An Instruction to set all Musicke in Tablature for the Lute. The Preface of the Author.
TO begin by that is first necessaryly to be vnderstood, albeit I haue sufficiētly treated of it in another booke ioy¦ned to this, which containeth an easie instruction to the plaine Tabletur of the Lute, and the ordering of the hand theruppon, the Reader must vnderstand that the fiue lynes represent the fiue stringes of the Instru∣ment, and the space last belowe the sixt or great basse.
Mine entent is now to teach them that are desirous to playe on the Lute, how they maye without great knowledge of Musicke set vppon that instrument all Ballets or songes, which they shall thinke good, so as they can onely sing, vt, re, my, fa, sol, la, & know the valuation or time of notes, without that that it shalbe néedefull for them any farther to wade for the knowledge of any composition or concordes, that is to say, that it shall suffise them to knowe that this note 〈♫〉 called a sembrief, in the measure of two signified by this figure 〈♫〉 differring from the measure of thrée com∣monly called Triplée, is in valew two minims 〈♫〉 and two minims are asmuch as foure Cratchets, 〈♫〉 foure Crat∣chets asmuch as eight quauers, 〈♫〉 eight quauers asmuch as sixtéene semiquauers. 〈♫〉 There resteth no more to con¦sider but the little marke which is called a pricke, which alwayes is halfe asmuch in value as the note going before. As touching Triplée ye must vnderstand the like correspondence for the value of the notes therof.
To enter then into the ground of this present Art: all our Musicke consisteth in eight tunes although Glarian and some o∣ther would deuide them into a greater number, as farre as twelue. The first whereof as consequently of all the rest we will treate of by rules and examples.
The first Chapter of the first Tune of Musicke.
FOR the first tune we wil take for exāple the song of Orland de Lassus beginning Quand mon mary viēt de dehors, in which we must firstly set the treble: the first note wherof being in gsolreut must be set on the second string of the Lute open, that is to lay, so as the finger of the left hand do not toutch vpon that string: although we sée in other tunes that the treble opē serueth for Gsolreut, and sometime for Ffaut, as in the sixt tune. True it is that such as be cunning in this Art, do dispose of them diuersly at their pleasure: but it is not to them that I direct my present worke. Now of these eight tunes there is made a difference of foure called the Master or principall tunes, that is to say, the first, the third, the fift, the seuenth, and of foure called their sequels or seruants, which be the second, the fourth, the sixt & the eight. Of these eight the first & second end in re, the third and fourth in my, the fift and sixt in fa, the seuenth and eight in sol: notwithstanding that there may be a changing or trasposition, as in the first and second tune from Re of Gsolreut, and from Re of Dlasolre, and so in the other of diuers My, Fa, sol. To retorne then to the discourse of the first tune, we haue to giue a reason wherfore we haue before ordered, that the second string of the Lute open Page [unnumbered] shal serue for Gsolreut, which is because this first tune hath his retche or compasse a fourth or foure notes higher then the second▪ as contrariwise the secōd hath his retch or cōpasse a fourth lower. So is it of the other six tunes, that euery Mastertune hath alwaies his retch or compasse higher by a fourth and the sequeles or seruaunt tunes, the base likewise contrary. Now must bée vnderstood the cause why herebefore we haue layed for foundation, that in setting songs to the Lute, we procéede by sembreues, Which is by occasiō of ye nature & dispositiō of this instrument, as it is likewise in that of y• Uirginalles, but cōtrary in Orgās. For in Orgās, the tune may hold a Maxim being as long as eight sembreues, yea and longer by meanes of the wind continu•• by the bellowes. But in the other two instruments their sound, which dependeth altogither by the toutch of the fingers, can∣not endure longer then a sembreue: if the string on the one, or the key on the other, be not touched againe by the hand: which is the reason in consequence, that forceth vs when we set in Tablature, to deuide Maxims alwayes in eight partes, Longes in foure, Breues in two, and so forth of other great notes which are augmented with pricks. Herein lieth the reason for the Eti∣mologie of the woord.
To omit nothing of the whole instruction of the Tablature of the Lute, I haue diuised this foundaciō to be thereunto neces∣sary: that is to saye, the māner of musick to set a song by setting forth the retch or compasse of all the notes in euery one of the foure partes, by examples of the first Tune in ye song Qand mon mary vient de dehors, where I haue set forth all the notes as far as they did retch in the whole making of that song. In the which I haue to aduertise you, that there is first to be seen, the letters of the tablature, aunswerable to the note of the song, and the vnissons which maye chaūce vppon ye strings of the Lute.
Also the reader shall find in the example of the Base, that in the first note we were dryuē to haue recours to the eight aboue, as yt appereth in the Retche or compas: which must serue herafter for a generall rule in all other songs here giuen for exam∣ples: that is to wete, aswell for refuge to the said eights, as to the compasse of the note. Which I wold to be vnderstood for all songs of the first Tune, which ar to be set on the Lute: in which it cannot be often found that they excede this compasse aboue one note higher or lower. And so shall it be presupposed of the other Tunes following, and likewyse of the compasse of them. Here I will not forgette to tell that the learner of this Arte, may not faile after he hath set out his Treble in Tablature to tel diligently all the measures of the same, for feare of this Inconuenience, which chaunceth oftentymes, yea to the most expert for Lacke of this diligence, to goo ouer and beginne againe the woorke nowe already half doon, for that there maye happen to muche or to littell: so as if the foundacion be not good, all that is Laied vpon must nedes goo to ruyne.
