. treacle, or mithridate according to the forme we haue set downe in the places afore alleaged, continuing the same without intermission. When hee shall visit the sicke, hée must not approch ouer néere vnto him, for feare he receiue his breath, but stand farre off him, especially, if he be fast∣ing. Also before he enter into the sicke mans Chamber, let him perfume it, and cause the windowes to be opened, and make a good fire therein of rosemary or iuniper. Hée shall holde in his mouth, an Angelica or zedoary roote, or a cloue, or the rinde of a citron, orenge, or limon. He shall wash his handes, face, forehead, and temples with vine∣ger and rose water, and if he haue leisure, doe the like vn∣der his arme-pits, and in other emunctory places, but this is not alwayes sure and easie to be done: He shall often∣times, and almost euery day change his garments and linen, and carry in his hand apples, pomanders, orenges, or limons to smell to. He shall holde a spunge steeped in rose water, vineger, white wine, besprinckled with the powlder of cloues, zedoary, and Angelica, to which hée shall often smell, and with some of the same liquor he shal gargarise his mouth and throate. He shall perfume al the house and chamber of the sicke thrice a day, and oftner in summer, because the dayes are longer. When he com∣meth to touch the sicke, he shall cause him to turne his face from him, lest he breathe vpon him, and he likewise that performeth this office, shall doe the like for his better secu∣ritie, he shall kéepe himselfe cleanely, purge often with the Page [unnumbered] pilles against the plague, or other fit medicines: He shall be sober in his diet, and auoyde all superfluous meate and drinke: he must be merry and lightsome, and driue away all feare, sadnesse, and melancholy: For those that are fit∣test to be imployed in this matter, are such as haue a good courage, and are merry, pleasant, and well complexioned that despise the danger of death, and are ready to doe ser∣uice to their parents and frends, wiues or children. These in trueth are they that in these times are in least danger, and whom God (foreséeing their good zeale) protects by his mercy, preseruing them from so great danger. Neuer∣thelesse in this time men ought not to be too rash or hazar∣dous, nor trust too much to their complexions, youth, ver∣tue, and force of body. For the secret venome of the plague preuenteth all this, and except a man be wary and pru∣dent, it wil then seaze him when he least suspecteth: be∣cause a venime of that nature is accustomed to lie hidden in the body a long time without any effect, or at least∣wise notable impression, after the nature of the byting of a madde dogge, which sodainely before it be discoue∣red takes a lamentable effect. For which cause men ought not to be so bolde and rash as to expose themselues to such dangers, except necessitie constraineth them to succour their parents, or faithful friends, to whom, by lawe of na∣ture, they are tied: Neyther on the contrary side shoulde they be too feareful, and so cowardly, as to forsake their fathers, mothers, wiues and children for feare of death, but both by the commaundement of God, and law of na∣ture, they ought to imploy all their power, yea to aduen∣ture life and bloud, to preserue those, who next vnder God gaue them life, being, and liuing.Page [unnumbered]
Chap. XVII. The manner how to cleanse the houses and places that are infected, the woollen and linnen, and the moouables of the same: And how long they may remaine infected, if they be not well cleansed, and in what time they may be reputed cleane.
I Haue héeretofore declared in the first Chapter of this Treatise, that the Plague is a contagious sicknesse, ra∣uishing life by the malignity thereof, and because that the contagion of the same (which is no other thing but a like disposition by a certaine hidden consent communicated by touch vnto another) it remaineth long time hidden, in such things as may receiue the same such as are the aire of the house infected, the walls, the garments of woollen, lin∣nen, cotten, fether, and such like, it is therefore necessary to know how to clense the houses of those that haue bin infe∣cted with the plague, to the end, that after they that haue béene infected, shall returne to their houses, they may not be infected anew, by reason their garments, couerlets, beds, and such like, haue not béene well ayred and clensed. And therefore, by way of aduertisement to all in generall, euery one during the time of the plague, ought to shut vp his best moouables in a place apart, that is cleane & neate, and to forbeare the vse thereof, I say, they ought to shutte vp their linnen, tapistry and couerlets, and onely reserue some to their ordinarie vse: For where there is a pestilent sickenesse in a house, it continually infecteth the ayre where it raigneth, the garments, couerlets, bedding, and shéetes, and all things that are capable thereof: or either receiue the breath, sweat, spittings, or vapor that issueth from the sick, and al things that are of a slender substance, and full of pores, are fit to receiue, and that verie easily, such infection, as are woollen, linnen, cotten and feathers: Page [unnumbered] wherefore it behooueth aboue all other things, that such houshold-stuffe be carefully cleansed, aired, washed, and purged. For if they be once attaynted, they long time re∣taine the infection in them, because the venime inbibeth and incorporateth it self in their substance very vehement∣ly, by reason of the spongines and thinnest of these things: and as oyle, pitch, and rosin and such like norish, conserue, and augmēt the fire, in that they yéeld it a conuenient mat∣ter, so likewise doth woollen, cotten, fethers, linnen, and such like nourish and entertaine for a long time, that infe∣ction which is imparted vnto them from the sicke, retain∣ing the pestilēt venime, conceiued in them for a long time: Euen as we sée chists and coffers where we lay swéet bags to perfume our linnen or garments doe long time retaine that odor which we laid on them, as lauender, roses, orin∣ges, and such like, which sort of odour is maintained a long time in these garments, and linnen, as experience teach∣eth vs, which also we sée in Cotton wherein a man hath wrapped muske or ciuet, which keepeth the said odour an infinite time. The which the Poet Horace hath aptly ex∣pressed in this verse.
