A geographical historie of Africa, written in Arabicke and Italian by Iohn Leo a More, borne in Granada, and brought vp in Barbarie. Wherein he hath at large described, not onely the qualities, situations, and true distances of the regions, cities, townes, mountaines, riuers, and other places throughout all the north and principall partes of Africa; but also the descents and families of their kings ... gathered partly out of his owne diligent obseruations, and partly out of the ancient records and chronicles of the Arabians and Mores. Before which, out of the best ancient and moderne writers, is prefixed a generall description of Africa, and also a particular treatise of all the maine lands and isles vndescribed by Iohn Leo. ... Translated and collected by Iohn Pory, lately of Goneuill and Caius College in Cambridge
Leo, Africanus, ca. 1492-ca. 1550., Pory, John, 1572-1636.
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A GEOGRAPHICAL HISTORIE of AFRICA, Written in Arabicke and Italian by IOHN LEO a More, borne in Granada, and brought vp in Barbarie.

Wherein he hath at large described, not onely the qualities, situations, and true distances of the regions, cities, townes, mountaines, riuers, and other places throughout all the north and principall partes of Africa; but also the descents and families of their kings, the causes and euents of their warres, with their manners, customes, religions, and ciuile gouernment, and many other memorable matters: gathered partly out of his owne di∣ligent obseruations, and partly out of the ancient records and Chronicles of the Arabians and Mores.

Before which, out of the best ancient and moderne writers, is prefixed a generall description of Africa, and also a particular treatise of all the maine lands and Isles vndescribed by Iohn Leo.

And after the same is annexed a relation of the great Princes, and the manifold religions in that part of the world.

Translated and collected by IOHN PORY, lately of Goneuill and Caius College in Cambridge.

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LONDINI,

Impensis Georg. Bishop.

1600

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TO THE RIGHT HONORA∣ble sir ROBERT CECIL Knight, principall Secretarie to her Maiestie, Master of the Court of Wardes and Liueries, and one of her Highnes most Honorable priuie Counsell.

LO heere the first fruits, or rather the tender buddes and blossomes of my la∣bours. Which least in this their winterly sprouting they might perhaps by some bitter blasts of censure be frost-nipped, I humbly recommend to your Honora∣ble protection.

Most due they are onely to your selfe, being for the greatest part nothing else, but a large illustration of certaine southern voiages of the English, alreadie dedicated to your Honour. And at this time especially I thought they would prooue the more acceptable: in that the Marocan am∣bassadour (whose Kings dominions are heere most amplie and particularly described) hath so lately treated with your Honour concerning matters of that estate.

Vouchsafe therefore (right Honorable) according to your accustomed humanitie towards learning, to accept of this Geo∣graphicall historie, in like manner as it pleased your Honour not long since most fauourablie to take in good part those com∣mendable indeuours of my reuerend friend M. Richard Hakluyt: who out of his mature iudgement in these studies, knowing the excellencie of this storie aboue all others in the same kinde, was the onely man that mooued me to translate it. At London this three and fortieth most ioifull Coronation-day of her sacred Maiestie. 1600.

Your Honors alwaies most readie to be commanded IOHN PORY.

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To the Reader.

GIue me leaue (gentle Readers) if not to present vn∣to your knowledge, bicause some perhaps may aswel be informed as my selfe; yet, to call to your remem∣brance, some fewe particulars, concerning this Geographicall Historie, and Iohn Leo the au∣ther thereof.

Who albeit by birth a More, and by religion for many yeeres a Mahumetan: yet if you consider his Parentage, Witte, Education, Learning, Emploiments, Trauels, and his conuersion to Christianitie; you shall finde him not altogither vnfit to vndertake such an enterprize; nor vnwoorthy to be regarded.

First therefore his Parentage seemeth not to haue bin ignoble: seeing (as in his second booke himselfe testifieth) an Vncle of his was so Honorable a person, and so excellent an Oratour and Poet; that he was sent as a principall Ambassa∣dour, from the king of Fez, to the king of Tombuto.

And whether this our Author were borne at Granada in Spaine, (as it is most likely) or in some part of Africa; certaine it is, that in naturall sharpenes and 〈◊〉 of Wit, he most liuely resembled those great and classicall authours, Pomponius Mela, Iustinus Historicus, Columella, Seneca, Quintilian, Orosius, Prudentius, Martial, Iuuenal, Auicen, &c. reputed all for Spa∣nish writers; as likewise Terentius After, Tertullian, Saint Augustine, Victor, Optatus, &c. knowen to be writers of Africa. But amongst great varietie which are to be found in the processe of this not able discourse, I will heere lay before your view one onely patterne of his surpassing wit. In his second booke therefore, if you peruse the description of Mount Tenueues, you shall there finde the learned and sweete Arabian verses of Iohn Leo, not being then fully sixteene yeeres of age, so highly esteemed by the Prince of the same moun∣taine, that in recompence thereof, after bountifull entertainment, he dismissed him with gifts of great value.

Neither wanted he the best Education that all Barbarie could affoord. For being euen from his tender yeeres trained vp at the Vniuersitie of Fez, in Gram∣mar, Poetrie, Rhetorick, Philosophie, Historie, Cabala, Astronomie, and other ingenuous sciences, and hauing so great acquaintance and conuersation in the kings court: how could he choose but prooue in his kinde a most accomplished and absolute man? So as I may iustly say (if the comparison be tolerable) that as Moses was learned in all the wisedome of the Egyptians; so likewise was Leo, in that of the Arabians and Mores.

And that he was not meanely, but extraordinarily learned; let me keepe silence, that the admirable fruits of his rare Learning, and this Geographicall Historie among the rest may beare record. Besides which, he wrote an Arabian Page  [unnumbered] Grammar, highly commended by a great Linguist of Italie, who had the sight and examination thereof; as likewise a booke of the liues of the Arabian Phi∣losophers; and a discourse of the religion of Mahumet; with diuers excellent Poems, and other monuments of his industrie, which are not come to light.

Now as concerning his Emploiments, were they not such as might well be∣seeme a man of good woorth? For (to omit how many courts and campes of prin∣ces he had frequented) did not he, as himselfe in his third booke witnesseth, per∣sonally serue king Mahumet of Fez in his wars against Arzilla? And was he not at another time, as appeereth out of his second Booke, in seruice and honora∣ble place vnder the same king of Fez, and sent ambassadour by him to the king of Maroco? Yea, how often in regard of his singular knowledge and iudgement in the lawes of those countries, was he appointed, and sometimes constrained at diuers strange cities and townes through which he trauelled, to become a iudge and arbiter in matters of greatest moment?

Moreouer as touching his exceeding great Trauels, had he not at the first beene a More and a Mahumetan in religion, and most skilfull in the languages and customes of the Arabians and Africans, and for the most part trauel∣led in Carouans, or vnder the authoritie, safe conduct, and commendation of great princes: I maruell much how euer he should haue escaped so manie thou∣sands of imminent dangers. And (all the former notwithstanding) I maruel much more how euer he escaped them. For how many desolate cold mountaines, and huge drie, and barren deserts passed he? How often was he in hazard to haue beene captiued, or to 〈◊〉 had his throte cut by the prouling Arabians, and wilde Mores? And how hardly manie times escaped he the Lyons greedie mouth, and the deuouring iawes of the Crocodile? But if you will needes haue a briefe iournall of his trauels: you may see in the end of his eight booke, what he writeth for himselfe. Wherefore (saith he) if it shall please God to vouchsafe me longer life, I purpose to describe all the regions of Asia which I haue tra∣uelled: to wit, Arabia Deserta, Arabia Petrea, Arabia Felix, the Asian part of Egypt, Armenia, and some part of Tartaria; all which countries I sawe and passed through in the time of my youth. Likewise I will describe my last voiages from Constantinople to Egypt, and from thence vnto Italy, &c. Besides all which places he had also beene at Tauris in Persia: and of his owne countrey, and other African regions adioining and remote, he was so diligent a traueller; that there was no kingdome, prouince, signorie, or citie; nor scarcelie any towne, village mountaine, valley, riuer, or forrest, &c. which he left vnui∣sited. And so much the more credite and commendation descrueth this woorthy Historie of his; in that it is (except the antiquities, and certaine other incidents) nothing else but a large Itinerarium or Iournal of his African voiages: neither describeth he almost any one particular place, where himselfe had not sometime beene an eie-witnes.

But, not to forget His conuersion to Christianitie, amidst all these his busie and dangerous trauels, it pleased the diuine prouidence, for the discouery and ma∣nifestation of Gods woonderfull works, and of his dreadfull and iust iudgements Page  [unnumbered] performed in Africa (which before the time of Iohn Leo, were either vtterly concealed, or vnperfectly and fabulously reported both by ancient and late wri∣ters) to deliuer this author of ours, and this present Geographicall Historie, into the hands of certaine Italian Pirates, about the isle of Gerbi, situate in the gulfe of Capes, betweene the cities of Tunis and Tripolis in Barbarie. Being thus taken, the Pirates presented him and his Booke vnto Pope Leo the tenth: who esteeming of him as of a most rich and inualuable prize, greatly reioiced at his arriuall, and gaue him most kinde entertainement and liberall maintenance, till such time as he had woone him to be baptized in the name of Christ, and to be called Iohn Leo, after the Popes owne name. And so during his abode in Italy, learning the Italian toong, he translated this booke thereinto, being before writ∣ten in Arabick. Thus much of Iohn Leo.

Now let vs acquaint you with the Historie it selfe. First therefore from so woorthy an author, how could an historie proceed but of speciall woorth and conse∣quence? For proofe whereof, I appeale vnto the translations thereof into Latine, Italian, Spanish, French, English, and (if I be not deceiued) into some other languages; which argue a generall 〈◊〉 of the same. I appeale also to the grand and most iudiciall Cosmographer * Master Iohn Baptista Ramusius, sometime Secretarie to the state of Venice, who in the Preface to his first vo∣lume of voiages, so highly commendeth it to learned Fracastoro, and placeth it euery word in the very forefront of his discourses, as the principal & most praise∣woorthy of thē all. And were renoumed Ortelius aliue, I would vnder correction report me to him; whether his map of Barbarie and Biledulgerid, as also in his last Additament that of the kingdomes of Maroco and Fez, were not particu∣larly and from point to point framed out of this present relation, which he also in two places at the least preferreth farre before all other histories written of Afri∣ca. But to leaue the testimonies of others, and to come neerer to the matter it selfe; like as our prime and peerelesse English Antiquarie master William Camden in his learned Britannia,〈◊〉 exactly described England, Scot∣land, Ireland, and the isles adiacent (the which by Leander for 〈◊〉, by Da∣mianus a Goez briefly for Spaine, by Belforest for France, by Munster for vpper Germanie, by Guiccardini for the Netherlandes, and by others for other countries hath beene performed) so likewise this our author Iohn Leo in the historie ensuing hath so largely, particularly, and methodically deciphered the countries of Barbarie, Numidia, Libya, The land of Negros, and the hither part of Egypt, as (I take it) neuer any writer either before or since his time hath done. For if you shall throughly consider him, what kingdome, prouince, citie, towne, village, mountaine, vallie, riuer; yea, what temple, college, hospi∣tall, bath-stoue, Inne; or what other memorable matter doth he omit? So doth he most iudicially describe the temperature of the climate, and the nature of the soile, as also the dispositions, manners, rites, customes, and most ancient pedi∣grees of the inhabitants, togither with the alterations of religion and estate, the conquests and ouerthrowes of the Romaines, Goths, and Arabians, and other things (by the way) right woorthie the obseruation. So that the Page  [unnumbered]Africans may iustly say to him, and the English to master Camden, as the prince of Roman oratours did vnto Marcus Varro the learnedst of his nati∣on. Nos in patria nostra peregrinantes errantesque tanquam hospites, tui* libri quasi domum deduxerunt, vt possemus aliquando, qui & vbi essemus, agnoscere. Tuaetatem patriae, tu descriptiones temporum, tu sacrorum iura, tu domesticam, tu bellicam disciplinam, tu sedem regionum & loco∣rum, &c. Which may thus be rudely 〈◊〉. Wandring vp and downe like Pilgrimes in our owne natiue soile, thy bookes haue as it were led vs the right way home; that we might at length acknowledge both who and where we are. Thou hast reuealed the antiquitie of our nation, the order of times, the rites of our religion, our manner of gouernment both in peace and warre, yea thou hast described the situations of countries and places, &c.

Now as concerning the additions before and after this Geographicall His∣torie; hauing had some spare-howers since it came first vnder the presse; I thought good (both for the Readers satisfaction, and that Iohn Leo might not appeere too solitarie vpon the stage) to bestowe a part of them in collecting and digesting the same. The chiefe scope of this my enterprize is, to make a briefe and cursorie description of all those maine lands and isles of Africa, which mine author in his nine bookes hath omitted. For he in very deed leaueth vntouched all those parts of the African continent which lie to the south of the fifteene kingdomes of Negros, and to the east of Nilus. For the manifestation whereof, I haue (as truely as I could coniecture) in the mappe adioined to this booke, cau∣sed a list or border of small prickes to be engrauen; which running westward from the mouth of Nilus to The streights of Gibraltar, and from thence south∣ward to the coast of Guinie, and then eastward to the banks of Nilus, and so northward to the place where it began; doth with aduantage include all places treated of by Leo, and excludeth the residue which by way of Preface we haue described before the beginning of his African historie. Likewise at the latter end I haue put downe certaine relations of the great Princes of Africa, and of the Christian, Iewish, Mahumetan, and Gentilish religions there 〈◊〉. The Princes of greatest account either inhabiting or at least possessing large ter∣ritories there, are first The grand Neguz or Christian Emperour of Abassia or the higher Ethiopia, commonly called Presbyter Iohn or (as Zagazabo his owne* ambassadour would haue him) Pretious Iohn; but bicause 〈◊〉 all the Ethiopick relation of Francis Aluarez, being the best that euer was written of those parts, he is continually named Prete Ianni, in imitation of him I also most commonly call him by that name. And so likewise though Zagazabo (for the more magnificent reputation of his prince) will haue his dominions called Ethiopia; yet with the consent of some approoued authors, and also to distin∣guish the country of this emperour from many other regions situate both in the higher Ethiopia, and in the lower; I haue set it downe in my mappe, and in my discourses do most vsually speake thereof vnder the name of Abassia. The other great Princes intreated of in the said relations, are The K. of Spaine, The Tur∣kish Emperour, The *Xarifo otherwise called The Miramonin, or the king of Page  [unnumbered]Maroco Sus and Fez, and the emperour of Monomotapa.

My methode in the discourse before Leo is, after a generall preface of Africa, to begin at the Red sea, where Leo endeth; and thence (as well in the descripti∣on of the maine lands, as of the isles by him vntouched) to proceed on southerly to the cape of Buena esperança; from which cape we returne toward the north, describing all along the westerne countries and isles of Africa, till we haue brought our whole descriptions to an end vpon the most southwesterly parts 〈◊〉Barbarie, where our author Iohn Leo beginneth his.

Et quoniam (as one saith) turpe non est, per quos profeceris, agnoscere: my principall authors out of whom I haue gathered this store, are, of the ancienter note, Ptolemey, Strabo, Plinie, Diodorus Siculus, &c. and amongst later writers, I haue helped my selfe out of sundrie discourses in the first Italian vo∣lume of Baptista Ramusio, as likewise out of Iohn Barros, Castanneda, Or∣telius, Osorius de reb. gest. Eman. Matthew Dresserus, Quadus, Isolario del mundo, Iohn Huighen van Linschoten, & out of the Hollanders late voiages to the east Indies, and to San Tomé: but I am much more beholding to the hi∣story of Philippo Pigafetta, to the Ethiopick relations of Francis Aluarez, & of Damianus a Goez, and beyond all comparison (both for matter and method) most of all, to the learned Astronomer and Geographer Antonius Maginus of Padua, and to the vniuersall relations written in Italian by G. B. B.

And heere, before I surcease, I must admonish the Reader of certaine faults escaped in some copies: as namely in the description of the isles in the Barbarian bay, Açotatado, for Açotado; in a marginall note ouer against the description of Tombuto in the seuenth booke of Iohn Leo, Money for Gold; in the relation of the Christianitie of Egypt, Hypostasis twise togither, in stead of Hypostases; and in the discourse of the Christianitie of Congo, Paulo Aquitino, for Panso Aquitimo. Other literall faults (if there be any) will not be hard for the Reader himselfe to amend.

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AFRICA
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A generall description of all Africa, togither with a comparison of the ancient and new names of all the principall countries and prouinces therein.

THat part of inhabited lande extending south∣ward,* which we call Africa, and the Greeks Li∣bya, is one of the three generall parts of the world knowen vnto our ancestors; which in ve∣ry* deed was not throughly by them discouered, both bicause the Inlands coulde not be trauai∣led in regard of huge deserts full of dangerous sands, which being driuen with the winde, put trauailers in extreme hazard of their liues; and also by reason of the long and perilous nauigation vpon the African coasts, for which cause it was by very few of ancient times compassed by nauigati∣on, much lesse searched or intirely known. Of which few, the principall were Hanno a Carthaginian captaine sent by the gouernours of that common∣welth* for discouerie of the saide lande, and one Eudoxus that fled from Pto∣lemaeus Lathyrus, the king of Alexandria. Howbeit in these latter times it hath beene often* by the Portugals sailed round about, and diligently sear∣ched, especially along the shore, euen from the streights of Gibraltar to the enterance of the red sea:* but the first Portugall that euer doubled the cape of Buena esperança, and coasted the south and southeast parts of Africa, in former 〈◊〉 vnknowne, was Vasco da Gama, in the yeere 1497. who from hence sailed to Calicut in the east Indies, to the vnspeakeable gaine of the Portugals.

To omit Iohn Leo his etymologies of this name Africa; Festus will haue it to be deriued from the Greeke worde 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, which signifieth horror or colde, and from 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 the particle priuatiue, as who shoulde say, Africa is a place free from all horror and extremitie of colde, bicause it lieth open to the heauens, and is sandie, drie, and desert. Others say that it is called Afri∣ca quasi Aprica, that is exposed and subiect to the scorching beames of the sunne, the most part there of lying betweene the Tropicks. Iosephus wil haue* it so called from 〈◊〉 one of the posteritie of Abraham, and others from Afer sonne to Hercules of Libya. But it was by the Greekes called Libya, bicause it was in old time conquered by Libs the king of Mauritania. In the holie Scriptures it is called Chamesis, by the Arabians and Ethiopians 〈◊〉, and by the Indians Besecath.

In situation & shape this land of Africa is almost an islle, being by a very* small and narrowe neckland (passing betweene the Mediterran sea and the gulfe of Arabia, 〈◊〉 the red sea) conioined to Asia, and in extension of Page  2 ground being almost twise as bigge as Europe, albeit for inhabitants it is not halfe so populous. Wherefore though in longitude from west to east Afri∣ca* be shorter then Europe in some places, yet extendeth it so farre vnto the south, that Europe in that respect is nothing comparable vnto it: for Africa containeth almost seuentie degrees in latitude, whereas Europe stretcheth but fiue and thirtie degrees: moreouer Africa is more vniforme and spaci∣ous; but Europe is of a more distracted and manifolde shape, being in sun∣dry* places dispersed & restrained by the sea. Howbeit notwithstanding Afri∣ca hath farre greater extension of ground then Europe, yet is it not so po∣pulous, nor so commodious to inhabite: for the lande of Africa is in many places vnhabitable; the principall causes whereof are, the scarcitie of water, the barrennes of the soile, being either couered with 〈◊〉 sande, dust, or ashes, or else being subiect to extreme heate of the sunne: also there* are certaine dangerous heapes of sande, which being raised by the winde, are driuen vp and downe like the waues of a tempestuous sea: In briefe, there are such abundance of venemous and hurtfull creatures, that for feare of them the land in some places can very hardly, & in others by no meanes be manured or inhabited, be it neuer so fruitfull. Wherefore in diuers parts this region lieth waste and vnpeopled: howbeit where it is inhabited, it is exceeding fertile, and that especially in the north parts thereof, lying ouer against Europe, where (according to the report of many historiographers, and cosmographers) it was in ancient times abundantly furnished with in∣habitants: so likewise all the westerne coast betweene Cabo de buena espe∣rança, and Cabo Negro situate about nineteene degrees of southerly lati∣tude, containeth many plaines, hils, vallies, and other places most fruitfull and pleasant, it being there a continuall spring, and elsewhere also it is verie fertile, as it shall be declared more at large in the particular descriptions of each region.

The Equinoctiall circle doth in a manner diuide Africa in the verie* midst thereof; from whence it stretcheth not onely to each tropique, but al∣so twelue degrees almost beyond them both: wherefore the greater part is comprized betweene the saide Tropiques vnder the Torrid or burnt Zone, for which onely cause the ancient writers supposed it to be vnhabitable and desert in so many places: which indeed is much rather to be ascribed to the waste wildernesse, the barren and sandie soile, and the 〈◊〉 of waters and fountaines. It comprehendeth therefore fully and perfecty the three first northerly climates, and so many and the like climates southerly; for it is situate betweene the eleuenth north Parallele, and the eleuenth Antiparal∣lele, or south Parallele, both which are equally distant from the Equinocti∣all on either side. But about either of the foresaid extremes, the longest day consisteth of fowerteene howers and one fourth part, and about the midst, of twelue howers exactly. Likewise as touching the longitude, Afri∣ca stretcheth from the Meridian vnder fower degrees to the Meridian vnder fower-score and two degrees of longitude, to wit, from Cabo Roxo, or the Page  3 Red cape on the west, to Cape Guardafu on the east side, betweene which two capes is the greatest bredth of Africa.

Africa hath too narrowe boundes allotted vnto it by Iohn Leo and cer∣taine* others, for they disioine the greater part of Egypt and all Ethiopia there-from. Wherefore it is more conuenient in this behalfe to follow Pto∣lemey, and the late writers, limiting the same on the north with the Medi∣terran sea, and the streights of Gibraltar; on the east with the Red sea or the Arabian gulfe, and the small neckland of Asia passing betweene the Medi∣terran sea, and the said gulfe; on the south (at the cape of Buena esperança, where it endeth in forme of a wedge) with the maine Ocean partly called the Ethiopian sea, as being neere vnto the land of Ethiopia; and on the west, from the hither side of the Equinoctiall line, with the Atlantike Oce∣an, (called by Ptolemey Mare Occiduum, by Dionysius Hesperium, and part thereof by the Spaniards Mar del Norte) but beyond the Equinoctiall line it is bounded westward with the Ethiopian sea.

Africa hath very many and most exceeding great mountaines, the prin∣cipal* wherof is Mount-Atlas, whose tops of incredible height rising out of* the midst of sandy desertes, exalt themselues aboue the cloudes. This mountaine beginneth westward at that place, where it distinguisheth the Ocean by the name of Atlanticus: from whence by a perpetuall ridge, after many windings and turnings, it extendeth east toward the confines of E∣gypt: moreouer it is in most places rounde, hard to ascend, craggie, steepe, impassable, cold, barren, shadie, and euery where full of woods and foun∣taines, with cloudes alwaies houering about the tops thereof, being forlorn and desolate toward the Ocean, but ouer against* Africa minor, most fertile, and abounding with plentie of corne and of thick woods which are clad with a kinde of mosse no whit inferior to silke.

The tops of this mountaine are couered with deepe snowes euen in the midst of sommer: and sometimes when the North winds blow any thing sharpe, the snow falleth in such abundance, that it hideth the trees growing vpon the sides therof, and is deadly both to man and beast.

Moreouer the fountaines which are here found, are so extreame cold in* the hottest of sommer, as if a man should dip his hand therein but for a short space, it would loose both life, sence, and motion. Besides Mount At∣las* those mountaines likewise are very famous, which being situate on the south part of Africa, are called by the Portugales Os Picosfragosos: for by reason of their surpassing height and craggie cliffes it is impossible to skale them, and they are bare, forlorne, and destitute of all reliefe.

Likewise the cape commonly called Sierra Leonais as it were framed out of an exceeding high mountaine, which may be kenned a mightie di∣stance off: the top of this mountaine is continuallie ouershadowed with cloudes, which often send forth dreadfull thunder and lightening: where∣upon some think it to haue bin called by Ptolemey, and by Hanno of Car∣thage, The chariot of the gods.

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The mountaines of the moone also, knowen of old, and situate vnder the* Tropique of Capricorne, being very high and craggie, are inhabited by bar∣barous and sauage people, nere vnto which are valleis of such exceeding depth, as if they reached to the center of the earth. Likewise there are cer∣tain mountaines in Angola called Cabambe containing most rich siluer∣mines, &c.

Also in Africa are certaine mightie lakes, which for their extension seem* rather to be seas, the principal wherof called by some Zembre, being situate by a number of huge mountaines, and distant from the Equinoctial eleuen or twelue degrees to the south, containeth about fiue hundred leagues in compasse, out of which lake doe spring the famous riuers of Nilus, Zaire, and Cuama, and some affirme very strange sea-monsters to be therein.

Africa likewise hath many exceeding great riuers, as namely Nilus, Ni∣ger,* Senaga, Gambra, Zaire, Abagni, Tagassi, Coluez, Coauo, Cuama, and Maniche, or Rio del spirito santo, all which are in a manner of the same qua∣litie and disposition; for with their yeerlie in undations they doe most won∣derfullie fatten and enrich the soile of the territories adioyning. Nilus the* most famous riuer of the world, diuiding Egypt in the midst, and with his ouerflowes making it most fruitefull, continueth in his yeerely increase for∣tie daies, and forty daies in decrease; to wit, from the seuenteenth of Iune to the sixt of October: and this riuer after a mightie long course through E∣thiopia and Egypt, dischargeth his streames into the Mediterran sea. The riuer of Niger, running through the land of Negros, called of old (as Soli∣nus* supposed) by the naturall inhabitants Astabus, and (according to Mar∣molius) Hued Nijar in the Arabian toung, is now esteemed by Paulus Ioui∣us to be Gambra, and by Cadamosta the riuer of Senaga; but that both of them are deceiued, it is euident out of the description of Sanutus, who put∣teth downe the two foresaid riuers seuerallie, and thinketh Niger to be that which is now called Rio grande. This riuer taketh his beginning, as some thinke, out of a certain desert to the east, called Seu, or springeth rather out of a lake, and after a long race, falleth at length into the western Ocean. It increaseth also, for the space of fortie daies like Nilus, and is for so long space decreasing about the verie same time; by which inundation it bringeth such fruitfulnes vnto all the land of Negros (certain mountaines onely ex∣cepted) as no place in the world can be imagined more fertile. Senaga or Canaga, a most notable riuer, called, as some thinke, Baratis by Ptolemey, and for the length therof, and manifold strange creatures therein contai∣ned, comparable to Nilus, seuereth by his winding chanel the barren and naked soile, from the greene and fruitefull. Moreouer it maketh a separati∣on betweene nations of sundrie colours: for the people on this side are of a dead ash-colour, leane, and of a small stature; but on the farther side they are exceeding blacke, of tall and manly stature, and very well proportioned: howbeit neere vnto the riuer on either side, they are of a meane colour, complexion, and stature betweene both the aboue mentioned. It falleth Page  5 into the sea by two mouthes, the principall whereof is about a mile broad, vp into the which the sea entreth almost 60. miles. It springeth (according to Iohn Barros) out of two lakes (the greater whereof is now called the lake of Gaoga, but heretofore by Ptolemey Chelonidae paludes, and the lesser Ptole∣mey calleth Nubaepalus) as also out of a riuer named by Ptolemey Ghir. This riuer of Senaga hath great variety of strange fishes, and other creatures that* liue in the water, as namely, sea-horses, crocodiles, winged serpents, and such like: neere vnto it also are great store of Elephants, wilde bores, lyons, and leopards. Gambra or Gambea a very great riuer, lying betweene Se∣naga and Niger, and esteemed by Sanutus to be that which Ptolemey called Stachir, fetcheth his originall from the lake of Libya, and from the foun∣taines which Ptolemey assigneth to the riuer of Niger: this riuer in greatnes and depth exceedeth Senaga, and hath many vnknowne riuers falling there∣into, and bringeth foorth all kindes of liuing creatures that Senaga doth. In the midst of this riuer standeth the Isle of Elephants, so called, in regarde of* great numbers of those beasts. The riuer Zaire beginneth out of the same lake from whence Nilus springeth: this being one of the greatest riuers of all Africa, and vtterly vnknowne vnto ancient writers, containeth at the mouth eight and twentie miles in bredth, hauing a very safe harbour for ships to ride in: also there are many and great Islands in the chanell there∣of, and sundrie riuers do fall thereinto, the principall whereof are Vumba, Barbela, Coanza, and Lelunda: in briefe, this riuer Zaire running through* the kingdome of Congo, disgorgeth it selfe into the maine Ethiopian sea. Out of the same lake, which is the very fountaine of Nilus, springeth ano∣ther notable and famous riuer, which after a long race toward the south and east, is diuided into two branches: the northerly branch, which is excee∣ding great (for it 〈◊〉 fixe great riuers thereinto, and is nauigable for the space of seuen hundred miles) being properly called Cuama, and the other branch more southerly, which is verie great also, being named Ma∣nich or Magnice, or Rio del spirito santo.

The promontories, capes, or headlands of Africa be verie many, the most* famous and principal wherof are, The cape of Buena esperança, or good hope, Cabo verde, and Cabo de los corrientes. The cape of Buena esperan∣ça* or good hope is the extreame southerly point of all Africa, being a most renowmed and dangerous promontorie, which in the yeere one thousand foure hundred nintie seuen was the second time discouered by Vasco da Gama at the commandement of Don Emanuel king of Portugal: this cape the mariners were woont to cal the lion of the Ocean, and the tempestuous cape, by reason of the ruffling and roring of the windes, which they found there for the most part very boisterons: for the sea thereabout is exceeding rough, by reason of the continual fury of the windes; neither will any naui∣gatours touch vpon the cape, except they be enforced by meere necessitie. Cabo verde or The greene head-land, is esteemed by some to be the same* which Ptolemey calleth Promontorium Arsinarium, & is compassed on either Page  6 side by the riuers of Senega and Gambra. Cabo de los corrientes, other∣wise* called the cape of San Sebastian, stretcheth foorth it selfe right ouer against the south ende of the great Isle of Madagascar: it is a cape well knowne, by reason it is so dangerous to double, which the Moores durst not passe for a very long time.

And heere as concerning the strange beasts, fishes, serpents, trees, plants, and roots of Africa, as likewise touching the diseases, whereto the African people are most subiect; and the varietie of languages (excepting the Chal∣daean, Egyptian, Turkish, Italian, and Spanish toongs) which are now and haue beene of ancient times spoken in Africa; I refer the Reader to the first and last bookes of Iohn Leo, and to other places, where they are at large and purposely intreated of.

Moreouer this part of the worlde is inhabited especially by fiue princi∣pall* nations, to wit, by the people called Cafri or Cafates, that is to say out∣lawes, or lawlesse, by the Abassins, the Egyptians, the Arabians, and the Africans or Moores, properly so called; which last are of two kinds, namely* white or tawnie Moores, and Negros or blacke Moores. Of all which na∣tions some are Gentiles which worship Idols; others of the sect of Mahu∣met; some others Christians; and some Iewish in religion; the greatest part of which people are thought to be descended from Cham the cursed son of Noah; except some Arabians of the linage of Sem, which afterward passed into Africa. Now the Arabians inhabiting Africa are diuided into many seuerall kinds, possessing diuers and sundrie habitations and regions; for some dwell neere the sea shore, which retaine the name of Arabians; but others inhabiting the inland, are called Baduini. There bee likewise infinite swarmes of Arabians, which with their wiues and children, leade a vagrant and roguish life in the deserts, vsing tents in stead of houses: these are notable theeues, and very troublesome both to their neighbour-inhabi∣tants, and also to merchants: for which cause trauellers and merchants dare not passe ouer the African deserts alone, but onely in Carouans, which are great companies of merchants riding, and transporting their goods vpon their camels and asses: who go very strong, and in great numbers, for feare of the said theeuish Arabians.

Ptolemey in his fourth booke of Geography diuideth Africa into twelue* regions or prouinces: namely, Mauritania Tingitana, Mauritania Caesari∣ensis, Numidia, Africa propria, Cyrenaica, Marmarica, Libya propria, AEgyptus superior, AEgyptus inferior, Libya interior, AEthiopia sub AEgypto, & AEthiopia interior.

Mauritania Tingitana, the most rich and beautifull couutrey of Africa,* so named of the citie Tingis, which we at this day call Tanger, was some∣times also (as Plinie witnesseth) called Borgundiana: moreouer others haue called it by the names of Mauritania Sitiphensis, Hispania Transfretana, and Hispania Tingitana: but Solinus termeth the same Mauritania inferior. The inhabitants were of old named by the Graecians Maurusij, and by the Page  7 Romaines Mauri, but the Spaniards at this present terme them Alarabes. In this part of Africa are now contained two stately kingdomes, namely the kingdome of Maroco, 〈◊〉 the kingdome of Fez; both which are enuironed with the mountaines of Atlas, the Ocean and the Mediterran seas, and to the east with the riuer of Muluia.

Mauritania Caesariensis, named according to the citie of Caesaria,* which was so called after the name of Claudius Caesar, at this present bearing the name of Tiguident or Tegdemt, which worde in the Arabian toong signifieth ancient; was by Victor Vticensis, termed Mauritania maior; by Strabo Massilia, and Massaesilia, and the inhabitants thereof by Plinie Mas∣saesuli. At this present it containeth the kingdome of Tremizen, as Domi∣nias Niger, and Giraua are of opinion.

Numidia the ancient, called in the time of Ptolomey, The new, but by* the Greekes (as Plinie testifieth) Metagonitis, and the inhabitants thereof Numidae, and Nomades; is that region which lieth betweene The great ri∣uer, and the riuer Megerada, ouer which countrey king Masinissa bare rule. It containeth now (as I coniecture) the prouinces of Bugia, Constantina, Bona, and Mezzab. Howbeit at this present we vnderstande by Numidia that region which lieth betweene the mountaines of Atlas and the Libyan deserts, called by Iohn Leo and Marmolius Biledulgerid, or the lande of Dates, bicause this is the onely region for plentie of Dates, in all A∣frica.

Africa propria, situate vpon the Mediterran sea, betweene the regions* of old Numidia, and the Cyrene, is called by Plinie Zeugitania, who diui∣deth it into the ancient and the new. At this present it is the kingdome of Tunis, for it containeth Byzacium, which by Strabo is accounted a part of Africa propria. The head of this prouince in times past was Carthage, whereof at this present there are nothing but ruines extant.

Cyrene, or Cyrenaica, by Plinie called Pentapolis, and by the Hebrews* Lebahim, is esteemed by Giraua to be at this present called Corene, and by Andrew Theuet, Assadib: but Iohn Leo and Marmolius name it Mesrata.

Marmarica is called by Plinie Mareotis, and Libya: howbeit at this pre∣sent* the desert of Barcha, described by Iohn Leo in his sixt booke, containeth a great part of Cyrenaica, and all Marmarica.

But Libya propria, retaineth till this present the name of Libya, and is* that part which the Arabians call Sarra, which worde signifieth a desert.

Both the ancient Ethiopias are now possessed by the Abassins, vnder* the dominion of Prete Ianni.

Egypt retaineth euen till this day, the ancient name.

The best moderne diuision of Africa, for these our times is to adde vnto the foure general partes, Barbaria, Numidia, Libya, and the land of Negros, set downe by Iohn Leo, three other generall partes to wit, Egypt; the inner or the vpper Ethiopia, containing Troglodytica, Nubia, and the empire of Prete Ianni; and the lower, or the extreme Ethiopia, stretching from the Page  8 said empire along the sea-coast, and through the Inland euen to the Cape of Buena Esperança.

Thus much of Africa in generall. Now it remaineth that we briefly de∣scribe in particular all the principall maine landes, and islands, (vndescribed by Iohn Leo) which thereto belong, or adioyne; beginning first with the Red sea one of the chiefe limites of Africa, and from thence shaping our course along the easterne or farthest quarters thereof, through the domini∣ons of Prete Ianni, the lande of Zanguebar, the empires of Mohenemuge, and Monomotapa, and the region of Cafraria: and then, hauing doubled the cape of Buena esperança, range we along the westerne partes by the kingdomes of Angola, Congo, Anzichi, Benin, Ghinea, and by the capes of Sierra Leona, Capo verde, and the castle of Arguin, till we haue brought our selues to finish our course, vpon the most southwesterne partes of Bar∣barie, from whence our author Iohn Leo beginneth his.

A particular description of all the knowne borders, coastes and inlands of Africa, which Iohn Leo hath left vnde∣scribed: collected out of sundry ancient and late writers.

Of the red sea.

THe red sea called by others the Arabian gulfe, and the streight of Me∣cha, containing in length twelue hundred miles, and in bredth but one hundred, is deuided into three partitions or chanels; the middlemost whereof being called The large or deepe sea, is without danger nauigable both day and night, because it hath from fiue and twentie to fiftie fathomes water, especially from the isle of Camaran euen to Suez stāding at the very bottome of the gulfe: the other two partitions, which are the easterne and westerne extremities, are incumbred with so manie little isles and rockes, as it is impossible to saile ouer them but onely by day-light, and with most expert pilots, which are to be hired at a small island lying ouerthwart the* very mouth or entrance of the red sea; which the ancient kings of Egypt (if the report of Strabo be true) barred with a chaine, from the African, to the Arabian side. This sea is very skarce of fish; perhaps because there fall no ri∣uers thereinto, which with their fresh and sweete waters doe much delight and nourish the fish; and the strand or shore thereof is destitute of all greene grasse, herbes, or weedes. The portes and hauens of this sea are for the most part very dangerous and difficult to enter, by reason of the manifold win∣dings and turnings, which must be made, to auoide the rockes.

At the very head or North end of this gulfe, standeth Suez, which here∣tofore* seemeth to haue bin called Ciuitas Heroum, and in the times of Da∣uid and Salomon Hazion-Geber, from whence the fleetes of those partes Page  9 were sent to Ophir for golde and other rich commodities. Vnder the Egyp∣tian Ptolemeys and the Romans, this towne flourished exceedingly, by reason of the infinite quantitie of merchandize brought thither from the east Indies, and Arabia. But now it is nothing so frequented; partly in regard of the mighty concurse and traffique which Mecha draweth vnto it selfe, and partly by reason of the Portugales conueiance of spices and other Indian commodities about the cape of Buena esperança. At this present the great* Turke hath there an Arsenale, with certaine gallies, for feare of the Portu∣gals aforesaid: against whome there haue bin dispatched from this place two greate fleetes, one for the assailing of 〈◊〉, and another for Ormuz. Howbe∣it because all the countries round about are vtterly destitute of wood, it is a matter of infinite charge to furnish foorth a fleete from hence; for they are constrained to fetch their timber as far as Caramania, partly by sea, and partly vpon camels backs. At this towne of Suez they haue no fresh water; but all their water is brought them from a place sixe miles distant vpon ca∣mels backs, being notwithstanding brackish and bitter.

The western shore of the Red sea is inhabited with people called in old* time Troglodytae, which at this present do all of them yeelde obedience to the great Turke: who considering, that the fleets of the Portugales entered very often into the Red sea, and were there receiued by the subiects of Prete Gianni, and did him great domage; hath thereupon taken occasion not onely to conquer the Troglodytae, but also to wast and subdue a great part of Barnagasso, the most Northerlie prouince of the said Prete. So that the audacious attempts of the Portugales in those partes haue bred two most* dangerous and bad effects; the one is, that the Arabians haue most strong∣ly fortified all their sea-townes, which before lay naked and without fortifi∣cation; the other, for that the Turke also hath bin occasioned thereby to make warre against the Prete. Wherefore they ought not to haue vnderta∣ken any such enterprise, but with full resolution and sufficient forces to ac∣complish the same: for lesser attempts serue to no other end, but onely to rouze and arme the enimie, which was before secure and quiet.

Neither is it heere to be omitted, that in the foresaide sea, a man can saile in no ships nor barks, but only those of the great Turke, or at least with his licence, paying vnto him for tribute a good part of the fraight. For this purpose he hath certaine Magazines or store-houses of timber, which is brought partly from the gulfe of Satalia, and partly from Nicomedia, and other places vpon the Euxin sea, vnto Rosetto and Alexandria; from whence it is afterward transported to Cairo, and thence to Suez.

This sea is called the Red sea, not in regard that the waters thereofbe all red, but (as some thinke) from certaine red rushes which growe vpon the shore: and (as others are of opinion) from a kinde of red earth which in sundry places it hath at the bottome: which earth dieth not the very sub∣stance of the water red, but by transparence causeth it (especially neere the shore) to appeere of that colour.

Page  10

Africa Troglodytica.

THat sandie, barren, and desert part of Africa which lieth betweene Nilus and the Red sea, especially to the south of the tropike, was in old times inhabited by the Troglodytae, a people so called, bicause of their dwelling in caues vnder the ground. Along this westerne coast of the Red sea runneth a ridge of mountaines, which being an occasion that the in∣land riuers can not fall into the saide sea, they are forced to discharge themselues into Nilus. The foresaide mountaines and sea coast are now inhabited by Mahumetans, being partly Arabians, and partly Turkes: which not many yeeres ago haue attempted to saile that sea, and to inuade the regions adioining. The naturall inhabitants are a rude barbarous peo∣ple, and very poore and beggerly. The chiefe places of habitation are Co∣rondol, a speciall good porte; Alcosser a place well knowne, bicause that neere vnto it the saide mountaines open themselues, and giue passage to the bringing in of the fruits and commodities of Abassia; Suachen estee∣med one of the principall ports in all the streights, and being made by an island. Here resideth the Bassa of the great Turke, which is called the gouer∣nour of Abassia, with three thousand soldiers or thereabout.

Next followeth Ercoco the onely hauen towne of the Prete, lying ouer against the little isle of Mazua: and heere the mountaines make an other opening or passage, for transporting of victuals out of the lande of the saide Prete Ianni. From hence almost to the very entrance of the Red sea, the coast is at this present vninhabited, forlorne, and desert. Likewise from Suachen to Mazua is a continuall woode, the trees whereof are but of small woorth. Iust within the saide entrance standeth the towne and port of Vela, vnder the iurisdiction of the king of Dancali a Moore.