The Reach or compasse of the song, Quand mon mary.
〈♫〉The compasse of Base. Of the Tenoor. 〈♫〉Base. Tenor. 〈♫〉Of the Countertenor. Of the Treble. 〈♫〉Countertenor. Treble.Page 5
Quand mon mary.
Page [unnumbered]TO beginne the example to set, first you must knowe, that this marke 〈♫〉 like vnto a C, with a strike tho∣rowe, signifieth the measure to be by the nomber of twoo, whiche hauyng no strike, betokeneth double mea∣sure, whiche the Italians call the blacke note: because that in that kinde of song, there are vsed many quauers yea, and sem•e quauers, whiche hapen verie seldome in the measure of twoo, as the Battaile, Caquet des fem∣mes, chant des oyseaux, and suche other songes of Clement Ianequin. Now as touchyng the first drafte of this example, you see there the first note, a, to be in value a Minim, the seconde .d, in value a cratchet with the other next followyng, whiche is of the same value the former is, although it be not marked vpon: in whiche matter you shall knowe that this marke 〈♫〉 is in value 〈♫〉 this 〈♫〉 in value 〈♫〉 this 〈♫〉 in value 〈♫〉 this 〈♫〉 in value 〈♫〉 and this last 〈♫〉 in value 〈♫〉. As for the prickes where soeuer thei chaunce, thei encrease the value of the note nexte before, by the one halfe, as it hath been shewed here before in the notes of Musick. As to the firste measure of the song of Orlande, we muste make the distaunce large enough (as it is to be obserued in all the reste) because there maie chaunce many Cratchettes or Quauers, in some other partes of the song, besides those of the treble: whiche as you se we doe here place first. For this cause the twoo distan∣ces, the fifte and the sixte bee seen voide, because of the restes of the treble there. Also in the seuenth distaunce, you see the firste marke to bee in value a Minim, whiche hauyng no letter vnderneth, signifieth there a Minim reste. The twoo strikes marked with prickes after the fiftenth distaunce, doe signifie that you muste repeate the line endyng there. In the distaunce nexte after the same strikes, after the reste, there is marked but the halfe of the value of the sembrieue standyng betwene bothe, whiche is notwithstandyng, marked whole in the song or Musick: because that the string beyng stricken once, doeth holde the sounde of the sembrieue: as it happeneth also sometyme of a Minim standyng so betwene bothe. You must also marke, that at the repetition shewed before, you must beginne at the seconde distaunce, noted with the marke to begin againe 〈♫〉▪ and not at the first distaunce whiche must be likewise at all tymes hereafter obserued, when so euer ye shall see that marke. Note also that the double strike, nexte the strike of repetition, doeth signifie that, that whiche is enclosed betwene them, must be left out in the plaiyng forthe of the song, after the repetition of the first parte of thesame.
AFter the marke of repetition, in the twelfth and eightenth distaunce, there be twoo markes 〈♫〉, without any let∣ter vnderneth in Tablature, whiche signifieth so many halfe restes, 〈♫〉, in the Musick. In the laste di∣staunce beyng the ende of the treble, is the letter, a, alone, whiche tarieth for the ende of the other partes: repeatyng the laste woordes of the song. And this same self letter, a, shall continue still to sustaine, and accompanie the other partes to the ende, as long as thei shall holde out. In whiche must be noted and obserued that in settyng, the ende of any song muste neuer be closed, till all the partes bee ioyned together: for so muche as sometyme the treble holdeth the note, and sometyme some other of the partes.
Page 6NOw it is conueniente for vs to declare the orderyng of the necke of the Lute, to wete, the vt, re, my, fa, sol, la, vpon the strynges, and of the tunes vpon the stops. There bee ordinarily eight stops in nomber: whereof euery one containeth but halfe a tune or note: and any stryng open hath his firste tune or note whole, so euery other note doeth take twoo stops: beyng none other difference, but of halfe a note from one stoppe to an other nexte, whiche is a thyng necessarie to bee vnderstoode for this presente woorke, to sette in Tablature. Also that from the greate Base, beyng open to the second• Base, called the firste stryng, are fower notes, from the firste stryng to the fowerth, are fower notes, from the fowerth to the thirde, three notes, from the thirde to the seconde, fower notes, and from that to the Treble, are also fower notes.