Since therefore such infection may long time remaine hidden in the things aforesaide, wée ought very diligently to cleanse them after this forme that ensueth. The gar∣ments of such as are dead of the plague, if they be rich, ought to be burned, according as the custome is in Italy: or if poore) whose misery is such, as they cannot buy new) let the cloathes they haue vsed, be bucked and washed in lie, and oftentimes exposed to the northerly winde and sunne, and perfumed with rosemary, Iuniper, and such like, and in time of drith be exposed to the Northerne ayre, which drieth al infectious vapors; for the garments that are infe∣cted, Page [unnumbered] may retaine the same foure yeares, nay the feather-beds seauen yéeres, as Alexander Benedictus testifieth. Note also that feather-beds, cannot be cleared except the tikes be opened, and the downe be ayred, till a moneth or forty dayes be past, in which time they may be purified. Let each bench, wenscote, and other tables of the house be thorowly washed with water and vineger, so that no slut∣tish corner be left: Let the windowes by day be kept open to the north, and shut when the south wind bloweth: Thus in xxiiii. dayes may the wooden implements be ayred. If any sicke man hath afore worne a furr'd gowne, let each man beware how he weareth it after, for furre is too apt to take infection, as appeareth in those xxv. hie Almaines, of whom Hierome Fracastorius maketh mētion, who in the yeare 1511. in Verona died one after another, til al were made away by wearing of that gowne. The surgeon that hath assisted the sicke after xl. dayes triall may be admit∣ted to conuerse the Citty, and so the rest after sixty (so pre∣seruatiues and purges haue béene obserued, and especialy, so mirth, ioy, and pleasure haue been their companions:) if men obserue these precepts, they may by Gods helpe, and by kéeping good order, auoyde the plague by those meanes I haue discouered, by which helps there wilbe no humors capable of infection, and where there is no matter fit to re∣ceiue the same, there can it not surprise any man.
Generall rules to bee obserued by all men in the plague time.
FIrst must we call vpon God, desiring him to defend vs: secondly, but especially (when we are fasting) we ought to flie from the conuersation of those that are infected: Let the wind be betwéene thée and the person that is sicke, or Page [unnumbered] some perfume be kindled, or hold in thy hand some odorife∣rous perfume. Fly the narrow wayes and stréets where are dunghils: hant no vaine assemblies of feasts, but if thy meanes be to follow Hippocrates rule. Fuge longe, cito, Tarde: or if thou must néeds stay, be temperate, adui∣sed & deuout, and God shal blesse thée, to whose mercy, and thy harty praiers I humbly commend me.
A Table or Index.
- ANgelica roote, to prepare it,
- fol. 7.
- Aptham, how to helpe it,
- fol. 26.
- BLoud when and where it is to be drawn,
- fol. 17, 18.40
- Bolarmoniake, how to prepare it,
- fol. 19.
- Botch, in the throte, to cure it,
- fol. 17.
- Botch, how to know where it will be, although no signe appeare,
- fol. 18.
- Botch, the generall cure thereof,
- fol. 30.
- Botch, that is hard, and will not come to maturation, how to helpe it,
- fol. 32,
- Botch, how to draw it, from one place to another,
- fol. 34
- Botch, when hee strickes in againe, how to bring him out.
- fol. 33.
- Botch, how to draw him frō one place to another,
- fol. 34.
- Carbunkle or blayne how to know him, as also to cure it.
- fol. 35.
- Carbunkle with paine and inflammation to helpe it,
- f. 36
- Chickens, how to applie them,
- fol. 17▪
- Cordiall preseruatiues,
- fol. 4.
- Cordiall, to be taken after purging,
- fol. 26.
- Costiuenes, how to helpe it,
- fol. 8.9.
- Digestiue for a botch, how to make it,
- fol. 30.31.33.
- Dyet to be kept in time of the plague,
- fol. 11.
- Dyet, for them that haue the small pockes,
- fol. 41.
- EAres, how to preserue them from the pockes,
- fol. 41.
- Eares running of them, what you must do to it,
- fol. 47,
- Epithemation, to comforte the harte,
- fol, 2.42.
- Epithemation, for a botch,
- fol. 34.
- Exercise and orders to be kept in the plague,
- fol. 12.
- Page [unnumbered]Eyes, how to preserue them from the pockes,
- fol 41:
- Eye, paine, and burning therein to ease it,
- fol. 41
- Eye, perle or web therein to helpe it,
- fol. 46
- Eyes, fastered and clong together, to helpe it,
- fol. 46.
- Faynting and pounding, to helpe it,
- fol. 23:
- Face, how to preserue it from deformiting, in the small pockes,
- fol. 43.