Vpon all this west shore of the Red sea, as likewise vpon the contrary east shore, scarcitie of water is the cause, why there are so fewe, and so small pla∣ces of habitation: and the people runne and flocke togither, where they may finde any pit or fountaine of water.

Some curious reader might here expect, because I haue nowe passed so neere the frontiers of Egypt, that I should make an exact description of that most famous and fruitefull prouince, and likewise of the great city of Alca∣ir, and of the inundation and decrease of Nilus: all which, because they are expressed in most orient & liuelie colours by our author Iohn Leo; I should shew my selfe both iniurious to him, and tedious to all iudiciall readers, in anticipating and forestalling that, before the beginning of his booke, which he so neere the end doth in such large and particular wise intreate of. Now therefore let vs proceed to the vpper or inner Ethiopia, beginning with the first and most northerly prouince thereof called Nubia.

Page  11

Nubia.

PAssing therefore westward from the Island of Siene, you enter into the prouince of Nubia, bordering on the west vpon Gaoga, eastward vpon the riuer Nilus, towards the North, vpon Egypt, and southward vpon the desert of Goran. The inhabitants there∣of called by Strabo〈◊〉, liue at this present (as Francisco Aluarez reporteth) a most miserable and wretched kinde of life: for hauing lost the sinceritie and light of the gospel, they do embrace infinite corruptions of the Iewish and Mahumetan religions. At the same time when the foresaid Aluarez was in Abassia, there came certaine messengers out of Nubia, to make suit vnto the Prete, that he would send them priests, and such persons as might preach and administer the sacraments vnto them. But he returned answere, that he coulde not in regard of the scarcitie of great cler-giemen in his dominions: The said messengers reported, that the Nubians had sent often to Rome for a bishop; but being afterward by the inuasions of the Moores and the cala∣mitie of warre, cut short of that assistance, they fell for want of teachers and ministers, into extreme ignorance of Christian religion, and by little and little were infected with the impious and abominable sects of the Iewes and Mahumetans. Some Portugals trauailing to those parts, sawe many churches destroied by the handes of the Arabians, and in some places the pictures of saints painted vpon the wals. They are gouerned by women, and call their Queene Gaua. Their principall citie called Dangala, and consi∣sting* of about ten thousand housholds, is a place of great traffike, bicause it is so neere vnto Egypt and the riuer Nilus. All their other habitations are villages and base cottages. Their houses are built of claie, and couered with strawe. The chiefe commodities of this region are rice, stone-sugar, sanders, iuorie, (for they take many elephants) as likewise abundance of ciuet, and golde in great plentie. The countrey is for the most part sandie: howbeit there are certaine mightie lakes, by the benefite whereof a great part of Nubia is watred and made fruitfull.

The Isle of Meroe.

MEroe called at this time by the names of Guengare, Amara, and Nobe, being the greatest and fairestisle which Nilus maketh, and resembled by Herodotus to the shape of a target, containeth in bredth a thousand, and in length three thousand stadios or furlongs. It aboundeth with golde, siluer, copper, iron, Eben-wood, palme-trees, and other such commodities as are in Nubia. Some write, that there growe canes or reeds of so huge a bignes, that the people make botes of them. Heere also you haue minerall salt, and lions, elephants, and leopards. This island is inhabited by Mahumetans, who are confederate with the Moores Page  12 against Prete Ianni. Strabo affirmeth, that in old time the authoritie of the priests of this island was so great, that by a meane and ordinarie messenger they woulde command the king to murther himselfe, and woulde substitute an other in his roome. But at length, one king hauing in a certaine temple put all the saide priests to death, quite abolished that monstrous custome. And heere as Nilus vnfoldeth himselfe into two branches, to embrace this Islande, he receiueth from the east the riuer of Abagni, and from the west the riuer Sarabotto, which haue likewise other smaller riuers falling into them. The Abassins are of opinion, that the Queene of Saba, which trauel∣led so farre to heare the wisedome of Salomon, was mistresse of this isle. Paulus Ionius saith, here are three kings, one a Gentile, the second a Moore, and the third a Christian, subiect vnto the Prete. From Meroe to Siene it is accounted fifteene daies iourney by water.

*Abassia, or the empire of Prete Ianni.

THe Abassins are a people subiect to*Prete Ianni: whose empire (if we consider the stile which he vseth in his letters) hath most ample con∣fines. For he intituleth himselfe emperour of the great and higher Ethiopia, king of Goiame, which (as Botero supposeth) is situate betweene Nilus and Zaire; of Vangue a kingdome beyond Zaire; of Damut which confineth with the land of the Anzichi; and towards the south he is called king of Cafate and Bagamidri, two prouinces bordering vpon the first great lake, which is the originall fountaine of Nilus; as likewise of the kingdomes of Xoa, Fatigar, Angote, Baru, Baaliganze, Adea, Amara, Ambea, Va∣guc, Tigremahon, Sabaim, where the Queene of Saba gouerned, and lastly of* Barnagaes, and lorde as farre as Nubia, which bordereth vpon Egypt. But at this present the center or midst of his Empire (as Iohn Bar∣ros writeth) is the lake of Barcena. For it extendeth eastward towarde the Red sea, as farre as Suaquen, the space of two hundred twentie and two leagues. Howbeit betweene the sea and his dominions runneth a ridge of mountaines inhabited by Moores, who are masters of al the sea-coast along, except the porte of Ercoco, which belongeth to the Prete. And likewise on the west, his empire is restrained by another mountainous ridge stret∣ching along the riuer of Nilus; where are founde most rich mines of golde;* amongst which are the mines of Damut and of Sinassij, wholie in the pos∣session of Gentiles which pay tribute vnto the Prete. Northward it is boun∣ded by an imaginarie line supposed to be drawen from Suachen to the be∣ginning of the isle Meroe aboue mentioned; which line extendeth an hun∣dred and fiue and twentie leagues. From thence the Abassin borders trend south somewhat crookedly in manner of a bowe, as farre as the kingdome of Adea (from the mountaines whereof springeth a riuer called by Ptole∣mey* Raptus which falleth into the sea about Melinde) for the space of two hundred and fiftie nine leagues; next vnto the which borders, inhabite cer∣taine Gentiles of blacke colour, with curled haire. And heere the 〈◊〉Page  13 empire is limited by the kingdome of Adel, the head citie whereof called Arar, standeth in the latitude nine degrees. So that all this great empire may containe in compasse sixe hundred threescore and two leagues, little more or lesse. It is refreshed and watered by two mightie riuers which conuey their streames into Nilus, called by Ptolemey Astaboras and Astapus, and by the naturall inhabitants Abagni and Tagassi; the first whereof taketh his originall from the lake of Barcena, and the second from the lake of Colue. Barcena lieth in seuen degrees of north latitude; & Colue vnder the verie Equinoctiall. The first (besides Abagni) ingendereth also the riuer of Zeila: and the second (besides Tagassi) giueth essence to the riuer of Qui∣limanci. Between Abagni and the Red sea lieth the prouince of Barnagasso: betweene Abagni and Tagassi are the kingdomes of Angote and Fatigar; and more towards the* bay of Barbarians, the prouinces of Adea and of Baru; and somewhat lower, that of Amara. In briefe, beyond the riuer of Tagassi ly the regions of Bileguanzi, and of Tigremahon.

The Abassins haue no great knowledge of Nilus by reason of the moun∣taines which deuide them from it; for which cause they call Abagni the fa∣ther of riuers. Howbeit they say that vpon Nilus do inhabite two great and populous nations; one of Iewes towards the west, vnder the gouernment of a mighty king; the other more southerly, consisting of Amazones or war∣like women; whereof wee will speake more at large in our relation of Mo∣nomotapa.

Throughout all the dominion of the Prete there is not any one city of importance, either for multitude of inhabitantes, for magnificent buildings, or for any other respect. For the greatest townes there, containe not aboue two thousand housholds; the houses being (cottage-like) reared vp with clay and couered with straw, or such like base matter. Also Ptolemey intreating of these partes, maketh mention but of three or foure cities onely, which he appointeth to the south of the Isle Meroe. Howbeit in some places vpon the frontiers of Abassia there are certaine townes verie fairely built, and much frequented for traffique. The Portugales in their trauailes through∣out the empire haue often declared vnto the Abassins, how much better it were, for auoiding of the outragious iniuries and losses daily inflicted by the Moores and Mahumetans both vpon their goods and persons, if the emperour would build cities and castles stronglie walled and fortified. Whereunto they made answere, that the power of their Neguz, or empe∣rour, consisted not in stone-walles, but in the armes of his people. They vse not ordinarily any lime or stone, but onely for the building of churches (saying, that so it becommeth vs to make a difference between the houses of men, and churches dedicated to God) and of their Beteneguz or houses of the emperour, wherein the gouernours of prouinces are placed to execute iustice. These Beteneguz stand continually open, and yet in the gouernours* absence no man dare enter into them, vnder paine of being punished as a traytour. Moreouer in the city of Axuma (esteemed by them to haue beene Page  14 the seate of the Queene of Saba) stand certaine ruinous buildings like vnto pyramides; which by reason of their greatnes, remaine euen til this present, notwithstanding their many yeeres antiquitie. Likewise there are in this countrie diuers churches and oratories hewen out of the hard rocke, con∣sisting but of one onely stone, some sixtie, some fortie, and some thirtie* fa∣thomes long, being full of windowes, and engrauen with strange and vn∣knowne characters. Three such churches there are of twelue* fathomes broade and eightie in length.

The Abassins which are subiect to the Prete, hold opinion, that their* prince deriueth his petigree from 〈◊〉 the sonne of Salomon, which (as they say) he begot of the Queene of Saba; and that themselues are de∣scended from the officers and attendants which Salomon appointed vnto this his sonne when he sent him home vnto his mother: which seemeth not altogether vnlikely, if you consider the Iewish ceremonies of circumcision, obseruing of the sabaoth, & such like, which they vse vntill this present: like∣wise they abhorre swines flesh and certaine other meates, which they call vncleane. The Prete absolutely gouerneth in all matters, except it be in ad∣ministring of the sacraments, and ordaining of priests. Hee giueth and ta∣keth away benefices at his pleasure; and in punishing offenders, maketh no difference betweene his clergie and laitie. The administration of their sacra∣ments is wholie referred to the Abuna or Patriarke. The Prete is lorde and owner of all the lands and possessions in his empire, except those of the church; which are in number infinite; for the monasteries of saint Anto∣nie (besides which there are none of any other order) and the colleges of the Canons and of the Hermites, togither with the parishes, are innumera∣ble. They are all prouided by the king, both of reuenewes and of orna∣ments.

They haue two winters and two summers; which they discerne not by colde and heate, but by rainie and faire weather. They begin their yeere vpon the 26. of August, and diuide it into twelue moneths, each moneth containing thirtie daies, whereunto they adde euery common yeere fiue daies, and in the leape yeere sixe, which odde daies they call Pagomen, that is, The end of the yeere. Their ordinarie iourneies in trauelling are twelue miles a day. The common harlots dwell without their townes, and haue wages allowed them out of the common purse: neither may they enter into any cities, nor apparell themselues, but only in yellow.

The soile of Abassia aboundeth generally with graine, and in especiall with 〈◊〉 and all kindes of Pulse, but not so much with wheate; they haue 〈◊〉 likewise (not knowing how to refine it) and hony, and cotton-wooll, orenges, cedars, and limons, grow naturally there. They haue neither me∣lons, citrons, nor rape-roots: but many plants & herbes different from ours. Their drinke is made of barley and millet: neither haue they any wine made of grapes, but onely in the houses of the emperour, and the* Abuna. They are not destitute of Elephants, mules; lions, tygres, ounces, and deere. Their Page  15 owne countrey horses are but of a small size: how beit they haue also of the Arabian and Egyptian breed, the coltes whereof within fower daies after they be foled, they vse to suckle with kine. They haue great and terribles apes; and infinite sorts of birds; but neither cuckowes nor Pies, so farre as euer could bee learned. Heere are likewise great store of mines of gold, sil∣uer, iron, and copper; but they know not how to digge and refine the same: for the people of this countrey are so rude and ignorant, that they haue no knowledge nor vse of any arte or occupation. Insomuch as they esteeme the carpenters or smithes craft for an vnlawfull and diabolicall kinde of sci∣ence; and such as exercise the same, liue among them like infamous per∣sons; neither are they permitted to enter into any of their churches. In the kingdome of Bagamidri are founde most excellent mines of siluer, which they knowe none other way how to take from the ore, but onely by mel∣ting it with fire into thinne plates. Goiame aboundeth with base gold. In the kingdome of Damut they digge and refine it somewhat better. They haue neither the arte of making cloth (for which cause the greater part of them go clad in beasts skins) nor yet the manner of hauking, fowling, or hunting; so that their countries swarme with partridges, quailes, fesants, cranes, geese, hens, hares, deere, and other like creatures: neither knowe they how to make any full vse or benefite of the fruitefulnes of their coun∣trey, nor of the commoditie of riuers. They sowe mill for the most parte, sometimes in one place, and sometimes in another, according as the raine giueth them opportunitie. In summe, they shew no wit nor dexterity in any thing so much as in robbery and warre; vnto both which they haue a kind of naturall inclination. Which is occasioned (as I suppose) by the continuall voiages made by the Prete, and by their vsuall liuing in the wide fields, and that in diuers and sundry places. For to trauaile continually, and remaine in the fields without any stable or firme habitation, compelleth men as it were, of necessitie, to lay holde on all that comes next to hande, be it their owne, or belonging to others.

They are not much subiect to tempests; but to an inconuenience far more intollerable, namely to innumerable swarmes of locusts, which bring such desolation vpon them, as is most dreadfull to consider: for they consume whole prouinces, leauing them quite destitute of succour both for man and beast. They vse no stamped coine in all this empire, but insteede thereof certaine rude pieces of golde, and little balles of iron, especially in Ango∣te; as likewise salt and pepper, which are the greatest riches that they can en∣ioy.

Hence it is, that the tributes which are payed to the prince, consist one∣ly of such things as his owne dominions do naturally afforde; as namely of salt, gold, siluer, corne, hides, elephants teeth, the horne of the Rhinoceros, with slaues, and such like. Which forme of tribute (being most agreeable to nature) is vsed also in other parts of Africa. Their salt is taken out of a cer∣taine great mountaine in the prouince of Balgada, and is made into square pieces.

Page  16 The most populous place in all Abassia is the court of the Prete, where∣soeuer it resideth; and there are erected fiue or sixe thousand tents of cotton of diuers colours, with so notable a distinction of streetes, lanes, market-places, and Tribunals; that euen in a moment euery man knoweth his owne station and the place where he is to doe his busines. A man may coniecture the greatnes of this courte, if he doe but consider, that (accor∣ding to the report of some who haue there bin personally present) besides the camels which carry the tents, the mules of carriage exceede the num∣ber of fiftie thousand. Their mules serue them to carry burthens, and to ride vpon: but their horses are onely for the warres. The Mahumetans haue now brought this prince to great extremity: but heretofore while he was in his flourishing estate, he liued so maiestically, that he neuer spake but by an interpreter; nor would be seene to his subiects, but onely vpon solemne dayes. At other times it was held as a great fauour, if he did shew but the halfe part of his feete to ambassadours, and to his fauorites. And no maruel: for amongst the Ethiopians it hath beene an ancient custome (as Strabo writeth) To adore their kinges like gods, who for the most part liue enclo∣sed at home. This so strange and stately kinde of gouernment, did excee∣dingly abase his subiects, whom the Prete vsed like slaues; so that vpon the smallest occasions that might be, he would depriue them of all honour and dignity, were they neuer so great. Abassia containeth many large plaines, and very high mountaines, all fruitfull. In some places you shall haue most extreame coulde and frostie weather: but not any snowe throughout the whole empire, no not in the mountaines.

The Prete hath many moores in his dominions, and vpon his borders; but the most populous of all others are the Moores called Dobas, who are* bound by a law neuer to marry, till they can bring most euident testimony, that each of them hath slaine twelue Christians. Wherefore the Abassin merchantspasse not by their country, but with most strong guardes.

A particular and briefe relation of all the kingdomes and prouinces subiect to the Christian Emperour of Abassia, commonly called Prete Ianni.

〈◊〉.

OF all the prouinces subiect vnto the Prete, that of * Barna∣gasso is best knowne vnto vs, bicause it is so neere vnto the Red sea; ouer against the shore whereof it stretcheth in length from Suachen, almost as farre as the very mouth or entrance of the streight, being (as is before saide) bounded on the Page  17 south part with the mightie riuer of Abagni, which runneth westward out* of the lake of Barcena into Nilus. Howbeit it hath no other port vpon the Red sea but onely Ercoco, situate neere the Isle of Mazua; neither hath the Prete any porte but this, in all his dominions; so that he is (as it were) on all sides land-locked, which is one of the greatest defects in any empire, king∣dome or state, that can be imagined. This prouince is full of townes & villa∣ges, as likewise of riuers and pooles which make it exceeding fruitfull. The Viceroy or gouernour hereof, called also by the name of * Barnagasso, resi∣deth in the citie of Beroa, otherwise called Barua, and by Ptolemey (as Sa∣nutus thinketh) Coloue, situate vpon a pleasant riuer abounding with fish. Vnto him likewise are subiect the gouernments of Danfila and of Canfila, neere vnto the borders of Egypt.

Certaine yeeres past the great Turkes forces haue mightily afflicted this prouince, destroying the townes, and leading the people captiue: so that in the end Isaac the lorde Barnagasso was inforced to compound with the Turkes lieutenant (bearing title, The Bassa of Abassia, and residing in Suachen) for the yeerely tribute of a thousand ounces of golde. Ouer and besides he paieth euery yeere vnto his soueraigne the Prete, an hundred and fiftie excellent horses, with cloth of silke and of cotton, and other mat∣ters.

On the most westerly part of Barnagasso, beginneth a mightie ridge of mountaines, which for a good space waxing narrower and narrower, at length in the kingdome of Angote dilateth 〈◊〉 selfe into a rounde forme,* enuironing with the steepe sides, and impassable tops thereof, many fruite∣full and pleasant vallies, for the space of fifteene daies iourney in compasse: within which vallies (as it were in walled castles) all persons whatsoeuer, both male and female, of the Abassin bloud royall, are vnder paine of most extreme punishment, togither with their whole families, limited to re∣maine. Within this great roundell or enclosure of mountaines, there is (among many others) contained one lesser, which is begirt arounde with a mountainous wall so craggie, steepe, and vnscaleable, that no man can come in or out, but onely by a certaine basket drawne vp and downe vpon a rope: neither is it possible to famish the parties within by a siege, be it ne∣uer so long: for they haue fruitefull ground, with houses, a church, a mona∣sterie, cesternes of water, and all other necessaries for the continuall main∣tenance of fiue hundred persons. Within this strong citadell of moun∣taines (for the auoiding of all tumults and seditions) are locked vp those great personages which come neerest in bloud to the Prete, and are in pos∣sibilitie of the crowne; and here must they all liue and die, except a very few of them, who attaine at length vnto the gouernment of the empire. The Abassins haue a tradition, that one Abraham an emperour of theirs being admonished in a dreame, that he shoulde keepe his dominions in tranquil∣litie by the meanes aforesaid, was the first that founde this mountaine, and vsed it for the same purpose.

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Tigremahon.

TIgremahon, a very large kingdome, lieth betweene the riuer Marabo, Nilus, the Red sea, and the kingdome of Angote. The gouernour heere of paieth for yeerely tribute vnto the Prete two hundred Arabi∣an horsés, a great quantitie of silke and cotton-cloth, and very much golde. Vnto this kingdome is subiect the prouince of Tigray, wherein standes the citie of Caxumo, sometimes the royall seate of the Queene of Saba (which they say was called Maqueda, of whom Salomon begat a sonne named Me∣lich, before mentioned) which citie was the seate likewise of Queene Can∣dace. Also to the said kingdome of Tigremahon belong the prouinces of Sabaim, Torrates, Balgada, and others.

Angote.

THis kingdome standing betweene the kingdomes of Tigremahon and Amara, is full of mountaines and valleies, and aboundeth migh∣tilie with all kinde of corne and cattell. The inhabitants eate but one meale in fower and twentie howers, and that alwaies in the night: their foode is most commonly rawe flesh, with a kinde of sauce made of an oxegall. In stead of money they vse salte, and little balles of iron, as is before saide. Vnto this kingdome do belong the prouinces of Abuguna, and Guanamo∣ra, with other regions and places.

Amara.

THe kingdome of Amara bordering north vpon Angote, east vpon Xoa, south vpon Damut, and extending west almost as farre as Nilus; is for the most part a plaine region, without mountaines, very fertile, and abounding with cattell. Vpon the frontiers of this kingdome standeth the foresaide large, high, and 〈◊〉 mountaine, wherein the sonnes, bre∣thren, and kinsfolkes of the Prete are most warily kept, and from whence af∣ter his decease the heire apparant is brought, to be inuested in the empire.

The kingdome of Xoa situate betweene the kingdomes of Amara, Da∣mut, and Fatigar, containeth many deepe vallies, and aboundeth with all kinde of corne and cattell.

In the kingdome of Goiame are two mightie lakes, from which Nilus is saide to fetch his originall. Heere is exceeding plentie of golde vn∣refined: the north part of this region is full of deserts and mountainous places.

Bagamidri one of the largest kingdomes in all the vpper Ethiopia, ex∣tendeth in length by the riuer Nilus, the space almost of six hundred miles: and in 〈◊〉 kingdome are many mostrich siluer-mines.

Page  19 The kingdome of Fatigar lying betweene the kingdomes of Adel, and of Xoa, consisteth the greatest parte of champion groundes, which yeelde wheate, barly, and other graine most plentifully. In this kingdome standes an exceeding high mountaine, on the toppe whereof is a lake of twelue miles in compasse, abounding with great varietie of fish, and from this mountaine 〈◊〉 many riuers stored with fish also.

The kingdome of Damut (as Sanutus affirmeth) doth border vpon the kingdome of Xoa, and is enclosed on either side with the lake of Barcena, and the lande of Zanguebar. Howbeit others place Damut betweene the kingdomes of Vangue and Goiame towarde the west, which opinion see∣meth most probable. This countrey aboundeth with golde, ginger, grapes, corne, and beasts of all sortes. The slaues of this kingdome are much esteemed, and are commonly solde throughout all Arabia, Persia, and Egypt, where they prooue most valiant soldiers. The greater part of the people of Damut are Gentiles, and the residue Christians, who haue cer∣taine monasteries. In this kingdome is that exceeding high and dreadfull* mountaine, (hauing one narrow passage onely to ascend by) whither the Prete sendeth his nobles which are conuicted of any heinous crime, to suf∣fer ignominious death with hunger and cold. About the fountaines of Nilus some say, that there are Amazones or women-warriers, most valiant* and redoubted, which vse bowes and arrowes, and liue vnder the gouerne∣ment of a Queene: as likewise the people called Cafri or Cafates, being as blacke as pitch, and of a mightie stature, and (as some thinke) descended of the Iewes; but now they are idolaters, and most deadly enimies to the Chri∣stians; for they make continuall assaults vpon the Abassins, dispoiling them both of life and goods: but all the day-time they lie lurking in moun∣taines, woods, and deepe valleies.

The stile vsed by Prete Ianni in his letters.

I the king, whose name the lions doe reuerence, and who by the grace of* God was at my baptisme called Athani Tingil, that is, The incense of the virgine, but now at the beginning of my raigne, tooke vpon me the name of Dauid; beloued of God, the piller of faith, descended of the tribe of 〈◊〉, the sonne of Dauid, the sonne of Salomon, the sonne of the piller of Sion, the sonne of the seede of Iacob, the sonne of the hand of Marie; the sonne of Nahu according to the flesh, the sonne of the holy Apostles Peter and Faul according to grace, Emperour of the higher and greater 〈◊〉, and of most large kingdomes, territories, and iurisdictions, the king of Xoa, Caffate, Fatigar, Angote, Barú, Baaliganze, Adea, Vangue, and Goiame, where the fountaines of Nilus are; as likewise of 〈◊〉, Ba∣guamedri, Ambea, 〈◊〉, Tigremahon, Sabaim the countrie of the Queen of Saba, of Barnagasso, and lorde as farre as Nubia, which confineth vpon Egypt.

Page  20

Certaine answeres of Don Francisco Aluarez, (who from the yeere 1520. for the space of sixe yeeres next ensuing, had trauailed and remained in the countrey of PRETE IANNI with the Portugall ambassadour Rodrigo de Lima) made vnto sundrie demaunds or questions of the Archbishop of Bragança, concerning the state of the foresaide countrey and prince, and of the disposition, manners, and customes of the peo∣ple. Io. Bap. Ramusius, vol. 1. delle voiag. fol. 254. 255.

THe Ethiopian Emperour called Prete Ianni hath no setled place of abode where he continually resideth; but is alwaies flitting vp and downe, sometimes to one place, and sometimes to another, and liueth in tentes set vp in the fields, enuironed with a kinde of fortifica∣tion; of which tents there may be in his campe of all sorts to the number of 5000. or 6000; and of horse∣men and mules 50000. and vpwards.

It is a generall custome of the Prete and of all his subiects not to passe on horsebacke by any church (so great is their reuerence to holy places) but so soone as they approch thereunto, they light vpon the ground, and ha∣uing passed by, they mount on horsebacke againe.

Whensoeuer the Prete marcheth with all his troupes, there is carried before him vpon the shoulders of certaine priests an altar and a consecrated stone, whereon they vse to administer their communion: the priests ap∣pointed to cary it vpon a frame of wood, are eight in number, seruing fower and fower by turnes; before whom goeth a clerke with a censer and a little bell sounding; at the sight and noise whereof all persons forsake the way, and such as are on horsebacke, dismount.

In all this countrey there is not any towne consisting of aboue 1600. families, & there are very few that haue so many: neither are there any castles or walled places; but 〈◊〉 manie villages, and infinite numbers of people. Their houses are built round, al of earth, flat-roofed, and couered with a kind of thatch which wil last the time of a mans life, being compassed about with courts or yards. They haue no bridges of stone vpon their riuers, but all of wood. They sleep commonly vpon oxe-hides, or else vpon certaine cou∣ches corded & sustained with thongs made of the said hides. They haue no kind of tables to eat their meat vpon, but haue it serued in vpon plaine & ve∣ry broad platters of wood, without any table-cloth at al. Also they haue cer∣taine great deep dishes like basons made of black earth shining in maner of Iet, with other cups of the same earth, out of which they vse to drinke water & wine. Many of them eate raw flesh, but others broile it vpon the coles or Page  21 firebrands: and some places there are so destitute of wood, that the people are faine to dresse their meate with oxe-dung.

Their armour and weapons be Azagaie or short darts, some few swords, and certaine shirts of male verie long and streight, and (as some of our men which haue seene them doe report) made of naughtie and vnseruiceable matter. They haue bowes and arrowes great store, but not with feathers as ours be: as likewise helmets and head-peeces, but very few, and first brought in since they began to haue traffique with the Portugals: howbeit they haue manie strong targets. Of artillerie they had* at our departure foureteene small yron-peeces, which they had bought of certaine Turkes that vsually came to trafficke vpon the coast; for which peeces the Prete willed that they should haue their vttermost demande, to the end they might be the willin∣ger to returne and bring more; and he caused some of his seruants also to learne how to discharge them.

The riuer of Nilus, I my selfe neuer saw, although at one time I was* within thirtie miles thereof: howbeit some of our Portugales haue trauelled to the very fountaines of Nilus, which are two great lakes comparable to seas, situate in the kingdome of Goiame; out of which hauing conueyed it selfe a small distance, this riuer embraceth certaine Islets, and then holdeth on his course to Egypt.

The reason why Nilus yeerely ouerfloweth Egypt, is, because the gene∣rall* winter of Ethiopia holding on with most mightie and continual raines from the middle of Iune to the midst of September, doth make the said ri∣uer so exceedingly to swel, that the waters thereof couer al the plaine coun∣trie of Egypt.

In all the foresaid dominions of the Prete, they vse not to write one to another, neither do the officers of Iustice commit any of their affaires to writing, but all matters are dispatched by messengers and by wordes of mouth: onely it was told me, that the reuenues and tributes of the Prete, are put downe in writing both vpon the receite, and at the disbursement.

The emperour Prete Ianni hath two speciall princely names, to wit, Ace∣gue, which signifieth an emperour, and Neguz, a king.

The Patriarke or arche-prelate of all Abassia is called Abuna, that is to say, Father; neither is there any in all the whole empire which ordaineth mi∣nisters, but onely hee.

There is no wine of the grape made publiquely in any place, but onelie in the houses of the Prete and of the Patriarke; for if it be made anie other where, it is done by stealth.

The wine which is vsed in their communions, they make of raisins stee∣ped ten daies in water, and afterward streined in a wine-presse; and it is a most cordiall, delicate, and strong wine.

In this countrey is great abundance of golde, siluer, copper, and tinne, but the people are ignorant how to worke it out of the mines: neither haue they any coine of golde or siluer, but all their bargaines are made by Page  22 bartering of one commoditie for another. Also they trucke little peeces of gold, some weighing a dram, and some an ounce. But salt is the principall thing which runneth currant for money throughout all the emperours do∣minions.

Some places there are which yeeld wheat and barly, and others millet in great plentie; and where the saide graines are not reaped, there groweth Tafo daguza, a seede vtterly vnknowne in these parts, as likewise lentiles, beanes, pease, fitches, and all kinde of pulse in abundance.

Heere are infinite store of sugar canes, which they know neither how to boile nor refine, but eate it rawe.

There be great plentie of faire grapes and peaches, which are ripe in the moneths of Februarie and Aprill. Of orenges, limons, and citrons, the quantitie is innumerable; for they growe most naturally out of the Abassin soile: garden-herbes there are but fewe, bicause the people delight neither to set nor sowe them.

All the whole countrey is full of Basill, which groweth very tall both in the woods and vpon the mountaines: so are there likewise other odorife∣rous herbes of diuers sorts, but vnknowen vnto vs. Of trees common with vs I remember none other kinds growing there, but onely Cypresses, dam∣sin-trees, sallowes by the waters side, and trees of Iuiubas.

Honie there is exceeding great plentie all the countrey ouer: neither are their bee-hiues placed abroad in the open aire as ours are: but they set them in chambers, where making a little hole in the wall, the bees go thicke in and out, and come home laden with honie. Wherefore there is great quantitie gathered in all the empire, but especially in the monasteries, where they make it a great part of their sustenance. There are founde also swarmes of bees in the woodes and vpon the mountaines, neere whom they place certaine hollowe boxes made of barke, which being filled with honi∣combes, they take vp, and carrie home to their houses.

They gather much waxe, whereof they make their candles, because they haue no vse of tallow.

They haue no oyle of oliues, but of another kinde which they call Hena:* and the hearbe whereout they straine it, is like a little vine-leafe: neither hath this oyle any smell at all, but in colour it is as beautifull as gold.

Heere likewise they haue store of flax, but they know not how to make cloth thereof.

Here is also great plenty of cotton, whereof they make cloth of diuers colours.

One countrie there is so extreamely colde, that the people are inforced to clad themselues in very course cloth of a darke tawnie.

Concerning phisicke, and the cure of diseases, they know verie little or nothing; but for aches in any partes of their bodies the onely remedy which they vse is to apply cupping-glasses; and for head-aches they let the great vaine of the temples bloud.

Page  23 Howbeit they haue certaine herbes, the iuice whereof being drunke, ser∣ueth them in steede of a purgation.

There would in this conntrie be gathered infinite store of fruit, and far greater quantitie of corne, were not the poore commons most miserablie oppressed by their superiours, who extorte all their substance from them; so that they neuer till nor plant any more, then they must of meere necessi∣tie.

In no place wheresoeuer I trauelled, could I see any shambles of flesh, but onely at the court of the Prete: for in other places no man may kill an oxe, though it bee his owne, without licence from the gouernour of the coun∣trie.

As touching their ordinary proceeding in iustice, they vse not to put* any to sudden death, but beate them with bastonados according to the qua∣lity of the offence, and likewise they plucke out their eyes, and cut off their handes and feete: howbeit during mine abode there I saw one burnt for rob∣bing of a church.

The common sort speake truth very seldome, though it bee vpon an oathe, vnlesse they be forced to sweare By the head of the King. They feare exceedingly to be excommunicated; so that being enioined any thing that tendeth to their preiudice, if they do it at all, it is done for feare of excom∣munication.

Their depositions or othes are performed in this manner. The partie to* be deposed goeth accompanied with two priests, carrying with them fire and incense to the church-doore, whereon he layeth his hande; and then the said priests adiure him to tell the truth, saying: If thou sweare falsly, as the lyon 〈◊〉 the beasts of the forest, so let the diuell deuoure thy soule; and as corne is ground vnder the mill-stone, so let him grinde thy bones; and finally, as the fire burneth vp the wood, so may thy soule burne in the fire of hell: and the partie sworne, answereth to euery of the former clauses, Amen. But if thou speake truth, let thy life be prolonged with honour, and thy soule enter into Paradise with the blessed: and he againe answereth, Amen. Which being done, hee giueth testimonie of the matter in question.

No person may sit in their churches, nor enter into them with his* shooes on, nor spit within them, neither may any dogge or any other crea∣ture voide of reason come within them. They confesse themselues standing vpon their feete, and so standing likewise, receiue absolution. They 〈◊〉 their forme of publike praier after one and the same manner, both in the churches of their Canons, and of their friers: which friers haue no wiues; but the Canons and priests are permitted to haue. Where the Canons liue togither, they go each man to diet at his owne house; but the friers eate their meate in common.

Their ecclefiasticall gouernours are called Licanati. The sonnes of the Canons are, as it were by inheritance, Canons; but priests sonnes haue no such priuilege, vnlesse they be ordained by the Abuna. They pay no tithes Page  24 to any churches, but the clergie are maintained by great possessions belon∣ging to their churches and monasteries. Also when any priest is cited, he is conuented before a secular iudge.

Whereas I saide, they sit not in their churches, it is to bee vnderstoode, that alwaies without the church doore stande a great number of woodden crutches, such as lame men vse to goe vpon; where euery man taketh his owne, and leaneth thereupon all the time of their diuine seruice.

All their books (which they haue in great numbers) are written in parch∣ment, for paper they haue none; and the language wherein they are written named Tigia, is all one with the Abassin language: but so it was called from the name of the first towne in all that empire, which was conuerted to the Christian religion.

All their churches haue two curtaines, one about their great altar, with belles, within which curtaine none may enter but onely priests: also they haue another curtaine stretching through the midst of their church, and within that may no man come, but such as haue taken holy orders: inso∣much that many gentlemen and honorable persons take orders vpon them, onely that they may haue accesse into their churches.

The greater part of their monasteries are built vpon high mountaines, or in some deepe valley: they haue great reuenues and iurisdictions; and in many of them they eate no flesh all the yeere long. Neither do they spende any store of fish, bicause they know not how to take it.

Vpon the wals of all their churches are painted the pictures of Christ, of the blessed virgine Marie, of the apostles, prophets and angels, and in euery one the picture of Saint George a horseback. They haue no Roodes, neither will they suffer Christ crucified to be painted, bicause they say, they are not woorthy to behold him in that passion. All their priests, friers, and noble∣men continually carrie crosses in their hands; but the meaner sort of peo∣ple carrie them about their neckes.

Their mooueable feasts, namely Easter, the feast of Ascension & Whit∣sontide, they obserue at the verie same daies and times that we do. Likewise as concerning the feasts of Christmas, the Circumcision, the Epiphanie, and other the feasts of the saints, they agree whollie with vs, though in some other things they varie.

They haue great store of leprous persons, who are not put apart from the rest of the people, but liue in company with them: and many there are who for charitie and deuotions sake do wash them, and heale their wounds.

They haue a kinde of trumpets, but not of the best, and likewise certaine* drums of brasse which are brought from Cairo, and of woode also couered with leather at both endes, and cimbals like vnto ours, and certaine great basons whereon they make a noise. There are flutes in like sort, and a kinde of square instruments with strings, not much vnlike to an harpe, which they call Dauid Mozan, that is to say, the harpe of Dauid; and with these harpes they sounde before the Prete, but some what rudely.

Page  25 Their horses of the countrey-breed are in number infinite, but such small hackney-iades, that they doe them little seruice: howbeit those that are brought out of Arabia and Egypt are most excellent and beautifull horses: and the great horse-masters also in Abassia haue certaine breeds or races of them, which being new foled, they suffer not to sucke the damme aboue three daies, if they be such as they meane to backe betimes: but separating them from their dammes, they suckle them with kine, and by that meanes they prooue most sightly and gallant horses. Hitherto Aluarez.

Thus much (I hope) may suffice to haue bin spoken concerning the vp∣per or Inner Ethiopia which containeth the empire of Prete Ianni: now si∣thens we are so far proceeded, let vs take also a cursory and briefe surueie of the lower or extreme Ethiopia, extending it selfe in forme of a speares point, or a wedge, as far as thirtie fiue degrees of southerly latitude.

Of the lower or extreme Ethiopia.

THis parte of Africa being vtterly vnknowne to Ptolemey and all the ancient writers, but in these later times, throughly discouered by the Portugales, especially along the coast, beginneth to the Northwest about the great riuer of Zaire, not far from the Equinoctial: from whence stretching southward to thirtie fiue degrees, and then Northward along the sea-coast on the backside of Africa, as far as the very mouth or ente∣rance of the Arabian gulfe, it limiteth the south and east frontiers of the Abassin Empire last before described.

In this part also are many particulars very memorable, as namely besides sundry great empires & kingdomes, The famous mountaines of the moon, the mightie riuers of Magnice Cuama, and Coauo, springing out of the lake Zembre, the renowmed cape of good hope, and other matters whereof we will intreate in their due places.

This portion of Africa is diuided into sixe principall partes, namely: The land of Aian, the land of Zanguebar, the empire of Mohenemugi, the em∣pire of Monomotapa, the region of Cafraria, & the kingdome of Congo.

Aian the first generall part of Ethiopia the lower.

THe land of Aian is accounted by the Arabians to be that region* which lyeth betweene the narrow entrance into the Red sea, and the riuer of Quilimanci; being vpon the sea-coast for the most part inha∣bited by the said Arabians; but the inland-partes thereof are peopled with a black nation which are Idolaters. It comprehendeth two kingdomes; Adel and Adea.

Adel is a very large kingdome, and extendeth from the mouth of the* Arabian gulfe to the cape of Guardafu called of olde by Ptolemey Aroma∣ta promontorium. South and west it bordereth vpon the dominions of Pre∣te Ianni, about the kingdome of Fatigar. The king of this countrie being a Page  26 Moore, is accounted amongst the Mahumetans a most holy man, and very much reuerenced by them, because he wageth continuall war with the Christians, taking captiue many of the Abassins, and sending them to the great Turke, and the princes of Arabia, of whome he receiueth greate ayde for the maintenance of his warres, both of horse and foote. The people of Adel are of the colour of an oliue, being very warlike, notwithstanding that the greatest part of them want weapons. Their principall city is called * Anar, as some are of opinion. Vnto this kingdome is subiect the citie of Zeila inhabited by Mooes, situate on a sandie and low soile, which some sup∣pose to be built in the very same place, without the enterance of the Red sea, where Ptolemey placed the ancient mart-towne of Aualites. This citie is* a place of great traffike; for hither they bring out of India, cloth, elephants teeth, frankincense, pepper, golde, and other rich merchandize. The ter∣ritorie adioining yeeldeth abundance of honie, waxe, and great quantitie of oile, which they make not of oliues, but of a kinde of daintie plums: it affourdeth likewise such plentie of 〈◊〉, of cattell, and of fruits differing from ours, that they are transported by shipping to other nations. Barbora likewise, a citie of the Moores, standeth in this kingdome of Adel, and hath a commodious hauen, whereunto resort many ships laden with merchan∣dize, from Aden in Arabia, and from Cambaya vpon the riuer of Indus. The citizens are blacke people, and their wealth consisteth most of all in flesh.

In the yeere 1541. Gradaameth the king of this place, after manie mis∣chiefes which he had done to Claudius the emperour of Abassia, being van∣quished by Christopher de Gama, the Indian Viceroy of Iohn the third king of Portugale; hee did by meanes of the souldiers and warlike prouisi∣ons, which were sent him from the Sheque or gouernour of Zebit, ouer∣come the Portugals & the Abassins. Howbeit afterward hauing sent the said forces backe againe to Zebit, himselfe was slaine, and his whole armie ouer∣throwne by king Claudius aforesaide. But certaine yeeres after, the succes∣sour of Gradaameth hauing in a warlike encounter subdued the Prete, rode in triumph vpon a little asse; signifying thereby, that he ascribed not the victorie to his owne forces, but to the power of God,

Adea, the second kingdome of the land of Aian, situate vpon the easterne* Ocean, is confined northward by the kingdome of Adel, & westward by the Abassin empire. It is exceeding fruitful, & one part thereof mightily aboun∣deth with woods, the residue being sufficiently stored with cattell & corne. The inhabitants being Moores by religion, and paying tribute to the em∣perour of Abassia, are (as they of Adel before-named) originally descen∣ded of the Arabians: who many hundred yeeres agoe, partly by their rich traffike, and especially by force of armes, became lords not onely of Aian, but of all the sea-coast along as farre as Cabo de los corrientes, standing in the southerly latitude of fower and twentie degrees. In all which space the cities standing vpon the sea-coast; before the Portugals discouered the east Page  27 Indies, lay open and vnfortified to the sea (bicause the Arabians themselues were absolute lords thereof) but were strongly walled toward the lande, for feare of the Cafri, or lawlesse wilde Negros, who were deadly enimies to the Arabians, and vtterly misliked their so neere neighbourhood. Howbeit since the Portugals taking of Magadazo, and diuers other townes vpon the coast, they haue applied themselues very much to fortification. But, to re∣turne* to the matter where we left, vnto the foresaid kingdome of Adea be∣longeth the kingdome of Magadazo, so called of the principall citie there∣in, which is a most strong, beautifull, and rich place, and is subiect to the kingly gouernment of a Moore. The territorie adiacent is exceeding fruit∣full, abounding with sheepe, kine, horses, wheate, barly, and other kindes of graine. It hath also an excellent hauen, and much frequented by the ships of Aden and Cambaya, which come thither laden with sundrie kindes of cloth, with spices and other merchandize; and from hence they carrie ele∣phants teeth, golde, slaues, honie, and waxe. The inhabitants are of an oliue-colour, and some of them blacke, like vnto the nations adioining, and they go naked from the girdle-stead vpward, and speak the Arabian toong. They are but meanely weaponed, which causeth them to shoote poisoned arrowes. This citie was in times past head of all the townes and cities of the Moores standing along this coast for a great distance.