NOw as touchyng whole notes, and halfe notes, whereof we beganne to speake, it is to bee noted, that the chaunge, 〈♫〉 commonly called b. sharpe or square, altogether differryng from b. flatte, in that b. sharpe doeth holde vp the •une halfe a note higher, and b. flatte, contrarywise doeth lette it fall halfe a note lower, whiche chaunge is necessarie to bee knowen in euery descente of Musicke (this must be vnderstoode of the Treble) albeit thei doe not vse to marke them, in many sortes of songe, sauyng in this aswell in the Treble, as in the other partes. Whiche descente must be vnderstoode, to be like vnto the Treble, in what tune so euer it bee founde. And if the learner of this arte should not well vnderstande, that the chaunge into b. sharpe in the descente, doeth fall vpon the laste note saue one, he shall knowe it euidently by the marke, whiche I will not forget to set throughout all myne exāples. But he must also knowe, that the chaunge into b. sharpe, maie chaunce in any ther place, then vpon descentes. Also there resteth to consider, that in the vt, re, my, fa, sol, la, my towardes fa, doeth beare but half a note, nor fa, towardes my, that is to saie, aswell in goyng vpwarde, as commyng dounwarde, but bothe these in all other respec∣tes, and also all other notes doe beare a whole note. Also euery note taketh twoo stops vpon the necke of the Lute, and the halfe note one stoppe onely: but .A. hath been put and sette forthe for a marke, betokenyng a whole note vpon euery stryng opon, then B. in the first stoppe in the toppe of the necke, a halfe note .C. an other halfe note in the seconde stoppe .D. in the thirde .E. in the fo∣werth .F. in the fifte .G. in the sixte .H. in the seuenth .I. in the eight: whiche bee the nomber of the stoppes, moste accustomed vpon the necke of this instrumente, notwithstandyng, that thei doe not lette to goe further towarde the knotte vpon the bealie of the Lute, by the guidyng and iudgement of the eare.
HAuyng vnderstoode the maner how to sette the Treble in Tablature, we must now in proceadyng, se to the other partes, beginnyng at the high Tenour, called in Latine Contratenor▪ whiche is nexte to the highest, or Treble: whereof here fol∣loweth the example.
¶The ioynyng of the Treble with the Countertenour.
Page [unnumbered]VPon this beginnyng of ioynyng the Treble with the Countertenour in Tablature, is to bee noted the excellen∣cie of the Lute aboue the Uirginalles, in the first accorde of this songe, in that the .F. there dooeth furnishe the v∣nisson, fillyng so muche the more the Harmonie. In whiche accorde, and the nexte followyng, because the Treble occupieth the place of the Countertenour: we were forced to set the .F. vpon the thirde stryng, where the vnisson of the .A. of the seconde stryng is. You must marke that in the eight distaunce in the Treble parte, as it was first set out alone, there were marked twoo Minims: but in this seconde example, wherein is added the Counterte∣nour, we haue been driuen to chaunge those twoo Minims into fower Cratchettes, because of the aunsweryng of the pricke, and the three Cratchettes, whiche meete there in the Countertenour: and yet neuerthelesse, the twoo Minims kepe their part still in the instrument. And in the thirtene distaunce, ye maie see twoo Minims first together, that is to saie, bothe of the Treble and Countertenour, but the seconde Minim of the Treble, whiche was in the first example single, in this (whiche is as it were a se∣conde or double example) is necessarily conuerted into a Cratchet, because of the pricke, and the Cratchet of the Countertenour. Here muste bee noted, that where soeuer there chaunceth a pricke, it shalbe alwaies beste for the easinesse of the Tablature, to tourne that pricke into the figure of the note of his Tune or value, to aunswere to the other notes, of the partes commyng toge∣ther: as is to be perceiued that I haue vsed in all this booke. Likewise in the laste note .A. of the Treble (whiche is in this exam∣ple double of twoo partes) marked in the twoo distaunces, the laste saue one, and the last, because) as it hath been tolde alreadie) of holdyng the ende, the Semibreue is of necessitie tourned into Cratchettes.
Examples of three partes.
Page 10TO treate now in this example of the Tenour, as of the thirde parte, we must first tell you, that where you see but twoo partes in the Tablature, that betokeneth so many restes in the Musick of the Tenour: whiche beginneth to fill with the rest in the fowerth distaunce, where you see, that besides the sembrieues of the Treble, and Counter∣tenour, you must set a Minim, and twoo Cratchettes, because of the Tenour, that is to saie, in the figure of settyng in Tablature although that in the truthe of plaiyng, by the touchyng of the finger, the Sembrieue remain alwaies whole, bothe here and in all other like places, as it hath been before declared in the partes, as thei were sette out seuerally: and note that the twoo distaunces, fifte and sixte, whiche were before voide, are here filled by the commyng in of the Tenour: as the nexte space followyng, is perceiued to bee filled with a Minim by the Tenour, although in effecte vpon the Lute, he holdeth the tyme of a whole Sembrieue, Here, nor at any tyme hereafter in plaiyng, is to be forgotten the skip, or leauyng out, whiche must alwaies be made of the notes betwene the twoo barres, and the place of repetition.
The ioynyng of fower partes together.
Page [unnumbered]IN these fower partes of Musick now ioyned together in Tablature, this is to bée considered vpon the fowerth di∣staunce, where the Base doeth begin to come into the other partes, that although wee see there but three letters, whiche can represent to the sight but three partes, yet in effecte the• bee taken for fower partes: for so muche as the first note of the Base beginnyng, is in an vnisson with the Tenour. True it is, that there might be an .H. put on the greate Base, or laste stryng (whiche maketh an v•isson with the presente .C. but it is let passe in this, and all other like places, to make the plaie more easie, and to auoide muche strain•ng of the hande.
¶The former song finely handeled.
¶Of the transposition of the first Tune.
THere resteth for the clere endyng of this first Tune, to beate a woorde or twoo of the transposition of this first Tune, whiche shall serue for a generall rule to all other Tunes followyng: that is to saie, alwaies from .b. sharpe, to .b. flatt. The first in distaunce of a fowerth, the seconde of a fifte. The thirde of a fowerth. The fowerth of a fowerth. The fifte a fowerth. The sixte of a fifte. The seuenth of a fifte. The eight of a fowerth.