- Face, spotes therein and rednes, after the pockes are gone, to helpe it,
- fol: 46:
- Feete, extreame heate in them, with the smal pockes, to helpe it,
- fol. 45.
- Floures of wemen stopt to prouoke them,
- fol. 10.11
- Flixe, how to stop it,
- fol. 25.
- HAndes and feete, extreame heate in them with the small pockes, to helpe it,
- fol. 45.
- Head lightnes and paine therein for want of sleepe,
- f. 25
- Holes in the face, with the small pockes, what is to bee done to it,
- fol. 47:
- Hoarsnes, remayning after the pockes are gone, to helpe it.
- fol. 48▪
- Issues, commended against the plague,
- fol. 11.
- Iuleps, Cordiall, to make them,
- fol. 22.
- Iulep, to quench thirst,
- fol. 23.24.
- LAske, or flixe, how to stop it,
- fol. 25.
- Longs, how to preserue them from the pockes,
- f. 41.
- MAturatiue, to ripe and rot a botch,
- fol. 31.32.35.
- Mouth, vlceration therin, called Aptham, to helpe it,
- fol. 26.
- Mouth sorenes and vlceration therein, with the small pockes how to preuent, and cure the same,
- fol. 45.
- Mundificatiue, for a carbunkle or blayne,
- fol. 36.
- Nodule, against the plague,
- fol. 7.
- Nosgaye, against the plague,
- fol. 7.
- Nostrels how to preserue them from the pockes,
- fol. 41.
- Nostrels, stopt and vlcerated with the small pockes, to helpe it,
- foll. 47.
- Opiat, good to expell the plague,
- fol. 19.
- Oyntment, to keepe on sollible,
- fol. 8.
- Oyntment to prouoke sleepe, and ease paine of the head,
- fol. 26.
- Oyntment, to keepe the face from pitting, in the small pockes,
- fol. 43.
- Parfumes against the plague,
- fol. 3
- Pilles, to keepe one sollible,
- fol, 9.
- Pilles, to purge the body,
- fol: 9.
- Plague what it is,
- fol. 1.
- Plague, cause thereof,
- fol. 1.
- Plague, forewarnings thereof,
- fol. 2.
- Plague, how to preuent it,
- fol. 2▪
- Plague, how to cure it,
- fol. 16.
- Plague, how to expell it,
- fol. 18. vnto. 21.
- Pomanders, against the plague,
- fol. 6.
- Potion, to purge the body,
- fol. 10.
- Potion, to expell the plague,
- fol. 20.
- Preseruatiue, against the plague,
- fol. 4.
- Pouder, to purge the body,
- fol. 10.
- Pouders, to expell the plague,
- fol. 18.19
- Pockes, and measels, whereof they proceede,
- fol. 38:
- Pockes, and measels how to cure them,
- fol. 40:
- Pockes, why they are infectious,
- fol. 39.
- Pockes, how to maturate them,
- fol. 44.
- Pockes, or measels, that are slowe in comming forth to helpe it,
- fol. 42.
- Pocks and measels, how to vse them when they are come forth,
- fol. 43.
- Pockes vlcerated how to cure it,
- fol. 44.
- Purgation for a strong body:
- fol. 24
- Page [unnumbered]Purgation for a plethoricke body,
- fol. 24.
- Purgation for a weake body,
- fol. 25.
- Purging, when it is tollerable,
- fol. 24
- Quilte, against the plague,
- fol. 5.
- Quilte, for the harte after sweate,
- fol. 22.
- Rauing and raging, to helpe it,
- fol. 26.
- Raysins laxatiue how to make them,
- fol. 8:
- Signs to know whē one is infected with the plague,
- f, 15
- Signes of recouerie in the plague,
- fol. 15
- Signes of death in the plague,
- fol. 15.
- Signes to know whē one is infected wt the smal pox,
- f. 39.
- Signes laudable, and ill signes in the small pockes,
- f. 39.
- Scabes which chance to come after the pockes are gone to helpe them,
- fol. 48.
- Sleepe when it is tollerable,
- fol. 23.
- Sleepe, an oyntment to prouoke it,
- fol. 26.
- Sounding how to helpe it,
- fol. 23.
- Suppository, how to make it,
- fol. 8.
- Thirst, a Iulep to quench it,
- fol. 23.24.43.
- Throte botch therein, to helpe it,
- fol. 17,
- Throte how to preserue it from the pockes,
- fol, 41.
- Throte vlceration therein to helpe it,
- fol. 45.
- Ventoses, when and where to applie them,
- fol. 18.
- Vessicatorie, how to make it,
- fol. 32.
- Vesicatorie of the sicke,
- fol. 14.
- Vnguent, defensatiue against the plague
- fol. 21.
- Vlceration of the small pockes, to helpe it,
- fol. 44.
- Vnguent, for spots, and rednes of the face,
- fol. 47.
- Vomiting extreamely, to helpe it,
- fol. 28.
- Water, good against the plague,
- fol. 20
- Water, for spots and rednes of the face, after the small pockes are gone,
- fol. 46.
- Yexing, or yoxe, how to helpe it,
- fol. 28,