Zanguebar or Zanzibar, the second generall part of the lower Ethiopia.

ZAnzibar or Zanguebar, so called by the Arabians and Persians, is that tract of lande, which runneth along some parte of the dominions of Prete Ianni, and from thence extendeth it selfe by the east of Mohenemugi, til it ioyneth with the frontiers of Monomotapa. Howbeit some there are who vnder the name of Zanzibar will haue all the south part of Africa to be vnderstood, euen as far as Cabo Negro, which stretcheth into the western Ocean about 18. degrees of southerly latitude: so that they comprehend therein the empires of Mohenemugi and Monomotapa, and all the land of Cafraria. But in this controuersie wee rather chuse to follow the opinion of Sanutus, affirming with him, that the said maritime tract of Zanguebar (as it is by vs before limited) is alowe, fennie, and woodie countrie, with many greate and small riuers running through it: which extremity of moisture in those hot climates causeth the ayer to be most vnholesome and pestilent. The inhabitants are for the most part black, with curled haire, being Idola∣ters, and much addicted to sorcery and witchcraft. They go naked all the vp∣per part of their bodies, couering their nether partes with clothes of diuers colours, and with beasts skins. And this tract of lande stretching along the sea-coast from the riuer Quilimanci to the riuer of Magnice containeth the kingdomes and territories of Melinde, Mombaza, Quiloa, Moçambique, Sofala, and others.

Page  28 Melinde, the most Northerly kingdome of Zanguebar, situate in two de∣grees* and an halfe of southerly latitude, and stretching from the coast vp into the main for the space of an hundred miles, hath a strong and stately city of the same name, being seuentie miles distant from Mombaça. It aboundeth with Rice, Millet, flesh, limons, citrons, and all kinds of fruites: but as for corne, it is brought hither out of Cambaya. The inhabitants (especially on the sea coast) are Moores and Mahumetans: who build their houses very sumptuously after the manner of Europe. They are of a co∣lour inclining to white, and some blacke people they haue also among them, which are for the greatest part Idolaters: howbeit all of them pretend a kinde of ciuilitie both in their apparell, and in the decencie and furniture of their houses. The women are white, and sumptuously attired after the Arabian fashion with cloth of silke. Likewise they adorne their neckes, armes, hands, and feete with bracelets and iewels of golde and siluer. When they go abroad out of their houses, they couer themselues with a vaile of taffata, so that they are not knowne but when they themselues list. Vpon this coast of Melinde you haue a very safe harborough, wherunto the ships that saile those seas do vsually resort. In briefe the inhabitants are a kind, true-har∣ted, & trustie people, & courteous to strangers. They haue alwaies beene in league with the Portugals, giuing them most friendly entertainmēt, & repo∣sing much cōfidence in them; neither haue they euer done them any iniury.

The kingdome of Mombaça, being the second generall part of Zangue∣bar,* and situate in three degrees and an halfe beyond the Equinoctiall line, bordering to the north vpon Melinde, and to the south vpon Quiloa; is so called after the name of a certaine isle and citie vpon the coast, both which are named Mombaça, and are peopled with Mahumetans: their hou∣ses are of many stories high, and beautified with pictures both grauen and painted. Their kings are Mahumetans, and most deadly enimies to the Christians: one of the which taking vpon him to resist the Por∣tugals, was himselfe quite vanquished and ouerthrowen, and constrained to leaue his citie to the sacke and spoile of his enimies, who found therein a good quantitie of gold, siluer, and pearle; and likewise cloth of cotton, of silke, and of gold, with great numbers of slaues, & such other commodities. Howbeit they remained not there any long time, but were inforced to aban∣don the place in regard of the most vnholesome and infectious aire. This kingdome is tributarie to the great empire of Mohenemugi.

The kingdome of Quiloa situate in nine degrees towarde the pole An∣tarticke,* and (like the last before mentioned) taking the denomination thereof from a certaine isle and citie both called by the name of Quiloa; may be accounted for the third portion of the lande of Zanguebar. This island hath a very fresh and coole aire, and is replenished with trees alwaies greene, and with plentie of all kinde of victuals. It is situate at the mouth of the great riuer Coauo which springeth out of the same lake from whence Nilus floweth, and is called also by some Quiloa, and by others Tahiua, Page  29 and runneth from the saide lake, eastward for the space of sixe hundred miles, till it approcheth neere the sea, where the streame thereof is so forci∣ble, that at the very mouth or out-let, dispersing it selfe into two branches, it shapeth out a great island, to the west where of vpon the coast you may be∣hold the little isle and the citie of Quiloa, being separated from the maine by a very narrow arme of the sea. This isle (as also the great isle before na∣med) is inhabited by Mahumetans, who are of colour whitish. Their wo∣men are comely, and rich in their attire. Their houses are fairely builte of lime and stone, and haue within them very gallant and costly furniture, and without they are enuironed with gardens and orchards full of sundry deli∣cate fruits and herbes. Of this island the whole kingdome (as is aforesaide) tooke the name; which vpon the coast extendeth it selfe to Cabo Delgado, or the slender Cape (being the limite betweene Moçambique and this kingdome of Quiloa) & from thence it stretcheth vnto the foresaid riuer of Coauo. In old time this kingdome of Quiloa was the chiefest of all the principalities there adioining; for the Arabians which were masters there∣of had inlarged their dominions for the space of nine hundred miles, so that all the sea-coast and the islands, as farre as Cabo de los Corrientes situ∣ate in fower and twentie degrees of southerly latitude, were tributarie and subiect thereunto. Whereupon when the Portugals arriued in those coun∣tries, the king of this place trusted so much to himselfe, that he thought he was able with his owne forces, not onely to make a defensiue warre against them, but also to driue them from those places, which they had already sur∣prized. Howbeit, quite contrarie to his expectation, he was by the Por∣tugals vtterly vanquished and put to flight. Who seazing vpon the isle and citie, enriched themselues with the great booties & spoiles that they found therein. Thus the mightie king of Quiloa (who before the Portugals arri∣uall in those parts, enioied also the chiefe commoditie of the rich gold mines of Sofala) became atlength, by a composition made with Don Pedro Cabral, tributarie to the crowne of Portugall, paying for tribute at the first fiue hundred, and afterward fifteene hundred peeces of gold. Vpon the foresaid isle the Portugals erected a fortresse, which their king afterward commanded them to deface, considering that there were other forts suffici∣ent enough for that coast.

Betweene the two mightie riuers of Coauo and Cuama (both which* spring out of one lake with Nilus) among the kingdomes of Mombara, Mozimba, Maeuas, and Embeoe, which are not as yet perfectly discoue∣red, lieth the kingdome of Moçambique, so called of three small islets, situ∣ate in the mouth of the riuer * Meghincate in fowerteene and a halfe, or fifteene degrees of southerly latitude, which kingdome in ancient time by Ptolemey was called Promontorium 〈◊〉. In the principall of the three foresaide isles, there is a very commodious and secure hauen, capable of all kinde of vessels, and there also the Portugals haue built a very strong forte: where albeit in regard of the lownes and moisture of the soile, being Page  30 full of bogges and fens, the aire be most vnholsome, and in manner pesti∣lent: yet the oportunitie of the place, and the plentie of victuals, haue made it one of the most famous and frequented hauens in all that Ocean. For which cause the fleetes which saile from Portugall to the east Indies, when they are out of hope to performe their voiage in summer, do vsually resort to spend the whole winter at Moçambique: and those Portugale ships also which come from the Indies toward Europe, must of necessitie touch at this place, to furnish themselues with victuals. Along these coasts do saile certaine Moores in vessels sowed or fastened togither with thongs of le∣ther, the sailes whereof they make of Palme-leaues, and in stead of pitch and tallow, they calke them with gumme which they gather in the woods. Vnto this kingdome of Moçambique belongeth the prouince of Angoscia, so* called from certaine isles of that name, lying directly ouer against it, which prouince stretcheth to the riuer of Cuama. It is inhabited by Mahumetans and Gentiles, who are for the greatest part merchants, and do trafficke along that coast with the same wares and commodities wherewith the people of Sofala do trade.

Sofala, or Sefala, the fift and last general part of Zanguebar, is a small* kingdome lying vpon the sea-coast, between the riuers of Cuama and Mag∣nice, being so called after the name of a riuer running through it, in which riuer lyeth an Island, which is the head and principal place of the whole countrie. On this Island the Portugales 〈◊〉 built a most strong forte, by meanes whereof they are become Lordes of the richest trade in all those parts. For (to say nothing of the Iuorie, Amber, and slaues which are hither brought) all the gold in a manner that is taken out of those manifolde and endlesse mines of Sofala and all the Inland-countries thereabouts, is here exchanged vnto the Portugales for cotton-cloth, silkes, and other commo∣dities of Cambaia: all which is thought yeerely to amount vnto the summe of two millions of gold. This golden trade was first in the power of the Moores of Magadazo; and afterward it befell to them of Quiloa. The inha∣bitants of Sofala are Mahumetans, being gouerned by a king of the same sect, who yeeldeth obedience to the crowne of Portugale, because hee will not be subiect to the empire of Monomotapa.

Neither is it heere to bee omitted, that in these parts vnder the name of Iuorie, are bartered not onely elephants teeth, but also the teeth of sea-hor∣ses: which creatures are commonly found in the riuers of Nilus, Niger, Co∣auo, Cuama, Magnice, and all other the great riuers of Africa.

The empire of Mohenemugi, the third generall part of the lower Ethiopia.

THis mightie empire bordering south vpon the kingdome of Moçam∣bique, and the empire of Monomotapa; to the riuer Coauo, and be∣yond; west with the riuer Nilus; North vpon the dominions of Prete Ianni; and east vpon the kingdomes of Melinde, Mombaça, and Quiloa, Page  31 hath not many yeeres ago bin discouered or at least heard of by the Portu∣gales, vpon occasion perhaps of the warres, which with vnfortunate successe they haue waged against Monomotapa. The emperour of this country hol∣deth a continuall league with the princes of Melinde, Mombaça, and Qui∣loa, towards the sea, for traffiques sake: for they prouide his dominions with cloth of cotton, cloth of silke, and sundrie other commodities brought from Arabia, Persia, Cambaya, and India, which are very well esteemed in those parts: but among the rest they bring especially certaine little balles, of a red colour, and in substance like vnto glasse, being made in Cambaya of a kinde of Bitumen or clammie claie, which balles they vse to weare like beades about their necks. They serue also to them in stead of money, for gold they make none account of. Likewise with the silkes that are brought vnto them they apparel themselues from the girdle downward. In exchange of all the foresaide wares and commodities they giue gold, siluer, copper, and iuorie. Howbeit vpon his Inland frontiers to the south and southwest, he maintaineth continuall and bloudie warres against the emperour of Mo∣nomotapa, his principall and greatest forces consisting of a most barbarous and fierce nation, called by the people of Congo Giachi, but by them∣selues Agag, who inhabite from the first great lake which is the fountaine of Nilus, for a certaine space vpon both sides of the said riuer, and then af∣terward on the westerne banke as farre as the second great lake from whence Zaire hath his chiefe original, & thence euen to the confines of Prete Ianni. They are a wilde and lawles people, liuing (after the manner of the ancient Scythians and Nomades, and like the Tartars and Baduin-Arabians of these times) a vagrant kind of life, vnder cabbins and cottages in the open for∣rests. They are of stature tall, and of countenance most terrible, making lines vpon their cheekes with certaine iron-instruments, and turning their eie-lids backward, whereby they cast vpon their enimies a most dreadfull and astonishing aspect. They are man-eaters, and couragious in battaile. For their armour of defence they vse certaine Pauises or great targets wher∣with they couer their whole bodies, being otherwise naked: and their offen∣siue weapons are dartes and daggers. It is not many yeeres since these cruel sauages ranging westward from Nilus, inuaded the kingdome of Congo, vanquished the inhabitants in sundrie battels, tooke the head citie, and for∣ced the king Don Aluaro to flee for succour and safetie vnto the isle of hor∣ses, in the mouth of the great riuer Zaire, being one of the extreme fron∣tiers of his dominions. Where the king himselfe was taken with an incura∣ble dropsie, and his people in great numbers died of famine; who to relieue their extreme necessities, sold their wiues, their children, and their owne selues for slaues vnto the Portugals. Howbeit these warlike Giacchi, not∣withstanding their hautie courage, and great exploits, are no whit feared, but rather most boldly encountered, and sometimes vanquished by the Amazones or women warriers of Monomotapa. Which two nations, what by warlike stratagems, and what by open and maine force, do often fight Page  32 the most desperate and doubtfull battailes, that are performed in all those southern parts.

The empire of Monomotapa, the fourth generall part of the lower Ethiopia.

BEnomotapa, Benomotaxa, or Monomotapa is a large empire, so cal∣led after the name of the prince thereof, who in religion is a Gentile, and for extension of dominions, and military forces, a renowmed and mightie emperour; in the language of whose subiects an emperour is signi∣fied by this word Monomotapa. This empire of his lyeth, as it were, in an Island which containeth in compasse seuen hundred and fiftie, or (as some thinke) one thousand leagues, being limited on the north-west by the great lake whereout Nilus springeth; on the south, by the riuer Magnice and the tributarie kingdome of Butua or Toroa; on the east it hath the sea-coast and the kingdome of Sofala, which in very deed is a member thereof; and the North part abutteth vpon the riuer of Cuama, and the empire of Mohene∣mugi. That part of this great Island which lyeth betweene the mouth of Cu∣ama,* and the cape de los Corrientes, is a very pleasant, holesome, and fruit∣full country. And from the said cape to the riuer of Magnice, the whole re∣gion aboundeth with beasts both great and small; but it is cold by reason of the sharp brizes which come off the sea; and so destitute of wood, that the people for fewel are constrained to vse the dung of beasts, and they apparel themselues in their skinnes. Along the banke of the riuer Cuama are diuers hilles and downes couered with trees, and vallies likewise watered with ri∣uers, being pleasantly situate, and well peopled. Here are such plenty of Ele∣phants, as it seemeth by the great quantitie of their teeth, that there are yeerely slaine betweene foure and fiue thousand. Their elephants are nine cubites high, and fiue cubites in thicknes: They haue long and broad eares, little eyes, shorte tailes, and great bellies: and some are of opinion, that Ethiopia yeeldeth as many elephants, as Europe doth oxen. The townes and villages of this empire are very few, and their buildings are of wood and clay, couered with thatch. None may haue doores to their houses but onely great personages. Their principal cities are* Zimbas, and Benamataza, the first whereof is one and twentie, and the second fifteene daies iourney from Sofala. They serue this emperour at the table vpon their knees: to sit before him, is all one, as with vs for a man to stand vpon his feete, neither may any presume to stand in his presence, but onely great lords. He is tasted vnto, not before, but after he hath eaten and drunke. For his armes he hath a spade and two dartes. Tribute he taketh none, but onely certaine daies seruice and giftes presented vnto him; without which there is no appearing in his sight. Hee carrieth, whithersoeuer he go, foure hundred dogs, as a most sure and trustie guard. Hee keepeth all the heires of his tributary princes, as vassals, and as pledges of their fathers loialtie. There are no prisons in al his empire: Page  33 for sufficient testimonie being brought of the commission of any crime, iustice is executed out of hand: and of all offences none are punished with greater seueritie and rigour, then witchcraft, theft, and adulterie. His people are of a meane 〈◊〉, blacke, and well proportioned. They are Gentiles in religion, hauing no idols, but worshipping one onely God whom they call Mozimo. They go apparelled in cloth of cotton, either made by them∣selues, or brought from other countries: howbeit the king will in no case weare any forrein cloth for feare of poison or such like trecherie: and the meaner sort of his subiects are clad in beasts skins. Among all the armies and legions of soldiers, which this emperour (for the defence of his great estate) is forced to maintaine, his Amazones or women warriers before mentionied are the most valiant, being indeed the very sinewes and chiefe strength of all his militarie forces. These women, after the manner of the ancient Scythish or Asiatike Amazones, so much spoken of in histories of former times, seare off their left paps, that they might not be an hinderance vnto them in their shooting. They are most expert in warlike stratagems, and swift of foote. Their weapons are bowes and arrowes. At certaine times for generations sake they accompany with men; sending the male children home to their fathers, but keeping their daughters vnto themselues. They inhabite towards the west, not farre from the beginning of Nilus, in certaine places which themselues make choise of, and which are graunted vnto them by the fauour of the Emperour.

This empire of Monomotapa comprehendeth not onely the foresaid great island, but stretcheth it selfe farther also toward the cape of Buena esperanca, as farre as the kingdomes of Butua or Toroa, which being go∣uerned by particular lords, do acknowledge Monomotapa for their soue∣raigne. Throughout all this emperours dominions is found infinite quan∣titie of gold, in the earth, in the rockes, and in the riuers. The gold-mines of this countrey neerest vnto Sofala are those of Manica, vpon a plaine enui∣roned with mountaines; and those also in the prouince of Matuca, which is inhabited by the people called Battonghi, and situate betweene the Equi∣noctiall line and the Tropique of Capricorne. These mines are distant from Sofala, betweene the space of 300. and sixe hundred miles: but those of the prouinces of Boro and Quiticui are fifteene hundred miles distant towards the west. Others there are also in the kingdomes of Toroa or Butua: so that from hence or from Sofala, or from some other part of Monomotapa, some are of opinion, that Salomons gold for the adorning of the temple at Ierusalem, was brought by sea. A thing in truth not very vnlikely: for here in Toroa, and in diuers places of Monomotapa are till this day remaining ma∣nie huge and ancient buildings of timber, lime and stone, being of singular workemanship, the like whereof are not to be found in all the prouinces there abouts. Heere is also a mightie wall of fiue and twentie spannes thicke, which the people asoribe to the workemanship of the diuell, being accoun∣ted from Sofala fiue hundred and ten miles the neerest way. All other Page  34 houses throughout this empire (as is aforesaid) consist of timber, claie, and thatch. And heere I may boldly affirme, that the ancient buildings of this part of Africa, & along the coast of the east Indies, may not onely be compared, but euen preferred before the buildings of Europe. The authors of which ancient monuments are vnknowen: but the later African buil∣dings haue beene erected by the Arabians. In the time of Sebastian king of Portugale, the emperour of Monomotapa and many of his nobles were baptized: howbeit afterward being seduced by certaine Moores, hee put Gonsaluo Silua to death, who conuerted him to the Christian religion. Whereupon Sebastian king of Portugall sent against him an armie of* sixteene thousand, consisting for the most part of gentlemen and men of qualitie, vnder the conduct of Francisco Barretto. The Monomotapa be∣ing afraid of the Portugall forces, offered Barretto as good and acceptable conditions of peace as might be desired: but he not contented with reason, was quite ouerthrowne, not by his enimies, but by the vnholesome aire of Ethiopia, and by the manifold diseases which consumed his people.

Cafraria the fift generall part of the lower Ethiopia.

CAfraria, or the land of the Cafri we esteeme to be both the coasts and inlands of the extreame southerly point of Africa, beginning from the riuer Magnice, and thence extending by Cabo da pescaria, Terra do Natal, Bahia da lagoa, Bahia fermosa, about the cape of Buena esperan∣ça, by the bay called Agoada Saldanha, and thence Northward along the westerne coast of Africa, as far as Cabo Negro, or the blacke cape, which is situate verie neere vnto eighteene degrees of Southerly latitude. The saide Cape of Buena esperança is deuided into three smaller headlands or capes; The westermost, being called Cabo de buena esperança, or The cape of good hope after the name of the whole promontorie, and being cut from the rest of the firme land: The middlemost is named Cabo falso, because the Portugales in their voiage homewards from the east Indies, haue some∣times mistaken this for the true cape beforementioned; betweene which two capes runneth into the sea a mightie riuer called by the Portugales Rio dolce (where their caraks often take in fresh water) and by the naturall inha∣bitants Camissa, which springeth out of a small lake called Gale, situate among The mountaines of the moon so much celebrated by ancient geo∣graphers: The third and eastermost cape stretching farthest into the sea, is called Cabo das Agulhas, or the cape of Needles, because there the nee∣dles of dialles touched with the loadstone, stand directly North, without any variation either to the east or to the west: betweene this cape and the foresaid westermost cape (which ly forth into the sea like two hornes) is the bredth of this mightie promontorie, containing about fiue and twentie leagues; the length whereof from the riuer of Fernando Poo, where it be∣ginneth to iuttie forth into the sea, along the westerne coast southward, to Page  35 the cape das Agulhas, amounteth to two thousand two hundred Italian miles; and from Cabo das Agulhas, along the easterne shore northward, to Cape Guardafu, are three thousand three hundred of the same miles. This cape at the first discouerie thereof was called by Nauigators, The Lyon of the sea; & Cabo tormentoso, or The tēpestuous cape; not so much, as I take it, for the dangerous and stormie seas more about this cape then any other; but partly in regard of the chargeable, dangerous, and long trauels of the Portugals before they could attaine vnto it; and partly bicause of the great compasse which in their voiages outward they are constrained to fetch for the doubling thereof; and partly also in regard of some tempestuous and stormie weather wherewith they haue beene encountered at this Cape; which notwithstanding at certaine times is an ordinarie matter vpon all shores and promontories ouer the face of the whole earth. And albeit some will not come within sight of this cape, but keepe a great distance off, for feare of the dangerous seas beating thereupon (as namely Francis de Almeida who sailed aboue an hundred leagues to the south, in fortie de∣grees* of latitude; Pedro de Agnaia in fortie fiue; and Vasco Carualho in fortie seuen, where in the moneth of Iuly eight of his men died for cold) yet we finde by the late and moderne experience of sir Francis Drake, ma∣ster Candish, master Lancaster in his returne from the east Indies, and of the Hollanders in their nauigations thither, begun in the yeere 1595. that those seas are at sometimes not onely free from stormie tempests, but most pleasant also to saile vpon, with faire and gentle weather. And as the Spa∣niards for a long time (that they might discourage all other nations from attempting nauigation vpon The south sea beyond America) blinded all Christendome with a report, that the streights of Magellan were vnrepas∣able: so perhaps the Portugals, to terrifie all others from sailing to the east Indies, and to keepe the gaine and secrets of that rich trade entire vnto themselues, haue in their writings and relations made the doubling of the cape of Buena Esperança, and the crossing ouer those seas, a matter of farre greater difficultie and danger, then it is of late manifestly found to be. The name of Buena esperança or good hope, was giuen vnto this promontory by Iohn the second king of Portugall; bicause that when his fleetes had once doubled this cape, either outward or homeward, they then stedfastly hoped in good time to performe the residue of their voiage; otherwise not. In the midst of this cape lieth a plot of ground of that beautie and delight, as that without any humane industrie it may compare with the most artificiall gardens of Europe. On the top of this place, nature minding as it were to excell her-selfe, hath framed a great plaine, which for beautifull situation, fruitfulnes of herbes, varietie of flowers, and flourishing verdure of all things, seemeth to resemble a terrestriall paradise. The Portugals terme it 〈◊◊〉 vnfitly, The table of the cape. And to the end they might not faile of the meanes to enioy so pleasant a place, there is close vnder it a very good harbour which is called The port of Conception.

Page  36 The people of this place called in the Arabian toong Cafri, Cafres, or Cafates, that is to say, lawlesse or outlawes, are for the most part exceeding blacke of colour, which very thing may be a sufficient argument, that the sunne is not the sole or chiefe cause of their blacknes; for in diuers other countries where the heate thereof is farre more scorching and intolerable, there are tawnie, browne, yellowish, ash-coloured, and white people; so that the cause there of seemeth rather to be an hereditarie qualitie transfused from the parents, then the intemperature of an hot climate, though it also may be some furtherance thereunto. The Hollanders in the yeere 1595. en∣tering the harbour of Saint Bras, somewhat to the east of Cabo das Agul∣has, had conuersation & truck with some of these Cafres, whom they found to be a stoute and valiant people, but very base and contemptible in their behauiour and apparell, being clad in oxe and sheeps skins, wrapped about their shoulders with the hairie sides inward, in forme of a mantle. Their weapons are a kinde of small slender dartes or pikes, some whereof are hea∣ded with some kinde of mettall, the residue being vnheaded, and hardened onely at the points with fire. They couer their priuie parts with a sheepes tayle, which is bound vp before and behinde with a girdle. Their horne∣beasts are, like those of Spaine, verie well limmed and proportioned. Their sheepe are great and faire, not hauing any wooll on their backes, but a kinde of harsh haire like goates. Other particulars by them obserued, for breuities sake, I omit.

Now that we may proceede in describing the residue of Cafraria, hauing sayled about the cape of Buena esperança westward, albeit the coast in re∣gard of the greatnes thereof may seem to ly directly north, yet for the space of seuenteene degrees, till you come to Cabo Negro, (the farthest North∣westerne bound of this fift part of the lower Ethiopia) it trendeth somewhat to the west: along which coast somewhat within the lande appeareth a migh∣ty ranke or ridge of mountaines, called by the Portugales Os picos frago∣sos,* that is, the ragged points or spires, being besides their excessiue height, craggie, rough, and steepe, lying bare, desolate, and vtterly voide of all suc∣cour, and seruing for no other end, but for an obiect to the windes, and a mark for the tempests. The residue of the coast, till you come to Cabo Ne∣gro, sometimes lying lowe and sometimes high, sometimes shooting into the sea, and sometimes again gently retiring, containeth many plaines, hils, vallies, and places most fertile and delightful; some of them being alwaies of so fresh and pleasant view, as they seeme to represent a continuall spring.

Page  37

The sixt and last part of the lower or extreme Ethiopia, containing the kingdome of Congo; where∣unto in times past were tributarie and subiect the kingdomes of Matama, and Angola to the south; the kingdomes of Quisama, and Pangelungos to the east; and to the north the king∣dome of Anzicana inhabited by the An∣zichi, and Loango peopled by the Bramas.

FIrst therefore (according to our proposed or∣der)* that we may begin with the most souther∣ly parts; The kingdome of Matama so called after the name of the king thereof, (who being a Gentile ruleth ouer diuers prouinces named Quimbebe) bordereth north vpon the first great lake whereout Nilus springeth, and vpon the south frontiers of Angola; east it abutteth vpon the western banke of the riuer Bagamidri; and stretcheth south as far as the riuer Brauagul, which springeth out of the mountains of the moone. This coūtrey standeth in a good & holesome aire, & aboundeth with mines of cristall & other me∣tals, & hath victuals great plenty. And although the people thereof & their neighbour-borderers doe traffike togither; yet the king of Matama and the king of Angola wage war oftentimes one against another: also the said riuer Bagamidri deuideth this kingdome of Matama from the great empire of Monomotapa before described, which lieth to the east thereof.

Next followeth Angola, a kingdome subiect in times past to the king of* Congo, the gouernour whereof not verie many yeeres ago, growing excee∣dingly rich & mightie, rebelled against his soueraigne, & by diuers attempts shaking off the yoke of superioritie, became himselfe an absolute prince. This countrey, by reason that the people are suffered to haue as many wiues as they list, is a place most woonderfully populous. They goe whole milli∣ons of them to the warres, not leauing any men of seruice behinde: but for want of victuals they are often constrained to leaue their enterprises halfe vndone. Vpon this king, Paulo Diaz, who remained gouernour in these parts for the king of Portugall, waged warre: the reason was, bicause certaine Portugall merchants and others going by way of traffike to Ca∣baza, a towne situate an hundred and fiftie miles from the sea, where the king of Angola vsually resideth; they were by order from this king, the same yeere that king Sebastian died in Barbarie, sodainly spoiled of their goods, and part of them slaine; it being alleaged, that they were all spies, and came Page  38 to vndermine the present state. Whereupon Paulo Diaz prouided himselfe, and with two galeots did many notable exploits on both sides of the riuer Coanza. Finally hauing built a forte in a very commodious and hillie ground, at the confluence or meeting of the riuer last mentioned, and the riuer Luiola, with a small number of Portugals, ioined to the aide sent him from the king of Congo and from certaine princes of Angola his confede∣rates, he gaue the foresaid king (notwithstanding his innumerable troupes of Negros) diuers & sundry ouerthrowes. The said riuer Coanza springeth out of the lake of Aquelunda, situate westward of the great lake whereour Nilus takes his originall. In this kingdome are the mountaines of Cabam∣be,* abounding with rich and excellent siluer mines; which haue ministred the chiefe occasion of all the foresaid warres. This region aboundeth al∣so with other minerals, and with cattell of all sorts. Most true it is, that dogs∣flesh is heere accounted of all others the daintiest meate; for which cause they bring vp and fatten great plentie of dogs for the shambles. Yea it hath beene constantly affirmed, that a great dogge accustomed to the bull was sold in exchange of two and twentie slaues, the value of whom coulde not amount to much lesse then two hundred and twentie ducats. The priests of Angola called Gange, are helde in such estimation and account, as the peo∣ple are verily perswaded, that they haue in their power abundance and scar∣citie, life and death. For they haue knowledge of medicinable hearbes, and of deadly poisons also, which they keepe secret vnto themselues; and by meanes of their familiaritie with the diuell, they often foretell things to come.

Towards the lake of Aquelunda before mentioned, lieth a countrey cal∣led* Quizama; the inhabitants whereof being gouerned after the manner of a common wealth, haue shewed themselues very friendly to the Portugals, and haue done them speciall good seruice in their warres against the king of Angola.

Thus hauing briefely pointed at the former three bordering countries, let vs now with like breuitie passe through the kingdome of Congo it selfe.* This kingdome therefore (accounting Angola, as indeede it is, a member thereof) beginneth at Bahia das vacas in thirteene, and endeth at Cabo da Caterina in two degrees and an halfe of southerly latitude. True it is that the coast neere vnto the saide Bay of Cowes is subiect to the king of Congo, but the inland is gouerned by him of Angola. East and west it stret∣cheth from the sea in bredth as farre as the lake of Aquelunda, for the space of sixe hundred miles, and is diuided into sixe prouinces: namely, the pro∣uince* of Pemba, situate in the very hart and center of the whole kingdome; Batta, the most easterly prouince, where the ancient writers seeme to haue placed Agisymba; Pango which bordereth vpon the Pangelungi; Sundi the most Northerly prouince; Sogno which stretcheth ouer the mouth of the great riuer Zaire; and Bamba which is the principall of all the rest both for extension of ground, for riches, and for militarie forces. In the Page  39 prouince of Pemba, or rather in a seuerall territorie by it selfe, standeth the* citie of Sant Saluador, in former times called Banza, being the metropoli∣tan of all Congo, and the seate of the king, situate an hundred and fiftie miles from the sea, vpon a rockie and high mountaine; on the verie top whereof is a goodly plaine abounding with fountaines of holesome and sweete water, and with all other good things which are requisite ei∣ther for the sustenance, or solace of mankinde: and vpon this plaine where Sant Saluador is seated, there may inhabite to the number of an hundred thousand persons. In this citie the Portugals haue a warde by themselues, separate from the rest, containing a mile in compasse: and about that bignes also is the palace or house of the king. The residue of the people dwell for the most part scatteringly in villages. It is a place enriched by nature with corne, cattell, fruits, and holesome springs of water in great abundance. The principall riuer of all Congo called Zaire, taketh his chiefe originall* out of the second lake of Nilus, lying vnder the Equinoctiall line: and albeit this is one of the mightiest riuers of all Africa, being eight and twentie miles broad at the mouth, yet was it vtterly vnknowen to ancient writers. Amongst other riuers it 〈◊〉 Vumba and Barbela, which spring out of the first great lake. In this countrey are sundry other riuers also, which fetch their originall out of the lake of Aquelunda: the principall whereof are Co∣anza, which diuideth the kingdome of Congo from that of Angola, and the* riuer Lelunda, which breedeth crocodiles & water-horses which the Greeks call Hippopotami, of which creatures the isle of horses in the mouth of the riuer Zaire taketh denomination. The Hippopotamus or water-horse is* somewhat tawnie, of the colour of a lion; in the night he comes on lande to feed vpon the grasse, and keepeth in the water all the day time. The Afri∣cans tame and manage some of these horses, and they prooue exceeding swift; but a man must beware how he passe ouer deepe riuers with them, for they will sodainly diue vnder water. Also in these riuers of Ethiopia are bred a kinde of oxen, which liue euery night vpon the lande. Here likewise breedeth another strange creature, called in the Congonian language Am∣bize Angulo, that is to say, a hogge-fish, being so exceeding fatte, and of such greatnes, that some of them weie aboue fiue hundred pound. This abūdance of waters, togither with the heat of the climate, which proceedeth from the neerenes of the sunne, causeth the countrey to be most fruitfull of plants, herbes, fruits, and corne; & much more fertile would it be, if nature were helped forward by the industrie of the inhabitants. Heere also, besides goates, sheepe, deere, Gugelle, conies, hares, ciuet-cats, and ostriches, are great swarmes of tigres, which are very hurtfull both to man and beast. The Zebra or Zabra of this countrey being about the bignes of a mule, is a* beast of incomparable swiftnes, straked about the body, legges, eares, and other parts, with blacke, white and browne circles of three fingers broad; which do make a pleasant shew. Buffles, wilde asses called by the Greekes Onagri, and Dantes (of whose hard skins they make all their targets) range Page  40 in heards vp and downe the woods. Also here are infinite store of elephants* of such monstrous bignes, that by the report of sundrie credible persons, some of their teeth do weigh two hundred pounds, at sixteene ounces the pound: vpon the plaines this beast is swifter then any horse, by reason of his long steps; onely he cannot turne with such celeritie. Trees he ouerturneth with the strength of his backe, or breaketh them between his teeth; or stan∣deth vpright vpon his hinder feete, to browse vpon the leaues and tender sprigs. The she elephants beare their brood in their wombes two yeeres be∣fore they bring foorth yoong ones: neither are they great with yoong, but onely from seuen yeeres to seuen yeeres. This creature is saide to liue 150. yeeres; hee is of a gentle disposition; and relying vpon his great strength, he hurteth none but such as do him iniurie; only he will in a spor∣ting maner gently heaue vp with his 〈◊〉 such persons as he meeteth. He loueth the water beyond measure, and will stande vp to the mid-body there∣in, bathing the ridge of his backe, and other parts with his long promuscis or trunke. His skin is fower fingers thicke; and it is reported, that an ele∣phant of this countrey being stricken with a little gunne called Petrera, was not wounded therewith, but so sore brused inwardly, that within three daies after he died. Heere are likewise reported to be mightie adders or snakes of fiue and twentie spannes long, and fiue spans broad, which will swallow vp an whole stagge, or any other creature of that bignes. Neither are they here destitute of Indie-cockes and hens, partridges, feasants, and innumera∣ble birds of praie, both of the lande and of the sea; whereof some diue vnder the water, which the Portugals call Pelicans.

Ouer against the most southerly part of the said kingdome of Congo,* where it confineth with Angola, lyeth an Isle called Loanda, being twentie miles long, and but one mile broad at the most, betweene which and the maine land is the best port of all that Ocean. About this Isle do haunt infi∣nite store of whales, where notwithstanding no amber at all is found; which is a manifest argument that it proceedeth notfrom these creatures. Here they fish for certaine little shels, which in Congo and the countries adioy∣ning are vsed in steed of mony. The well-waters of this Isle, when the sea ebbeth, are salte, but when it floweth they are most fresh and sweet. In this Isle the Portugals haue a towne from whence they traffique to Congo and Angola: and amongst other commodities, they get euery yeere in those parts about fiue thousand slaues; the custome of which trade belongeth by ancient constitutions vnto the crowne of Portugale.

To the north of Congo vpon the sea coast beginneth the kingdome of* Loango tributarie in times past to the king of Congo: It aboundeth with elephants; and the inhabitants called Bramas are circumcised after the Iew∣ish manner.

Next vpon them doe border the Anzichi, who are possessed of large* countries, namely from the riuer Zaire euen to the deserts of Nubia. They abound with mines of copper, and with sanders both Red, and Gray which Page  41 are the best; and some are of opinion, that here groweth the right Lignum Aquilae, which is of so excellent vertue in phisick. They haue one supreme king, with many princes vnder him. They traffique in Congo, and carrie home from thence salt and great shels to be vsed for coine (which are brought thither from the Isle of San Tomé) in exchange of their cloth of the palme tree, and of Iuory: but the chiefe commodities which they part from, are slaues of their owne nation and of Nubia: and the said shels they vse also insteed of Iewels and ornaments. Both they and the Bramas be∣fore mentioned do carry for their defence in the warres, certaine targets made of the skin of a beast which in Germany is called Dante: their wea∣pons offensiue be little bowes and shorte arrowes, which they shoot with such woonderfull celerity, as they will discharge twentie one after another, before the first arrow fall to the ground. They haue shambles of mans-flesh as wee haue of beeues and muttons. They eat their enemies which they take in the warres: their slaues which they cannot make away for a good round price, they sell vnto the butchers: and some will offer themselues to the slaughter, for the loue of their princes and patrons: so sillie they are, that to do their lordes a pleasure, they will not refuse present death: wherefore the Portugals repose not so much trust in any kinde of slaues as in them: and they are very valiant also in the warres.

But, to returne vnto the sea-coast; from the mouth of the riuer Zaire Northward, the land bearing out somewhat more to the west, is framed in∣to three headlands, namely, Cabo primero, Cabo da Caterina, and the cape of Lopo Gonsalues, which is a cape very well knowen in regard of the emi∣nency and outstretching thereof. Itlyeth in one degree of southerly lati∣tude, Ouer against which cape within the land do inhabite the people called Bramas in the kingdome of Loango beforementioned. From hence for the space of fiue or sixe degrees, till you come to Punta delgada, or The slender point, the coast lyeth in a manner directly North; most of which tract is in∣habited by a nation of Negros called Ambus. North of the said slender point you haue Rio dos Camarones, or the riuer of shrimpes, which is full of little Isles; not far from which riuer are The countries of Biafar and Me∣dra, inhabited with people which are addicted to inchantments, witchcrafts, and all kind of abominable sorceries.

Much more might be said concerning this sixt part of the lower Ethio∣pia: but because it is in so ample and methodicall a manner described in the historie of Philippo Pigafetta, most iudiciously and aptly Englished by the learned Master Abraham Hartwell; I refer the reader thereunto, as to the principal and the very fountaine of all other discourses which haue bin writ∣ten to any purpose of Congo and the countries adioyning.

Page  42

Of the countries of Benin, Meleghete, Ghinea, and Sierra Leona.

WEstward from the countries last mentioned lyeth the kingdome of Benin, hauing a very proper towne of that name, and an hauen called Gurte. The 〈◊〉 liue in Idolatry, and are a rude and brutish na∣tion; notwithstanding that their prince is serued with such high reuerence, and neuer commeth in sight but with great solemnity, & many ceremonies: at whose death his chiefe fauorites count it the greatest point of honour to be buried with him, to the end (as they vainely imagine) they may doe him seruice in another world. This countrie aboundeth with long pepper called* by the Portugals Pimienta dal rabo, which is as much to say, as ppeper with a tayle: This tailed or long pepper so far excelleth the pepper of the east In∣dies, that an ounce therof is of more force then halfe a pound of that other. For which cause the kings of Portugale haue done what lay in them, to keep it from being brought into these parts of Europe, least it should too much abase the estimation and price of their Indian pepper. All which notwith∣standing there hath bin great quantitie secretly conueied from thence by the Portugals: as likewise the English and French nations, and of late yeeres the Hollanders haue had great traffique into those parts.

Next follow the kingdomes of Temian and Dauma; and lower to the* south the prouince of Meleghete, a place very famous and well knowne, in regard of a little red graine which there groweth, being in shape somewhat like to the 〈◊〉 of Italy, but of a most vehement and firy tast: and these lit∣tle graines are by the apothecaries called Grana Paradisi. Here also is made* of 〈◊〉 and the ashes of the Palme-tree, a kind of sope, which hath double the force of ours. For which cause it is forbidden by the Portugals, who* haue vpon that coast a little to the east of Cabo das tres puntas, in the nor∣therly latitude of fiue degrees, a strong castle called San Georgio de lá Mi∣na, whereunto by way of traffike they draw all the gold and riches of the countries adioining.

Westward of these lieth the countrie of Ghinea, inhabited by a people which the ancient writers called * Autolatae, and Ichthyophagi: Ghinea is so named, according to the chiefe citie thereof called Genni, being situate vpon the riuer of Sanega. The people of this countrie towards the sea∣coast liue vpon fish; and they of the inland sustaine themselues with Lizards and such like creatures; & in some places more temperate their food consi∣steth of herbes and milke. They conuerse togither in great families; and they fight oftentimes for water and for pastures; neither haue they 〈◊〉 knowledge of learning or liberall arts. So long as the sun continueth in our northren signes, that is, from the xj. of March to the xiij. of September, this people in regard of extreme 〈◊〉 heat, are constrained all the day time (being ordinarily with them of 12. howers) to retire themselues within their Page  43 houses, and to do all their busines in the night. The countrey in most pla∣ces is destitute of trees that beare fruite: neither haue the greatest part of the inhabitants any haire on their bodies, saue onely a thicke tuft growing vpon their heads: they sell their children vnto strangers, supposing that their estate cannot possiblie be impaired. Vnto these naturall miseries of the place, you may ad the insupportable mischiefes which are here done by the locustes: for albeit these creatures do infinite harme likewise in all the inner parts of Africa; yet seemeth it that this countrey of Ghinea is their most proper habitation; whither they do often resort in such innumerable swarmes, that like a mightie thicke cloud they come raking along in the skie, and afterward falling downe, they couer the face of the earth, deuouring all things that they light vpon. Their comming towards any place is known two or three daies before by the yellownes of the sunne. But in most places* where they haunt, the poore people are reuenged of them by killing and dri∣uing them in the aire for their foode: which custome is commonly vsed by the Arabians and Ethiopians; and the Portugals also haue found vessels full of them vpon the coast of Cambaia, where they do the like mischiefes. They which haue eaten of them affirme that they are of a good taste, and that their flesh (so much as it is) is as white as that of a lobster. These may seem to be al one with those grashoppers which God sent to plague Egypt; and the same kind of locustes, which the holy prophet Iohn Baptist fed vpon in the wildernes.