TO make this woorke in all poinctes parfite, and to shewe you (as a man might saie) not onely the plaine and rude Gram∣me•, but also further somewhat like to the eloquence of Rhetorike, I haue thought good in this place of the first Tune •to croune as i• were the worke withall) to adde an example of the same song, adorned with runnyng poinctes and passages, as wee will likewise doe in the example of euery song, giuen for example: to the intente the scholer maie learne to decke other songes or daunses, with like flowers and ornamentes: in whiche he shalbee forced sometyme, for the better grace and pleasyng of •he eare, to leaue out some one note of the accorde, of some one of the partes: not so muche for all that for necessitie, as for the pleasauntnesse of the sounde: yea, and that with fall recompence of the lacke of the note, whiche shalbee omitted, by the puttyng to of a runnyng poinct or passage, wherein lieth all the cunnyng.
¶The •eche or compasse of this present song of the first tune, transposed or altered.
〈♫〉The compasse of the Base. Of The Tenour. 〈♫〉Base. Tenour. 〈♫〉Of the Countertenour. Of the Treble. 〈♫〉Countertenour. Treble.Page [unnumbered]
¶Transposition or alteration of the first Tune.
Si le bien qui au plus grand bien. 〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉Page 15〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉
Page [unnumbered]IN this example of Trasposition, we must consider once for all, that although the ende of this song of Aacadet (of whiche alwaies the iudgemente is made) doeth fall and ende in Dlasolre, it is neuerthelesse, taken for like to the former example of Orlande, whiche endeth in Gsolreut. Also we make no difference of Tune▪ but make hym ende vpopn the Lute, on the same seconde stryng open. There remaineth to prescribe, or obserue in settyng, that as ofte as there is one, twoo, or mo restes in any song, as in the firste distaunce of the Treble of this present, that you beginne alwaies to set in Tablature, the marke of the Semibreue, because it shall bee easie for you, if there happen any shorter measure in any of the other partes, to conuert that marke of Semibreue, into a Minim, Cratchet, or Quauer.
¶The ioynyng of twoo partes together: Treble, and Countertenour.
Page 17IT is nedefull to take hede to the fowerth distaunce of this example, of twoo partes: that is to saie, of the Treble with the Countertenour: that naturally the .F. whiche you see there, was an .A. in Semibreue (as it is to bee see. • in the former example of the single Treble) whiche it behoueth vs to chaunge, by reason of the Countertenour cō∣myng to that place, whiche mounteth a thirde higher then the Treble, in the last halfe of the Semibreue: albeit the A. might haue remained for this first half, but so had the other halfe loste his Tune. For this cause it was necessa∣rie, to go doune from the seconde stryng, to the thirde, tournyng the .A. into .F. (whiche is his vnisson vpon the Lute) whiche shal maintaine the sounde of the Semibreue whole: a thyng necessarie to be obserued in all other like haps, that as ofte as the proper and naturall place of the one parte, shalbe occupied by an other, you must of necessitie haue recourse to an other stryng, that ma∣keth the vnission with that, for the vnderstandyng of whiche vnissons throughly, wee will here vnderneth by waie of example, giue you a generall collection of all the vnisson, whiche maie be founde on the necke, or beallie of the Lute.
¶A generalitie of vnissons.
Page 19IN this example of three par•e•, wee will 〈…〉 particulerly all the distaunces, in whiche the partes meete 〈…〉 an other, with 〈…〉 of the notes: as the Treble beyng a Semibreue, the Coun∣tertenour 〈…〉 Cratchettes and Qa•ers: In whiche we haue to prescribe 〈◊〉 a generall rule, that as ofte as that happen•th, the notes of eche parte, one after the other, whiche were sette 〈◊〉 in their naturall order (as you haue been 〈…〉 before) muste bee chaunged and conuerted in all fower pa•tes se•e•ally: somtyme it chaunseth, that the Countertenour hath a Semibreue, where the Treble againste hym hath Mi∣nims, and so likewise of the other twoo partes, whiche maie happen in all diuersities of value.
¶The ioynyng of fower partes together.Page [unnumbered]
¶More finely handled.
¶The seconde Chapiter of the seconde Tune.
THis seconde Tune, whiche is called folower, or seruaunt to the first maister Tune, because he hath his reche or compasse a fo∣werth lower, therefore it behoued vs to set hym so muche the higher, that is to saie, in the Treble open which shall serue for Gsolreut, where it was in the seconde stryng open in the first Tune. In this example of the Treble, I haue to aduertise you vpō the fowerth distaunce, in which ye se a marke of the value of a Minim, without any other letter in the Tablature vnder it, that thesame procedeth because of the pricke, whiche is in the Musick ioyned to a Semibreue of the third distauce: and that folowyng a rule, which we haue giuen you before, that the Lute strikē out once, could not hold the sound aboue the time of one semibreue: whiche must bee vnderstoode for the perfection of the more greater harmonie: albeit that the sounde of the stryng, might partly endure the value of a pricke added, or of the half more, but the sound towards the ende is alwaies naturally of lesse force, as the seconde sounde of an Echo in his doublyng. So maie the pricke of the Semibreue (as it shall like hym that setteth, be left out frō beyng marked with any letter in Tablature, or els be marked by the discretion, and iudgement of the eare. For it is certain that the sounde is more strong, and of longer tariyng, accordyng to the goodnes of the Lute.
¶The rethe or compasse of the song of Orland, le l'ayme bien.
IN this example of the Countertenour ioyned to the Treble, in the firste distaunce, there is an .F. twise vpon the seconde stryng, whiche had their naturall place in the Treble, where a learner smally exercised mighte haue placed them. But because the .H. whiche must be in the place of .C. of the Treble, the placyng of the twoo .FF. did come to better purpose, for the art and grace of the plaiyng. Also because these twoo, A.A. had doen wrong to occupie the place & tune of the .F. of the Treble whiche is in value a Minim and a pricke, whiche must bee obserued generally in euery like hap, vpon what stryng so euer it bee: whiche thyng often vse in settyng diuerse songes, will teache sufficiently.
¶The ioynyng together of twoo partes, Treble, and Countertenour.
Page 25HEre where three partes are ioyned together, we haue to declare that in the fowerth distaunce, in settyng after thē common sorte, there is .B. and .D. on the seconde and thirde strynges, in the first Minim, whiche if it should stand •o would bryng an inconuenience in the pricke .B whose sounde would be loste, in goyng to the nexte stoppe. To pre∣uent whiche, we will amende them otherwise, in the example of fower partes together hereafter, tournyng the .B. here into .G. vpon the thirde stryng (whiche is his vnisson) likewise the .D. into .H. vpon the fowerth stryng▪ which beyng so brought to perfection▪ shal be in that order also more easie for the hande: besides the necessitie it hath by reason of the stop of the next distaunce, of whiche also the twoo .D.D▪ of the thirde stryng be to be chaunged into as many .H.H. vpon the fowerth stryng. These be thynges that happen ofte, so as to declare euery one, it were almoste infinite, if the iudgement of the learner of this arte, should not supplie it by reason, aswell hauyng regarde to the grace in plaiyng, as the ease and commoditie of the hande. So I omitte in this example to goe ouer againe many distaunces of like sorte, reseruyng the correction, for the nexte example▪ where fower partes are ioyned together.
The ioynyng of thrée partes together, Treble, Countertenour and Tenour.
Page [unnumbered]IN this present song of Orlande of the seconde Tune, beginnyng, Ie l'aame bien, whiche you maie see here of fower partes set in Tablature, all the distaunces whiche I had lefte in the former example of three partes, onely in their naturall and grosse order, here I will deliuer them vnto you, brought into a more artificiall sorte: so that you doe vnderstande, that the firste maner is alwaies necessarie to beginne to set in Tabloture, because in settyng (as we haue shewed you in all the former examples) one parte after the other, we doe not see at the firste, the beste forme euery stop is to be brought into. We knowe well that thesame might bee practised in an other sorte, that is to saie, to set first the Musicke in measures, assemblyng all the partes together one ouer the other, whereby there could bee none occasion to race out, but then ye must after doe as muche to bryng thesame into Tablature for the instrumente, whiche would bee twoo labours for one, because that in our fashion, we shall assone haue set it in Tablature, as in the other ye shall onely haue doen the Musicke.
¶The ioynyng of fower partes together.
¶Of the transposition, or alteration of the seconde Tune.
IN this song of Orlande of the seconde Tune transposed, beginnyng vn deux Nennin, I haue to aduertise the reader, that he dooe not trouble hymself, for that he seeth not the laste note to fall in Dlasol vpon the Treble open, as it hath been pre∣scribed here before, because it is so, by reason of the drafte of the laste ende, procedyng of the pleasure of the maister Musi∣cian, beyng disposed as it were, to passe a carriere: although those that bee experte, doe knowe euidently this Tune, by the conti∣nuaunce of his other descentes.
¶The compasse of this song followyng, of the seconde Tune transposed.
〈♫〉The compasse of the Base. Of The Tenour. 〈♫〉Base. Tenour. 〈♫〉Of the Countertenour. Of the Treble. 〈♫〉Countertenour. Treble. Page 30〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉Page [unnumbered]〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉
Page 31HEre the scholer must be aduertised, that in this transposition, there is no difference, as touchyng the letters of the Tabla∣ture, but onely in the notes, for the firste note of this song, whiche beginneth in Alamire is taken for D lasolre in this pre∣sent song. whiche is a fifte higher as touchyng the note, but as concernyng the Tablature, he doeth not chaunge his place.
¶The ioynyng of the Countertenour with the Treble.
¶The ioynyng together of three partes, Treble, Countertenour, and Tenonur.
IN the presente song giuen for example of Transposition of the seconde Tune, in the .F. whiche is the seconde Minim of the twenteth distaunce, we haue to consider the loste Tune of the eight, of the .F. belowe, whiche happeneth often in our plaine ordinarie Lutes, whiche be but of eleuen strynges, and might easely bee remedied by settyng the song one note or twoo higher, but it would be harder for the hande, and the grace of the plaie would bee woorsser. Truthe it is, that it were possi∣ble to supplie that lacke vppon our plaine Lutes, by settyng the base a note lower, but that would make the plaie a greate deale harder, because it would cause a chaunge of all the letters of the greate Base. The Lutes of the newe inuention with thirtene strynges, bee not subiecte to this inconuenience, whereof the laste is put be lowe: whiche accordyng to the maner now adaies, is thereby augmented a whole fowerth: where here before it was vsed onely to supplie the lacke of this one note, whereof wee speake now. I will not here forget to tell you, that cunnyng Maisters (to giue remedie to this defecte) heighten their plaie vpon the Tablature, as many notes as thei thinke good. Here resteth yet to consider vpon that we haue spoken of before, concerning the pricke, how it is to bee kepte with his note: notwithstandyng in the .83. distaunce of this example, we bee constrained to lose hym, by reason of the Tunes, whiche mingle and passe one emong an other: whiche also maie bee founde in some other distaun∣ces followyng.