Moreouer along the coasts of Meleghete and Ghinea are diuers small riuers and freshets, containing little water, and running a slow pace: which notwithstanding are the best and pleasantest things that are to be founde in these forlorne countries. For wheresoeuer any little water springeth or run∣neth, thither do the people resort, partly for the watring of their scorched groūds, & partly to quench their own thirst. Also vpō these coasts are diuers and sundry headlands which stretch into the sea; as namely The faire cape, The three-pointed cape, The cape of Palmetrees, Cabo da Verga, & Sierra* Leona. This cape last mentioned hath an exceeding high mountaine there∣upon, which causeth it to be seene a mightie distance off. It seemeth to be the same promontorie which Hanno and Ptolemey call The chariot of the gods. It is called by the name of a lyon in regard of the dreadfull thunders and lightnings which are continually heard from the top thereof: howbeit neere vnto it are found apes, munkeies, and such other beasts as liue in tem∣perate places.

Of Cabo verde, Sanega, and Gambra or Gambea.

NOrthward of Sierra Leona lieth Cabo verde, or the greene cape, cal∣led by Ptolemey Arsinarium, and being one of the most famous headlands in all Africa. It is enuironed with two riuers, namely the riuer of Gambra or Gambea on the south, and the riuer of Senaga on the north; which last riuer is esteemed to be an arme of Ghir or Niger. Page  44 Gambea springeth out of the same fountaines assigned by Ptolemey vn∣to Niger (which by all the ancient writers is placed heereabout) and out of the lake of Libya. It is larger and deeper then that other of Senaga, and runneth a crooked course, receiuing many lesser riuers thereinto.* One hundred and eightie leagues within the mouth of this riuer the Portugals haue a factorie or place of traffique, called the factorie of Cantor. Hither by exchange of sundry wares, they draw the gold of all those countries. In the midde way (as it were) vnto the said factorie, there* is a place called the isle of Elephants in regard of the huge numbers of those creatures. The riuer of Senaga is thought to take his original out of the lakes called Chelonides. It containeth certaine Isles, which in regard of their rough and ragged shape are good for nothing, but to breed adders and such like hurtfull things, and these Isles in many places make the riuer vtterly in∣nauigable. About one hundred and fiftie leagues from the mouth thereof,* it falleth spouting-wise with such maine force from certaine high cliffes or rockes, that a man may walke drie vnder the streame thereof. The Negros in their language call this place a Bowe. It is reported that Nilus doth the like at his Cataracts or ouerfals. And Strabo writeth of certaine riuers of Hircania, which from exceeding steepe and craggie rockes gush with such violence into the Caspian sea, that whole 〈◊〉 may passe vnder them without danger of drowning. Into this riuer of Senaga, among many riuers vnknowne, falleth one, which passing through a red soile, is it selfe also died red: and whosoeuer drinketh of the waters first of the Red riuer, and after of Senaga, is constrained extremely to 〈◊〉. Along the bankes of this mightie riuer inhabite the blacke and barbarous nations of the Gialofi, the Tucuroni, the Caraguloni, and the Bagani. Finally it voideth into the sea at two mouths, one of which mouthes is a mile broad. And it is strange to consider, how vpon the south side of this riuer the people are blacke and well proportioned, and the soile pleasant and fertile; whereas on the north side they are browne and of a small stature, and do inhabite a barren and mise∣rable countrie. In both the said riuers of Gambra and Senaga do breed di∣uers strange kindes offishes, and other creatures of the water, as namely crocodiles, sea-horses, and winged serpents; and hither come to drinke sun∣dry sorts of wilde beafts. The lands comprehended betweene them both, by reason of their yeerely inundation (for from the xv. of Iune they increase fortie daies togither, and are so long time decreasing, after the manner of Nilus) abound with all kinds of graine and pulse wherof the climate is capa∣ble, as namely with beanes, 〈◊〉, millet, &c. but wheate, rie, barley, and grapes cannot there attaine to ripenes and perfection, by reason of ouer∣much moisture: saue onely some small quantitie of wheat neere the deserts where the Caraguloni inhabite. But their chiefe sustenance is Zabur∣ro, otherwise called Ghinie-wheate or Maiz, which they sowe after the in∣undation of their riuers, casting some quantitie of sande thereupon to de∣fend it from the heate, which otherwise would scorch the grounde too Page  45 excessiuely. They drinke the iuice of the palme-tree, which they cut and lance for that purpose: and this iuice not being tempered, is as strong and headie as any wine. Neither are they heere destitute of mightie adders, of lions, leopards, and elephants: but beasts for labour they haue none, saue onely a small kinde of oxen, and goates. The horses which are brought thither by merchants, liue but a short time. The aire, by reason of abundance of lakes bredde by the ouerflowes of their riuers, is moist and grosse. And heere fall most vnholesome and palpable dewes. It raineth in these countries from October till the end of Iuly, euery day about noone, with thunder and lightning.

All the kingdomes and countries by vs before described, from the cape of Buena esperança, to the riuer last mentioned, are inhabited by blacke people. The most northerly are the Gialofi, who spread themselues between the two foresaid riuers for the space of fiue hundred miles eastward: so that the riuer Senaga is the vtmost northren bound of Negros, or nations ex∣tremely blacke; howbeit vpon the bankes thereof are found people of sun∣dry colours, by reason of the varietie of women.

Betweene this riuer of Senaga and Cabo blanco, or the white cape, lieth a countrey called by some Anterote, being all ouer in a manner sandy, bar∣ren, lowe, and plaine; neither is there in all this distance any place of ac∣count or reckoning, saue onely the isles of Arguin (where of we will intreat among the isles of Africa) and a territorie or towne sixe daies iourney with∣in the maine, called Hoden. This towne is not walled, but lieth open, and* consisteth of the wandring Arabians rude and homely habitations, being notwithstanding a place of Rendeuous or meeting for all such as trauell in Carouans from Tombuto, and other places in the lande of Negros to Bar∣barie. The principall food of the inhabitants heere, are dates and barly, both which the soile yeeldeth indeed, but not in so plentifull a manner: and they drinke the milke of camels & of other beasts, for wine they haue none at all. These people are Mahumetans, and most deadly enimies to Christians: neither abide they long in any place, but runne rouing and wandring vp and downe those deserts. They are themselues very populous, and haue abun∣dance of camels, vpon whose backes they carrie copper, siluer, and other commodities from Barbarie to Tombuto, and to the residue of the land of Negros.

From Cabo blanco to the regions of Sus, and Hea (which are the first prouinces described by Iohn Leo) excepting a small portion onely of Bile∣dulgerid, you haue nothing but part of the vast, fruitles, & vninhabitable de∣sert of Libya, called by the Arabians Sarra, which stretcheth from the westerne Ocean as farre as the frontiers of Egypt.

Thus from the very bottome of the Red sea, hauing coasted along the easterne and westerne shores of the most southerly partes of Africa, and briefly described all the principall knowen empires, kingdomes, and regi∣ons within that maine, which are left vntouched by our author Iohn Leo;Page  46 let vs now with like or more breuitie prosecute the description of the islands which are by the hand of the omnipotent creator planted round about this ample and spacious continent.

A briefe enumeration and description of all the most famous and knowne Islandes situate round about the coasts of Africa, which haue beene omitted by IOHN LEO: beginning first with the most northeasterly, and so by little and little bringing our selues about the Cape of Buena Esperança neerer vnto Europe.

The Islands of the Red sea.

BOth the shores of the Red sea, as well on the African as on the Arabian side, are euerie where beset with many small islets and rockes, which lie so thicke togither, that they make the nauigation all along the said coasts to be most dangerous and difficult.*

The isles of the Red sea most woorthie to be remembred, are these following. Babelmandel a little isle situate in the very mouth of the Red sea, in twelue degrees, containeth two leagues in compasse, being from either of the firme lands three miles distant, and standing about twentie paces high out of the water. By Ptolemey it is called The isle of Diodorus. Vpon this isle, or one of the continents adioining, are to be hired the most experimēted pilots for al that narrow sea, euen as far as Suez. And from the easterne and westerne side of this islet, Strabo reporteth that the twofold enterance of the Arabian Gulfe was barred with a double chaine. More to the north standeth Camaran, being about eight leagues* from the Arabian coast in fifteene degrees of latitude. Vpon this isle are to be seene great ruines of ancient buildings. It hath one indifferent good ha∣uen, and aboundeth with fresh water, (a thing most precious and acceptable in those parts) with salt, and with cattell. On the other side towards Afri∣ca, in fifteene degrees and an halfe, standeth the isle of Dalaqua of a∣bout* thirtie miles in circuite, which space is almost contained in the length thereof, being a place very famous for the abundance of pearles which are there caught; wherewithall likewise the isle of Mua neere vnto it is richly** end owed. Next followeth Mazua in forme like to an halfe moone, and not Page  47 aboue a bow-shoot distant from the African maine: betweene which isle and the continent, there is an excellent hauen which is now the only porte that Prete Ianni hath in all his dominions; for which (as you may read before in the description of the said princes empire) his lieutenant Barna∣gasso is constrained to pay a great yeerely tribute to the Turke.

Ouer against Mazua, vpon the firme, standeth the towne of Ercoco. Vpon this little isle are diuers houses of Arabians, built of lime and stone; and* others of claie couered with thatch. North of Mazua standeth Suaquen in a certain lake made by the sea, which there insinuateth it selfe within the land, and frameth a most secure and commodious hauen. On this small islet is built the faire and stately citie of Suaquen, being almost as large as the isle it selfe; wherein resideth the Turkes lieutenant or Bassa of Abassia.

Of the Isle of Socotera and other isles lying without the narrow entrance of the Arabian gulfe.

WIthout the streight of Babelmandel there are no islands woorthy of mention, saue onely Socotera; which (as Iohn Barros supposeth) was of old called by Ptolemey Dioscoridis & lieth in sight of cape Guardafu, which the same author nameth Aromata Promōtorium. Being about three∣score miles long, and fiue and twentie miles broad, it is diuided with a rough and exceeding high ridge of mountaines, and is subiect vnto most terrible and boisterous windes, which do out of measure dry and parch the same. For which cause, and in regard of the slothfull rudenes of the inhabitants, it is very scarce of victuals: for it yeeldeth neither wheate, rice, wine, nor hony. In the vallies and places of shelter it affoordeth some quantitie of Millet, of dates, and of sundrie kinds of fruits: neither is it altogither destitute of pa∣sture for cattell. It is frequented by merchants for* Cinabre, Sanguis Dra∣conis, and the most excellent Aloës of the world. It hath no hauen of im∣portance.* The Portugals are heere possessed of two small townes, one called Coro, and the other Benin; and here in times past the king of Fartac [A countrey of Arabia Foelix,] had a castle & a garrison of soldiers vpon this isle, which castle being taken by the Portugals, was afterward by them aban∣doned, bicause it quited not the cost. The inhabitants being of a browne colour, and of a good constitution; are in religion a kind of Christians. They hold an opinion that Saint Thomas suffred shipwracke vpon this isle, and that of his ship was built a most ancient church, which as yet is to be seene walled round about, with three allies or partitions, and three doores.

Furthermore they liue for the most part in caues or in cabins made of boughes, very farre from the sea. They go apparrelled in course cloth, or in the skins of beastes. In war their weapons are slings, and swordes made of base iron: and the women are as good soldiers as the men. They are much addicted vnto Magick and inchantments, and doe bring to passe matters in∣credible. They haue no vse at all of nauigation, nor of traffique, and yet for∣sooth Page  48 they esteeme themselues the most noble and worthy people vnder the heauens; as also they are vtterly voide of learning: which I doe note, be∣cause that such as are learned make but small account of their wisedome.

To the North of Socotera are two small Isles which are called the two* sisters: the inhabitants whereof being of an oliue-colour, liue without lawe, and haue no conuersation with any other people. The commodities of these Islets are Iuorie, amber, Sanguis draconis, Aloës, and a kind of pretious stones called Nizzolij.

Likewise ouer against Socotera are two other Islets, one called the Isle of men, and the other the Isle of women, being distant thirtie miles asunder, and fiue miles from Socotera. They are so termed, because that in the one dwell men onely, and in the other women. Howbeit they visite one ano∣ther at certaine seasons: but they cannot stay one in the Isle of another aboue three moneths, in regarde of a secret qualitie of the ayer which is contrary to either sexe. A matter (if it be true) most strange and admira∣ble.

Of the Isles lying in the sea called Sinus Barbaricus, ouer against the Easterne and Southeasterne shore of Africa.

ALl along from the cape of Guardafu to the cape of Buena Esperança are found sundry Islands, partly dispersed heere and there in the sea, and partly adioining vpon the firme land. Such as are far into the sea, are the greatest part vnhabited, as namly, the Isle of Don Garçia, The * three and The * seuen brethren, As rocas partidas, the Isles of Sant Brandan, and* those of Mascarenha, of Sant Francis, of Santa Apollonia, of Iohn de Lis∣boa, of Cosinoledo: and betweene the great Isle of Saint Laurence and the maine, the Isles Do Natal or of the natiuitie, as likewise the three Isles of Comoro, with those of Alioa, of Spirito Santo, and of sant Christopher.

But of those which the vicinity of the firme land hath made more noble* and frequented, the first that offereth it selfe to our consideration, is the Isle of Mombaza in foure degrees of southerly latitude, cut out by a certaine chanel or arme of the sea, which deuideth the same from the maine of Afri∣ca: in compasse it containeth twelue miles; and at the entrance of the saide chanel, vpon a downe, standeth the city of Mombaça, built very handsomely after the Arabian fashion. Somewhat farther from the continent are situate the Isles of Pemba, Zanzibar, and Monfia inhabited by Negros; the grea∣test of which is Zanzibar, the prince whereof is called by the name of a king; and it lyeth vnder sixe degrees, of south latitude, being from the main ten leagues distant. But the soueraigne of all these Isles was Quiloa, inhabited like the rest, with Mahumetans of little bodies and abiect mindes. It aboun∣deth with rice, millet, cattel, woods of palme-trees, limons, orenges, & sugar∣canes; where of notwithstanding they are ignorant how to make sugar. The city standeth vpon the sea-shore ouer against the firme 〈◊〉: it is built of Page  49 pure marble, and the streetes are very narrow: a thing common among the Arabians, whereby they vse to defend themselues, after the enemie hath once entered their townes. From this Isle to Moçambique are about an hundred leagues. Without the porte lieth Misa, and three miles off Son∣go and Canga inhabited by Moores. Next follow As Ilhas do Açotatado, or The isles of the scourged, bicause here a certaine pilot that was a Moore, who had determined to wracke the whole fleete of Vasco da Gama, receiued punishment. Concerning Moçambique called by Ptolemey and other an∣cient writers Prassia, we haue intreated before. Fower miles from thence lie the desert isles of Saint George: and then the isles of Angoscia inhabited by Moores. These are stored with indifferent quantitie of victuals: and here* vpon an east winde they gather plentie of Ambergrise. An hundred and fif∣tie miles from Cabo dos corrientes, lieth A Ilha das vacas, or The isle of Cowes, with a castle thereupon, and store of good water. As Ilhas llanas, or The plaine isles are not woorth the speaking of. A Ilha da cruz, otherwise called Ilha das fontanhas, was the farthest limite of Bartholomew Diaz his nauigation, who was the first Portugale that euer doubled the cape of Bue∣na esprança, and hauing doubled it, returned backe without discouering any farther.

Of the Isle of Saint Laurence, otherwise cal∣led Madagascar.

THis isle called by the Portugales The isle of Sant Laurence, by the na∣turall inhabitans Madagascar, by Paulus Venetus Magastar, by Ptole∣mey Menuthias, and by Plinie Cerne, is accounted one of the grea∣test, noblest, and richest in the whole world. About the midst thereof it ap∣procheth towards the maine of Africa, in forme of an elbowe, being distant from thence an hundred threescore and ten miles. The extreames of this isle are very farre separate from the saide maine, and especially that which stretcheth toward the northeast. The whole isle containeth in bredth fower hundred and fowerscore, in length one thousand two hundred, and in com∣passe fower thousand miles; so that in bignes it farre exceedeth Italy, though it be not so well inhabited and manured. Situate it is beyond the Equator in seuenteene degrees, and stretcheth from thence to sixe and twentie de∣grees and an halfe of southerly latitude. It is plentifully endowed with all things needfull for mans vse: for it yeeldeth cotton, Millet, Rice, Potatos, sweete orenges, sugar-canes, and sundry kindes of pulse: as likewise, amber, Iette, siluer, copper, red sanders, saffron, a spice somewhat like vnto cloues, and some quantitie of ginger. Moreouer, heere are lions, leopards, stags, roe-deere, goates, kine, sheepe, and other beastes both tame and wilde. Heere are likewise innumerable elephants, so that from hence is conueied great quantitie of iuorie. They haue also great store of camels, whose flesh the inhabitants eate for the holesomenes thereof. The people (except Page  50 some few Moores vpon the coast) are idolaters, of colourblack, with curled haire, very barbarous, and in fashions resembling much the Cafres. They go naked all saue their priuities, which they couer with cloth of cotton: and they vse in the warre certaine crooked staues headed with bone. The Iesuits in their letters report, that in one part of this island there are white people found; who (as they affirme) are descended from the people of China; whereby may be gathered the great length of the Chinians nauigations, and the largenes of their empire. The Portugals sailing towards India in due time, do passe betweene this great isle and the firme land; but if the sea∣son groweth towards winter, they holde on their course (as themselues re∣port) on the backe side thereof. In these two courses of nauigation they haue found, and daily do discouer sundrie isles, but of small account, part whereof we haue mentioned before. Amongst others, as it were ouer a∣gainst Moçambique, lieth on a certaine strand or shold an isle called Lan∣gane of a reasonable bignes, with a great riuer therein, being inhabited by Moores. And the farthest toward the west are those isles which the Por∣tugals call Os Romeros. On the northeast part of this isle is the Bay of Antogill, being one of the safest and most commodious harbours in the world.

Of the Isles of the Ethiopian sea about the cape of Buena esperança.

THis sea I take to be most exceeding deepe, because it hath fewer Isles then the former, and those few which it hath are but little ones. The first that was discouered on this side the cape of Buena Esperança is that of Don Aluarez, situate in thirtie degrees and an halfe. And to the northwest of that is the Isle of Tristan d' Acunna beeing distant 〈◊〉. miles from the cape, and beyond the Equinoctiall eight and thirtie de∣grees; which beeing of a round forme, containeth in compasse fiftie leagues. It is full of birdes, and especially of sea-crowes or cormorants, and round about it lie foure other small islets. The marriners hold, that neere vn∣to this isle, as vnto that of Bermuda, there are continual stormes and tem∣pestes. Not far from the main are certaine dry and rockie isles, and others of none account.

The Isles of Santa Helena, and of the Ascension.

NExt followeth in the height of sixteene degrees of southerly latitude the isle of Santa Helena, discouered by Iuan da Noua, being so fitly and commodiously situate for such as returne home from the east Indies in∣to Europe, as it seemeth there of purpose to haue beene planted by God for the furtherance of this voiage, and for the refreshing and comfort of naui∣gators. In compasse it containeth nine miles, & hath a most perfect health∣full Page  51〈◊〉, and sundry freshets of excellent water. The soile is of a red colour, and like vnto ashes; it giueth way to ones footing like sand, and a man may shake euery tree vpon the isle. Heere the kings of Portugall haue enacted, that none may remaine to inhabite, except it be sometime two or three 〈◊〉 persons for the recouerie of their health; to the end that the fleets may heere plentifully and of free cost furnish themselues with fresh victuals, fruits, and water. So that when they arriue, they vsually plant or sow some one thing or other, which presently springeth and groweth to ripenes; and then the seed falling into the earth, it multiplieth of it selfe. Heere are woods of Ebàn and Cedar, with infinite store of 〈◊〉, orenges, and all sorts of fruits; as likewise hogs, geese, hens, partridges, feasants, Guinie-cocks, and other like creatures brought thither by the Portugals out of Europe, or from other countries. In sailing from Portugall toward India it is not so easily found: but in their returne home they do heere in fewe daies cure all their diseases, and relieue their wants: and heere to their 〈◊〉 solace and recreation they hunt, foule, and fish, and prouide themselues of water, wood, and all things necessarie. To the west thereof appeere in the sea the isles of Santa Maria, and of the Trinitie, which serue for signes vnto the mariners. To the northwest of this isle, towards the coast of Brasil, are the* isles of Ascension, so called, bicause they were first discouered by Tristan Acunna in his returne from the Indies vpon Ascension day in the yeere 1508. They are all vnhabited and desert, and haue vpon them infinite swarmes of a kinde of fowles of the bignes of duckes.

Of the Isles of Loanda, Nobon, and Saint Thomas.

HArd vpon the firme land of the south part of Congo, is situate the isle of* Loanda before mentioned. And ouer against the cape of Lopo Gonsalues in a manner, lieth the small isle of Nobon, being a rockie and desolate place, but of great importance for fishing; for which cause it is frequented by the inhabitants of Saint Thomas isle. This isle of Saint Thomas being an hundred and fower-score miles distant from the maine, is of a round forme, containing threescore Italian miles from side to side, and an hundred and fower-score miles also in compasse: of which isle (bicause it is situate iust vnder the Equinoctiall, so that the horizon thereof passeth by both the poles) it will not be from our purpose to intreat some∣what at large; to the end we may the better vnderstand the qualitie and tem∣perature of such places as are seated in that part of the world. This isle when it was first discouered was nothing else but a woode of vnprofitable trees, with their boughs turning crookedly vpward. The aire is extremely hot: in the moneths of March and September, when the sunne passeth perpendi∣cularly ouer, it raineth heere out of measure, and in other moneths heere falleth onely a moist dewe which watereth the ground. In the verie midst it hath a woodie mountaine, which is continually ouershadowed with a thick Page  52 cloud, which cloud so moistneth the trees that grow in great abundance vp∣on this mountaine, that from hence droppeth water sufficient for the wate∣ring of al their fields of sugar-canes. By how much the sun is more perpen∣dicular ouer this isle, by so much is the aire more cloudie & darke; and con∣trariwise, the farther it is distant from perpendicularitie, the cleerer and brighter is the skie. In the moneths of December, Ianuarie, and Februarie, such as are borne in Europe, can very hardly walke or mooue themselues for faintnes: and all the rest of the yeere, once in eight or ten daies, they seeme to be taken with an hot and a cold fit of an ague, which continueth vpon them for tow howers togither. They are thrice or oftner let bloud euerie yeere: and few of them liue aboue fiftie yeeres; but their Negros remaine more then an hundred yeers aliue. They which newly arriue there, are com∣monly surprized with a most dangerous feauer, which holdeth them for twentie daies togither. And these are let bloud, without any reckoning of ounces. Heereblow no windes at all, but onely from the southeast, south, and southwest, which windes stirre not in the moneths of December, Ianu∣arie, and Februarie, and therefore these moneths are most extremely hot. But in Iune, Iuly, and August, they blow a fresh gale. In this isle the French euill, and the scuruies are verie rife. The soile is of a meane colour betweene red and yellow, being clammie like claie, and by reason of the continuall nightly dewes, as soft and pliable as waxe, and of incredible fertility. Besides diuers other good ports, it hath one principall among the rest, belonging to the chiefe towne or citie called* Pauoasan, consisting of aboue seuen hundred families, and inhabited by Portugals, and into the saide port run∣neth a little riuer of excellent water.

To euery of the Ingenios or sugar-houses (which in all may amount to the number of seuentie) do belong Negro-slaues, for the planting of their* canes and the dressing of their sugars, to some, two hundred, and to others, three hundred a piece, who liue vpon Maiz or Ghiny-wheat: the number of which slaues is so great, that oftentimes they rebell, to the great domage of the Portugals. They haue good sustenance also by meanes of a root, called there Igname, but in the west Indies Batata. Wheat that is heere sowen, groweth not to any ripenes or graine, but is resolued altogether into grasse. They make wine of the Palme-tree. Vines prosper nothing kindely in this place, except it be heere and there one, planted by an house-side, and atten∣ded with great diligence. They bring forth clusters at the same time, some ripe, some greene, and some blossomes onely; and they beare fruit twice in the yeere, as doe the fig-trees likewise. They haue sugar-canes ripe all the yeere long: but melons onely in Iune, Iuly, and August. No tree that bea∣reth fruit with a stone or kernell will fructifie or prosper in this place. 〈◊〉 are found all ouer the Isle certaine crabs or creuises like vnto them of the sea; heere be likewise gray parots, and infinite other birds of diuers sortes; and in the sea are mightie store of whales, especially toward the firme land. The principall riches of this isle consist in sugars, whereof there groweth Page  53 great abundance. The sugar-canes are planted and cut euery moneth, and in fiue months they grow to ripenes, but by reason of the moistnes of the ayer, they neither prooue hard nor white, but are of a reddish colour. The tenths which belong to the king amount to the number of 12. or 14. thousand Ar∣rouas, euery Arroua being one and thirtie Italian pound-weight. In times past there were fortie ships yeerely laden therewith; but now of late certaine wormes which eat the roots of the canes, or (as others think) white antes or mise, haue so mightily impaired the growth of this commodity, that now there are not aboue sixe ships laden therewith. The sugar-canes, after they be once ground, they giue vnto their hogges, wherewith they prooue fat, and their flesh is very sauory. For returne of sugars, the merchants of Eu∣rope carry thither meale, wine, swordes, oile, cheese, hides, drinking-glasses, and certaine shels, which there and in the countries adioining they vse in∣steed of mony. Of the coniunction betweene the men of Europe and the Negro women are bred a generation of browne or tawnie people.

This Isle of Saint Thomas together with the principal towne and castle, was in October 1599 taken by part of the same fleet of Hollanders, which not fullie foure moneths before had sacked the isles, castles and townes of Gran Canaria and Gomera.

Of the Isle del principe, and that of Fernando Po.

THe Isle del principe or of the prince, situate in three degrees of Nor∣therly latitude, and one hundred twentie miles on this side the isle of Sant Thomas, is little in quantitie, but excellent in qualitie: for which cause it is throughly tilled and manured. The reuenues thereof (which con∣sist the greatest part in sugars) were in times past allowed vnto the prince of Portugale; whereupon it was named The isle of the prince.

This Isle was in the yeere 1598 taken by certaine ships of war sent forth vnder the conduct of Iulianus Clerehagen at the charges of Balthasar Mu∣sheron of Camphere in Zeland merchant, who had the conquest thereof gi∣uen him by patent from Prince Maurice, and the States generall of the vni∣ted prouinces.

That of Fernando Po hath no other matter of speciall note, saue onely a certaine lake which is the originall of sundry freshets of sweete and hole∣some water, which make the island to be most pleasant. It seemed so beau∣tifull to the first discouerer thereof, that he termed it Ilha fermosa, or The faire isle.

To the west of these two isles are situate the isle of Sant Matthew, and that of Santa Cruz; and afterward hauing passed the Equinoctial, you come to the isle of Sant Paule, and the isle of conception, both which were disco∣uered by Pedro Aluarez Cabral in the yeere 1501.

Page  54

Of the isles of Cabo verde.

NExt vnto Cape verde it selfe stand The Barbacene which are seuen small isles replenished with greene trees, and full of strange birds vn∣knowne to vs; and yet are they vtterly voide of inhabitants. But those that are called the isles of Cape verde (which by ancient authors are thought to haue bin named Gorgones, or Gorgades, or Hesperides) are nine in number, and are fituate betweene Cabo verde and Cabo blanco. They were first discouered by Antonio di Nolli a Genoway, and began in like sort to be peopled, in the yeere of our Lord 1440. Albeit there are none of them now inhabited, but onely the isle of Sant Iago, and Isla del fo go or The bur∣ning isle. The principall of them all is Sant Iago being seuentie miles long,* whereon the Portugals haue a faire and strong towne called Ribera gran∣de, with a riuer running through it, and a commodious and secure hauen: it is very strongly seated betweene two mountaines, and consisteth of fiue hundred families at the least. The riuer (which springeth two leagues from the city) is beautified vpon the bankes thereof with Cedars, Orenge-trees, and diuers other plants, amongst which the Palme tree of India that beareth nuts, prospereth exceeding well. The hearbes of Europe grow here as natu∣rally as in their original soile; howbeit the seeds thereof must euery yeere be brought out of Spaine. The isle is generally vneuen and mountainous: but the valleis are passing fertile, and throughly inhabited: and here is sowed abundance of rice and Saburro, which groweth to ripenes in fortie daies. Howbeit the soile will beare no wheat. Here is store of cotton also, the cloth whereof is dispersed along the coast of Africa. The shee-gotes here, as like∣wise in all the isles adiacent, bring forth three and more kids at a birth, euery foure moneths. When the sunne is in Cancer, it raineth here in a manner without ceasing.

To the west of Sant Iago stand the isles of Fogo and Braua being but of small importance (albeit that of Fogo is in some parts thereof inhabited) and to the North of the same is situate the isle of Maio, where there is a lake of two leagues long, which is full of salt; the which is a common thing in all these islands; but in one, more then in any of the other, in that it is full of such like salt pits, and is therefore called The island of salt, being destitute of all other liuing things, saue onely of wild gotes. The isle of Buena vista hath a name contrary to the quality; for it is without all shew of beauty. Of the others I haue nothing woorthie the obseruation.

Page  55

Of the Isles of Arguin.

A Little to the south or on the backside of Cabo blanco, within a certaine gulfe or baie which entereth thirtie miles into the maine, lie the isles of Arguin, which were discouered in the yeere 1443. so called after the name of the principall of them, which hath great store of fresh water, whereof all the residue are destitute. Heere the king of Spaine hath a fortresse, for the traffique of gold and other rich commodities of those countries. These isles are sixe or seuen in number, all little ones, being inhabited by the Azanaghi, who liue of fish, whereof there is plentie in that baie. They go to sea in certaine small botes which they call Almadies. The names of the other isles (as farre as I coniecture) are The isle of Penguins, The isles of Nar, Tider, and Adeget.

Of the Isles in the Atlantick Ocean, and first of the Canaries.

FOr so the isles named of olde Insulae fortunatae (which euer since the decay of the Romaine empire, till within these two hundred yeeres, lay vndiscouered) are at this present called. They are in number twelue, (although the ancient writers make mention but of sixe) that is to say, Ca∣naria, Lançarotta, 〈◊〉 ventura, Hierro, Palma, Gomera, Santa Clara, Isla de lobos, La Roca, Gratiosa, Alegrança, and Infierno. They 〈◊〉 abound with barly, sugar, hony, goates, cheese, hides, and Orchel, being herbe commodious to die cloth withall, and whereof they make great mer∣chandise. Amongst other beasts they haue also camels. The natural inhabi∣tants of the countrey are of a good disposition, and notable agilitie; but be∣fore they were discouered, they were so grosse and rude, as they knewe not the vse of fire. They beleeued in one creatour of the world, who punished the 〈◊〉, and rewarded the good; and in this point they all consented, but in other matters they were very different. They had no iron at all, but yet estee∣med it much when any came to their hands, for the vse thereof. They made no accoūt of gold or siluer, iudging it a folly to esteem of that mettal, which could not serue for mechanicall instruments. Their weapons were stones and staues. They shaued their heads with certaine sharpe stones like to 〈◊〉. The women would not willingly nurse their owne children, but caused them to be suckled by goates. They were and are at this day delighted with a kinde of dance which they vse also in Spaine and in other places, and be∣cause it tooke originall from thence, it is called The Canaries. From hence also they bring certaine birds which sing at all times of the yeere. The grea∣test of all these isles is the* Gran Canaria, containing fower-score and ten miles in circuit, and it hath to the number of nine thousand inhabitants. Page  56 Tenerif is not altogither so great. This is esteemed one of the highest islands in the world, by reason of a mountaine therein of the forme of a dia∣mond,* being (as it is reported) fifteene leagues high, & it may be seene more then threescore leagues off. Hierro hath neither spring nor well, but is mira∣culously furnished with water by a cloud which ouer-spreadeth a tree, from whence distilleth so much moisture, as sufficeth both for men and cattell. This cloud ariseth an hower or two before the sunne, and is dissolued two howers after sunne rising. The water falleth into a ponde made at the foote of the tree. The isle of Palma is little, but beautifull, and abundant in sugar, wine, flesh, and cheese: wherefore such ships as go from Spaine to Ter∣ra firma, and Brasil, do there ordinarily prouide themselues of fresh victuall. It is from Lisbon a thousand miles by sea, being much subiect to tempests, and especially those which come from the northwest.

Of these islands Lançarota, Hierro, and Gomera are in the hands of pri∣uate men: the others belong to the crowne.

Of the Isles of Madera and Puerto santo.

MAdera is the greatest and most principal of all the isles in the Atlan∣tick* Ocean. It standeth in two and thirtie degrees and an halfe, fortie miles to the southwest of Puerto santo. So it is called, because at the first discouerie thereof it was all ouergrowen with mightie thick woods. Wherfore, to waste the said woods, and to make it fit to be manured, the first discouerers set them on fire, which continued burning (as some re∣port) for the space of certaine yeeres together: whereupon it grew so excee∣ding fertile, that of corne it yeeldeth sixtie folde for one: and for a certaine space the fifte part of the sugars amounted yeerely to threescore thousand Arrouas (one of which Arrouas containeth fiue and twentie pounds of six∣teene ounces the pound) but now it cometh not to the one halfe of that rec∣koning. This isle containeth in compasse an hundred & sixtie miles. It is di∣ded into foure regions or quarters, that is to say Comerico, Santa Cruz, Funcial, and Camara de los Lobos. It aboundeth with water: and besides di∣uiuers & sundry fountaines, it hath eight small riuers which make it as fruit∣full and pleasant as a garden. It yeeldeth euery thing in such perfection, that Cadamosta (in regard of their excellency) affirmeth all commodities which are there gathered, to be gold. It produceth infinite store of fruits, excellent wines, and sugars which cannot be matched. Heere is likewise great abun∣dance of cedars, whereof are made fine chestes and other works of account: for which purpose there are diuers sawing milles vpon the foresaid riuers. This isle is very scarce of oile and of corne. The head or principall citie hereof is Funciall, being the seat of an archbishop who hath 8000. ducates of reuenue. Here are two fortresses built which command the hauen.

Fortie miles to the northeast of Madera lieth the isle of Puerto santo, so* called bicause it was discouered vpon the day of all saints, in the yeere 1428. Page  57 It containeth in compasse fifteene miles, and aboundeth with oxen, wilde swine, and honie; and yeeldeth wheat sufficient for the vse of the inhabitants. Heere groweth a fruite in bignes and shape like vnto a cherry, but of a yel∣low colour. The tree that 〈◊〉 this fruit being cut neere the roote with certaine strokes of an hatcher, putteth foorth the yeere following a kinde of gum which is called Sanguis Draconis.

The generation of one shee-cony bigge with yoong, brought hither out* of Portugale at the first inhabiting of this isle, did in short time so excee∣dingly increase, that the inhabitants were quite out of hope euer to repaire the ruine and waste which they committed. At this present there is a small isle neere vnto Puerto santo which breedeth nothing but conies.

Vnto all these might be added such isles as lie neere the African coast within the streights of Gibraltar: the principall whereof (as namely Pennon or The little rocke ouer against Velles de Gumera, with the isle of Gerbi, &c.) bicause they are largely described by Iohn Leo, I hold it a matter meere∣ly vaine and superfluous in this place to stande vpon them.

An approbation of the historie ensuing, by me RICHARD HAKLVYT.

BEing mooued to publish mine opinion as touching this present Historie of Iohn Leo; I do hold and affirme it to be the verie best, the most particular, and methodicall, that euer was written, or at least that hath come to light, concerning the countries, peoples, and affaires of Africa. For which cause, and knowing well the suffici∣encie of the translator, my selfe was the first and onely man that perswaded him to take it in hand. Wherein how diligently and faithfully he hath done his part, and how he hath enlarged and graced this Geographicall historie out of others, the best anci∣ent, and moderne writers, by adding a description of all those African maine lands and isles, and other matters verie notable, which Iohn Leo himselfe hath omitted: I referre to the considera∣tion of all iudiciall and indifferent Readers.

Richard Hakluyt.

Page  58

VNto this approbation of master Richard Hakluyt, I holde it not altogither amisse to adioine the testimonies of certaine moderne writers, the most approoued and famous for their skill in Geographie and historie, which they haue also pur∣posely set downe in commendation of this author of ours Iohn Leo.

First therefore master Iohn Baptista Ramusius, Secretarie to the State of Venice, and a man of singular iudgement and diligence in these matters, in his epistle Dedicatorie before the third edition of his first volume of voia∣ges, speaking of the manifold difficulties which he vnderwent to bring the important discourses therein, to light, writteth vnto learned Fracastorius in manner following.

Oltra che gli essemplari che mi son venute alle mani, &c.

MOreouer (saith he) those copies which haue come to my hands, haue beene extremely fowle and vncorrect; a mat∣ter sufficient to discourage the minde of any man, though neuer so forward and resolute, were it not sustained by considering what vnspeakable delight these discourses will breed vnto all those that are studious in Geography; and most especially this of Africa written by Iohn Leo. Concerning which part of the world, euen till these our daies, we haue had no knowledge in a man∣ner out of any other authour, or at leastwise neuer any informa∣tion so large, and of so vndoubted truth. But what do I heere speake of the delight which those that are learned and studious shall reape heereby? As though it were not a matter which will affoord also very much satisfaction vnto the greatest Lords and Princes? Whom it concerneth more then any other to know the secrets and particularities of this African part of the world, togither with the situations of all the regions, prouinces, and cities thereof, and the dependences, which the princes and peo∣ple haue one towards another. For albeit they may haue some aduertisements & instructions from others that haue personally trauailed these countries, & may think their writings & discour∣ses to be very large; yet am I well assured, that hauing once read this booke of Iohn Leo, and throughly considered the matters therein contained and declared, they will esteeme the relati∣ons Page  59 of all others, in comparison of this, to be but briefe, vnper∣fect, and of little moment: so great will be the fruit which to their exceeding contentment, all readers shall reape heereby, &c. Thus farre Ramusius.

Abraham Ortelius before his generall mappe of Africa hath these wordes.

Ex recentioribus, &c.

AMong the late writers (for your more perfect knowledge of Africa) you must read Aloisius Cadamosta, Vasco da Gama, and Francis Aluarez, who trauailed Ethiopia; Sed om∣nium accuratissime &c. but of all others you haue it most exactly described by Iohn Leo.

Also the same author before his map of Barbary and Biledulgerid.

BVt (saith he) concerning these regions and people, you shall finde a most exquisite description in the Historie of Iohn Leo, &c.

The opinion of IOHN BODIN in the fourth chapter of his method of reading Hi∣stories concerning this our author.

Ita quoque Leo Afer, genere Maurus, &c.

SO likewise Leo Afer by descent a More, borne in Spaine, in religion a Mahumetan, and afterward a Christian, hauing by continuall iournies trauelled almost ouer all Africa; as al∣so Page  60 ouer Asia minor, and a good part of Europe, was taken by certaine pirates, and presented vnto pope Leo the tenth: vnder whom he translated into Italian all those things which with in∣credible studie and diligence he had written in the Arabick toong, concerning Africa, the manners, lawes, and customes of the African people, and the situation and true description of the whole countrey. Their militarie discipline he lightly passeth ouer: and briefly mentioneth the conflicts and victories of fa∣mous warrious, without any orations or ornaments of speech, rather like a Geographer then a Chronicler: and with a perpe∣tuall delight of new and strange things, he doth (as it were) per∣force detaine his Reader, &c. And a little after he addeth: Pro∣fecto vnus est ex omnibus, &c. Certes of all others this is the onely man, by whom Africa, which for a thousand yeeres before had lien buried in the barbarous and grosse ignorance of our peo∣ple, is now plainly discouered and laide open to the view of all beholders.

Antonius Posseuinus de historicis sect. 7. cap. 2.

Sed & perdigna est lectu, &c.

ALso the Historie of Leo Afer the Geographer is most wor∣thie to be read, bicause it containeth an exact description of all the regions and people of Africa; and it hath beene pub∣lished in Italian and French.

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IOHN LEO HIS FIRST BOOKE OF the description of Africa, and of the memorable things contained therein.

VVhy this part of the worlde was named Africa.

AFRICA is called in the Arabian toong 〈◊〉, of the word Faraca, which signifieth in the said language, to diuide: but why it should be so called, there are two opinions; the first is this: namely, because this part of the worlde is diuided from Europa by the Mediterran sea, and from Asia * by the riuer of Nilus. Others are of opinion, that this name Africa was deriued from one Ifricus the king of Arabia Foelix, who is saide to haue beene the first that euer inhabited these partes. This Ifricus waging warre against the king of Aslyria, and being at length by him driuen out of his kingdome, passed with his whole armie ouer Nilus, and so conducting his troupes west∣ward, made no delay till he was come vnto the region lying about Car∣thage. Hence it is that the Arabians do imagine the countrie about Car∣thage onely, and the regions lying westward thereof, to comprehende all Africa.

The borders of Africa.

AFRICA (if we may giue credite vnto the writers of that nation, being men of learning, and most skilfull Cosmo∣graphers) beginneth southward at certaine riuers issuing foorth of a lake in the desert of Gaoga. Eastward it borde∣reth vpon the riuer Nilus. It extendeth northward to that part of Egypt, where Nilus at seuen mouthes dischargeth his streames into the Mediterran sea: from whence it stretcheth westward as farre as the streites of Gibraltar, and is bounded on that part with the vtmost sea-towne of all Libya, called * Nun. Likewise the south part thereof abutteth vpon the Ocean sea, which compasseth Africa almost as farre as the deserts of Gaoga.

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The 〈◊〉 of Africa.

OVR authors affirme, that Africa is 〈◊〉 into fower partes, that is to say, Barbaria, Numidia, Libya, and the lande of Negros. Barbaria taketh beginning from the hill called Meies, which is the extreme part of all the moun∣taines of Atlas, being distant from Alexandria almost three hundred miles. It is bounded on the North side with the Mediter∣ran sea, stretching thence to mount-Meies aforesaid, and from mount∣Meies extending itselfe to the streites of Gibraltar. Westward it is limi∣ted with the said streites, from whence winding it selfe out of the Medi∣terran sea into the maine Ocean, it is inclosed with the most westerly point of Atlas: namely, at that Westerne cape which is next vnto the towne called Messa. And southward it is bounded with that side of Atlas which lieth towards the Mediterran sea. This is the most noble and wor∣thie region of all Africa, the inhabitants whereof are of a browne or taw∣nie colour, being a ciuill people, and prescribe wholsome lawes and con∣stitutions vnto themselues.

The second part of Africa is called of the Latines Numidia, but of the Arabians Biledulgerid: this region bringeth foorth dates in great abun∣dance. It beginneth eastward at the citie of Eloacat, which is an hundred miles distant from Egypt, & extendeth west as far as the towne of* Nun, standing vpon the Ocean sea. Northward it is inclosed with the south side of Atlas. And the south part thereof bordereth vpon the sandie de∣serts of Libya. All the Arabians doe vsually call it The land of dates: be∣cause this onely region of Africa beareth dates.

The third part called of the Latines Libya, and of the Arabians Sarra (which word signifieth a desert) beginneth eastward at that part of Nilus which is next vnto the citie of Eloacat, and from thence runneth west∣ward as far as the Ocean sea. Northwarde it is bounded with Numidia, southward it abutteth vpon the land of Negros, eastward it taketh begin∣ning at the kingdome of Gaoga, and stretcheth westwarde euen to the land of Gualata, which bordereth vpon the Ocean sea.

The fourth part of Africa which is called the land of Negros, begin∣neth eastward at the kingdome of Gaoga, from whence it extendeth west as far as Gualata. The north part thereof is inclosed with the desert of Libya, and the south part, which is vnknowen vnto vs, with the Ocean sea: howbeit the merchants which daily come from thence to the king∣dome of Tombuto, haue sufficiently described the situation of that coun∣trie vnto vs. This lande of Negros hath a mightie riuer, which taking his* name of the region, is called Niger: this riuer taketh his originall from the east out of a certaine desert called by the foresaide Negros Seu. Others will haue this riuer to spring out of a certaine lake, and so to run Page  3 westward till it exonerateth itselfe into the Ocean sea. Our Cosmogra∣phers affirme, that the said riuer of Niger is deriued out of Nilus, which they imagine for some certaine space to be swallowed vp of the earth, and yet at last to burst foorth into such a lake as is before mentioned. Some others are of opinion, that this riuer beginneth westward to spring out of a certaine mountaine, and so running east, to make at length a huge lake: which verily is not like to be true; for they vsually saile westward from Tombuto to the kingdome of Ginea, yea and to the land of Melli also; both which in respect of Tombuto are situate to the west: neither hath the said land of Negros any kingdomes comparable, for beautifull and pleasant soile, vnto those which adioine vnto the bankes of Niger. And here it is to be noted, that (according to the opinion of our Cos∣mographers)* that land of Negros by which Nilus is said to run (name∣ly, that part of the world which stretcheth eastward euen to the Indian sea, some northerly parcell whereof abutteth vpon the red sea, to wit, the countrie which lieth without the gulfe of Arabia) is not to be called any member or portion of Africa; and that for many reasons, which are to be found in the processe of this historie set downe more at large: The said countrie is called by the Latines Aethiopia. From thence come certaine religious Friers seared or branded on the face with an hot iron, who are to be seene almost ouer all Europe, and specially at Rome. These people haue an Emperour, which they call Prete Gianni, the greater part of that land being inhabited with Christians. Howbeit, there is also a certaine Mahumetan among them, which is said to possesse a great dominion.

A diuision of the fower forenamed partes of Africa.

BArbarie is distinguished into fower kingdomes: the first whereof is the kingdome of Maroco; which is likewise diuided into seuen regions or prouinces; namely, Hea, Sus, Guzula, the territorie of Maroco, Duccala, Haz∣cora, & Tedles. The second kingdome of Barbarie called Fez, comprehendèth in like sort seuen regions within the bounds there∣of; to wit, Temesne, the territorie of Fez, Azgara,* Elabat, Errif, Garet, and* Elcauz. The third kingdome is called* Telensin, and hath three re∣gions vnder it, namely, the mountaines, Tenez, and Algezer. The fourth kingdome of Barbarie is named Tunis; vnder which are comprized fower regions, that is to say, Bugia, Constantina, Tripolis in Barbarie, and Ez∣zaba, which is a good part of Numidia. Bugia hath alwaies beene turmoi∣led with continuall warres; because sometimes it was subiect vnto the king of Tunis, and sometimes againe vnto the king of Tremizen. Cer∣taine it is that euen vntill these our daies, this Bugia was a kingdome of it selfe, and so continued, till the principall citie of that region was at the Page  4 commandement of Ferdinando the king of Castile, taken by one Peter of Nauarre.

The diuision of Numidia.

THis is the basest part of all Africa; neither will our Cos∣mographers vouchsafe it the name of a kingdome, by rea∣son that the inhabitants thereof are so far distant asunder; which you may easily coniecture by that which followeth. Tesset a citie of Numidia containeth about fower hun∣dred families, and is in regard of the Libyan desert, seuered from all pla∣ces of habitation almost three hundred miles; wherefore this second part is thought by diuers not to be woorthie the name of a kingdome. How∣beit we will make some relation of the habitable partes of Numidia; some whereof may not vnfitly bee compared with other regions of Africa, as for example, that of Segelmess, which territorie of Numidia lieth ouer against Barbarie; likewise Zeb, which is situate against Bugia, and the signiorie of Biledulgerid, which extendeth vnto the kingdome of Tunis. Reseruing therefore many particulars for the second part of this historie, we wil make our entrie and beginning at those places, which lie vpon the west of Numidia: the names whereof be these; Tesset, Gua∣den, Ifren, Hacca, Dare, Tebelbelt, Todga, Fercale, Segelmess, Benigu∣mi, Fighig, Tegua, Tsabit, Tegorarin, Mesab, Tegort, and Guarghela. The region of Zeb containeth fiue townes, to wit, Pescara, Elborgh, Ne∣sta, Taolac, and Deusin: so many cities likewise hath the territorie of Biledulgerid; namely, Teozar, Caphesa, Nefreoa, Elchamid, and Chal∣bis: and from hence eastward are found the isles of Gerbe, Garion, Me∣sellata, Mestrata, Teoirraga, Gademis, Fizza, Augela, Birdeoa, and Eloa∣cat. These are the names of the most famous places of all Numidia, be∣ing bounded (as is said before) westward vpon the Ocean sea, and eastward with the riuer of Nilus.

A description of the Libyan deserts, which lie betweene Numidia and the 〈◊〉 of Negros.

THese deserts haue not as yet any certaine name amongst vs, 〈◊〉 they be diuided into fiue partes, and receiue all their denomination from the inhabitants which dwell vpon them, that is to say, from the Numidians, who are in like sort them∣selues diuided into fiue partes also, to wit, the people or tribes called Za∣nega, Ganziga, Terga, Leuta, and Berdeoa. There bee likewise certaine places, which take some proper and particular name from the goodnes and badnes of the soile; as namely the desert of Azaohad, so called for the drought and vnfruitfulnes of that place: likewise Hair, albeit a desert, yet so called for the goodnes and temperature of the aire.

Page  5

A diuision of the land of Negros into seuerall kingdomes.

MOreouer, the land of Negros is diuided into many kingdomes: whereof albeit a great part be vnknowen vnto vs, and remooued farre out of our trade; we will notwithstanding make relation of those places, where we our selues haue aboad, and which by long ex∣perience are growne very familiar vnto vs: as likewise of some other places, from whence merchants vsed to trauell vnto the same cities wherein my selfe was then resident; from whom I learned right 〈◊〉 the state of their countries. I* my selfe saw fifteene kingdoms of the Negros: howbeit there are many more, which although I saw not with mine owne eies, yet are they by the Negros sufficiently knowen and frequented. Their names therefore (beginning from the west, and so proceeding Eastward and Southward) are these following: Gualata, Ghinea, Melli, Tombuto, Gago, Guber, Agadez, Cano, Casena, Zegzeg, Zanfara, Guangara, Burno, Gaoga, Nube. These fifteene kingdomes are for the most part situate vpon the riuer Niger, through the which merchants vsually trauell from Gualata to the citie of* Alcair in Egypt. The iour∣ney indeede is very long, but yet secure and voide of danger. All the said kingdomes adioine one vpon another; ten whereof are separated either by the riuer Niger, or by some sandie desert: and in times past each one of the fifteene had a seueral king, but now* at this present, they are all in a manner subiect vnto three kings onely: namely, to the king of Tombuto who is Lord of the greatest part; to the king of Borno, who gouerneth the least part, and the residue is in subiection vnto the king of Gaoga: howbeit he that possesseth the kingdome of Ducala hath a very small traine attending vpon him. Likewise these kingdomes haue many other kingdomes bordering vpon the South frontiers of them: to wit, Bito, Temiam, Dauma, Medra, and Gorhan; the gouernors and inhabitants whereof are most rich and industrious people, great louers of iustice and equitie, albeit some lead a brutish kinde of life.

Of the habitations of Africa, and of the signification of this word Barbar.

OVr Cosmographers and historiographers affirme, that in times past Africa was altogether disinhabited, except that part which is now called the land of Negros: and most certaine it is, that Barbarie and Numidia were for many ages destitute of inhabitants. The tawnie people of the said region were called by the name of Barbar, being deriued of the verbe Barbara, which in their toong signifieth to murmur: because the African Page  6 toong soundeth in the eares of the Arabians, no otherwise then the voice of beasts, which vtter their sounds without any accents. Others will haue Barbar to be one word twise repeated, forsomuch as Bar in the Arabian toong signifieth a desert. For (say they) when king Iphricus being by the Assyrians or Aethiopians driuen out of his owne kingdome, trauelled towards Aegypt, and seeing himselfe so oppressed with his enimies, that he knew not what should become of him and his followers, he asked his people how or which way it was possible to escape, who answered him Bar-Bar, that is, to the desert, to the desert: giuing him to vnderstand by this speech, that he could haue no safer refuge, then to crosse ouer Nilus, and to flee vnto the desert of Africa. And this reason seemeth to agree with them, which affirme the Africans to be descended from the people of Arabia foelix.

The originall of the people of Africa.

ABout the originall of the Africans, our historiographers doe much disagree. For some will haue them to be deri∣ued from the inhabitants of Palaestina; because (as they say) being expelled out of their owne countrie by the Assyrians, they came at length into Africa, & seeing the fruitfulnes of the soile, chose it to be their place of habitation. Others are of opinion, that they tooke their originall from the Sabeans a people of Arabia foelix, and that, before such time as they were put to flight by the Assyrians or Aethiopians, as hath beene aforesaid. Some others report, that the Africans descended from certaine people of* Asia, who being chased thence by reason of warres which were waged against them, fled into Greece, which at the same time had no inhabitants at all. Howbeit the enimie still pursuing them, they were forced to crosse the sea of Mo∣rea, and being arriued in Africa, to settle themselues there: but their eni∣mies aboad still in Greece. All which opinions and reportes are to bee vnderstood onely of the originall of the tawnie people, that is to say, of the Numidians and Barbarians. For all the Negros or blacke Moores take their descent from Chus, the sonne of Cham, who was the sonne of Noë. But whatsoeuer difference there be betweene the Negros and the tawnie Moores, certaine it is that they had all one beginning. For the Negros are descended of the Philistims, and the Philistims of Mesraim the* sonne of Chus: but the tawnie Moores fetch their petigree from the Sabeans, and it is euident that Saba was begotten of*Rama, which was the eldest sonne of Chus. Diuers other opinions there be as touching this matter: which because they seeme not so necessarie, wee haue pur∣posely omitted.

Page  7

A diuision of the tawnie Moores into sundrie tribes or nations.

THE tawnie Moores are diuided into fiue seuerall people or tribes: to wit, the tribes called Zanhagi, Musmudi, Zeneti, Hacari, and Gumeri. The tribe of Musmudi inhabite the westerne part of mount Atlas, from the prouince of Hea to the riuer of * Seruan. Likewise they dwell vpon the south part of the said mountaine, and vpon all the inward plaines of that region. These Musmudae haue fower prouinces vnder them: namely, Hea, Sus, Guzula, and the territorie of Marocco. The tribe of Gumeri possesse certaine mountaines of Barbarie, dwelling on the sides of those mountaines which lie ouer against the Mediterran sea: as like∣wise they are Lords of all the riuer called in their language Rif. This riuer* hath his fountaine neere vnto the streites of Gibraltar, and thence run∣neth eastwards to the kingdome of Tremizen, called by the Latines Cae∣saria.

These two tribes or people haue seuerall habitations by themselues: the other three are dispersed confusiuely ouer all Africa: howbeit they are, like strangers, discerned one from another by certaine properties or tokens, maintaining continuall warre among themselues, especially they of Numidia. These (I say) are those very people (as some report) who had no other places then tents and wide fields to repose themselues in: and it is reported, that in times past they had great conflicts together, and that the vanquished were sent to inhabit townes and cities, but the con∣querors held the champions and fieldes vnto themselues, and there setled their aboad. Neither is it altogether vnlikely; because the inhabitants of cities haue all one and the same language with the countrie people. For the Zeneti, whether they dwell in the citie or in the countrie, speake all one kinde of language: which is likewise to be vnderstood of the rest. The tribes of Zeneti, Haoari, and Sanhagi; inhabit the countrie of Temesne: sometimes they liue peaceably, and sometimes againe, calling to minde their ancient quarrels, they breake foorth into cruell warres and man∣slaughters. Some of these people beare rule ouer all Africa, as namely the Zeneti, who in times past vanquished the familie called Idris; from which some affirme the true and naturall Dukes of Fez, and the founders of the same citie to deriue their petigree: their progenie likewise was called Mecnasa. There came afterward out of Numidia, another familie of the Zeneti called Magraoa: this Magraoa chased the familie of Mec∣nasa with all their Dukes and chieftaines out of their dominions. Not long after, the said tribe of Magraoa was expelled in like sort by certaine others of the race of the Sanhagij, called by the name of Luntuna, which Page  8 came also out of the desert of Numidia.

By this familie was the countrie of Temesna in processe of time vt∣terly spoiled and wasted, and all the inhabitants thereof slaine, except those which were of their owne tribe and kindred of Luntuna, vnto whom was allotted the region of Ducala to inhabit, and by them was built the citie commonly called Maroco. It fell out afterwards by the* inconstancie of fortune, that one Elmahdi the principall 〈◊〉 preacher among them, conspiring with the Hargij (these Hargij were of the familie of Musmuda) expelled the whole race of the Luntuna, and vsurped that kingdome vnto himselfe. After this mans decease, succeeded in his place one of his disciples called Habdul Mumen a Banigueriaghel of the kindred of the Sanhagij. The kingdome remained vnto this family about an 120. yeeres, whereunto all Africa in a manner was subiect: At length being deposed by the Banimarini, a generation of the Zeneti, the said familie was put to flight: which Banimarini are said to haue raig∣ned afterward for the space of 170. yeeres. The Banimarini which de∣scended of the Sanhagij and of Magroa, waged continuall warre against Banizeijan the king of Telensin: likewise the progenie of Hafasa, and of Musmuda are at variance and dissension with the king of Tunis. So that you see what stirres and tumults haue at all times beene occasioned in those regions by the foresaid fiue families.

Certaine it is, that neither the Gumeri, nor the Haoari haue at this present any iurisdiction at all; albeit heretofore (as we reade in their chronicles) they had some certaine dominion, before such time as they were infected with the Mahumetan lawe. Out of all which it is euident, that in times past all the foresaid people had their habitations and tents in the plaine fields: euery one of which fauoured their owne faction, and exercised all labours necessarie for mans life, as common among them. The gouernours of the countrie attended their droues and flockes; and the citizens applied themselues vnto some manuall art, or to husbandrie. The said people are diuided into fiue hundred seuerall families, as appee∣reth by the genealogies of the Africans, author whereof is one Ibnu Ra∣chu, whom I haue oftentimes read and perused. Some writers are of opi∣nion, that the king of Tombuto, the king of Melli, and the king of Aga∣dez fetch their originall from the people of Zanaga, to wit, from them which inhabite the desert.

The agreement or varietie of the African lauguage.

THe foresaid fiue families or people, 〈◊〉 diuided into hun∣dreds of progenies, and hauing innumerable habitations, doe notwithstanding vse all one kinde of language, called by them Aquel Amarig, that is, the noble toong: the Ara∣bians* which inhabite Africa, call it a barbarous toong; and this is the Page  9 true and naturall language of the Africans. Howbeit it is altogether different from other languages, although it hath diuers words common with the Arabian toong; whereupon some would inferre, that the Afri∣cans (as is aboue said) came by lineall descent from the Sabeans, a people of Arabia foelix. Others say, that these words were euen then inuented when the Arabians came first into Africa, and began to take possession thereof: but these authors were so rude and grosse-witted, that they left no writings behinde them, which might be alleaged either for, or against. Moreouer they haue among them another diuersitie, not onely of 〈◊〉, but of significant words also: as namely, they which dwell neere vnto the Arabians, and exercise much traffique with them, doe for the greater part vse their language. Yea, all the Gumeri in a manner, and most of the Haoari speake Arabian, though corruptly; which (I suppose) came first hereupon to passe, for that the said people haue had long ac∣quaintance and conuersation with the Arabians. The Negros haue diuers languages among themselues, among which they call one Sungai, and the same is current in many regions; as namely, in Gualata, Tom∣buto, Ghinea, Melli, and Gago. Another language there is among the Negros, which they cal Guber; & this is rife among the people of Guber, of Cano, of Casena, of Perzegreg, & of Guangra. Likewise the kingdom of Borno hath a peculiar kinde of speech, altogether like vnto that, which is vsed in Gaoga. And the kingdome of Nube hath a language of great affinitie with the Chaldean, Arabian, & Egyptian toongs. But all the sea∣towns of Africa frō the Mediterran sea to the mountains of Atlas, speake broken Arabian. Except the kingdome and towne of Maroco, & the in∣land Numidians bordering vpon Maroco, Fez, & Tremizen; all which, vse the Barbarian toong. Howbeit they which dwel ouer against Tunis & Tripoli, speake indeede the Arabian language; albeit most corruptly.

Of the Arabians inhabiting the citie of Africa.

OF that armie which was sent by Califa*Otmen the third, in the fower hundred yeere of the Hegeira, there came into Africa fowerscore thousand gentlemen and others, who ha∣uing subdued sundrie prouinces, at length arriued in A∣frica: and there the Generall of the whole armie called *Hucha 〈◊〉 Nafich remained. This man built that great citie which is called of vs * Alcair. For he stood in feare of the people of Tunis, least they should betray him, misdoubting also that they would procure aide out of Sicily, and so giue him the encounter. Wherefore with all his treasure which he had got, he trauelled to the desert & firme ground, distant from * Car∣thage about one hundred and twentie miles, and there is he said to haue built the citie of * Alcair. The remnant of his soldiers he commanded to keepe those places, which were most secure and fit for their defence, Page  10 and willed them to build where no rocke nor fortification was. Which being done, the Arabians began to inhabit Africa, and to disperse them∣selues among the Africans, who, because they had beene for certaine yeeres subiect vnto the Romans or Italians, vsed to speake their lan∣guage: and hence it is, that the naturall and mother-toong of the Ara∣bians, which hath great affinitie with the African toong, grewe by little and little to be corrupted: and so they report that these two nations at length conioined themselues in one. Howbeit the Arabians vsually doe blaze their petigree in daily and triuiall songs; which custome as yet is common both to * vs, and to the people of Barbarie also. For no man there is, be he neuer so base, which will not to his owne name, adde the name of his nation; as for example, Arabian, Barbarian, or such like.

Of the Arabians which dwell in tents.

THE Mahumetan priestes alwaies forbad the Arabians to passe ouer Nilus with their armies and tents. How beit in the fower hun∣dred yeere of the Hegeira we reade, that they were permitted so to doe by a certaine factious and schismaticall * Califa: because one of his nobles had rebelled against him, vsurping the citie of Cairaoan, and the greatest part of Barbarie. After the death of which rebell, that king∣dome remained for some yeeres vnto his posteritie and familie; whose iurisdiction (as the African chronicles report) grew so large and strong in the time of Elcain (the Mahumetan Califa and patriark of Arabia) that he sent vnto them one Gehoar, whom of a slaue he had made his coun∣sellour,* with an huge armie. This Gehoar conducting his armie west∣ward, recouered all Numidia and Barbarie. Insomuch that he pierced vnto the region of Sus, and there claimed most ample tribute: all which being done, he returned backe vnto his Calipha, and most faithfully surrendred vnto him whatsoeuer he had gained from the enemie. The Calipha seeing his prosperous successe, began to aspire vnto greater ex∣ploites. And Gehoar most firmely promised, that as he had recouered that westerne dominion vnto his Lord, so would he likewise by force of warre most certainly restore vnto him the countries of the East, to wit, Egypt, Syria, and all Arabia; and protested moreouer that with the greatest hazard of his life, he would be auenged of all the iniuries offered by the familie of Labhus vnto his Lords predecessors, and would reuest him in the royall seate of his most famous grandfathers, great-grandfa∣thers, and progenitors. The Calipha liking well his audacious promise, caused an armie of fower-score thousand soldiers, with an infinite summe of money and other things necessarie for the warres, to be deliuered vnto him. And so this valiant and stout chieftaine being prouided for warfare, conducted his troupes through the deserts of Aegypt & Barbarie; & ha∣uing first 〈◊〉 to flight the vice-Califa of Aegypt (who fled vnto Eluir the Page  11 Califa of Bagdet) in short time he subdued very easily all the prouinces of Aegypt and Syria. Howbeit he could not as yet hold himselfe secure; fearing least the Califa of Bagdet would assaile him with an armie out of Asia, and least the garrisons which he had left to keepe Barbarie, should be constrained to forsake those conquered prouinces. Wherefore hee built 〈◊〉, and caused it to be walled round about. In which citie he left one of his most trustie captaines, with a great part of the armie: and this* citie he called by the name of Alchair, which afterward by others was named Cairo. This Alchair is saide daily so to haue increased, that no citie of the world for buildings and inhabitants was any way comparable thereunto. Now when Gehoar perceiued that the Calipha of Bagdet made no preparation for warre, he foorthwith wrote vnto his Lord, that all the conquered cities yeelded due honour vnto him, and that all things were in quiet and tranquillitie: and therefore, that himselfe (if he thought good) should come ouer into Aegypt, and thereby with his onely pre∣sence should preuaile more to recouer the remnant of his dominions, then with neuer so huge an armie: for he was in good hope that the Ca∣lipha of Bagdet hearing of his expedition, woulde leaue his kingdome and prelacie, and would betake himselfe to flight. This notable and ioy∣full message no sooner came to the eares of Califa Elcain; but he being by his good fortune much more encouraged then before, and not fore∣thinking himselfe, what mischiefe might ensue, leuied a great armie, ap∣pointing for vice-roy of all Barbarie one of the familie of Sanagia afore∣said, finding him afterward not to be his trustie friend. Moreouer Califa Elcain arriuing at Alchair, and being most honorably entertained by his seruant Gehoar, began to thinke vpon great affaires, and hauing gathered an huge armie, resolued to wage battell against the Califa of Bagdet. In the meane season he that was appointed vice-roy of Barbarie compa∣cting with the Calipha of Bagdet, yeelded himselfe and all Barbarie into his hands. Which the Califa most kindly accepted, and ordained him king ouer all Africa. But Califa Elcain hearing this newes at Alchair was woonderfully afflicted in minde; partly because he saw himselfe repelled from his owne kingdome, and partly for that he had spent all his money which hee brought with him: insomuch that he knew not what in the world to doe, determining some seuere punishment for Gehoar, by whose counsell he left his kingdome of Arabia. Howbeit there was one of his secret counsellers a very learned and wittie man, who seeing his Lord so sad and pensiue, and being desirous by some good aduise to preuent the danger imminent, comforted him in this wise: Your highnes knoweth (most inuincible Califa) that fortune is most variable, and that the cou∣rage of your soldiers is no whit daunted by reason of these mishaps. For mine owne part, as I haue heretofore shewed my selfe to be your trustie seruant, so will I at this time giue you such profitable counsell, whereby you may within short space recouer all those dominions which haue Page  12 beene so treacherously taken from you, and may without al peraduenture most easily attaine vnto your owne harts desire. And this you may doe without maintaining any armie at all; yea, I assure you, if you please to take mine aduise, that I will foorthwith procure you such an armie, as shall giue you great store of money, and yet notwithstanding shall doe you good seruice also. The Califa being somewhat 〈◊〉 these speeches, asked his counsellour how this might possibly be brought to effect: My Lord (saith his counseller) certaine it is, that the Arabians are now growen so populous and to so great a number, that all Arabia can∣not containe them, scarcely wil the yeerely increase of the ground suffice to feede their droues, and you see with what great famine they are afflic∣ted, and how they are destitute not onely of habitations, but euen of vic∣tuals and sustenance. Wherefore if you had heeretofore giuen them leaue, they would long ere this haue inuaded Africa. And if you will now licence them so to doe, doubt you not, but that you shall receiue of them an huge masse of golde. This counsell could not altogether satisfie the Califa his minde: for he knew right well that the Arabians would so waste all Africa, as it should neither bee profitable for himselfe, nor for his enemies. Notwithstanding, seeing that his kingdome was altogether endangered, hee thought it better to accept those summes of money which his counsellour promised, and so to be reuenged of his enemie, then to lose both his kingdome and gold all at once. Wherefore hee permitted all Arabians, which would pay him ducats apeece, freely to enter Africa; conditionally that they would shewe themselues most deadly enemies vnto the treacherous king of Barbarie. Which libertie* being granted vnto them, it is reported that ten tribes or families of Ara∣bians, being halfe the people of Arabia deserta, came immediately into Africa; vnto whom certaine inhabitants of Arabia foelix ioyned them∣selues, insomuch that there were found amongst them about fiftie thou∣sand persons able to beare armes: their women, children, and cattell were* almost innumerable: the storie whereof Ibnu Rachu, the most diligent chronicler of African affaires (whom we haue before mentioned) setteth downe at large. These Arabians hauing trauersed the desert betweene Aegypt and Barbarie, first laid siege vnto Tripolis a citie of Barbarie, which being ouercome, they slew a great part of the citizens, the residue escaping by flight. Next of all they encountred the towne of Capes, which was by them taken and vanquished. At length they besieged Cai∣raoan also; howbeit the citizens being sufficiently prouided of victuals, are said to haue indured the siege for eight monethes: which being ex∣pired, they were constrained to yeeld: at what time there was nothing in Cairaoan but wofull slaughters, hideous outcries, and present death. This land the Arabians diuided among themselues, and began to people and inhabite the same; requiring in the meane space large tributes of the townes and prouinces subiect vnto them. And so they possessed all Page  13 Africa, vntill such time as one Ioseph the sonne of Ieffin attained to the king∣dom of Marocco. This Ioseph was the first king of Marocco, who endeuored by all meanes to aduance the friends and kinred of the late deceased king of Africa vnto the kingdome; neither did he cease vntill he had expelled all the Arabians out of Cairaoan. Howbeit the Arabians possessed the regions thereabout, giuing themselues wholy to spoiles and robberies: and the friends of the said deceased king could beare rule but in certaine places only. Afterward succeeded in the kingdome of Marocco one Mansor, who was the fourth king and prelate of that Mahumetan sect which was called Mua∣chedim. This man, albeit his grand-fathers & great grand-fathers had alwaies fauoured the posteritie and friends of the foresaid deceased African king, and had restored them to their ancient dignitie; deuised altogether how to oppose himselfe against them, and to vsurpe all their authoritie. Wherefore making a fained league with them, we reade, that he prouoked the Arabians against them, and so very easily ouercame them. Afterward Mansor brought the greatest part of the Arabians into the westerne dominions of Africa; vnto the better sort of whom he gaue the habitation of Duccala & Azgara, and vnto the baser remnant he bequeathed the possession of Numidia. But in processe of time he commanded the Numidian slaues to be set at liber∣tie, and so in despight of the Arabians, he caused them to inhabite that part of Numidia which he had allotted vnto them. But as for the Arabians of Azgara and of certaine other places in Barbarie, he brought them all vnder his subiection. For the Arabians out of deserts are like fishes without water: they had indeede often attempted to get into the deserts; but the moun∣taines of Atlas, which were then possessed by the Barbarians, hindred their passage. Neither had they libertie to passe ouer the plaines, for the residue of the Barbarians were there planted. Wherefore their pride being abated, they applied themselues vnto husbandrie, hauing no where to repose them∣selues, but onely in villages, cottages, and tents. And their miserie was so much the greater, in that they were constrained yeerely to disburse vnto the king of Marocco most ample tribute. Those which inhabited Duccala, be∣cause they were an huge multitude, easily freed themselues from all tribute, and imposition. A great part of the Arabians remained still at Tunis, for that Mansor had refused to carie them along with him: who, after the death of the said Mansor, grew to be Lords of Tunis, and so continued, till they resigned their gouernment vnto the people called Abu-Haf; vpon condi∣tion that they should pay them halfe the reuenues thereof: and this condi∣tion hath remained firme euen vntill our daies. Howbeit, because the Ara∣bians are increased to such innumerable swarmes, that the whole reuenues are not sufficient for them, the king of Tunis most iustly alloweth some of* them their duties, to the end they may make secure passage for merchants, which indeede they performe without molestation or hurt of any. But the residue which are depriued of their pay, betake themselues wholy to robbe∣ries, thefts, slaughters, and such other monstrous outrages. For these, lurking Page  14 alwaies in the woods, no sooner see any merchant approching, but suddenly they breake foorth, depriuing him of his goodes and life also: insomuch that now merchants dare not passe that way but with a garrison of safe-con∣duct. And so they passe sometimes to their great inconuenience. For they are notwithstanding constrained to giue vnto the foresaid Arabians, which are in pay with the king of Tunis, great summes of money: and are likewise oftentimes so in danger of robbers, that they lose both their goods & liues.

Adiuision of the Arabians which inhabite Africa, and are called by the name of Barbarians, into diuers progenies or kinreds.

THE Arabians which inhabite Africa are diuided into three partes: one part whereof are called Cachin, the second Hilell, and the third Machill. The Cachin are diuided into three nations or tribes; to wit, the tribes of Etheg, Sumait, and Sahid. Moreouer Etheg is diuided into three families; that is to say, the familie of Delleg, Elmuntefig, and Subair: and these are dispersed into many regions. Hilel are deriued into fower generations; to wit, the people of Benihemir, of Rieh, of Sufien, and of Chusain. The familie of Benihemir is diuided into the linages of Huroam, Hucben, Habrum and Mussim. The tribe of Rieh are distributed into the kinreds called Deuvad, Suaid, Asgeg, Elcherith, Enedri, and Garfam; which kinreds possesse many dominions. Machil haue three tribes vnder them: to wit, Mastar, Hutmen, and Hassan. Mastar are diuided into Ruchen, and Selim; Hutmen into Elhasi and Chi∣nan; and Hassan into Deuihessen, Deuimansor, and Deuihubaidulla. Deui∣hessen is distinguished into the kinreds called Dulein, Berbun, Vodein, Rac∣men and Hamram; Deuimansor into Hemrun, Menebbe, Husein, and Al∣buhusein; and lastly Deuihubaidulla, into Garag, Hedeg, Teleb, and Geoan. All these doe in a manner possesse innumerable regions; insomuch that to reckon them vp at large, were a matter not onely difficult, but almost im∣possible.

Of the habitations and number of the foresaid Arabians.

THE most noble and famous Arabians were they of the familie of Etheg, vnto whome Almansor gaue the regions of Duccala and of Tedles to inhabit. These Arabians euen till our times haue beene put to great distresse and hazard, partly by the Portugall king, and partly by the king of Fez. They haue at all oportunities, if need should require, a hundred thousand soldiers fit to beare armes, a great part whereof are horsemen. The Arabians called Sumait enioy that part of the Libyan desert which lieth ouer against the desert of Tripoly. These make often inuasions into Bar∣barie, Page  15 for they haue no places allotted them therein, but they and their ca∣mels doe perpetually remaine in the deserts. They are able to leuie fower∣score thousand soldiers, the greatest part being footmen. Likewise the tribe of Sahid doe inhabite the desert of Libya: and these haue had alwaies great league and familiaritie with the king of Guargala. They haue such abun∣dance of cattell, that they doe plentifully supply all the cities of that region with flesh, and that especially in sommer time, for all the winter they stirre not out of the deserts. Their number is increased to about a hundred and fif∣tie thousand, hauing not many horsemen among them. The tribe of Delleg possesse diuers habitations, howbeit * Caesaria containeth the greatest part of them. Some also inhabit vpon the frontiers of the kingdome of Bugia; who are said to receiue a yeerely stipend from their next neighbours. But the least part of them dwell vpon the field-countrey of Acdes, vpon the borders of Mauritania, and vpon some part of mount Atlas, being subiect vnto the king of Fez. The people of Elmuntefig are seated in the prouince of Azgar, and are called by the later writers Elcaluth. These also pay certaine yeerely tribute vnto the King of Fez, beeing able to furnish about eight thousand horsemen to the warres. The kindred of Sobair doe inhabit not farre from the kingdome of Gezeir, being many of them vnder the pay of the king of Tremizen, and are said to enioy a great part of Numidia. They haue, more or lesse, three thousand most warlike horsemen. They possesse likewise great abundance of camels; for which cause they abide all winter in the deserts. The remnant of them occupieth the plaine which lieth be∣tweene Sala and Mecnes. These haue huge droues of cattell, and exercise themselues in husbandrie, being constrained to pay some yeerely tribute vnto the king of Fez. They haue horsemen, who, as a man may say, are na∣turally framed to the warres, about fower thousand in number.

Of the people of Hillel, and of their habitations.

HIllel, which are also called Benihamir, dwell vpon the fron∣tiers of the kingdome of Tremizen and Oran. These range vp and downe the desert of Tegorarin, being in pay vnder the king of Tremizen, and of great riches and power; inso∣much that they haue at all times in a readines for the 〈◊〉 six thousand horsemen. The tribe of Hurua possesse onely the borders of Mustuganim. These are sauage people, giuing themselues wholy to spoiles and robberies, and alienating their mindes from the warres. They neuer come foorth of the deserts; for the people of Barbarie will neither allow them any places of habitation, nor yet any stipend at all: horsemen they haue to the number of two thousand. The kindred of Hucban are next neighbours vnto the region of Melian, who receiue certaine pay from the king of Tunis. They are rude and wilde people, and in very deede estranged from al humanitie: they haue (as it is reported) about fifteene hundred horse∣men. Page  16 The tribe of Habru inhabit the region lying betweene Oran and Mu∣stuganim: these exercise husbandrie, paying yeerely tribute vnto the king of Tremizen, and being scarce able to make one hundred horsemen.

The people called Mussim possesse those deserts of Masila which extend vnto the kingdome of Bugia. These likewise are giuen onely to theft and robberie; they take tribute both of their owne people, and of other regions adioyning vnto them. The tribe of Rieeh inhabite those deserts of Libya which border vpon Constantina. These haue most ample dominions in Numidia, being now diuided into sixe parts. This right famous and warlike nation receiueth stipende from the king of Tunis, hauing fiue thousande horsemen at command. The people of Suaid enioy that desert, which is ex∣tended vnto the signiorie of Tenez. These haue very large possessions, re∣ceiuing stipend from the king of Tremizen, being men of notable dexteri∣tie, as well in the warres as in all other conuersation of life. The kindred of Azgeg dwell not all together in one place: for part of them inhabite the region of Garet among the people called Hemram: and the residue poslesse that part of Duccala which lieth neere vnto Azaphi. The tribe of Elcherit dwell vpon that portion of Helin which is situate in the plaine of Sahidim, hauing the people of Heah tributarie vnto them, and being a very vnciuill and barbarous people. The people called Enedri are seated in the plaine of Heah: but the whole region of Heah maintaineth almost fower thousand horsemen; which notwithstanding are vnfit for the warres. The people of Garfa haue sundrie mansions; neither haue they any king or gouernour. They are dispersed among other generations, and especially among the kindreds of Manebbi and Hemram. These conuay dates from Segelmessa to the kingdome of Fez, and carrie backe againe from thence such things as are necessarie for Segelmess.

Of the tribe of Machil.

THE people called Ruche, who are thought to be descended from Mastar, doe possesse that desert, which lieth next vnto Dedes and Farcala. They haue very small dominions, for which cause they are accounted no whit rich; howbeit they are most valiant soldiers, and exceeding swift of foote; inso∣much that they esteeme it a great disgrace, if one of their footemen be van∣quished by two horsemen. And you shall finde scarce any one man among them, which will not outgoe a very swift horse; be the iourney neuer so long. They haue about fiue hundred horsemen; but most warlike foote∣men, to the number of eight thousand. Selim inhabite vpon the riuer of Dara; from whence they range vp and downe the deserts. They are endow∣ed with great riches, carrying euery yeere merchandize vnto the kingdome of Tombuto, and are thought to be in high fauour with the king himselfe.* A large iurisdiction they haue in Darha and great plentie of camels: and Page  17 for all oportunities of warre they haue euer in a readines three thousande horsemen. The tribe of Elhasis dwelleth vpon the sea-coast neere vnto Messa. They doe arme about fiue hundred horsemen, and are a nation alto∣gether rude and vnacquainted in the warres. Some part of them inhabiteth Azgara. Those which dwell about Messa are free from the yoke of superio∣ritie, but the others which remaine in Azgar are subiect to the king of Fez. The kindred of Chinan are dispersed among them which before were called Elcaluth, and these also are subiect vnto the king of Fez. Very warlike peo∣ple they are; and are able to set foorth two thousand horsemen. The people of Deuihessen are diuided into the kindreds of Duleim, Burbun, Vode, De∣uimansor, and Deuihubaidulla. Duleim are conuersant in the deserts of Libya with the African people called Zanhaga. They haue neither domi∣nion nor yet any stipend; wherefore they are very poore and giuen to rob∣berie: they trauell vnto Dara, and exchange cattell for dates with the inha∣bitants there. All brauerie & comelines of apparell they vtterly neglect; and their number of fighting menis ten thousand, fower thousand being horse∣men and the residue footmen. The people called Burbun possesse, that part of the Libyan desert, which adioyneth vnto Sus. They are a huge multitude, neither haue they any riches beside camels. Vnto them is subiect the citie of Tesset, which scarce sufficeth them for the maintenance of their horses, being but a few. The people of Vode enioyeth that desert, which is situate betweene Guaden and Gualata. They beare rule ouer the Guadenites, and of the Duke of Gualata they receiue yeerely tribute, and their number is growen almost infinite For by report they are of abilitie to bring into the field almost threescore thousand most skilful soldiers; notwithstanding they haue great want of horses. The tribe of Racmen occupie that desert which is next vnto Hacha. They haue very large possessions, and doe in the spring∣time vsually trauell vnto Tesset: for then alwaies they haue somewhat to doe with the inhabitants there. Their people fit for armes are to the number of twelue thousand; albeit they haue very few horsemen. The nation of Ham∣rum inhabit the deserts of Tagauost, exacting some tribute of the inhabi∣tants there, and with daily incursions likewise molesting the people of Nun. Their number of soldiers is almost eight thousand.

The people descended of Deuimansor.

THE generation of Dehemrum, which are saide to deriue their petigree from Deuimansor, inhabite the desert ouer against Se∣gellmess, who continually wander by the Libyan deserts as farre as Ighid. They haue tributarie vnto them the people of Segel∣messe, of Todgatan, of Tebelbelt, and of Dara. Their soile yeeldeth such abundance of dates, that the yeerely increase thereof is sufficient to main∣taine them, although they had nothing else to liue on. They are of great fame in other nations, being able to furnish for the warres about three thou∣sand Page  18 horsemen. There dwell likewise among these certaine other Arabians of more base condition, called in their language Garfa Esgeh; which not∣withstanding haue great abundance of horses and of all other cattell. A cer∣taine part also of the people Hemrun obtaineth many and large possessi∣ons among the 〈◊〉, from whence they haue a notable yeerely reue∣nue brought them in: this part of Hemrun maketh often excursions to∣wards the deserts of Fighig. In summer they disperse themselues all ouer the prouince of Garet, possessing the east part of Mauritania. They are noble and honest persons, and endued with all kinde of humanitie and ciuilitie; insomuch that all the kings of Fez in a manner do vsually chuse them wiues out of the same tribe; needes therefore must there be great friendship and familiaritie among them. The people of Menebbe doe almost inhabite the very same desert, hauing two prouinces of Numidia vnder them; to wit, Matgara, and Retebbe. These also are a most valiant nation, being in pay vn∣der the prouince of Segelmess, and being able to make about two thousand horsemen. The kindred of Husein, which are thought to be descended of Deuimansor, are seated vpon the mountaines of Atlas. They haue in the said mountaines a large iurisdiction, namely diuers castles euery where, and many most rich and flourishing cities, all which, they thinke, were giuen them in olde time by the vice-royes of the Marini: for so soone as they had woon that kingdome, the kindred of Husein affoorded them great aide and seruice. Their dominion is now subiect vnto the kings of Fez and of Segel∣mess. They haue a captaine, which for the most part resideth at the citie commonly called Garseluin. Likewise they are alwaies, in a manner, trauer∣sing of that desert which in their language is called Eddara. They are taken to be a most rich and honest people, being of abilitie to furnish for the warres about sixe thousande horsemen. Among these you shall often∣times finde many Arabians of another sort, whom they vse onely to be their seruants. The tribe of Abulhusein doe inhabite part of the foresaid desert of Eddara, howbeit a very smal part: the greatest number of whom are brought vnto such extreme miserie, that they haue not in those their wilde tents suf∣ficient sustenance to liue vpon. True it is, that they haue built them certaine habitations vpon the Libyan deserts; but yet they are cruelly pinched with famine and with extreme penurie of all things: and (that there might be no end of their miserie) they are constrained to pay yeerely tribute vnto their kindred and parents.