The ioynyng of iiij. partes together.
¶The thirde Chapiter, of the third Tune.
THis thirde Tune is one of the fower maister Tunes, whiche endeth in my, as the fowerth also his seruaunte or fo∣lower doeth, of the transposition of whiche Tune, I will giue you none example, beyng therein no newe difficul∣tie to declare, besides that I haue saied before. Also because these twoo Tunes, bee lesse vsed then the other, ser∣uyng onely for Melancholie and doolefull matters. Seyng this song to ende in A. of the seconde stryng, a manne might take it to be his proper and naturall Tune, although there doe happen a chaunge into B. sharpe, for a grace (whiche is a thirde higher) but yet it is to be knowen by the other partes, commyng together in the naturall fallyng of the third Tune, whiche neuerthelesse endeth vpon the same stryng: by this that in the firste, the A. vpon the seconde maketh re, and in the thirde serueth for my, It is true that in this example I haue set the Tablature one note lower then ordinarie, for the ease of the hande, hauyng also regarde, that the Musick was kepte altogether as it ought, whiche is a thyng muche to bee considered in set∣tyng, if it maie bee doen, that there be nothyng drouned of any of the partes.
¶The compasse of the song followyng of the third Tune.
〈♫〉The compasse of the Base. Of The Tenour. 〈♫〉Base. Tenour. 〈♫〉Of the Countertenour. Of the Treble. 〈♫〉Countertenour. Treble.
HEre let not the reader thinke it straunge, to see all fower partes at the first shewe put together, to auoide the debatyng of a thyng alreadie spoken and doen, as I will alwaies doe from henceforthe, not omittyng for all that to explaine hard poin∣tes, whiche shall chaunce in any of the Tunes followyng, where peraduenture we shalbe constrained to goe ouer some of them againe, if it be nedefull, either in the transposition of the Tune, or in any other accidente.
〈♫〉〈♫〉ENespoirvy. 〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉Page 39〈♫〉〈♫〉
¶More finelier handeled.
¶The fowerth Chapiter. Of the fowerth Tune.
IN this fowerth Tune, of the whiche I giue you for example, the song of Orlande, beginnyng Du corps absent, a manne •ight thinke it straunge that this Tune, whiche followyng the order of the rest, ought as a follower or seruaunte to bee sette •ower notes higher then the thirde Tune, his maister before, but we be constrained to sette hym onely but one note higher, by reason that this present song, doth goe but one note lower then his maister: together with that it agreeth better with the naturall Tune of the Lute, whiche in this sorte is handeled with more ease and perfection.
¶The compasse of the fower partes of this song followyng.
Page [unnumbered]〈♫〉The compasse of the Base. Of The Tenour. 〈♫〉Base. Tenour. 〈♫〉Of the Countertenour. Of the Treble. 〈♫〉Countertenour. Treble.
IN the 23. distaunce of this song, Du corps absent, we haue to shewe the reader, that in place of an .F. in the laste Minim of that measure, in the seconde example of thesame song, garnished with runnyng poinctes, ye shall finde thesame .F. chaun∣ged into .D. with a double passage, kepyng the fall, whiche was corrupted in .F. neuerthelesse the Tune self of thesame .F is founde in thesame compainie, and eight of the greate fift stryng: whiche reason could not be in Lutes, tuned after the maner of Fabrice Dentice the Italian, and of other his followers. Where those strynges that stande twoo and twoo together, bee sette in one Tune, and not by eightes, whiche thei doe for a perfectiō of harmonie, in auoydyng many vnissons, whiche those eight would cause. In the .27. distaunce likewise it will be to be considered, that the letters whiche be set, accordyng to their naturall order v∣pon the laste Minim (makyng the accorde of Musicke) doe bryng a hardnes of plaie, beyonde the power of the hande, in the grea∣ter sorte of Lutes, although vpon lesse instrumentes, or to a verie greate hande well exercised, it might be possible. For this cause our scholer, whiche will not contente hymself of this plaine and naked Tablature, maie haue recourse to thesame distaunce in the Tablature followyng, where he shall finde thesame accordin his perfection, notwithstandyng the chaungyng of letters.
¶The fifte Chapiter of the fifte Tune.
IN this example of the song of Orlande of the fifte Tune, beginnyng, Trop endurer, wee muste declare, that the plaie is muche constrained, and the hande forced, and the notes of the same all contrary to ordinarie, because that the .C. whche for the moste parte in other Tunes serueth for my, here serueth for sol, and so consequently of the other letters. For this cause I haue put an other song after this of the same Tune, a note lower, to shewe the easines of the one, in respecte of the other. Notwithstandyng, the constrainte is so muche the more perfite, because of the losse of some note in the Base of the other. It re∣maineth to shewe here, that in the 64 distaunce, the pricke of the Minim of the Base is there loste, and it cannot be doen other∣wise, but by the florishyng of them that be cunnyng, as maie be seen in the seconde Tablature of thesame song.