The ofspring of Deuihubaidulla.

ONE generation of the people of Deuihubaidulla are those which are named Gharrag: these enioy the deserts of Beni∣gomi and Fighig, hauing very large possessions in Numidia. They are stipendaries vnto the king of Tremizen; who dili∣gently endeuoreth to bring them to peace and tranquillitie of life; for they Page  19 are wholy giuen to theft and robberie. In sommer time they vsually repaire vnto Tremizen, where they are thought for that season of the yeere to settle their aboad: their horsemen are to the number of fower thousand, all which are most noble warriours. The kindred of Hedeg possesse a certaine desert neere vnto Tremizen, called in their owne language Hangad. These haue no stipend from any prince, nor yet any iurisdiction at all, rapine and stealth is onely delightfull vnto them, they prouide onely for their familie and themselues, and are able to set foorth about fiue hundred horsemen. The tribe of Theleb inhabite the plaine of* Algezer: these haue often vagaries ouer the deserts vnto the prouince of Tedgear. Vnto them were subiect in times past the most famous cities of Algezer and Tedelles: howbeit in these our daies they were recouered againe from them by Barbarossa the Turke; which losse could not but greatly grieue and molest their king. It is repor∣ted moreouer, that at the same time, the principal of the said people of The∣leb were cut off. For strength and cunning in chiualrie they were inferiour to no other nation; their norsemen were about three thousand. The tribe of Gehoan inhabite not all in one place: for part of them you may finde among the people of Guarag, and the residue amongst the people of He∣deg, and they are vnto them no otherwise then their seruants, which con∣dition they notwithstanding most patiently and willingly submit them∣selues vnto. And here one thing is to be noted by the way; to wit, that the two forenamed people called* Schachin and Hilel are originally Arabians of Arabia deserta, and thinke themselues to be descended from Ismael the sonne of Abraham. And those which wee called Machil, came first forth of Arabia foelix, and deriue their petigree from Saba. Before whom the Mahu∣metans preferre the former, which of Ismael are called Ismaelites. And be∣cause* there hath alwaies beene great controuerfie among them, which part should be of greater nobilitie, they haue written on both sides many dia∣logues and epigrams, whereby each man is woont to blaze the renowme, the vertuous manners, and laudable customes of his owne nation. The ancient Arabians, which were before the times of the Ismaelites, were called by the African historiographers Arabi-Araba, as if a man should say, Arabians of Arabia. But those which came of Ismael, they call Arabi Mus-Araba, as if they should say, Arabians ingraffed into the land of Arabia, or Arabians accidentally, because they were not originally bred & borne in Arabia. And thē which afterward came into Africa, they name in their language Musteh∣geme, that is, barbarous Arabians; and that because they ioyned themselues vnto strangers, insomuch that not only their speech, but their manners also are most corrupt and barbarous. These are (friendly reader) the particulars, which for these ten yeeres my memorie could reserue, as touching the ori∣ginals and diuersities of the Africans and Arabians; in all which time I re∣member not, that euer I read or saw any historie of that nation. He that will know more, let him haue recourse vnto Hibnu Rachu the historiographer beforenamed.

Page  20

The manners and customes of the African people, which inhabit the deserts of Libya.

THose fiue kindes of people before rehearsed, to wit, the people* of Zenega, of Gansiga, of Terga, of Leuta, and of Bardeoa, are called of the Latins Numidae: and they liue all after one man∣ner, that is to say, without all lawe and ciuilitie. Their gar∣ment is a narrow and base peece of cloth, wherewith scarce halfe their bodie is couered. Some of them wrap their heads in a kinde of blacke cloth, as it were with a scarfe, such as the Turks vse, which is commonly called a Tur∣bant. Such as will be discerned from the common sort, for geutlemen, weare a iacket made of blew cotton with wide sleeues. And cotton-cloth is brought vnto them by certaine merchants from the land of Negros. They haue no beastes fit to ride vpon except their camels; vnto whom nature, betweene the bunch standing vpon the hinder part of their backes and their neckes, hath allotted a place, which may fitly serue to ride vpon, in stead of a saddle. Their manner of riding is most ridiculous. For sometimes they lay their legs acrosse vpon the camels neck; and sometimes againe (hauing no know∣ledge nor regard of stirrops) they rest their feete vpon a rope, which is cast ouer his shoulders. In stead of spurres they vse a truncheon of a cubites length, hauing at the one end thereof a goad, wherewith they pricke onely the shoulders of their camels. Those camels which they vse to ride vpon haue a hole bored through the gristles of their nose, in the which a ring of leather is fastened, whereby as with a bit, they are more easily curbed and mastred; after which manner I haue seene buffles vsed in Italie. For beds; they lie vpon mats made of sedge and bulrushes. Their tents are couered for the most part with course chamlet, or with a harsh kinde of wooll which commonly groweth vpon the boughes of their date-trees. As for their man∣ner* of liuing, it would seeme to any man incredible what hunger and scarci∣tie this nation will indure. Bread they haue none at all, neither vse they any seething or rosting; their foode is camels milke onely, and they desire no other dainties. For their breakefast they drinke off a great cup of camels milke: for supper they haue certaine dried flesh stieped in butter and milke; wherof each man taking his share, eateth it out of his fist. And that this their meate may not stay long vndigested in their stomackes, they sup off the foresaid broth wherein their flesh was steeped: for which purpose they vse the palmes of their hands as a most fit instrument framed by nature to the same end. After that, each one drinks his cup of milk, & so their supper hath an ende. These Numidians, while they haue any store of milke, regard wa∣ter nothing at all, which for the most part happeneth in the spring of the yeere, all which time you shall finde some among them that will neither wash their hands nor their faces. Which seemeth not altogether to be vn∣likely; for (as we said before) while their milke lasteth, they frequent not Page  21 those places where water is common: yea, and their camels, so long as they may feede vpon grasse, will drinke no water at all. They spende their whole daies in hunting and theeuing: for all their indeuour and exercise is to driue away the camels of their enemies; neither will they remaine aboue three daies in one place, by reason that they haue not pasture any longer for the sustenance of their camels. And albeit (as is aforesaid) they haue no ciuilitie at all, nor any lawes prescribed vnto them; yet haue they a certaine gouer∣nour or prince placed ouer them, vnto whom they render obedience and due honour, as vnto their king. They are not onely ignorant of all good learning and liberall sciences; but are likewise altogether careles and desti∣tute of vertue: insomuch that you shall finde scarce one amongst them all which is a man of iudgement or counsell. And if any iniuried partie will goe to the lawe with his aduersarie, he must ride continually fiue or sixe daies before he can come to the speech of any iudge. This nation hath all lear∣ning and good disciplines in such contempt, that they will not once vouch∣safe to goe out of their deserts for the studie and attaining thereof: neither, if any learned man shall chance to come among them, can they loue his companie and conuersation, in regarde of their most rude and detestable behauiour. Howbeit, if they can finde any iudge, which can frame himselfe to liue and continue among them, to him they giue most large yeerely al∣lowance. Some allow their iudge a thousand ducates yeerely, some more, and some lesse, according as themselues thinke good. They that will seeme to be accounted of the better sort, couer their heads (as I said before) with a peece of blacke cloth, part whereof, like a vizard or maske, reacheth downe ouer their faces, couering all their countenance except their eies; and this is their daily kinde of attire. And so often as they put meate into their mouthes they remooue the said maske, which being done, they foorth with couer their mouths again; alleging this fond reason: for (say they) as it is vn∣seemely for a man, after he hath receiued meate into his stomack, to vomite it out of his mouth againe and to cast it vpon the earth; euen so it is an vn∣decent part to eate meate with a mans mouth vncouered. The women of this nation be grosse, corpulent, and of a swart complexion. They are fattest vpon their brest and paps, but slender about the girdle-〈◊〉. Very ciuill they are, after their manner, both in speech and gestures: sometimes they will accept of a kisse; but whoso tempteth them farther, putteth his owne life in hazard. For by reason of iealousie you may see them daily one to be the death and destruction of another, and that in such sauage and brutish man∣ner, that in this case they will shew no compassion at all. And they seeme to be more wise in this behalfe then diuers of our people, for they will by no meanes match themselues vnto an harlot. The liberalitie of this people hath at all times beene exceeding great. And when any trauellers may passe through their drie and desert territories, they will neuer repaire vnto their tents, neither will they themselues trauell vpon the common high way. And if any carouan or multitude of merchants will passe those deserts, they are Page  22 bound to pay certaine custome vnto the prince of the said people, namely, for euery camels load a peece of cloth woorth a ducate. Vpon a time I re∣member that trauelling in the companie of certaine merchants ouer the desert called by them Araoan, it was our chaunce there to meete with the prince of Zanaga; who, after he had receiued his due custome, inuited the said companie of merchants, for their recreation, to goe and abide with him in his tents fower or fiue daies. Howbeit, because his tents were too farre out of our way, and for that we should haue wandered farther then we thought good, esteeming it more conuenient for vs to hold on our direct course, we refused his gentle offer, and for his courtesie gaue him great thanks. But not being satisfied therewith, he commanded that our camels should proceede on forward, but the merchants he carried along with him, and gaue them very sumptuous entertainment at his place of aboad. Where wee were no sooner arriued, but this good prince caused camels of all kindes and ostri∣ches,* which he had hunted and taken by the way, to bee killed for his hou∣shold prouision. Howbeit we requested him not to make such daily slaugh∣ters of his camels; affirming moreouer, that we neuer vsed to eate the flesh of a gelt camell, but when all other victuals failed vs. Whereunto hee an∣swered, that he should deale vnciuilly, if he welcommed so woorthie and so seldome-seene guests with the killing of small cattell onely. Wherefore he wished vs to fall to such prouision as was set before vs. Here might you haue seene great plentie of rosted and sodden flesh: their roasted ostriches were brought to the table in wicker platters, being seasoned with sundrie kindes of herbes and spices. Their bread made of Mill and panicke was of a most sa∣uorie and pleasant taste: and alwaies at the end of dinner or supper we had plentie of dates and great store of milke serued in. Yea, this bountifull and noble prince, that he might sufficiently shew how welcome we were vnto him, would together with his nobilitie alwaies beare vs companie: howbeit we euer dined and supped apart by our selues. Moreouer he caused certaine religious and most learned men to come vnto our banquet; who, all the time we remained with the said prince, vsed not to eate any bread at all, but fed onely vpon flesh and milke. Whereat we being somewhat amazed, the good prince gently told vs, that they all were borne in such places whereas no kinde of graine would grow: howbeit that himselfe, for the entertain∣ment of strangers, had great plentie of corne laid vp in store. Wherefore he bad vs to be of good cheere, saying that 〈◊〉 would eate onely of such things as his owne natiue soile affoorded: affirming moreouer, that bread was yet in vse among them at their feast of passeouer, and at other feasts also, where∣upon they vsed to offer sacrifice. And thus we remained with him for the space of two daies; all which time, what woonderfull and magnificent cheere we had made vs, would seeme incredible to report. But the third day, being desirous to take our leaue, the prince accompanied vs to that place where we ouertooke our camels and companie sent before. And this I dare most deepely take mine oath on, that we spent the saide prince ten times Page  23 more, then our custome which he receiued came to. Wee thought it not amisse here to set downe this historie, to declare in some sort the courtesie and liberalitie of the said nation. Neither could the prince aforesaid vnder∣stand our language nor we his; but all our speech to and fro was made by an interpreter. And this which we haue here recorded as touching this nation, is likewise to be vnderstood of the other fower nations aboue mentioned, which are dispersed ouer the residue of the Numidian deserts.

The manners and customes of the Arabians which inhabite Africa.

THE Arabians, as they haue sundrie mansions and places of aboad, so doe they liue after a diuers and sundry maner. Those which inhabite betweene Numidia and Libya leade a most miserable and distres∣sed life, differing much in this regard from those Africans, whom wee affirmed to dwell in Libya. Howbeit they are farre more valiant then the said Africans; and vse commonly to exchange camels in the lande of Ne∣gros:* they haue likewise great store of horses, which in Europe they cal hor∣ses of Barbarie. They take woonderfull delight in hunting and pursuing of deere, of wilde asses, of ostriches, and such like. Neither is it here to be omit∣ted, that the greater part of Arabians which inhabite Numidia, are very wittie and conceited in penning of verses; wherein each man will decipher* his loue, his hunting, his combates, and other his woorthie actes: and this is done for the most part in ryme, after the Italians manner. And albe it they are most liberally minded, yet dare they not by bountifull giuing make any shew of wealth; for they are daily oppressed with manifold inconueniences. They are apparelled after the Numidians fashion, sauing that their women differ somewhat from the women of Numidia. Those deserts which they doe now enioy were woont to be possessed by Africans: but rhe Arabians with their armie inuading that part of Africa, draue out the naturall Numi∣dians, and reserued the deserts adioining vpon The land of dates, vnto them∣selues: but the Numidians began to inhabite those deserts which border vpon the land of Negros. The Arabians which dwell betweene mount Atlas and the Mediterran sea are far wealthier then these which we now speake of, both for costlines of apparell, for good horse-meate, and for the statelines and beautie of their tents. Their horses also are of better shape and more corpulent, but not so swift as the horses of the Numidian desert. They exer∣cise husbandrie and haue great increase of corne. Their droues and flockes of cattell be innumerable, insomuch that they cannot inhabite one by ano∣ther for want of pasture. They are somewhat more vile and barbarous then those which inhabite the deserts, and yet they are not altogether destitute of liberalitie: part of them, which dwell in the territorie of Fez are subiect vnto the king of Fez. Those which remaine in Marocco and Duccala haue conti∣nued this long time free from all exaction and tribute: but so soone as the Page  24 king of Portugall began to beare rule ouer Azafi and Azamor, there began also among them strife and ciuill warre. Wherefore being assailed by the king of Portugall on the one side, and by the king of Fez on the other, and being oppressed also with the extreme famine and scarcitie of that yeere, they were brought vnto such miserie, that they freely offered themselues as* slaues vnto the Portugals, submitting themselues to any man, that was wil∣ling to releeue their intolerable hunger: and by this meanes scarce one of them was left in all Duccala. Moreouer those which possesse the deserts bordering vpon the kingdomes of Tremizen and Tunis may all of them, in regard of the rest, be called noblemen and gentlemen. For their gouernours receiuing euery yeere great reuenues from the king of Tunis, diuide the same afterward among their people, to the end they may auoid all discord: and by this meanes all dissension is eschewed, and peace is kept firme and in∣uiolable among them. They haue notable dexteritie and cunning, both in making of tents, and in bringing vp and keeping of horses. In summer time they vsually come neere vnto Tunis, to the end that each man may prouide himselfe of bread, armour, and other necessaries: all which they carrie with them into the deserts, remaining there the whole winter. In the spring of the yeere they applie themselues to hunting, insomuch that no beast can escape their pursuit. My selfe, I remember, was once at their tents, to my no little danger and inconuenience; where I sawe greater quantitie of cloth, brasse, yron, and copper, then a man shall oftentimes finde in the most rich ware∣houses of some cities. Howbeit no trust is to be giuen vnto them; for if oc∣casion serue, they will play the theeues most slyly and cunningly; notwith∣standing they seeme to carrie some shewe of ciuilitie. They take great de∣light in poetrie, and will pen most excellent verses, their language being very pure and elegant. If any woorthie poet be found among them, he is accepted by their gouernours with great honour and liberalitie; neither would any man easily beleeue what wit and decencie is in their verses. Their women (according to the guise of that countrie) goe very gorgeously atti∣red: they weare linnen gownes died black, with exceeding wide sleeues, ouer which sometimes they cast a mantle of the same colour or of blew, the cor∣ners of which mantle are very artificially fastened about their shoulders with a fine siluer claspe. Likewise they haue rings hanging at their eares, which for the most part are made of siluer: they weare many rings also vpon their fingers. Moreouer they vsually weare about their thighes and ankles certaine scarfes and rings, after the fashion of the Africans. They couer their faces with certaine maskes hauing onely two holes for their eies to peepe out at. If any man chance to meete with them, they presently hide their faces, passing by him with silence, except it be some of their allies or kinsfolks; for vnto them they alwaies discouer their faces, neither is there any vse of the said maske so long as they be in presence. These Arabians when they trauell any iourney (as they oftentimes doe) they set their women vpon certaine saddles made handsomely of wicker for the same purpose, and Page  25 fastened to their camels backes, neither be they any thing too wide, but fit onely for a woman to sit in. When they goe to the warres each man carries his wife with him, to the end that she may cheere vp her good man, and giue him encouragement. Their damsels which are vnmarried doe vsually paint their faces, brests, armes, hands, and fingers with a kinde of counterfeit co∣lour: which is accounted a most decent custome among them. But this fashion was first brought in by those Arabians, which before we called Afri∣cans, what time they began first of all to inhabite that region; for before then, they neuer vsed any false or glozing colours. The women of Barbarie vse not this fond kind of painting, but contenting themselues only with their naturall hiew, they regarde not such fained ornaments: howbeit sometimes they will temper a certaine colour with hens-dung and safron, wherewithall they paint a little round spot on the bals of their cheeks, about the bredth of a French crowne. Likewise betweene their eie-browes they make a triangle; and paint vpon their chinnes a patch like vnto an oliue leafe. Some of them also doe paint their eie-browes: and this custome is very highly esteemed of by the Arabian poets and by the gentlemen of that countrie. Howbeit they will not vse these fantasticall ornaments aboue two or three daies toge∣ther: all which time they will not be seene to any of their friends, except it be to their husbands and children: for these paintings seeme to bee great allurements vnto lust, whereby the said women thinke themselues more trim and beautifull.

How the Arabians in the deserts betweene Barbarie and Aegypt doe lead their liues.

THE life of these men is full of miserie and calamitie: for the places where they inhabite are barren and vnpleasant. They haue some store of camels and other cattell: howbeit their fodder is so scarce, that they cannot well sustaine them. Neither shall you finde ouer all the whole re∣gion any place fit to beare corne. And if in that desert there be any villages at all, which vse to husband and manure their ground; yet reape they small commoditie thereby, except it be for plentifull increase of dates. Their ca∣mels and other of their cattell they exchange for dates and corne; and so the poore husbandmen of the foresaide villages haue some small recom∣pence for their labours: notwithstanding, how can all this satisfie the hun∣ger of such a multitude? For you shall dayly see in Sicilia great numbers of* their sonnes layde to pawne. Because when they haue not wherewithall to pay for the corne which they there buy, they are constrained to leaue their sonnes behinde them, as pledges of future payment. But the Sicilians, if their money be not paide them at the time appointed, will chalenge the Arabians sonnes to be their slaues. Which day being once past, if any fa∣ther will redeeme his childe, he must disburse thrise or fower times so much as the due debt amounteth vnto: for which cause they are the most notable Page  26 theeues in the whole world. If any stranger fall into their hands, depriuing him of all that he hath, they presently carrie him to Sicilie, and there either sell or exchange him for come. And I thinke, that no merchants 〈◊〉 at any time within these hundred yeeres 〈◊〉 for traffiques sake vpon any part of their coast. For when they are to passe by with merchandize, or about any other weightie affaires, they eschew that region fiue hundred miles at the least. Once I remember, that I my selfe, for my better 〈◊〉, and to auoide the danger of those mischieuous people, went in com∣panie with certaine merchants, who in three ships sayled along their coast. We were no sooner espied of them; but forthwith they came running to the shore, making signes that they would traffique with vs to our great ad∣uantage. Howbeit becaufe we durst not repose any trust in them, none of our companie would depart the ship, before they had deliuered certaine pledges vnto vs. Which being done, we bought certaine 〈◊〉 or gel∣ded men, and good store of butter of them. And so immediately weighing our ankers we betooke vs to flight, fearing least we should haue beene met withall by the Sicilian and Rhodian Pirates, and beene spoiled not onely of our goods, but of our liberties also. To be short, the saide Arabians are verie rude, forlorne, beggerly, leane, and hunger-starued people, hauing God (no doubt) 〈◊〉 displeased against them, by whose vengeance they dayly sustaine such 〈◊〉 calamities.

Of the people called Soara, namely, which possesse droues and flockes of cattell, and being Africans by birth, do notwithstanding imitate the manners of the Arabians.

YOV shall finde many among the Africans which liue alto∣githera shepheards or drouers life, inhabiting vpon the be∣ginning of mount Atlas, and being dispersed here and there ouer the same mountaine. They are constrained alwaies to pay tribute either to the King of the same region where they dwell, or else to the Arabians, except those onely which inhabite Te∣mesna, who are free from all forren superioritie, and are of great power. They speake the same kinde of language that other Africanes doe, except some fewe of them which conuerse with the inhabitants of the citie called Vrbs (which is neere vnto Tunis) who speake the Arabian toong. Moreo∣uer there is a certaine people inhabiting that region which diuideth Nu∣midia from Tunis. These oftentimes wage warre against the King of Tunis himselfe, which they put in practise not many yeeres since, when as the said King his sonne marching towards them from Constantina with an armie, for the demaunding of such tribute as was due vnto him, fought a verie vn∣fortunate battell. For no sooner were they aduertised of the Kings sonne* his approach, but foorthwith they went to meete him with two thousande horsemen, and at length vanquished and slew him at vnawares, carrying Page  27 home with them all the furniture, bag, and baggage, which he had brought foorth. And this was done in the yeere of Mahumets Hegeira 915. From that time their fame hath beene spred abroad in all places. Yea, many of the king of Tunis his subiects reuolted from their King vnto them; inso∣much that the Prince of this people is growen so puissant, that scarcely is his equall to be found in all Africa.

Of the faith and religion of the ancient Africans or Moores.

THE ancient Africans were much addicted to idolatrie, euen as certain of the Persians are at this day, some of whom worship the sunne, and others the fire, for their gods. For the saide Africans had in times past magnificent and most stately temples built and dedicated, as well to the honour of the sunne as of the fire. In these temples day and night they kept fire kind∣led, giuing diligent heed that it might not at any time be extinguished, euen as we read of the Romane Vestall virgines: All which you may read more fully and at large in the Persian and African Chronicles. Those Africans which inhabited Libya and Numidia, would each of them worship some certaine planet, vnto whom likewise they offered sacrifices and praiers. Some others of the land of Negros worship Guighimo, that is to say, The Lord of Heauen. And this sound point of religion was not deliuered vnto them by any Prophet or teacher, but was inspired, as it were, from God him∣selfe. After that, they embraced the Iewish law, wherein they are said to haue continued many yeeres. Afterward they professed the Christian religion, and continued Christians, vntill such time as the Mahumetan superstition preuailed; which came to passe in the yeere of the Hegeira 208. About which time certaine of Mahomets disciples so bewitched them with elo∣quent and deceiueable speeches, that they allured their weake minds to con∣sent vnto their opinion; insomuch that all the kingdomes of the Negros adioyning vnto Libya receiued the Mahumetan lawe. Neither is there any region in all the Negros land, which hath in it at this day any Christians at all. At the same time such as were found to be Iewes, Christians, or of the African religion, were slaine euerie man of them. Howbeit those which dwell neere vnto the Ocean sea, are all of them verie grosse idolaters. Be∣tweene whom and the Portugals there hath beene from time to time and euen at this present is, great traffique and familiaritie. The inhabitants of Barbarie continued for many yeeres idolaters; but before the comming of Mahomet aboue 250, yeeres, they are saide to haue embraced the Chri∣stian faith: which some thinke came to passe vpon this occasion; namely, because that of part Barbarie which containeth the kingdome of Tripolis and Tunis, was in times past gouerned by Apulian & Sicilian Captaines, and the countries of * Caesaria and of * Mauritania are supposed to haue beene Page  28〈◊〉 vnto the Gothes. At what time also many Christians fleeing from the furie and madnes of the Gothes left their sweet natiue soyle of Italy, and at length arriued in Africa neere vnto Tunis: where hauing setled their aboad for some certaine space, they began at length to haue the dominion ouer all that region. Howbeit the Christians which inhabited Barbaria, not respecting the rites and ceremonies of the Church of Rome, followed the Arrians 〈◊〉 and forme of liuing: and one of the African Christians was that most godly and learned father Saint Augustine. When the Ara∣bians therefore came to conquer that part of Africa they found Christians to be Lords ouer the regions adiacent; of whom, after sundry hot conflicts, the saide Arabians got the victorie. Whereupon the Arrians being depri∣ued of all their dominions and goods went part of them into Italy and part into Spaine. And so about two hundred yeeres after the death of Mahu∣met, almost all Barbarie was infected with his law. Howbeit afterward, ciuile dissensions arising among them, neglecting the law of Mahumet, they slue all the priests and gouernours of that region. Which tumult when it came to the eares of the Mahumetan Caliphas, they sent an huge armie against the saide rebels of Barbarie, to wit, those which were reuolted from the Ca∣lipha of Bagdet, and seuerely punished their misdemeanor. And euen at the same time was layd the most 〈◊〉 foundation of the Mahumetan law; notwithstanding there haue remained many heresies among them euen vntill this verie day. As touching the patrons of the Mahumetan lawe, and likewise concerning the difference in religion betweene the Mahumetans* of Africa, and them of Asia, we will (by Gods grace) write more in another seuerall volume; and in the meane season, let these particulars which we haue noted suffice the Reader.

Of the letters and characters of the Africans.

THose writers which record the histories of the Arabians doings are all iointly of opinion, that the Africans were woont to vse onely the Latine letters. And they doe most constantly affirme,* that the Arabians, when they first 〈◊〉 Africa and especially Barbarie (which was the principall seate of the Africans) founde no letters nor characters there, beside the Latine. Neither indeede doe they denie that the Africans haue a peculiar kinde of language, but this they firmly auouch, that they haue the very same letters which the 〈◊〉 or Florentinesa people of Italie haue. The Arabians haue no historie * of African matters, which was not first written in Latine. They haue certaine ancient authors, who writ partly in the times of the Arrians and partly before their times, the names of all which are cleane forgotten. Howbeit it is very likely that those Latine authors haue written many volumes: for when their interpreters laboured to perswade something vnto vs, I remember they would say, it is contained in the seuentieth booke. Neither did they in translating of the Page  29 said volumes altogether follow the authors order; but taking the historie of some one prince, they would conioine his time and actions with the histo∣rie of the Persian, Assyrian, and Chaldaean kings, or of the Israelites, which concerned the same times. But when as those which rebelled against the Calipha of Bagdet (as is aforesaid) got the vpper hand in Africa, they burnt all the Africans bookes. For they were of opinion, that the Africans, so long as they had any knowledge of naturall philosophie or of other good artes and sciences, would euery day more and more arrogantly contemne the lawe of Mahumet. Contrariwise, some historiographers there are which affirme, that the Africans had a kinde of letters peculiar vnto them∣selues; which notwithstanding, from the time wherein the Italians began first to inhabite Barbarie, and wherein the Christians 〈◊〉 out of Italie from the Gothes, began to subdue those prouinces of Africa, were vtterly abolished and taken away. For it is likely that a people vanquished shoulde follow the customes and the letters also of their conquerors. And did not the same thing happen to the Persians, while the Arabians empire stood? For certaine it is, that the Persians at the same time lost those letters which were peculiar vnto their nation; and that all their bookes, by the comman∣dement* of the Mahumetan prelates, were burnt, least their knowledge in naturall philosophie, or their idolatrous religion might mooue them to contemne the precepts of Mahumet. The like also (as we shewed before) befell the Barbarians when as the Italians and the Gothes vsurped their dominions in Barbarie; which may here (I hope) suffice the gentle reader. Howbeit this is out of doubt, that all the 〈◊〉-cities and inland-cities of Bar∣barie doe vse Latine letters onely, whensoeuer they will commit any epi∣taphes or any other verses or prose vnto posteritie. The consideration of all which former particulars hath made me to be of opinion, that the Africans in times past had their owne proper and peculiar letters, wherein they de∣scribed their doings and exploites. For it is likely that the Romans, when they first subdued those prouinces (as conquerours vsually doe) vtterly spoi∣led and tooke away all their letters and memorie, and established their owne letters in the stead thereof; to the end that the fame and honour of the Ro∣man people might there onely be continued. And who knoweth not that the very same attempt was practised by the Goths vpon the stately buildings of the Romans, and by the Arabians against the monuments of the Persi∣ans. The very same thing likewise we daily see put in practise by the Turks, who when they haue gotten any citie or towne from the Christians, doe presently cast foorth of the temples all the images and memorials of their saints. And to omit all the aforesaid, may we not in our time see the like daily practised in Rome; where sumptuous and stately buildings left vnperfect by reason of the vntimely death of one Pope, are for some noueltie vtterly ruined and destroied by his next successour? Or else, doth not the new Pope cause his predecessours armes to be razed, and his owne in stead thereof to be set vp? Or at the least, if he will not seeme so arrogant, letting his prede∣cessours Page  30 monuments stand still, doth he not erect others for himselfe farre more sumptuous and stately? No maruell therefore, though so long suc∣cesse of times and so many alterations haue quite bereaued the Africans of their letters. Concerning those nine hundred yeeres wherein the Africans vsed the letters of the Arabians, Ibnu Rachich, a most diligent writer of A∣frica, doth in his Chronicle most largely dispute; whether the Africans euer had any peculiar kinde of writing or no. And at last he concludeth the affir∣matiue part; that they had: for (saith he) whosoeuer denieth this, may as well denie, that they had a language peculiar vnto themselues. For it cannot be that any people should haue a proper kinde of speech, and yet should vse letters borrowed from other nations, and being altogether vnfit for their mother-language.

Of the situation of Africa.

AS there are fower partes in Africa, so the situation thereof is not in all places alike. That part which lieth towards the Me∣diterran sea, that is to say, from the streites of Gibraltar to the frontiers of Aegypt, is here and there full of moun∣taines: Southward it is extended about a hundred miles, al∣beit in some places it be larger and in some other narrower. From the saide mountaines vnto mount Atlas there is a very spatious plaine & many little hillocks. Fountaines there are in this region great store, which meeting together at one head doe send foorth most beautifull riuers and christall streames. Betweene the foresaid mountaines and the plaine countrie is situ∣ate the mountaine of Atlas; which beginning westward vpon the Ocean sea, stretcheth it selfe towards the east as farre as the borders of Aegypt. Ouer against Atlas lieth that region of Numidia which beareth dates, being eue∣ry where almost sandie ground. Betweene Numidia and the land of Negros is the sandie desert of Libya situate, which containeth many mountaines also; howbeit merchants trauell not that way, when as they may goe other waies with more ease and lesse danger. Beyond the Libyan desert beginneth the land of Negros, all places whereof are barren and sandie except those which adioine vpon the riuer of Niger, or through the which any riuer or streame runneth.

Of the vnpleasant and snowie places in Africa.

ALl the region of Barbarie, and the mountaines contained therein, are subiect more to cold then to heat. For seldome commeth any gale of winde which bringeth not some snow therwith. In al the said mountaines there grow abundance of fruits, but not so great plentie of corne. The inhabitants of these mountaines liue for the greatest part of the yeere vpon barlie bread. Page  31 The springs & riuers issuing foorth of the said mountaines, representing the qualitie and taste of their natiue soile, are somewhat muddie and impure, especially vpon the confines of Mauritania. These mountaines likewise are replenished with woods and loftie 〈◊〉, and are greatly stored with beastes of all kindes. But the little hils and vallies lying betweene the foresaid moun∣taines and mount Atlas are far more commodious, and abounding with corne. For' they are moistened with riuers springing out of Atlas, and from thence holding on their course to the Mediterran sea. And albeit woods are somewhat more scarce vpon these plaines, yet are they much more fruitfull, then be the plaine countries situate betweene Atlas and the Ocean sea, as namely the regions of Maroco, of Duccala, of Tedles, of Temesna, of Az∣gara, and the countrie lying towards the straites of Gibraltar. The moun∣taines* of Atlas are exceeding colde and barren, and bring foorth but small store of corne, beeing woody on all sides, and engendring almost all the riuers of Africa. The fountaines of Atlas are euen in the midst of summer extremely cold; so that if a man dippeth his hand therein for any long space, he is in great danger of loosing the same. Howbeit the said mountaines are not so cold in all places: for some partes thereof are of such milde tempera∣ture, that they may be right commodiously inhabited: yea and sundry pla∣ces thereof are well stored with inhabitants; as in the second part of this present discourse we will declare more at large. Those places which are de∣stitute of inhabitants be either extremely cold, as namely the same which lie ouer against Mauritania: or very rough and vnpleasant, to wit, those which are directly opposite to the region of Temesna. Where notwithstanding in summer time they may feede their great and small cattell, but not in winter by any meanes. For then the North winde so furiously rageth, bringing with it such abundance of snowe; that all the cattell which till then remaine vpon the saide mountaines, and a great part of the people also are forced to lose their liues in regard thereof: wherefore whosoeuer hath any occasion to trauell that way in winter time, chuseth rather to take his iourney betweene Mauritania and Numidia. Those merchants which bring dates out of Nu∣midia for the vse and seruice of other nations, set foorth vsually vpon their iourney about the ende of October; and yet they are oftentimes so oppres∣sed* and ouertaken with a sudden fall of snowe, that scarcely one man among them all escapeth the danger of the tempest. For when it beginneth to snow ouer night, before the next morning not onely carts and men, but euen the verie trees are so drowned & ouerwhelmed therein, that it is not possible to finde any mention of them. Howbeit the dead carcases are then founde when the sunne hath melted the snow. I my selfe also, by the goodnes of* almighty God, twise escaped the most dreadfull danger of the foresaid snow; whereof, if it may not be tedious to the reader, I will heere in few wordes make relation. Vpon a certaine day of the foresaid moneth of October, trauelling with a great companie of Merchants towards Atlas, we were there about the sunne going downe weather-beaten with a most cold and snowy Page  32 kinde of hayle. Here we found eleuen or twelue horsemen (Arabians to our thinking) who perswading vs to leaue our carts and to goe with them, pro∣mised vs a good and secure place to lodge in. For mine owne part, that I might not seeme altogether vnciuill, I thought it not meete to refuse their good offer; albeit I stood in doubt least they went about to practise some mischiefe. Wherefore I bethought my selfe to hide vp a certaine summe of gold which I had as then about me. But all being ready to ride, I had no lei∣sure to hide away my coine from them; whereupon I fained that I would goe ease my selfe. And so departing a while their companie, and getting me vnder a certaine tree, whereof I tooke diligent notice, I buried my money betweene certaine stones and the roote of the said tree. And then we rode on quietly till about midnight. What time one of them thinking that he had staied long ynough for his pray, began to vtter that in words which se∣cretly he had conceiued in his minde. For he asked whether I had any mo∣ney about me or no? To whom I answered, that I had left my money behind with one of them which attended the cartes, and that I had then none at all about me. Howbeit they being no whit satisfied with this answer, comman∣ded me, for all the cold weather, to strip my selfe out of mine apparell. At length when they could find no money at all, they said in iesting & scoffing wise, that they did this for no other purpose, but onely to see how strong and hardie I was, and how I could endure the cold and tempestuous season. Well, on we rode, seeking our way as well as we could that darke and dismall night; and anone we heard the bleating of sheepe, coniecturing thereby, that we were not farre distant from some habitation of people. Wherefore out of hand we directed our course thitherwards: being constrained to leade our horses through thicke woods and ouer steepe and craggie rocks, to the great hazard and perill of our liues. And at length after many labours, wee found shepherds in a certaine caue: who, hauing with much paines brought their cattell in there, had kindled a lustie fire for themselues, which they were constrained, by reason of the extreme cold, daily to sit by. Who vnderstan∣ding our companie to be Arabians, feared at the first that we would do them some mischiefe: but afterward being perswaded that we were driuen thither by extremitie of cold, and being more secure of vs, they gaue vs most friend∣ly entertainment. For they set bread, flesh, and cheese before vs, wherewith hauing ended our suppers, we laid vs along each man to sleepe before the fire. All of vs were as yet exceeding cold, but especially my selfe, who before with great horrour and trembling was stripped starke naked. And so we con∣tinued with the said shepherds for the space of two daies: all which time we could not set foorth, by reason of continuall snowe. But the thirde day, so soone as they saw it leaue snowing, with great labour they began to remooue that snowe which lay before the doore of their caue. Which done, they brought vs to our horses, which we found well prouided of hay in another caue. Being all mounted, the shepherds accompanied vs some part of our way, shewing vs where the snowe was of least depth, and yet euen there it Page  33 touched our horse bellies. This day was so cleere, that the sunne tooke away all the cold of the two daies going before. At length entring into a certaine village neere vnto Fez, we vnderstood, that our cartes which passed by, were ouerwhelmed with the snowe. Then the Arabians seeing no hope of recom∣pence for all the paines they had taken (for they had defended our carts from theeues) carried a certaine Iew of our companie with them as their captiue, (who had lost a great quantitie of dates, by reason of the snowe aforesaid) to the end that he might remaine as their prisoner, till he had satisfied for all the residue. From my selfe they tooke my horse, and committed mee vnto the wide world and to fortune. From whence, riding vpon a mule, within three daies I arriued at Fez, where I heard dolefull newes of our merchants and wares, that they were cast away in the snowe. Yea, they thought that I had beene destrosed with the rest; but it seemed that God would haue it otherwise. Now, hauing finished the historie of mine owne misfortunes, let vs returne vnto that discourse where we left. Beyond Atlas there are certaine hot & dry places moistened with very few riuers, but those which flow out of Atlas it selfe: some of which riuers running into the Libyan deserts are dried vp with the sands, but others do ingender lakes. Neither shal you finde in these countries any places apt to bring forth corne, notwithstanding they haue dates in abundance. There are also certaine other trees bearing fruit, but in so small quantitie, that no increase nor gaine is to be reaped by them. You may see likewise in those partes of Numidia which border vpon Libya certaine barren hils destitute of trees, vpon the lower parts whereof growe nothing but vnprofitable thornes and shrubs. Amongst these mountaines you shall finde no riuers nor springs, nor yet any waters at all, except it be in certaine pits and wels almost vnknowen vnto the inhabitants of that re∣gion. Moreouer in sixe or seuen daies iourney they haue not one drop of water, but such as is brought vnto them by certaine merchants vpon camels backes. And that especially in those places which lye vpon the maine road from Fez to Tombuto, or from Tremizen to * Agad. That iourney likewise is verie dangerous which is of late found out by the merchants of our daies from Fez to Alcair ouer the deserts of Libya, were it not for an huge lake in the way, vpon the bankes whereof the Sinites and the Goranites doe in∣habite. But in the way which leadeth from Fez to Tombuto are certaine pits enuironed either with the hides or bones of camels. Neither doe the merchants in sommer time passe that way without great danger of their liues: for oftentimes it falleth out, when the south winde bloweth, that all those pits are stopped vp with sande. And so the merchants, when they can finde neither those pits, nor any mention thereof, must needes perish for extreame thirst: whose carcases are afterward found lying scattered here and there, and scorched with the heat of the sunne. One remedie they haue* in this case, which is verie strange: for when they are so grieuously oppres∣sed with thirst, they kill foorthwith some one of their camels, out of whose bowels they wring and expresse some quantitie of water, which water they Page  34 they drinke and carrie about with them, till they haue either found some pit of water, or till they pine away for thirst. In the desert which they cal Azaoad there are as yet extant two monuments built of marble, vpon which marble is an Epitaphe engrauen, signifying that one of the said monuments repre∣sented a most rich merchant, and the other a carrier or transporter of wares. Which wealthie merchant bought of the carrier a cup of water for tenne* thousand ducates, and yet this pretious water could suffice neither of them; for both were consumed with thirst. This desert likewise containeth sundry kinds of beasts, which in the fourth part of this discourse concerning Libya, and in our treatise of the beasts of Africa, we will discourse of more at large. I was determined to haue written more cōcerning those things which hap∣pened vnto my self & the rest of my company trauelling through the Liby∣an deserts vnto Gualata. For somtime being sore a thirst, we could not find one drop of water, partly because our guide strayed out of the direct course, and partly because our enemies had cut off the springs and chanels of the foresaid pits and wels. Insomuch that the small quantitie of water which we found, was sparingly to be kept; for that which would scarce suffice vs for fiue daies, we were constrained to keepe for ten. But if I should commit to writing all things woorthy of memorie, a whole yeare were not sufficient for me. The lande of Negros is extreme hot, hauing some store of moy∣sture also, by reason of the riuer of Niger running through the midst there∣of. All places adioining vpon Niger doe mightily abound both with cattle & corne. No trees I saw there but only certain great ones, bearing a kind of bitter fruit like vnto a chestnut, which in their language is called Goron.* Likewise in the same regions grow Cocos, cucumbers, onions, and such kinde of herbes and fruits in great abundance. There are no mountaines at all either in Libya or in the land of Negros: howbeit diuers fennes and lakes there are; which (as men report) the inundation of Niger hath left behinde it. Neither are the woods of the said regions altogether destitute of Ele∣phants and other strange beastes; whereof we will make relation in their due place.

What naturall impressions and motions the aire of Africa is subiect vnto; and what effects ensue thereupon.

THroughout the greatest part of Barbarie stormie and cold wea∣ther begin commonly about the midst of October. But in De∣cember and Ianuarie the cold groweth somewhat more sharpe in all places: howbeit this happeneth in the morning onely, but so gently and remissely, that no man careth greatly to warme himselfe by the fire. Februarie somewhat mitigateth the cold of winter, but that so in∣constantly, that the weather changeth sometime fiue and sometime sixe times in one day. In March the north and west windes vsually blowe, which cause the trees to be adorned with blossoms. In Aprill all fruits attaine to Page  35 their proper forme and shape, insomuch that cherries are commonly ripe about the end of Aprill and the beginning of MayIn the midst of May they gather their figs: and in mid-Iune their grapes are ripe in many places. Like∣wise their peares, their sweete quinces and their damascens attaine vnto suffi∣cient ripenes in the moneths of Iune and Iulie. Their figs of Autumne may be gathered in August; howbeit they neuer haue so great plentie of figs and peaches, as in September. By the midst of August they vsually begin to drie their grapes in the sun, where of they make reisins. Which if they cannot fi∣nish in September, by reason of vnseasonable weather, of their grapes as then vngathered they vse to make wine and must, especially in the prouince of Rifa, as we will in due place signifie more at large. In the midst of Octo∣ber they take in their honie, and gather their pomegranates and quinces. In* Nouember they gather their oliues, not climing vp with ladders nor pluc∣king them with their hands, according to the custome of Europe; for the trees of Mauritania and Caesarea are so tal, that no ladder is long ynongh to reach vnto the fruit. And therefore their oliues being full ripe, they clime the trees, beating them off the boughes with certaine long poles, albeit they know this kinde of beating to be most hurtfull vnto the saide trees. Some∣times they haue great plentie of oliues in Africa, and sometimes as great scarcitie. Certaine great oliue-trees there are, the oliues whereof are eaten ripe by the inhabitants, because they are not so fit for oile. No yeere falles out to be so vnseasonable, but that they haue three monethes in the spring alwaies temperate. They begin their spring vpon the fifteenth day of Fe∣bruarie, accounting the eighteenth of May for the ende thereof: all which time they haue most pleasant weather. But if from the fiue and twentith of* Aprill, to the fifth of May they haue no raine fall, they take it as a signe of ill lucke. And the raine-water which falleth all the time aforesaid they call Nai∣san, that is, water blessed of God. Some store it vp in vessels, most religiously keeping it, as an holy thing. Their summer lasteth till the sixteenth of Au∣gust; all which time they haue most hot and cleere weather. Except perhaps some showers of raine fall in Iuly and August, which doe so infect the aire, that great plague and most pestilent feuers ensue thereupon; with which plague whosoeuer is infected, most hardly escapeth death. Their Au∣tumne they reckon from the 17. of August to the 16. of Nouember; ha∣uing commonly in the moneths of August and September not such ex∣treme heate as before. Howbeit all the time betweene the 15. of August and the 15. of September is called by them the furnace of the whole yeere, for that it bringeth figs, quinces, and such kinde of fruits to their full maturitie. From the 15. of Nouember they begin their winter-season, continuing the same till the 14. day of Februarie. So soone as winter commeth, they begin to till their ground which lieth in the plaines: but vpon the mountaines they goe to plough in October. The Africans are most certainly perswaded that euery yeere containeth fortie extreme hot daies, beginning vpon the 12. of Iune; and againe so many daies extreme colde, beginning from the Page  36 12. of December. Their Aequinoctia are vpon the 16. of March, and the 16. of September. For their Solstitia they account the 16. of Iune and the 16. of December. These rules they doe most strictly obserue, as well in hus∣bandrie and nauigation, as in searching out the houses and true places of the planets: and these instructions, with other such like they teach their yoong children first of all. Many countrie-people and husbandmen there be in A∣frica,* who knowing (as they say) neuer a letter of the booke, will notwithstan∣ding most learnedly dispute of Astrologie, & alleage most profoūd reasons & arguments for themselues. But whatsoeuer skill they haue in the art of A∣strologie, they first learned the same of the Latines: yea they giue those very names vnto their moneths which the Latines do. Moreouer they haue extāt among them a certaine great booke diuided into three volumes, which they call The treasurie or storehouse of husbandrie. This booke was then transla∣ted out of Latine into their toong, when Mansor was Lord of Granada. In the said Treasurie are all things contained which may seeme in any wise to concerne husbandrie; as namely, the changes and varietie of times, the ma∣ner of sowing, with a number of such like particulars, which (I thinke) at this day the Latine toong it selfe, whereout these things were first translated, doth not containe. Whatsoeuer either the Africans or the Mahumetans haue, which seemeth to appertaine in any wise to their law or religion, they make their computation thereof altogether according to the course of the moone. Their yeere is diuided into 354. daies: for vnto sixe moneths they* allot 30. daies, and vnto the other sixe but 29; all which being added into one summe doe produce the number aforesaid: wherefore their yeere diffe∣reth eleuen daies from the yeere of the Latines. They haue at diuers times festiuall daies, and fasts. About the ende of Autumne, for all winter, and a great part of the spring they are troubled with boisterous windes, with haile, with terrible thunder and lightening: yea then it snoweth much in some places of Barbarie. The easterne, southerne, and southeasterne windes blow∣ing in May and Iune, doe very much hurt there: for they spoile the corne, and hinder the fruit from comming to ripenes. Their corne likewise is great∣ly appaired by snow, especially such as falleth in the day-time, when it be∣ginneth to flower. Vpon the mountaines of Atlas they diuide the yeere into* two parts onely: for their winter continueth from October to Aprill; and from Aprill to October they account it summer: neither is there any day throughout the whole yeere, wherein the tops of those mountaines are not couered with snowe. In Numidia the yeere runneth away very swiftly: for they reape their corne in May, and in October they gather their dates: but from the midst of September they haue winter till the beginning of 〈◊〉. But if September falleth out to be rainie, they are like to lose most part of their dates. All the fields of Numidia require watering from the riuers; but if the mountaines of Atlas haue no raine fall vpon them, the Numidian riuers waxe drie, and so the fields are destitute of watering. October being destitute of raine, the husbandman hath no hope to cast his seede into the Page  37 ground; and he despaireth likewise, if it raine not in Aprill. But their dates prosper more without raine, wherof the Numidians haue greater plentie then of corne. For albeit they haue some store of corne, yet can it scarcely suffice them for halfe the yeere. Howbeit, if they haue good increase of dates, they cannot want abundance of corne, which is sold vnto them by the Arabians for dates. If in the Libyan deserts there fall out change of weather about the midst of October; & if it continue raining there all December, Ia∣nuarie, and some part of Februarie, it is wonderful what abundance of grasse and milke it bringeth foorth. Then may you finde diuers lakes in all places and many fennes throughout Libya; wherefore this is the meetest time for the Barbarie-merchants to trauell to the land of Negros. Here all kinde of fruits grow sooner ripe, if they haue moderate showers about the ende of Iuly. Moreouer the land of Negros receiueth by raine neither any benefite, nor yet any dammage at all. For the riuer Niger together with the water which falleth from certaine mountaines doth so moisten their grounds, that no places can be deuised to be more fruitfull: for that which Nilus is to Ae∣gypt, the same is Niger to the land of Negors: for it increaseth like Nilus* from the fifteenth of Iune the space of fortie daies after, and for so many againe it decreaseth. And so at the increase of Niger, when all places are ouerflowen with water, a man may in a barke passe ouer all the land of Ne∣gros, albeit not without great perill of drowning; as in the fift part of this treatise we will declare more at large.

Of the length and shortnes of the Africans liues.

ALl the people of Barbarie by vs before mentioned liue vnto 65. or 70. yeeres of age, and fewe or none exceed that num∣ber. Howbeit in the foresaide mountaines I sawe some which had liued an hundred yeeres, and others which affir∣med themselues to be older; whose age was most healthfull and lustie. Yea some you shall finde here of fowerscore yeeres of age, who are sufficiently strong and able to exercise husbandrie, to dresse vines, and to serue in the warres; insomuch that yoong men are oftentimes inferiour vnto them. In Numidia, that is to say, in the land of dates, they liue a long time: howbeit they lose their teeth very soone, and their eies waxe woon∣derfully dimme. Which infirmities are likely to be incident vnto them, first because they continually feede vpon dates, the sweetnes and naturall qualitie whereof doth by little and little pull out their teeth: and secondly the dust and sand, which is tossed vp and downe the aire with easterne windes entring into their eies, doth at last miserably weaken and spoile their eie-sight. The inhabitants of Libya are of a shorter life; but those which are most strong and healthfull among them liue oftentimes till they come to threescore yeeres; albeit they are slender and leane of bodie. The Negros commonly Page  38 liue the shortest time of al the rest: howbeit they are alwaies strong & lustie, hauing their teeth sound euen till their dying day: yet is there no nation vn∣der heauen more prone to venerie; vnto which vice also the Libyans and Numidians are to too much addicted. To be short, the Barbarians are the weakest people of them all.

What kindes of diseases the Africans are subiect vnto.

THE children, and sometimes the ancient women of this region are subiect vnto baldnes or vnnaturall shedding of haire; which disease they can hardly be cured of. They are likewise oftentimes troubled with the head-ache, which vsually afflicteth them without any ague ioined therewith. Many of them are tormented with the tooth-ache, which (as some thinke) they are the more subiect vnto, because immediately after hot pot∣tage they drinke cold water. They are oftentimes vexed with extreme paine of the stomacke, which ignorantly they call, the paine of the hart. They are likewise daily molested with inwarde gripings and infirmities ouer their whole body, which is thought to proceede of continuall drinking of water. Yea they are 〈◊〉 subiect vnto bone-aches and goutes, by reason that they sit commonly vpon the bare ground, and neuer weare any shooes vpon their feete. Their chiefe gentlemen and noblemen prooue gowtie often∣times with immoderate drinking of wine and eating of daintie meats. Some with eating of oliues, nuts, and such course fare, are for the most part infec∣ted with the scuruies. Those which are of a sanguine complexion are greatly troubled with the cough, because that in the spring-season they sit too much vpon the ground. And vpon fridaies I had no small sport and recreation to goe and see them. For vpon this day the people flocke to church in great numbers to heare their 〈◊〉 sermons. Now if any one in the ser∣mon-tile falles a neezing, all the whole multitude will neeze with him for companie, and so they make such a noise, that they neuer leaue, till the ser∣mon be quite done; so that a man shall reape but little knowledge by any of their sermons. If any of Barbarie be infected with the disease commonly called the French poxe; they die thereof for the most part, and are seldome cured. This disease beginneth with a kinde of anguish and swelling, and at* length breaketh out into sores. Ouer the mountaines of Atlas, and through∣out all Numidia and Libya they scarcely know this disease. Insomuch that oftentimes the parties infected trauell foorthwith into Numidia or the land of Negros, in which places the aire is so temperate, that onely by remaining there they recouer their perfect health, and 〈◊〉 home sound into their owne countrie: which I sawe many doe with mine owne eies; who without the helpe of any phisitian or medicine, except the foresaide holesome aire, were restored to their former health. Not so much as the name of this ma∣ladie was euer knowen vnto the Africans, before 〈◊〉 the king of Page  39 Castile expelled all Iewes out of Spaine; after the returne of which Iewes* into Africa, certaine vnhappie and lewd people lay with their wiues; and so at length the disease spread from one to another, ouer the whole region: insomuch that scarce any one familie was free from the same. Howbeit, this they were most certainly perswaded of, that the same disease came first from Spaine; wherefore they (for want of a better name) do call it, The Spanish poxe. Notwithstanding at Tunis and ouer all Italie it is called the French disease. It is so called likewise in Aegypt and Syria: for there it is vsed as a common prouerbe of cursing; The French poxe take you. Amongst the* Barbarians the disease called in Latine Hernia is not so common; but in Aegypt the people are much troubled therewith. For some of the Aegyp∣tians haue their cods oftentimes so swollen, as it is incredible to report. Which infirmitie is thought to be so common among them, because they eate so much gumme, and salt cheese. Some of their children are subiect vnto the falling sicknes; but when they growe to any stature, they are free from that disease. This falling sicknes likewise possesseth the women of Bar∣barie, and of the land of Negros; who, to excuse it, say that they are taken with a spirite. In Barbarie the plague is rife euery tenth, fifteenth, or twentith yeere, whereby great numbers of people are consumed; for they haue no cure for the same, but onely to rub the plague-sore with certaine ointments made of Armenian earth. In Numidia they are infected with the plague* scarce once in an hundred yeeres. And in the land of Negros they know not the name of this disease: because they neuer were subiect thereunto.

The commendable actions and vertues of the Africans.

THose Arabians which inhabite in Barbarie or vpon the coast of the Mediterran sea, are greatly addicted vnto the studie of good artes and sciences: and those things which concerne their law and religion are esteemed by them in the first place. Moreouer they haue beene heretofore most studious of the Mathematiques, of Philosophie, and of Astrologie: but these artes (as it is aforesaid) were fower hundred yeeres agoe, vtterly destroyed and taken away by the chiefe professours of their lawe. The inhabitants of cities doe most religiously obserue and 〈◊〉 those things which appertaine vnto their religion: yea they honour those doctours and priests, of whom they learne their law, as if they were petie-gods. Their Churches they frequent verie diligently, to the ende they may repeat certaine prescript and formal pray∣ers; most superstitiously perswading themselues that the same day wherein they make their praiers, it is not lawfull for them to wash certaine of their members, when as at other times they wil wash their whole bodies. Where∣of we will (by Gods helpe) discourse more at large in the second Booke of this present treatise, when we shall fall into the mentioning of MahumetPage  40 and of his religion. Moreouer those which inhabite Barbarie are of great cunning & dexteritie for building & for mathematicall inuentions, which a man may easily coniecture by their artificiall workes. Most honest peo∣ple they are, and destitute of all fraud and guile; not onely imbracing all simplicitie and truth, but also practising the same throughout the whole course of their liues: albeit certaine Latine authors, which haue written of the same regions, are farre otherwise of opinion. Likewise they are most strong and valiant people, especially those which dwell vpon the moun∣taines.* They keepe their couenant most faithfully; insomuch that they had rather die then breake promise. No nation in the world is so subiect vnto iealousie; for they will rather leese their liues, then put vp any disgrace in the behalfe of their women. So desirous they are of riches and honour, that therein no other people can goe beyonde them. They trauell in a manner ouer the whole world to exercise traffique. For they are conti∣nually to bee seene in AEgypt, in AEthiopia, in Arabia, Persia, India, and Turkie: and whithersoeuer they goe, they are most hono∣rably esteemed of: for none of them will professe any arte, vnlesse hee hath attained vnto great exactnes and perfection therein. They haue al∣waies beene much delighted with all kinde of ciuilitie and modest be∣hauiour: and it is accounted heinous among them for any man to vt∣ter in companie, any bawdie or vnseemely worde. They haue alwaies in minde this sentence of a graue author; Giue place to thy superiour. If any youth in presence of his father, his vncle, or any other of his kinred, doth sing or talke ought of loue matters, he is deemed to bee woorthie of grie∣uous punishment. Whatsoeuer lad or youth there lighteth by chaunce into any company which discourseth of loue, no sooner heareth nor vnder∣standeth what their talke tendeth vnto, but immediately he withdraweth himselfe from among them. These are the things which we thought most woorthie of relation as concerning the ciuilitie, humanitie, and vpright dealing of the Barbarians: let vs now proceede vnto the residue. Those Arabians which dwell in tents, that is to say, which bring vp cattell, are of a more liberall and ciuill disposition: to wit, they are in their kinde as de∣uout, valiant, patient, courteous, hospitall, and as honest in life and conuer∣sation as any other people. They be most faithfull obseruers of their word and promise: insomuch that the people, which before we said to dwell in the mountaines, are greatly stirred vp with emulation of their vertues. Howbeit the said mountainers, both for learning, for vertue, and for religi∣on, are thought much inferiour to the Numidians; albeit they haue little or no knowledge at all in naturall philosophie. They are reported likewise to be most 〈◊〉 warriours, to be valiant, and exceeding louers and practi∣sers of all humanitie. Also, the Moores and Arabians inhabiting Libya are somewhat ciuill of behauiour, being plaine dealers, voide of dissimulation, fauourable to strangers, and louers of simplicitie. Those which we before named white, or tawney Moores, are most stedfast in friendship: as likewise Page  41 they indifferently and fauourably esteeme of other nations: and wholy in∣deuour themselues in this one thing, namely, that they may leade a most pleasant and iocund life. Moreouer they maintaine most learned professours of liberall artes, and such men as are most deuout in their reli∣gion. Neither is there any people in all Africa that lead a more happie and honorable life.

What vices the foresaid Africans are subiect vnto.

NEuer was there any people or nation so perfectly endued with vertue, but that they had their contrarie faults and ble∣mishes: now therfore let vs consider, whether the vices of the Africās do surpasse their vertues & good parts. Those which we named the inhabitants of the cities of Barbarie are some∣what needie and couetous, being also very proud and high-minded, and woonderfully addicted vnto wrath; insomuch that (according to the pro∣uerbe) they will deeply engraue in marble any iniurie be it neuer so small, & will in no wise blot it out of their remembrance. So rusticall they are & void of good manners, that scarcely can any stranger obtaine their familiaritie and friendship. Their wits are but meane; and they are so credulous, that they will beleeue matters impossible, which are told them. So ignorant are they of naturall philosophie, that they imagine all the effects and operations of nature to be extraordinarie and diuine. They obserue no certaine order of liuing nor of lawes. Abounding exceedingly with choler, they speake al∣waies with an angrie and lowd voice. Neither shall you walke in the day-time in any of their streetes, but you shall see commonly two or three of them together by the eares. By nature they are a vile and base people, being no better accounted of by their gouernours then if they were dogs. They haue neither iudges nor lawyers, by whose wisedome and counsell they ought to be directed. They are vtterly vnskilfull in trades of merchandize, being de∣stitute of bankers and money-changers: wherefore a merchant can doe no∣thing among them in his absence, but is himselfe constrained to goe in per∣son, whithersoeuer his wares are carried. No people vnder heauen are more addicted vnto couetise then this nation: neither is there (I thinke) to bee found among them one of an hundred, who for courtesie, humanitie, or de∣uotions sake, will vouchsafe any entertainment vpon a stranger. Mindfull they haue alwaies beene of iniuries, but most forgetfull of benefites. Their mindes are perpetually possessed with vexation and strife, so that they will seldome or neuer shew themselues tractable to any man; the cause whereof is supposed to be; for that they are so greedily addicted vnto their filthie lucre, that they neuer could attaine vnto any kinde of ciuilitie or good beha∣uiour. The shepherds of that region liue a miserable, toilsome, wretched and beggerly life: they are a rude people, and (as a man may say) borne and bred to theft, deceit, and brutish manners. Their yoong men may goe a wooing Page  42 to diuers maides, till such time as they haue sped of a wife. Yea, the father of the maide most friendly welcommeth her suiter; so that I thinke scarce any noble or gentleman among them can chuse a virgine for his spouse: albeit, so soone as any woman is married, she is quite forsaken of all her suiters; who then seeke out other new paramours for their liking. Concerning their religion, the greater part of these people are neither Mahumetans, Iewes, nor Christians; and hardly shall you finde so much as a sparke of pietie in any of them. They haue no churches at all, nor any kinde of prayers, but be∣ing vtterly estranged from all godly deuotion, they leade a sauage and beast∣ly life: and if any man chanceth to be of a better disposition (because they haue no law-giuers nor teachers among them) he is constrained to follow the example of other mens liues & maners. All the Numidians being most ignorant of naturall, domesticall, & commonwealth-matters, are principal∣ly addicted vnto treason, trecherie, murther, theft, and robberie. This nation, because it is most slauish, will right gladly accept of any seruice among the Barbarians, be it neuer so vile or contemptible. For some will take vpon them to be dung-farmers, others to be scullians, some others to bee ostlers, and such like seruile occupations. Likewise the inhabitants of Libya liue a brutish kinde of life; who neglecting all kindes of good artes and sciences, doe wholy apply their mindes vnto theft and violence. Neuer as yet had they any religion, any lawes, or any good forme of liuing; but alwaies had, and euer will haue a most miserable and distressed life. There cannot any trechery or villanie be inuented so damnable, which for lucres sake they dare not attempt. They spend all their daies either in most lewd practises, or in hunting, or else in warfare; neither weare they any shooes nor garments. The Negros likewise leade a beastly kinde of life, being vtterly destitute of the vse of reason, of dexteritie of wit, and of all artes. Yea they so behaue themselues, as if they had continually liued in a forrest among wilde beasts. They haue great swarmes of harlots among them; whereupon a man may easily coniecture their manner of liuing; except 〈◊〉 conuersation perhaps be somewhat more tolerable, who dwell in the 〈◊◊〉 and cities: for it is like that they are somewhat more addicted to 〈◊〉

Neither am I ignorant, how much mine owne credit is 〈◊〉, when* I my selfe write so homely of Africa, vnto which countrie 〈◊◊〉 debted both for my birth, and also for the best part of my education: Howbeit in this regarde I seeke not to excuse my selfe, but onely to appeale vnto the dutie of an historiographer, who is to set downe the plaine truth in all places, and is blame-woorthie for flattering or fauouring of any person. And this is the cause that hath mooued me to describe all things so plainly without glo∣sing or dissimulation: wherefore here I am to request the gentle Reader friendly to accept of this my most true discourse, (albeit not adorned with fine words, and artificiall eloquence) as of certaine vnknowne strange mat∣ters. Wherein how indifferent and sincere I haue shewed my selfe, it may in few words appeere by that which followeth. It is reported of a lewd countri∣man Page  43 of ours, that being conuicted of some heinous crime, he was adiudged to be seuerely beaten for it. Howbeit the day following, when the 〈◊〉 came to doe his busines, the malefactor remembred that certaine yeeres before, he had some acquaintance and familiaritie with him: which made him to presume, that he should find more fauour at his hands, then a meere stranger. But he was fowly 〈◊〉; for the executioner vsed him no better, then if he had neuer knowne him. Wherefore this caitife at the first exclai∣ming vpon his executioner, oh (saith he) my goodfriend, what maketh you so sterne, as not to acknowledge our olde acquaintance? Hereupon the exe∣cutioner beating him more cruelly then before: friend (quoth he) in such busines as this I vse to be mindfull of my dutie, and to shew no fauour at all: and so continually laying on, he ceased not, till the iudiciall sentence was fulfilled. It was (doubtlesse) a great argument of impartiall dealing, when as respect of former friendship could take no place.

Wherefore I thought good to record all the particulars aforesaid; least that describing vices onely I should seeme to flatter them, with whom I am now presently conuersant; or extolling onely the vertues of the Africans, I might hereafter be saide to sue for their fauour (which I haue of purpose eschewed) to the end that I might haue more free accesse vnto them. More∣ouer, may it please you for this purpose to heare another resemblance or similitude. There was vpon a time a most wily bird, so indued by nature, that she could liue as well with the fishes of the sea, as with the fowles of the aire; wherefore she was rightly called Amphibia. This bird being sommoned be∣fore the king of birds to pay her yeerely tribute, determined foorthwith to change her element, and to delude the king; and so flying out of the aire, she drencht herselfe in the Ocean sea. Which strange accident the fishes woondring at, came flocking about Amphibia, saluting her, and asking her the cause of her comming. Good fishes (quoth the bird) know you not, that all things are turned so vpside downe, that we wot not how to liue securely in the aire? Our tyrannicall king (what furie haunts him, I know not) comman∣ded me to be 〈◊◊〉 to death, whereas no silly bird respected euer his commoditie as 〈◊◊〉 one. Which most vniust edict I no sooner heard of, but presently (〈◊〉 fishes) I came to you for refuge. Wherefore vouchsafe me (I beseech 〈◊〉) some odde corner or other to hide my head in; and then I may iustly say, that I haue found more friendship among strangers, then euer I did in mine owne natiue countrie. With this speech the fishes were so perswaded, that Amphibia staied a whole yeere among them, not paying one penie or halfepenie. At the yeeres ende the king of fishes began to de∣mand his tribute, insomuch that at last the bird was 〈◊〉 to pay. Great rea∣son it is (saith the bird) that each man should haue his due, and for my part I am contented to doe the dutie of a loyall subiect. These words were no sooner spoken, but she suddenly spred her wings, and vp she mounted into the aire. And so this bird, to auoide yeerely exactions and tributes, woulde eftsoones change her element. Out of this fable I will inferre no other mo∣rall, Page  44 but that all men doe most affect that place, where they finde least dam∣mage and inconuenience. For mine owne part, when I heare the Africans euill spoken of, I wil affirme my selfe to be one of Granada: and when I per∣ceiue the nation of Granada to be discommended, then will I professe my selfe to be an African. But herein the Africans shall be the more beholding vnto me; for that I will onely record their principall and notorious vices, omitting their smaller and more tolerable faults.

IOHN LEO HIS SECOND BOOKE OF the Historie of Africa, and of the memorable things contained therein.

HAuing in my first booke made mention of the cities, bounds, diuisions, and some other nota∣ble and memorable things contained in Africa; we will in this second part more fully, particu∣larly, largely, and distinctly describe sundrie prouinces, townes, mountaines, situations of places, lawes, rites, and customes of people. In∣somuch that we will leaue nothing vntouched, which may any way serue to the illustrating and perfecting of this our present discourse. Beginning therefore at the west part of Africa, we will in this our geographicall historie proceede eastward, till we come to the borders of Aegypt. And all this our narration following we will diuide into seuen bookes; whereunto (God willing) we purpose to annexe the eighth, which shall intreat of riuers, of liuing creatures, of trees, of plants, of fruits, of shrubs, and of such other most delightfull matters.

Of the region of Hea lying vpon the west part of Africa.

HEa being one of the prouinces of Maroco is bounded westward and northwarde with the maine Ocean, southwarde with the mountaines of Atlas, and eastward with the riuer which they call 〈◊〉. This riuer springeth out of the foresaide moun∣taine, discharging it selfe at length into the riuer of Tensift, and diuiding Hea from the prouince next adiacent.

Page  45

Of the situation and description of Hea.

THis region of Hea is an vneeuen and rough soile, full of rockie mountaines, shadie woods, and chrystall-streames in all places; being woonderfully rich, and wel stored with inhabitants. They haue in the said region great abundance of goates and asses, but not such plentie of sheepe, oxen, and horses. All kinde of fruites are very scarce among them, not, that the ground is vncapable of fruit, but because the people are so rude and ignorant in this behalfe, that very few of them are skilfull in planting, graffing, or pruning of trees. Whereof I was easily perswaded: for I remember that I founde among some gardiners of Hea great abundance of fruits. Of graine they haue not much plentie, except it be of barlie, mill, and panick. They haue great abundance of honie, which they vse in stead of ordinarie foode, but the waxe they cast away, little regar∣ding it, because they know not the value thereof. Likewise there are found in this region certaine thornie trees bearing a grosse kinde of fruit, not vn∣like vnto those oliues which are brought vnto vs from Spaine: the said fruit they call in their language Arga. Of this fruit they make a kinde of oile, be∣ing* of a fulsome and strong sauour, which they vse notwithstanding for sauce and for lampes.

The manner of liuing, and the foode of the people of 〈◊〉.

THis people for the most part eateth barlie-bread vnleuened, which is like rather vnto a cake, then to a loafe: this bread is baked in a kinde of earthen baking-pan, somewhat like vnto that wherewith in Italie they vse to couer iuncats and daintie dishes: neither shall you finde many in Hea which eate ouen-bread. They vse also a certaine vnsauourie and base kinde of meate, which in their language is called Elhasid, and is made in ma∣ner* following: they cast barlie-meale into boiling water, continually tem∣pering and stirring the same about with a sticke, till they perceiue it be suffi∣ciently sodden. Then setting this pap or hastie-pudding vpon the table, and powring in some of their countrie-oile, all the whole familie stand round about the platter, and eate the said pap not with spoones, but with their hands and fingers. Howbeit in the spring and summer season they temper the said meale with milke, and cast in butter in stead of oile: and this kinde of meate is not vsuall among them, but only at supper. For in winter time they breake their fast with bread and honie; and in summer with milke, butter, and bread. Moreouer sometimes they vse to eate sodden flesh, whereunto some adde onions, other beanes, and some other, a kinde of seasoning or sauce called by them 〈◊〉. With them tables and table-cloathes are quite out of vse, in stead whereof they spread a certaine round mat vpon the ground, which serueth among this rude people both for table, cloth, and all.

Page  46

The apparell and customes of the foresaid people of Hea.

THE greatest part of them are clad in a kinde of cloath-gar∣ment made of wooll after the manner of a couerlet, called in their language, Elchise, and not vnlike vnto those couerlets or blankets which the Italians lay vpon their beds. In these kinde of mantles they wrap themselues; and then are they girt with a woollen girdle, not about their waste, but about their hippes. They haue also a certaine piece of cloath of ten handfuls in length and two in bredth, wherewith they vse to adorne their heads: these kinde of orna∣ments or head-tires they dye with the iuice of walnut-tree-rootes, being so put vpon their heads, that their crownes are alwaies bare. None of them weare any cap, except it be an olde man, or a man of learning; albeit lear∣ned men are verie rare among them: which caps of theirs are double and round, not much vnlike to the caps of certaine Phisitians in Italy. You shall seldome finde any linnen shirts or smockes among this people; and that (as I suppose) either because their soile will yeeld no flaxe nor hemp, or else for that they haue none skilfull in the arte of weauing. Their seats whereon they sit, are nought else but certaine mats made of hayre and rushes. For beds they vse a certaine kinde of hairie flockbed or mattresse; some of which beds are ten elles in length, some more, and some lesse, yea some you shall finde of twenty elles long, but none longer: one part of these mattresses they lye vpon insteed of a couch, and with the residue they couer their bodies as it were with 〈◊〉 and couerlets. In the Spring-time alwaies they lay the hairie side next vnto their bodies, because it is somewhat warmer; but in Sommer-time not regarding that side, they turne the smooth side vpwarde, and thereon they rest themselues. Likewise of such base and harsh stuffe they make their cushions: being much like vnto the stuffe which is brought hither out of Albania and Turkie, to serue for horse-cloathes: The women of Hea goe commonly with their faces vncouered, vsing for their huswifery turned vessels and cups of wood: their platters, dishes, and other their kit∣chin-vessels be for the most part of earth. You may easily discerne which of them is married, and who is not: for an vnmarried man must alwaies keepe his beard shauen, which, after hee be once married, hee suffereth to grow at length. The saide region bringeth foorth no great plentie of hor∣ses, but those that it doth bring foorth, are so nimble and full of mettall, that they will climbe like cats ouer the steepe and craggie mountaines. These horses are alwaies vnshod: and the people of this region vse to till their ground with no other cattell, but onely with horses and asses. You shall here finde great store of deere, of wilde goats, and of hares: Howbeit the people are no whit delighted in hunting. Which is the cause (as I thinke) why the said beasts do so multiply. And it is somwhat strange, that so many riuers running through the countrey, they should haue such scarsitie of wa∣ter-mils: Page  47 but the reason is, because euerie houshold almost haue a woodden mill of their owne, whereat their women vsually grinde with their hands. No good learning nor liberall artes are heere to be found; except it bee a little skill in the lawes, which some few chalenge vnto themselues; other∣wise you shall finde not so much as any shadow of vertue among them. They haue neither Phisition nor Surgeon of any learning or account But if a disease or infirmitie befall any of them, they presently seare or cauterize* the sicke partie with red hot yrons, euen as the Italians vse their horses. Howbeit some chirurgians there are among them, whose duty and occu∣pation consisteth onely in circumcising of their male children. They make no sope in all the countrey, but instead thereof they vse to wash with lee made of ashes. They are at continuall warre, but it is ciuill and among themselues, insomuch that they haue no leisure to fight against other na∣tions. Whosoeuer will trauell into a 〈◊〉 countrey must take either a harlot, or a wife, or a religious man of the contrarie part, to beare him com∣panie. They haue no regard at all of iustice, especially in those mountaines which are destitute of gouernours or princes: yea euen the principall men of this verie region of Hea, which dwell within townes and cities, dare scarce prescribe any law or good order vnto the people, so great is their insolencie in all places. The cities of Hea are few in number, but they haue great store of villages, townes, and most strong castles: whereof (God willing) we will hereafter speake more at large.

Of Tednest one of the cities of Hea.

THE auncient citie of Tednest was built by the Africans vpon a most beautiful and large plaine, which they inuironed with a loftie wall built of bricke and lime. Likewise a certaine riuer running foorth of the citie serueth to fill vp the wall ditch. In this citie are certaine merchants that sell cloath, wherein the people of the same place are clad. Here is likewise vttered a kinde of cloth which is brought thither out of Portugall: howbeit they will admit no ar∣tificers, but taylors, botchers, carpenters, and a few gold-smithes which are Iewes. In this citie there are no innes, stoues, nor wine-tauerns: so that whatsoeuer merchant goes thither, must seeke out some of his acquaintance to remaine withall: but if he hath no friends 〈◊〉 acquaintance in the town, then the principall inhabitants there cast lots who should entertaine the strange merchant: insomuch that no stranger, be he neuer so meane, shall* want friendly entertainment, but is alwaies sumptuously and honourably accepted of. But whosoeuer is receiued as a guest, must at his departure bestow some gift vpon his host in token of thankfulnes, to the ende he may be more welcome at his next returne. Howbeit if the saide stranger bee no merchant, he may chuse what great mans house he will to lodge in, beeing bound at his departure to no recompence nor gift. To be short, if any beg∣ger Page  48 or poore pilgrim passé the same way, he hath some 〈◊〉 pro∣uided for him in a certaine hospitall, which was founded onely for the reliefe of poore people, and is maintained at the common charge of the citie. In the middest of the citie stands an auncient temple, beeing most sumptuously built and of an huge bignes, which was thought to bee founded at the verie same time when as the King of Maroco bare rule in those places. This temple hath a great cestern standing in the midst there∣of, and it hath many priests and such kinde of people which giue attendance thereunto, and store it with things necessarie. In this citie likewise are di∣uers other temples, which, 〈◊〉 they are but little, yet be they most cleanly and decently kept. There are in this citie about an hundred families of Iewes, who pay no yeerely tribute at all, but only bestow each of them some gratuitie vpon this or that nobleman, whom they thinke to fauour them most, to the ende they may enioy their fauour still: and the greatest part of the said citie is inhabited with Iewes. These Iewes haue certaine minting∣houses wherein they stampe siluer coine, of which 170. Aspers (as they call them) doe weigh one ounce, beeing like vnto the common coine of Hungarie, sauing that this Asper is square, and the Hungarian coine is round. The inhabitants of Tednest are free from al tributes & yeerely taxati∣ons: howbeit if any summe of money be wanting for the erection of a pub∣lique building, or for any other common vse, the people is foorthwith as∣sembled, and each man must giue according to his abilitie. This citie was left desolate in the yeere 918. of the Hegeira. At what time all the citizens* thereof fled vnto the mountaines, and from thence to Maroco. The reason they say was, because the inhabitants were informed that their next neigh∣bours the Arabians ioyned in league with the Portugall Captaines (who as then held the towne of Azaphi) and promised to deliuer Tednest into the hands of the Christians, which thing so danted the citizens, that they pre∣sently sought to saue themselues by flight. My selfe (I remember) sawe this citie vtterly ruined and defaced, the walles thereof beeing laide euen with the ground, the houses beeing destitute of inhabitants, and nothing at that time to be there seene, but onely the nests of rauens and of other birds. All this I saw in the 920. yeere of the Hegeira.

Of Teculeth a towne of Hea.

VPon the foote of an hill eighteene miles Eastwarde from Tednest stands a towne called by the Africans Teculeth, and containing about one thousand housholdes. Hard by this towne runneth a certaine riuer, on both sides whereof are most pleasant gardens, and all kindes of trees. Within the walles of the saide towne are many pits or wels, whereout they draw most cleere and pleasant water. Here also is to be seene a most stately and beau∣tifull temple; as likewise fower hospitals and a monasterie of religious per∣sons. Page  49 The inhabitants of this towne are farre wealthier then they of Ted∣nest; for they haue a most famous port vpon the Ocean sea, commonly cal∣led by merchants, Goz. They haue likewise great abundance of corne and pulse, which grow in the fruitfull fields adiacent. These also of Teculeth send waxe into Portugall to be solde: and they are verie curious in their ap∣parell* and about the furniture of their 〈◊〉. When I my selfe was at Te∣culeth, I found there a certaine nobleman, who was the president or chiefe of their senate: this noblemans duety was both to procure tribute which was yeerely to be payed vnto the Arabians, and also to make attonement and reconciliation betweene them, when they were at ods. This man had gathered great riches vnto himselfe, which he imployed rather to purchase friends, then to fill his coffers: most liberall he was vnto the poore, most bountifull and fauourable vnto all his citizens; insomuch that all men did reuerence and honour vnto him, as vnto their father and best protectour. Of whose curtesie I my selfe also made triall: and being not meanely but verie sumptuously entertained by him, I remained with him for a certaine time, and read in his house diuers histories of African matters. This good man togither with his sonne was slaine in a skirmish against the Portugals: which was done, according to our computation, in the yeere of the He∣geira 923. that is to say, in the yeere of our Lord 1514. After which misfor∣tune* we heard, that the citie was razed, that the people were part of them put to flight, part lead captiue, and the residue 〈◊〉 by the enimy: all which particulars we haue declared more at large in that Booke, which is now late∣ly* printed and published concerning African affaires.

Of Hadecchis a towne of Hea.

THE citie of Hadecchis being situate vpon a plaine, standeth eight miles Southward of Teculeth: it containeth seauen hun∣dred families: and the wals, churches, and houses throughout this whole citie are all built of free stone. Through the midst of the towne runneth a large and faire streame, hauing many vines & galleries on both sides thereof. There be many Iewes artificers in this citie. The ci∣tizens here go somewhat decently apparelled: their horses are good: most of them exercise merchandize: also they stampe a kinde of coine; and they haue certaine yeerely faires or martes, whereunto the nations adioining do vsually resort. Here is to be sold great store of cattell, of butter, oyle, yron, and cloath, and their said mart lasteth fifteene dayes. Their women are very beautifull, white of colour, fat, comely, and trim. But the men beare a most sauage minde, being so extremely possessed with ielousie, that whomsoeuer they finde but talking with their wiues, they presently goe about to murther them. They haue no iudges nor learned men among them, nor any which can assigne vnto the citizens any functions and magistracies according to their worthines: so that hee rules like a king that excelleth the residue in Page  50 wealth. For matters of religion, they haue certaine Mahumetan priests to administer them. Who neither pay tribute nor yeerely custome, euen as they whom we last before mentioned. Heere I was entertained by a cer∣taine curteous and liberall minded priest, who was exceedingly delighted with Arabian Poetrie. Wherefore being so louingly entertained, I read vnto him a certaine briefe treatise as touching the same argument: which he accepted so kindly at my hands, that he would not suffer mee to depart without great and bountifull rewards. From hence I trauelled vnto Maroco. And afterward I heard that this towne also, in the yeere of the Hegeira* 922. was sacked by the Portugals, and that the inhabitants were all fled into the next mountaines, and the verie same yeere I returned home to visit my* natiue countrey, which was in the yeere of our Lord 1513.

Of Ileusugaghen a towne of Hea.

THis towne is situate vpon the top of a certaine high mountaine which is distant eight miles to the South of Hadecchis: it consisteth of about two hundred families: and by the foote of the hill runneth a small riuer. Heere are no gardens at all, nor yet any trees which beare fruit: the reason whereof is (as I suppose) because the inhabitants are such sloth∣full and grosse people, that they regard nothing but their barley and their oyle. They are at continuall warre with their next neighbours, which is per∣formed with such monstrous bloodshed and manslaughter, that they de∣serue rather the name of beasts then of men. They haue neither iudges, priests, nor lawyers, to prescribe any forme of liuing among them, or to go∣uerne their common-wealth: wherefore iustice and honestie is quite bani∣shed out of their habitations. Those mountaines are altogither destitute of fruits: howbe it they abound greatly with honie, which serueth the inhabi∣tants both for food, and for merchandize to sell in the neighbour-countries. And because they know not what seruice to put their waxe vnto, they cast it foorth, togither with the other excrements of honie. The saide towne of Ileusugaghen hath a verie small and narrow chappell, which will scarce con∣taine a hundred persons, whither notwithstanding the people doe so slowly resort, that they need not to haue any greater; so much do they neglect re∣ligion and pietie. Whensoeuer they goe abroad, they carrie a dagger or a iauelin about with them: and you shall often heare of the slaughter of some one or other of their citizens. No people vnder heauen can be more wic∣ked, trecherous, or lewdly addicted, then this people is.

I remember that I my selfe went once thither with a Seriffo or Mahumetan priest, (who made chalenge vnto the gouernment of Hea) to the ende that we might arbitrate certaine strifes and contentions: for it were incredible to report, what cruell warres, partly for murthers, and partly for robberies, were practised among them. But because the Seriffo had brought no lawyers with him, nor any iudges to decide controuersies, he would needes, that I Page  51 should take that office vpon me. Immediately the townsmen come floc∣king about vs: one complaines that his neighbour hath slaine eight of his kinred and family; his neighbour on the contrarie alleageth, that the for∣mer had slaine ten of his familie; wherefore, according to the auncient cu∣stome, he demaundeth to haue a summe of money giuen him. For (saith he) there is some recompence due vnto me, sithens ten of my people haue beene slaine, and but eight of this my neighbours. Whereunto the other replied that the saide ten persons were iustly slaine, because they went about by violence to dispossesse him of a certaine piece of ground which his fa∣ther had left him by inheritance; but, that his eight were murthered onely for vniust reuenge, against all equitie and lawe. With these and such like friuolous allegations we spent that whole day, neither could we decide any one controuersie. About midnight we sawe a great throng of people meet in the market-place, who made there such a bloodie and horrible conflict, that the sight thereof would haue affrighted any man, were he neuer so hard harted. Wherefore the saide Seriffo fearing least those lewd varlets would make some trecherous conspiracie against him, and thinking it better to depart thence immediately, then to expect the conclusion of that fraye, wee tooke our iourney from that place to a towne called Aghilinghighil.

Of the towne of Teijeut in Hea.