¶The compasse of the fower partes of the song followyng, of the fifte Tune.
〈♫〉Base. Tenour. 〈♫〉Base. Tenour. 〈♫〉Countertenour. Treble. 〈♫〉Countertenour. Treble.
IN the example, whiche we giue for the more easie of the fifte Tune, in the song of Orlande beginnyng Vray dieu disoi•▪ in the 34, distaunce, there is a place in the Tenour followyng the Musicke, in the whiche there is founde a greate diffi∣cultie, and strainyng of the hande, so as it cannot bee plaied, without takyng the hande of, whiche causeth the sounde of the other partes to ceasse, whiche is one of the greateste faultes and inconuenience that can happen to the plaier on the Lute, whiche errour the common sorte for the moste parte doe fall into, excepte suche as be excellent doers in this arte, wherefore it is better to make that place all plaine, without takyng of the hande, although it bee marked double in the Musick: because so there is nothyng loste of the perfection, seyng it is not doubled, but for pleasure and ioye of the harte, more then for any occasion of the accorde, or of the harmonie: So shall you finde how to vse this place in the example followyng, more cunnyngly set forthe.
¶The compasse of the fower partes of the song followyng.
〈♫〉Base. Tenour. 〈♫〉Base. Tenour. 〈♫〉Countertenour. Treble. 〈♫〉Countertenour. Treble.
Page 46〈♫〉〈♫〉VRay-dieu disoit.〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉Page [unnumbered]〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉Vray-dieu disoit. More finelier handeled. Page 47〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉Page [unnumbered]〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉
¶The sixt Chapiter of the sixt Tune.
THis sixt Tune, whiche is seruaunt or suffrigan of the firste Tune before, hath his compasse or reche a fowerth lower, then his maister in Musicke, as also all the rest of the folowers haue. Of whiche Tune I giue you here for example, the Song of Orland, beginnyng, En vu lieu ou l'on ne voit goutte, whiche endeth in Ffaut, to the whiche the greate Base of the Lute serueth open, notwithstandyng, that in many of the other Tunes, it ser∣ueth for Gsolreut, and for other also, whereof I will not make you a certaine rule, and speciall determination, because thesame passeth by the discrecion of the maister, who to make hymself sporte in his plaie, or to ioyne with some other Instrumentes, whereof he would make a noise, doeth sette hym high or lowe, without ma∣kyng any scruple for the losyng sometyme of some little note. Wee will not repete here the rule for Tripler, whereof this song is full in many places, that there three muste bee obserued for twoo vnder one measure, because we haue sufficiently declared it in former Chapiters. The scholer maie not thinste it straunge, if while the Treple dure, he findeth but Minims marked in the Tablature in steade of Semibreues. The reason is, for that where there should be so many Breues, thei must be stricken twise, whiche were but a foolishe maner. For we haue alreadie tolde, that a good Lute will holde his sounde, as long as a Semibreue, and his pricke, and the Brief in Triple is no more in valewe, wherefore to make plaine this hardnes, I haue marked the Semi∣breues into Minims, whiche for all that, shall goe no faster nor slower, then if thei were Semibreues, beyng no difference nor perfection, more in the one, then in the other.
¶The compasse of the fower partes of the song followyng, of the sixte Tune.
〈♫〉Base. Tenour. 〈♫〉Base. Tenour. 〈♫〉Countertenour. Treble. 〈♫〉Countertenour. Treble.Page 50
More finelier handled.
¶The seuenth Chapiter of the seuenth Tune.
WE will frame an example in Tablature, for this seuenth maister Tune, vpon the song of Orlande, beginnyng Ie ne veux rien q'un baiser de sa bouche. Whiche to them that should bee ouermuche scrupulous for the losse of certaine notes (whiche notwithstandyng, doe recompense them selues vpon the eightes, as it is to bee seen in the ende of this song) suche would sette it twoo notes higher, to saue those notes: but thei would because of greate difficultie, muche vnpleasauntnesse, and constrainte, so that we thinke it better to leaue it in his na∣turall Tune, then to chaunge it otherwise. Because that this Tune of his ordinarie propertie, is not accusto∣med to extende to those twoo loste notes, so lowe as the Musician would here for the poursuite and excellen∣cie of his pastyme. Now is there in this song present, many thynges worthie to bee noted, in certaine distaunces of thesame, al∣beit that in the example better poolished followyng, there is remedie to bee perceiued for all the difficulties, but the reader could not perceiue them, because the knowledge could not be had but in the setting. The first is in the seuenth space, where the highest C. must holde a whole Semibreue for the Countertenour, if the diuision in the Treble did not take awaie one quauer from him whiche thou shalt finde the meanes to saue vnto hym in the .22. distaunce folowyng. In the .16. distaunce there is a runnyng point whiche is made to obserue the letters with the Musick: whereby bothe the Tenour and the Base bee letted, wherefore it is bet∣ter there to make that pointe all plaine, then so muche to hinder those twoo partes, although it bee not to bee seen so in this di∣staunce (alreadie by me amended there) as it is set out in the Musicke. In the .31▪ distaunce is laste the pricke of the Countertenor in the beginnyng of the measure, where there is place to haue set him, but wee haue tolde before that the pricke is not stricken, wherefore it is better lefte out then stricken againe. In the .65. distaunce, the seconde Minim leeseth half his valure, by reason of a Cratchet in the Treble, and cannot be otherwise doen, for the constraine of the other partes.
¶The compasse of the song, Ie né veux rien.
〈♫〉The compasse of the Base. Of the Tenour. 〈♫〉Base. Tenour. 〈♫〉Of the Countertenour. Of the Treble. 〈♫〉Countertenour. Treble.
Page 52〈♫〉〈♫〉IE ne veux rien.〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉Page [unnumbered]〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉Page 53〈♫〉〈♫〉Ie ne veux rien. More finelier handled. 〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉Page [unnumbered]〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉Page 54〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉Page [unnumbered]〈♫〉〈♫〉
¶The eight Chapiter, of the eight Tune.
OF this eight and last Tune (after the common vse) seruaunt or follower of that before, wée giue you for example the song of Orland beginning, Ce faux amour. whiche taketh his Tune naturall, that is to saie, his Gsolreut in the Treble open, wherin you shall finde no difficultie for the Tablature, whiche hath not been declared in the Chapiters before, and whiche the learner of the Arte hath not sufficiently learned, if he haue practised all the songes and examples of the Tunes before set forthe.
¶The compasse of the fower partes of the song followyng, of the eight Tune.
〈♫〉Base. Tenour. 〈♫〉Base. Tenour. 〈♫〉Countertenour. Treble. 〈♫〉Countertenour. Treble.
¶An accessarie or incident.
WE doe yet further present here vnto you one song, by waie of accessary, whiche is of Orlande, beginnyng Las vou∣lez vous qu'une personne chante. Although it might seme superfluous to put it in Tablature, to them that would in this followe the common opinion, whiche place is vnder the seconde Tune, but to many it semeth otherwise. For so muche as this Tune, of the whiche there bee founde sondrie songes and ballettes, doeth ende in Alamire, without transposition, and beyng transposed in Dlasolre, by b. sharpe. In this example here sette forthe vnto you, there is seen in the 13. distaunce (whiche hath been often seen in some other of the former examples) that is to saie the laste halfe of the Minime of the Base, by reason of the commyng of a certaine passage trauersyng, as it is ordinarily founde in all Musicke. In the .35. distaunce there is founde a like difficultie in that, that of necessitie, the halfe of the laste Minim must be loste of the Treble, or of the Countertenour. But the beste is to leaue out the laste Cratchette of the Countertenour, whiche is cause of this trouble, as you maie see that I haue lefte hym out in the seconde Tablature of thesame song, more cunnyngly sette forthe. In the .82. distaunce is loste the pricke of the first Minim of the Base, but the place of this pricke is voide, whiche I will ac∣co•mpt a fault to strike againe, as ye shall perceiue by the laste handlyng of this presente song, that is to saie, that in place of the accorde on high, wee haue put hym in the eight beneath. For ende and conclusion of this woorke, wee haue none other thyng to holde you with, but that it hath not been by negligence, or not takyng heede, that wee haue not added yet more examples of son∣ges and ballettes of three, fiue, sixe, seuen, and eight partes. But I haue doen it by reason, that who shalbe diligently exercised in the Tablature of fower partes onely: whiche I haue set forthe in this boke, shall not finde any newe difficultie, in that he would sette mo partes: that is to saie, that there is no further thyng to bée considered and obserued, but the rules largely set forthe and desciphered by our Chapiters, as aboue all, the chaunge and alteration of the value of notes of one parte, in the commyng in and ioynyng with the other partes Also that there must bee excused some leauyng out of accordes, sometyme for the necessitie of the bearyng of the instrument, whiche is not for all that, to condempne the Lute alone of imperfection: the Harpe, Uirginals, and o∣ther made of like harmonie, hauyng all nede of like excuse.
¶The compasse of the song, Las voules vous.
〈♫〉The compasse of the Base. Of the Tenour. 〈♫〉Base. Tenour. 〈♫〉Of the Countertenour. Of the Treble. 〈♫〉Countertenour. Treble.
Page 58〈♫〉〈♫〉LAs voulez vous.〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉Page [unnumbered]〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉Page 59〈♫〉〈♫〉Las voules vous,〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉Page [unnumbered]〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉Page 60〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉〈♫〉
¶The nineth Chapiter.
TO put the laste hande to this woorke, I will not omitte to giue you to vnderstande, how to knowe stringes, whereof the best co•e to vs out of Almaigne, on this side the toune of Munit, and from Aquila in Italie: before ye putte them on the Lute, it is nedefull to proue them betwene the handes, in maner as is sette forthe in figures hereafter pictured, whiche shewe manifestly on the finger, and to the eye, the difference from the true with the false: that is to wete, the true is knowen by this that in strikyng hym betwene the fingers, hee muste shewe to diuide hymself iuste in twoo, and that for so muche as shall reche from the bridge belowe, to the toppe of the necke: because it maketh no matter for the reste of the strynges, that goeth emong the pinnes, notwithstandyng ye maie not bee satisfied in assaiyng the strynge, holden onely at that length, but that you must also proue hym mistrikyng hym, beyng holden at shorter lengthes to bee well assured of his certain goodnes and perfectiō. Also the false stryng is knowen by the shewe of many strynges, whiche it representeth, when it is striken betwene the fingers: so muste you continewe thesame triall in strikyng the stryng, till you perceiue the token of the good, to separate hym from the •adde, accordyng to the figures followyng.