MOreouer, the tower of Teijeut standing vpon a plaine ten miles Westward of Ileusugaghen, containeth about three hundred housholdes. The houses and wall of this towne are built of bricke. The townesmen exercise husbandrie; for their ground is most fertile for barley; albeit it will scarcely yeeld any other graine. They haue pleasant and large gardens, stored with vines, fig-trees, and peach∣trees: also they haue great abundance of goates. About this towne are ma∣ny lyons, whereby the townesmen are not a little endamaged: for they pray continually vpon their goats and vpon other of their cattell. Certaine of vs vpon time comming into these parts for want of a lodging were cōstrained to repayre vnto a little cottage which we escried, being so olde, that it was in danger of falling: hauing prouided our horses of prouender, we stopped vp all the doores and passages of the said cottage with thornes and wood, as cir∣cumspectly as possibly we could: these things happened in the moneth of Aprill, at what time they haue extreme heat in the same countrey. Where∣fore we our selues got vp to the top of the house, to the end that in our sleep we might be neere vnto the open ayer. About midnight we espied two mon∣strous lyons, who were drawen thither by the sent of our horses, and endeuo∣red to breake downe that fence of thornes which we had made. Where∣upon the horses being put in feare, kept such a neighing, and such a stirre, that we misdoubted least the rotten cottage would haue fallen, and least our selues should haue become a pray vnto the lyons. But so soone as we per∣ceiued Page  52 the day begin to breake, we foorthwith sadled our horses, and hyed vs vnto that place, where we knew the Prince and his armie lay. Not long after followed the destruction of this towne. For the greater part of the townesmen being slaine, the rest were taken by the Portugals, and were car∣ried* as captiues into Portugall. This was done in the yeere of the Hegeira 920 and in the yeere of our Lord 1513.

Of Tesegdelt a towne of Hea.

THe towne of Tesegdelt being situate vpon the top of a certaine high mountaine, and naturally enuironed with an high rocke in steade of a wall, containeth more then eight hundreth families. It is distant from Teijeut southward about twelue miles, and it hath a riuer running by it, the name whereof I haue forgotten. About this towne of Tesegdelt are most pleasant gardens and orchards, replenished with all kinde of trees, and especially with walnut-trees. The inhabitants are wealthie, hauing great abundance of horses, neither are they constrained to pay any tribute vnto the Arabians. There are continuall warres betweene the Arabians and them, and that with great bloudshed and manslaughter on both parts. The villa∣ges lying neere vnto Tesegdelt do vsually carry all their graine thither, least they should be depriued thereof by the enimie, who maketh daily inrodes and inuasions vpon them. The inhabitants of the foresaid towne are much*〈◊〉 vnto curtesie and ciuilitie; and for liberalitie and bountie vnto strangers, they will suffer themselues to be inferiour to none other. At euery gate of Tesegdelt stande certaine watchmen or warders, which do most louingly receiue all incommers, enquiring of them, whether they haue any friends and acquaintaine in the towne, or no? If they haue none, then are they conducted to one of the best Innes of the towne, and hauing had en∣tertainment there, according to their degree and place, they are friendly dis∣missed: and whatsoeuer his expences come to, the stranger paies nought at all, but his charges are defraied out of the common purse. This people of Tesegdelt are subiect also vnto iealousie; howbeit they are most faithfull keepers of their promise. In the very middest of the towne standes a most beautifull and stately temple, whereunto belong a certaine number of Ma∣humetan priests. And to the ende that iustice may be most duly admini∣stred among them, they haue a very learned iudge, who decideth all mat∣ters in the common wealth, except criminall causes onely. Their fieldes where they vse to sowe their corne, are, for the greater part vpon the moun∣taines. Vnto this verie towne I trauelled with the foresaide Seriffo in the 〈◊〉 of the Hegeira 919. that is to say, in the yeere of our Lord 1510.

Page  53

A description of the citie of Tagtess.

THE most ancient citie of Tagtess is built rounde, and standeth vpon the toppe of an hill: on the sides whereof are certaine winding steps hewen out of the hard rocke. It is about foure∣teene miles distant from Tesegdelt. By the foote of the saide hill runnes a riuer, whereout the women of Tagtess draw their water, nei∣ther haue the citizens any other drinke: and although this riuer be almost sixe miles from Tagtess, yet a man would thinke, looking downe from the citie vpon it, that it were but halfe a mile distant. The way leading vnto the said riuer being cut out of the rocke, in forme of a payre of stayres, is verie narrow. The citizens of Tagtess are addicted vnto theft and robberie, and are at continuall warre with their neighbours. They haue no corne-fields, nor any cattell, but onely vpon the said mountaine: they haue great store of bores; but such scarcitie of horses, that there is not one almost to bee found in the whole citie. The way through their region is so difficult, that they will suffer none to passe by without a publique testimoniall. While I* was in that countrey, there came such a swarme of Locusts, that they deuou∣red the greatest part of their cornes which were as then ripe: insomuch that all the vpper part of the ground was couered with Locusts. Which was in the yeere of the Hegeira 919. that is, in the yeere of our Lord 1510.

The towne of Eitdeuet.

FIfteene miles Southward from Tagtess stands another towne called Eitdeuet, being built vpon a plaine, and yet vpon the higher ground thereof. It containeth to the number of seuen hundred families; and hath in the midst thereof most cleere and coole fountaines. This towne is enuironed on all sides with rockes and mightie woods. In the said towne are Iewes of all occupa∣tions: and so me there are which affirme, that the first inhabitants of this towne came by naturall descent from King Dauid: but so soone as the Mahumetan religion had. infected that place, their owne lawe and religion ceased. Heere are great store of most cunning lawyers, which are perfectly well seene in the lawes and constitutions of that nation: for I remember that I my selfe sawe a very aged man, who could most readily repeate a whole volume written in their language, called by them Elmudevuana, that is to say, the body of the whole lawe. The said volume is diuided into three tomes, wherein all difficult questions are dissolued: toge∣ther with certaine counsels or commentaries of a famous author, which they call 〈◊〉. They haue a kinde of tribunall or iudgement-hall, wherein all contentions happening betweene the citizens of this place, and their neighbour-cities, are presently decided and set through. Neither doe the Page  54 said lawyers deale onely in common-wealth matters, but also in cases pertai∣ning to religion: albeit in criminall cases the people doe not so greatly cre∣dit them, for indeede their learning little serueth them for that purpose. Being amongst them, it was my hap to soiourne in the house of a certaine lawyer, who was a man of great learning. This lawyer, to the end he might giue me more solemne entertainmēt, would needs inuite diuers learned men of his owne profession to beare vs companie at supper. After supper, we had many questions propounded: and amongst the residue this was one; name∣ly, Whether any man might iustly sell that person for a bondflaue, who is nourished by any commoditie of the people. There was in companie at the same time a certaine aged Sire, hauing a graue beard and a reuerend coun∣tenance, vnto whom each one of them ascribed much honour; him they called in their owne language Hegazzare. Which name, when I had heard thrice or fower times repeated, I demanded of some that were in presence, what was the true signification thereof. They told me that it signified a but∣cher: for (say they) as a butcher knoweth right well the true anatomy of eue∣ry part of a beast; euen so can this aged Sire most learnedly dissolue all dif∣ficult questions & doubts of lawe. This people leadeth a most miserable and distressed life: their foode is barlie bread, oile arganicke, and goates-flesh. They know no vse of any other graine but barlie. Their women are very beautifull and of a louely hue: their men be strong and lustie, hauing haire growing vpon their brestes, and being very liberall and exceeding iealous.

Of Culeihat Elmuridin, that is to say, The rocke of disciples; a castle of Hea.

THis Culeihat Elmuridin is a castle built vpon the top of a certaine high mountaine, hauing round about it diuers other mountaines of a like heighth, which are enuironed with craggie rocks and huge woods. There is no passage vnto this castle, but onely a certaine narrow path vpon one side of the mountaine. By the one side thereof stands a rocke, and vpon the other side the mountaine of Tesegdelt is within halfe a mile; and it is distant from Eitdeuet almost eighteene miles. This castle was built euen in our time by a certaine apostata or renouncer of the Mahumetan religion, called by them Homar Seijef; who being first a Mahumetan preacher vnto* the people, propounded vnto a great number of disciples and sectaries, whom he had drawen to be of his opinion, certaine new points of religion. This fellow seeing that he preuailed so with his disciples, that they esteemed him for some petie-god, became of a false preacher a most cruell tyrant, and his gouernment lasted for twelue yeeres. He was the chiefe cause of the de∣struction and ruine of the whole prouince. At length he was slaine by his owne wife, because he had vnlawfully lien with her daughter which she had by her former husband. And then was his peruerse and lewd dealing laide open vnto all men; for he is reported to haue beene vtterly ignorant of the Page  55 lawes, and of all good knowledge. Wherefore not long after his decease all the inhabitants of the region gathering their forces togither, slew euerie one of his disciples and false sectaries. Howbeit the nephew of the said apo∣stata was left aliue; who afterward in the same castle endured a whole yeeres siege of his aduersaries, and repelled them, insomuch that they were con∣strained to depart. Yea euen vntill this day he molesteth the people of Hea, and those which inhabite neere vnto him, with continuall warre, liuing vpon robberie and spoile; for which purpose he hath certaine horsemen, which are appointed to watch and to pursue trauellers, sometimes taking cattel, and sometimes men captiues. He hath likewise certaine gunners, who, although trauellers be a good distance off (for the common high way standeth almost a mile from the castle) will put them in great feare. Howbeit all people doe so deadly hate him, that they will not suffer him to till one foote of ground, or to beare any dominion without the said mountaine. This man hath cau∣sed his grandfathers body to be honorably buried in his castle, suffering him to be adored of his people, as if he were a god. Passing by that way vpon a* certain time, I escaped their very bullets narrowly. The life, religion & man∣ners of the foresaid Homar Seijef I perfectly learned by a disciple of his, ha∣uing at large declared the same in a certaine briefe treatise, which I haue written concerning the Mahumetan religion.

Of Igilingigil a towne of Hea.

MOreouer the Africans in olde time built a certaine towne vpon an hill, called by the inhabitants Igilingi∣gil; being distant from Eitdeuet about six miles south∣ward, and containing almost fower hundred families. In this towne are sundry artificers, employing them∣selues onely about things necessarie, to the ende they may make their best gaine & aduantage thereby. Their ground is most fertile for barlie; as likewise they haue great abundance of honie and of oile Arganicke. The passage or way vnto this citie is very narrow, lying onely vpon one side of the hill. And it is so hard and difficult, that horses cannot without great labour and perill goe vpon it. The inhabitants are most valiant people and wel exercised in armes, maintaining continuall warre against the Arabians, and that for the most part with very prosperous successe, by reason of the naturall and strong si∣tuation of the 〈◊〉. A more liberall people then this, you shall hardly find. They generally exercise themselues in making of earthen pots and vessels, which (I thinke) none of their neighhours thereabout can doe.

Page  56

Of Tefethne a port and most famous mart∣towne of Hea.

NEere vnto the Ocean sea standeth a citie, most strong both for situation and building, commonly called Tefethne, be∣ing westward of Ingilingigil about fortie miles. They say that this towne was built by certaine Africans, and that it containeth more then sixe hundred housholds. Here ships of meane burthen may safely harbour themselues; and hither the Portugall merchants resort to buy goats-skins and waxe. Corne-fields they haue none, but onely certaine hils, which yeeld great increase of barlie. Neere vnto this towne runs a certaine riuer, whereinto the ships put themselues in tempe∣stuous weather. The towne-wall is built of white hewen stone and of bricke. They gather their yeerely customes and subsidies; all the whole summe whereof is equally distributed among such citizens as are meete for the warres. In this towne are great plentie of Mahumetan priests and of iudges; howbeit, for the inquirie of murther and such like crimes these iudges haue no authoritie. For if any kinsman of the slaine or wounded partie meeteth* with him that did the fact, he is presently without any iudgement to haue Legem talionis, that is, like for like, inflicted vpon him: but if he escape that, he is banished seuen yeeres out of the citie: at the end of which seuen yeeres the malefactor hauing paide a certaine summe of money to the friends of the wounded or slaine partie, is afterward receiued into fauour, and accoun∣ted among the number of citizens. All the inhabitants of Tefethne are of a most white colour, being so addicted vnto friendship and hospitalitie, that they fauour strangers more then their owne citizens. They haue a most stately and rich hospitall; howbeit those which are there placed may for the most part remaine in citizens houses. My selfe being in companie with the Seriffo or Mahumetan prelate, continued for the space of three daies among this people; which three daies seemed three yeeres vnto me, both for the incredible number of fleas, and also for the most lothsome and intolerable stench of pisse, and of goates dung. For each citizen hath a flocke of goates, which they driue in the day-time to pasture, and at night they house them at home in their owne habitations, yea euen before their chamber-doores.

Of the people called Ideuacal who inhabite the beginning of mount Atlas.

HAuing hitherto made report of al the cities of Hea, which are worthie of memorie, I thought good in this place (to the end that nothing should be wanting in this our discourse, which might delight the reader) to describe the inhabited moun∣taines also. Wherefore the greatest part of the people of Page  57 Headwelleth vpon mountaines, some where of being called Ideuacal (for so are they named) inhabite vpon that part of Atlas, which stretcheth it selfe from the Ocean sea eastward, as farre as Igilingigil; and this ridge of moun∣taines diuideth Hea from Sus. The bredth of this mountaine is three daies iourney. For Tefethne, whereat this mountaine beginneth from the north, is distant from the towne of Messa, where it endeth southward, as farre as I coulde conueniently ride in three daies. Whosoeuer knoweth this region as well as my selfe, can sufficiently beare me witnes, howe it is replenished with inhabitants and countrey-villages. Their ordinary food is barly, goates∣flesh, and hony. Shirts they weare none at all, nor yet any other garments which are sowen togither; for there is no man among them which knoweth how to vse the needle: but such apparell as they haue, hangeth by a knot vpon their shoulders. Their women weare siluer rings vpon their eares, some three, and some more. They haue siluer buttons of so great a scant∣ling, that each one weigheth an ounce, wherewith they fasten their apparell vpon their shoulders, to the end it may not fall off. The nobler and richer sort of people among them weare siluer rings vpon their fingers and legs, but such as are poore weare ringes onely of iron or of copper. There are likewise certaine horses in this region, being so small of stature and so swift, as it is woonderfull. Heere may you finde great plentie of wilde goats, hares, and deere, and yet none of the people are delighted in hunting. Many fountaines are heere to be founde, and great aboundance of trees, but espe∣cially of walnut-trees. The greater part of this people liueth after the Ara∣bians manner, often changing their places of habitation. A kinde of dag∣gers they vse whieh are broad and crooked like a wood-knife; and their swords are as thicke as sithes, wherewith they mowe haie. When they go to the warres they carrie three or fower hunting toiles with them. In al the said mountaine are neither iudges, priestes, nor temples to be founde. So igno∣rant they are of learning, that not one among them either loueth or embra∣ceth the same. They are all most lewd and wicked people, and applie their mindes vnto all kinde of villanie. It was tolde the Seriffo in my presence, that the foresaide mountaine was able to affoord twentie thousand soldiers for a neede.

Of the mountaine called Demensera.

THis mountaine also is a part of Atlas, beginning from the mountaine last before mentioned, and extending it selfe eastward for the space of about fiftie miles, as farre as the mountaine of Nifif in the territorie of Maroco. And it diuideth a good part of Hea from the region of Sus be∣fore named. It aboundeth with inhabitants, which are of a most barbarous and sauage disposition. Horses they haue great plenty: they go to warre of∣tentimes with the Arabians which border vpon them: neither will they per∣mit any of the saide Arabians to come within their dominions. There are Page  58 no townes nor castles vpon all this mountaine: howbeit they haue certaine villages and cottages, wherein the better sort do hide their heads. Great store of noble men or gouernors they haue in all places, vnto whom the re∣sidue are very obedient. Their grounde yeeldeth barly and mill in abun∣dance. They haue euery where many fountaines, which being dispersed ouer the whole prouince, do at length issue into that riuer, which is called in their language Siffaia. Their apparell is somewhat decent: also they possesse* great quantitie of iron, which is from thence transported into other places; and these people are well giuen to thrift and good husbandry. Great num∣bers of Iewes remaine in this region, which liue as stipendarie soldiers vn∣der diuers princes, & are continually in armes; and they are reputed and cal∣led by other Iewes in Africa Carraum, that is to say, heretiques. They haue store of boxe, of mastick, and of high walnut trees. Vnto their Argans (for so they call a kinde of oliues which they haue) they put nuts; out of which two simples they expresse very bitter oile, vsing it for a sauce to some of their meates, and powring it into their lampes. I heard diuers of their princi∣pall men auouch, that they were able to bring into the field siue and twentie thousand most expert soldiers. In my returne from Sus they did me excee∣ding honour, in regard of certaine letters, which I deliuered vnto them from my Lord the Seriffo: and to manifest their good will towardes the said Seriffo, they 〈◊〉 me with most ample gifts and gratuities. This was done in the 920. yeere of the Hegeira, that is to say, in the yeere of our Lord, 1520.

Of the mountaine of Iron, commonly called Gebelelhadih.

THis mountaine is not to be accounted any part of Atlas: for it begin∣neth northward from the Ocean; and southward it extendeth to the riuer of Tensift; and diuideth Hea from Duccala and Maroco. The inhabitants are called Regraga. Vpon this hill are waste deserts, cleere fountaines, and abundance of hony, and of oyle Arganick, but of corne and pulse great scarcitie, vnlesse they make prouision thereof out of Duccala. Few rich men are heere to be founde, but they are all most deuout and reli∣gious after their manner. Vpon the toppe of this mountaine are many Her∣mites, which liue onely vpon the fruits of certaine trees, and drinke water. They are a most faithfull and peaceable nation. Whosoeuer among them is apprehended for theft or any other crime, is foorthwith banished the countrey for certaine yeeres. So great is their simplicitie, that whatsoeuer they see the Hermites do, they esteeme it as a miracle. They are much op∣pressed with the often inuasions of their neighbours the Arabians; where∣fore this quiet nation choose rather to pay yeerely tribute, then to maintaine warre. Against the saide Arabians Mahumet the King of Fez directed his troupes: insomuch that they were constrained to leaue their owne countrey and to flee into the mountaines. But the people of the mountaines being Page  59 aided with Mahumet his forces, vanquished the Arabians; so that three thousand of them were slaine, and fower-score of their horses were brought vnto K. Mahumet. After which prosperous battaile, the said mountainers remained free from all tribute. I my selfe, while these things were a dooing, serued the king. It was in the yeere of the Hegeira 921. that is to say, in the yeere of our Lord 1512. When this people vndertake any warre, they bring commonly into the fielde an armie of twelue thousand men.

Of the region of Sus.

NOw comes the region of Sus to be considered of, being si∣tuate beyond Atlas, ouer against the territorie of Hea, that is to say, in the extreme part of Africa. Westward it beginneth from the Ocean sea, and southward from the sandie deserts: on the north it is bounded with the vtmost towne of Hea; and on the east with that mightie riuer whereof the whole region is named. Wherefore beginning from the west, wee will describe all those cities and places which shall seeme to be woorthy of memorie.

Of the towne of Messa.

THree small townes were built by the ancient Africans vpon the sea shoare (each being a mile distant from other) in that very place where Atlas takes his beginning: all which three are called by one onely name, to wit, Messa, and are enuironed with a wall builte of white stones. Through these three runneth a certaine great riuer called Sus in their lan∣guage: this riuer in sommer is so destitute of water, that a man may easilie without perill passe ouer it on foote; but it is not so in the winter time. They haue then certaine small barkes, which are not meete to saile vpon this ri∣uer. The place where the foresaide three townes are situate, aboundeth greatly with palme trees, neither haue they in a manner any other wealth; and yet their dates are but of small woorth, because they will not last aboue* one yeere. All the inhabitants exercise husbandry, especially in the moneths of September and Aprill; what time their riuer encreaseth. And in May their corne groweth to ripenes. But if in the two foresaide moneths the riuer encreaseth not according to the woonted manner, their haruest is then nothing woorth. Cattell are very scarce among them. Not farre from the sea side they haue a temple, which they greatly esteeme and honour. Out of which, Historiographers say, that the same prophet, of whom their great Mahumet foretold, shoulde proceed. Yea, some there are which sticke not to affirme, that the prophet Ionas was cast foorth by the whale vpon the shoare of Messa, when as he was sent to preach vnto the Niniuites. The rafters* and beames of the saide temple are of whales bone. And it is a vsuall thing amongst them, to see whales of an huge and monstrous bignes cast vp dead Page  60 vpon their shore, which by reason of their hugenes and strange deformitie, may terrifie and astonish the beholders. The common people imagine, that, by reason of a certaine secret power and vertue infused from heauen by God vpon the saide temple, each whale which woulde swim past it can by no meanes escape death. Which opinion had almost perswaded me; especial∣ly when at my being there, I my selfe sawe a mightie whale cast vp: vnlesse a certaine Iewe had tolde me, that it was no such strange matter: for (quoth he) there lie certaine rockes two miles into the sea on either side; and as the sea mooues, so the whales mooue also; and if they chaunce to light vpon a rock, they are easily wounded to death, and so are cast vpon the next shore. This reason more preuailed with me then the opinion of the people. My selfe (I remember) being in this region at the same time when my Lord the Seriffo bare rule ouer it, was inuited by a certaine gentleman, and was by him conducted into a garden: where he shewed me a whales rib of so great* a size, that lying vpon the grounde with the conuexe or bowing side vp∣warde in manner of an arche, it resembled a gate, the hollow or inwarde part whereof aloft we could not touch with our heads, as we rode vpon our camels backs: this rib (he said) had lien there aboue an hundred yeeres, and was kept as a miracle. Here may you finde vpon the sea-shore great store of amber, which the Portugal, & Fessan merchāts fetch from thence for a very* meane price: for they scarcely pay a duckat for a whole ounce of most choise and excellent amber. Amber (as some thinke) is made of whales dung, and (as others suppose) of their Sperma or seede, which being consolidate and hardened by the sea, is cast vpon the next shore.

Of Teijeut an ancient towne of Sus.

TEijeut being (as the report goeth) built by the ancient Afri∣cans in a most pleasant place, is diuided into three partes, whereof each one is almost a mile distant from another, and they all make a triangle or three-square. This Teijeut contai∣neth fower thousand families, and standeth not farre from the riuer of Sus. The soile adiacent is most fruitfull for graine, for barlie, and for all kinde of pulse. They haue here likewise a good quantitie of sugar* growing; howbeit, because they know not how to presse, boyle, and trim it, they cannot haue it but blacke and vnsauourie: wherefore so much as they can spare, they sell vnto the merchants of Maroco, of Fez, and of the land of Negros. Of dates likewise they haue plentie; neither vse they any money besides the gold which is digged out of their owne natiue soile. The women weare vpon their heads a peece of cloth woorth a duckat. Siluer they haue none, but such as their women adorne themselues with. The least iron-coine vsed amongst them, weigheth almost an ounce. No fruites take plentifully vpon their soile, but onely figs, grapes, peaches, and dates. Nei∣ther oile nor oliues are here to be found, except such as are brought from Page  61 certaine mountaines of Maroco. A measure of oile is sold at Sus for fif∣teene duckats; which measure containeth an hundred and fiftie pounds Ita∣lian waight. Their peeces of golde (because they haue no certaine nor pro∣portionable money) doe weigh, seuen of them & one third part, one ounce. Their ounce is all one with the Italian ounce: but their pound containeth eighteene ounces, and is called in their language Rethl, and an hundred Rethl make one such measure of oile as is aforesaid. For carrying of merchandize from place to place, their custome is to pay for a camels load, that is, for 700. pounds of Italiā waight; 3. peeces of gold, especially in the spring time: for in sōmer they pay somtimes 5. & somtimes 6. pieces of gold, as the time requireth. Here is that excellent leather dressed, which is called leather of* Maroco; twelue hides where of are here sold for sixe duckats, and at Fez for eight. That part of this region which lieth toward Atlas hath many villages, townes; and hamlets: but the south part thereof is vtterly destitute of inha∣bitants, and subiect to the Arabians which border vpon it. In the midst of this citie standeth a faire and stately temple, which they call The greatest, and the chiefest, through the very midst whereof they haue caused a part of the foresaid riuer to runne. The inhabitants are sterne and vnciuill, being so continually exercised in warres, that they haue not one day of quiet. Each part of the citie hath a seuerall captaine and gouernour, who all of them to∣gether doe rule the common-wealth: but their authoritie continueth neuer aboue three moneths, which being expired, three other are chosen in their roume. Their apparell is some what like vnto that of the people of Hea: sa∣uing that some of them make their shirtes, and other of their garments of a certaine kinde of white stuffe. A Canna (which is a measure proper to this region, containing two elles) of course cloth is solde for halfe a peece of* gold: but fower and twentie elles of Portugall or Neatherlandish cloth, if it be any thing fine, is vsually sold there for fower peeces of their gold. Like∣wise in this towne are many iudges and priests, which are conuersant onely in matters of religion: but in ciuill matters, he that hath most friends, ob∣taineth greatest fauour. Whensoeuer any one is slaine, all the friends of the slaine partie doe foorthwith conspire to kill the murtherer. Which if they cannot bring to passe, then is the malefactor by open proclamation banish∣ed out of the citie for seuen yeeres, vnlesse he will in despight of all men continually defend himselfe by maine force. They which returne from ex∣ile before the time prefixed, are punished in such manner as we will here∣after declare in place conuenient. But he that returnes after the seuen yeeres are once expired, maketh a feast vnto the Burghmasters, and so is restored againe to his former libertie. In this citie dwell many Iewes, and many no∣table artificers, who are not compelled to pay any yeerely tribute or taxa∣tion at all: except it be some small gratuitie vnto the principall citizens.

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Of Tarodant a towne of Sus.

THE 〈◊〉 of Tarodant built by the ancient Africans, con∣taineth about three thousand housholds. It is distant from Atlas Southward about fower miles, and fiue and thirtie miles Eastward of Teijeut. For the fruitfulnes of the soyle and manners of the people, it is all one with Teijeut; sauing that the towne is somewhat lesser, and the people somewhat more ciuill. For when the family of Marin〈◊〉 at Fez, part of them also inhabited Sus, and in those daies Sus was the seat of the King of 〈◊〉 his. Vice-roy. There is to be 〈◊〉 euen at this present a certaine rocke lying vpon the 〈◊〉, which was there placed by the foresaid king. But the said family of Marin decaying, the inhabitants recouered their former estate. Their gar∣ments are made partly of linnen, and partly of woollen; and they haue ma∣nie artificers of all sorts. All authoritie is committed vnto their noble or principall men; who gouerne fower by fower, sixe moneths onely. They are wholy giuen to peace: neither doe I read, that euer they endamaged any of their neighbours. Betweene this towne and Atlas are many villages and hamlets: but to the south of this towne lye the 〈◊〉 desert. The 〈◊〉 pay large yeerely tribute, to the ende that merchants may haue safe and secure passage to and fro. This towne in our time waged warre against the Arabians: which, that they might the more prosperously bring to 〈◊〉, they yeelded themselues vnto 〈◊〉 Lord the Seriffo; in the yeere of the Hegeira 920. which was in the yeere of our Lord 1511.

Of the castle of Gartguessem.

THE castle of Gartguessem is built vpon the top of Atlas in a most* impregnable place, oueragainst that part of the Ocean whereinto the riuer of Sus dischargeth his streames: the soyle is most profita∣ble and fruitfull. This place about twentie yeeres sithens the Portugals sur∣prised; which caused the inhabitants of Hea and Sus foorth with to arme themselues, to the end they might recouer the castle by maine force, which was by force taken from them. Wherfore leuying a mightie army as wel of home-bornes, as of strangers; they chose for their Captaine a certaine Ma∣humetan 〈◊〉, being a man descended of the family of Mahumet; and so besieged the castle. But they had vnhappie successe in this their enter∣prise; for they which came to the siege, seeing that they could not preuaile; and that so many of their companie were slaine, left the castle, and returned home. Except some few which remained with the Seriffo, to the end they might maintaine warre against the Christians, euen till the last hower. The inhabitants of Sus not being desirous to liue in warfare, allowed the Seriffo money for the maintenance of fiue hundred horses. Who hauing with Page  63 his money hyred a great number of souldiers, and growing famous ouer all the region, at last vsurped the gouernment thereof. This I know for a cer∣taintie, that the Seriffo, when I came from his court, had aboue three thou∣sand horsemen; and such numbers of footemen and summes of money, as were almost innumerable.

Of Tedsi a towne of Sus.

TEdsi being a very great towne, and built many yeeres agoe in a most pleasant and fertile place by the Africans, containeth moe then fower thousand families: it is distant from Tarodant Eastward thirtie miles, from the Ocean sea sixtie miles, and from Atlas twentie. Heere groweth* great abundance of corne, of sugar, and of wilde woad. You shall finde in this citie many merchants, which come out of the lande of Negros for tra∣fiques sake. The citizens are great louers of peace & of all ciuilitie: and they haue a flourishing common-wealth. The whole citie is gouerned by sixe Magistrates which are chosen by lots: howbeit their gouernment lasteth for sixteene moneths onely. The riuer of Sus is distant three miles from hence. Here dwell many Iewes, which are most cunning goldsmiths, carpenters, and such like artificers. They haue a verie stately temple and many priests and doctors of the lawe, which are maintained at the publike charge. Euery munday great numbers of Arabians both of the plaines and of the moun∣taines come hither to market. In the yeere of the Hegeira 920. this citie of their owne accord yeelded themselues into the hands of the Seriffo: and here the common councell of the whole region was established.

Of the citie of Tagauost.

IN all Sus there is no citie comparable vnto that which is commonly called Tagauost: for it containeth aboue eight thousand housholdes: the wall thereof is builte of rough stones. From the Ocean it is distant about threescore miles, and about fiftie miles southward of Atlas: and the report is, that the Africans built this citie. About ten miles from this place lieth the riuer of Sus: here are great store of artificers and of shops: and the people of Tagauost are diuided into three parts. They haue continuall ciuill wars among themselues, and one part haue the Arabians alwaies on their side; who for better pay will take parte sometime with one side, and sometime with the contrarie. Of corne and cattell heere is great abundance; but their wooll is exceeding course. In this citie are made certaine kindes of appa∣rell, which are vsually carried for merchandize once a yeere to Tombuto, to Gualata, and to other places in the lande of Negros. Their market is twise euery weeke: their attire is somewhat decent and comely: their women are beautifull; but their men are of a tawnie and swart colour, by reason they are Page  64 descended of blacke fathers and white mothers. In this citie such carrie the greatest authoritie and credit, as are accounted the richest and the migh∣tiest. I my selfe remained heere thirteene daies with the Seriffo his 〈◊〉 chancellour, who went thither of purpose to buie certaine 〈◊〉 for his Lord, in the yeere of the Hegeira 919. which was in the yeere of our Lord, 1510.

Of the mountaine of Hanchisa.

THis mountaine beginneth westward from Atlas, and from thence stretcheth almost fortie miles eastward. At the foote of this moun∣taine standeth Messa, with the residue of the region of Sus. The inha∣bitants of this mountaine are such valiant footmen, that one of them will en∣counter two horsemen. The soile will yeeld no corne at all but barly; 〈◊〉 hony there is in great abundance. With snowe they are almost at all times troubled: but how patiently and strongly they can endure the colde, a man may easily gesse, for that the whole yeere throughout they weare one single garment onely. This people my Lord the Seriffo attempted often to bring vnder his subiection: howbeit he hath not as yet preuailed against them.

Of the mountaine of Ilalem.

THis mountaine beginneth westward from the mountaine aforesaid; on the east it abutteth vpon the region of Guzula, and southward vp∣on the plaines of Sus. The inhabitants are valiant, hauing great store of hor∣ses. They are at continuall warre among themselues, for certaine siluer* mines: so that those which haue the better hande digge as much siluer as they can, and distribute to euery man his portion, vntill such time as they be restrained from digging by others.

The situation and estate of the region of Maroco.

THis region beginneth westward from the mountaine of Nefisa, stret∣ching eastward to the mountaine of Hadimei, and northward euen to that place where the most famous riuers of Tensift and Asfinual meete to∣gither, that is to say, vpon the east border of Hea. This region is in a man∣ner three square, being a most pleasant countrey, and abounding with many droues and flockes of cattell: it is greene euery where, and most fertile of all things, which serue for foode, or which delight the senses of smelling or seeing. It is altogither a plaine countrey, not much vnlike to Lombardie. The mountaines in this region are most colde and barren, insomuch that they will bring foorth nought but barly. Wherefore (according to our for∣mer order) beginning at the west part of this region, we will proceed in our description eastward.

Page  65

Of Elgihumuha a towne of Maroco.

VPon that plaine which is about seuen miles distant from At∣las, and not farre from the riuer of Sesseua, standeth a towne called by the inhabitants Elgihumuha, which was built, as they suppose, by the Africans. A while after it was brought vnder the subiection of certaine Arabians, about that verie time when the family of Muachidin aforesaid began to reuolt from the kingdome. And at this day the ruines and reliques of this towne can scarce be seene. The Arabians which now dwel thereabout do sow so much ground onely, as to supply their owne necessities; and the residue they let lye vntil∣led and fruitles. Howbeit when the countrey thereabout was in flourishing estate, the inhabitants payed yeerely vnto the Prince for tribute 100000. ducates: and then this towne contained aboue sixe thousand families. Tra∣uelling that way I was most friendly entertained by a certaine Arabian, and had good experience of the peoples liberality: sauing that I heard of some, that they were most trecherous and deceitfull.

Of the castle of Imegiagen.

THe castle of Imegiagen is built vpon the top of a certaine hil of Atlas, being so fortified by naturall situation, that it neither hath nor needeth any wall. It standeth southward of Elgihumuha (as I take it) 25. miles. This castle was in times past vnder the iurisdiction of the noble men of that region, vntill such time as it was taken by one Homar Essuef an apostata from the Mahumetan religion, as we will afterward declare. The said Homar* vsed such monstrous tyrannie in that place, that neither children, nor wo∣men big with childe could escape his crueltie; insomuch that he caused the vnborne infants to bee ripped out of their mothers wombes, and to be murthered. This was done in the yeere of the Hegeira 900, and so that place remained destitute of inhabitants In the yeere 920. of the Hegeira the said region began to be inhabited anew: howbeit now there can but one side of the mountaine onely be tilled, for the plaine vnderneath is so dangerous, both by reason of the daily incursions of the Arabians, and also of the Por∣tugals, that no man dare trauell that way.

Of the towne of Tenessa.

VPon a certaine hill of Atlas named Ghedmin standeth a towne, which was built (as some report) by the ancient Africans, and called by the name of Tenessa; being a most strong and defensible place, and being distant about eight miles eastward from the riuer of Asifinuall. At the foote of the said hill lieth a most excellent plaine, which, were it not for the lewd 〈◊〉Page  66 Arabians, would yeeld an incomparable crop. And because the inhabi∣tants of Tenessa are depriued of this 〈◊〉 commoditie, they till onely that ground which is vpon the side of the mountaine, and which lieth be∣tweene the towne and the riuer. Neither doe they enioy that gratis; for they yeerely pay vnto the Arabians for tribute the third part of their corne.

Of the new towne of Delgumuha.

VPon the top of a certaine high mountaine was built in our time a most large and impregnable forte, being enuironed on all sides with diuers other mountaines, and called by the inhabitants New Delgumuha. Beneath the said mountaine springeth Asifinuall, which word signifieth in the Afri∣can toong, the riuer of rumor, because that breaking foorth by the side of the hill with a monstrous noise, it maketh a most deepe gulfe, much like vn∣to that, which the Italians call Inferno di Tivoli. The said forte containeth almost a thousand families. It was sometime gouerned by a certaine tyrant, which came thither out of the king of Maroco his court. Here may you finde great store of soldiers both horsemen and fooremen. They gather yeerely tribute of the people bordering vpon Atlas, to the summe of a thou∣sand crownes. They haue alwaies had great league and familiaritie with the Arabians, each of whom haue accustomed to salute and gratifie the other with mutuall gifts: for which cause they haue oftentimes much prouoked the kings of Maroco against them. They haue alwaies beene great louers of ciuilitie, and haue worne neat and decent apparell; neither shall you find any corner in the whole towne which is not well peopled. In this towne are plentie of artificers, for it is but fiftie miles from the citie of Maroco. Vpon the said mountaine there are great store of gardens and orchards; which yeeld the inhabitants abundancè offruit yeerely. They reape likewise barlie, hempe, and cotton; and their goates are almost innumerable. Likewise they haue many priests and iudges: but as touching their mindes, they are igno∣rant, froward, and exceedingly addicted to ielousie. In this towne I aboad certaine daies with a kinsman of mine, who while he dwelt at Fez being im∣pouerished with extreme studie of Alchimie, was constrained to flee vnto this towne, where in processe of time he became Secretarie vnto the gouer∣nour.

Of the citie of Imizmizi.

VPon a certaine part of Atlas standeth a citie called Imizmizi. West∣ward it is distant from new Delgumuha about fourteene miles: and this citie the Arabians are reported to haue built. Neere vnto this citie lieth the common high way to Guzula ouer the mountaines of Atlas, being commonly called Burris, that is, A way strowed with feathers: because snow falles often thereupon, which a man would thinke rather to be feathers then snow. Not far from this towne likewise there is a very faire and large plaine, Page  67 which extendeth for the space of thirtie miles, euen to the territorie of Ma∣roco. This most fertile plaine yeeldeth such excellent corne, as (to my re∣membrance) I neuer saw the like. Sauing that the Arabians and soldiers of Maroco doe so much molest the said plaine countrie, that the greater part thereof is destitute of inhabitants: yea, I haue heard of many citizens that haue forsaken the citie it selfe; thinking it better to depart, then to be daily oppressed with so many inconueniences. They haue very little money, but the scarcitie thereof is recompenced by their abundance of good ground, and their plentie of corne. In the time of my aboad with them I went vnto a certaine Hermite, which they called*Sidi Canon: which famous and woor∣thie man gaue me such friendly entertainment, as I cannot easily expresse.

Of the three townes of Tumelgast.

THese three townes called by the name of Tumelgast are situate vpon a plaine, about thirtie miles from Maroco, and fourteene miles north∣ward of Atlas, being replenished with palme-trees, vines, and all other trees that beare fruit. Their fields are very large and fertill, were they not conti∣nually wasted by the lewd Arabians. So few are the inhabitants of these three townes, that I thinke there are not in all aboue fifteene families, all which are ioined in affinitie and kinred vnto the foresaid hermite: for which cause they are permitted to till some part of that plaine, without paying of any tribute vnto the Arabians. Saue onely, that they entertaine the Arabians when they trauell that way. Their lowly and base habitations a man would take rather to be hogs-cotes, then dwelling places for men: hence it is, that they are so continually vexed with fleas, gnats, and other such vermine. Their wa∣ter is exceeding salt. This prouince also I perused in the companie of my deere friend Sidi 〈◊〉, who went thither to gather vp the tribute of the coun∣trie on the behalfe of the king of Portugall. This Sidi was appointed gouer∣nour ouer all that circuit which is called by them Azafi.

Of the towne of Tesrast.

THis towne is situate vpon the banke of the riuer Asifelmel. It standeth westward of Maroco fourteen miles, & about twētie miles from Atlas. Round about this towne they haue diuers gardens & enclosures abounding with dates and corne; and the chiefe part of the inhabitants earne their li∣uing with gardening. Howbeit sometimes the increase of their riuer is so great, that it drowneth all their gardens and corne-fields. And they are by so much the more miserable, in regard that the Arabians all summer-time doe possesse the whole region, deuouring all things which the poore husband∣men by their great care and industrie had prouided. With these people I made no longer tarrying but onely till I could haue well baited my horse: howbeit in that short time I hardly escaped with life and goods, from certain Arabian theeues.

Page  68

A most exact description of the great and famous citie of Maroco.

THis noble citie of Maroco in Africa is accounted to be one of the greatest cities in the whole world. It is built vpon a most large field, being about fourteene miles distant from Atlas. One Ioseph the sonne of*Tesfin, and king of the tribe or people called Luntuna, is reported to haue beene the founder of this citie, at that very time when he conducted his troupes into the region of Maroco, and setled himselfe not farre from the common high way, which stretcheth from Agmet ouer the mountaines of Atlas, to those deserts where the foresaid tribe or people doe vsually inhabite. Here may you behold most stately and woonderfull workmanship: for all their buil∣dings are so cunningly and artificially contriued, that a man cannot easily describe the same. This huge and mighty citie, at such time as it was gouer∣ned by Hali the sonne of king Ioseph, contained moe then 100000. families.* It had fower and twenty gates belonging thereto, and a wall of great strength and thicknes, which was built of white stone and lime. From this citie the riuer of Tensift lieth about sixe miles distant. Here may you behold great abundance of temples, of colleges, of bath-stoues, and of innes, all framed after the fashion and custome of that region. Some were built by the king of the tribe of Luntuna, and others by Elmunchidin his successor: but the most curious and magnificent temple of all, is that in the midst of the citie which was built by Hali the first king of Maroco, and the son of Ioseph afore∣said, being commonly called the temple of Hali ben Ioseph. Howbeit one Abdul-Mumen which succeeded him, to the ende he might vtterly abo∣lish the name of Hali, and might make himselfe onely famous with posteri∣tie, caused this stately temple of Maroco to be razed, and to bee reedified somewhat more sumptuously then before. Howbeit he lost not onely his expences, but failed of his purpose also: for the common people euen till this day doe call the said Temple by the first and auncientest name. Likewise in this citie not farre from a certaine rocke was built a Tem∣ple by him that was the seconde vsurper ouer the kingdome of Maro∣co:* after whose death his nephew Mansor enlarged the saide Temple fiftie cubites on all sides, and adorned the same with manye pillars, which he commanded to be brought out of Spaine for that purpose. Vnder this temple he made a cesterne or vault as bigge as the temple it selfe: the roofe of the saide temple he couered with lead: and at euery corner he made leaden pipes to conueigh raine water into the cesterne vnderneath the tem∣ple. The turret or steeple is built of most hard and well framed stone, like vn∣to Vespasian his Amphitheatrum at Rome, containing in compasse moe then an hundreth elles, and in height exceeding the steeple of Bononia. The Page  69 staires of the said turret or steeple are each of them nine handfuls in bredth, the vtmost side of the wall is ten, and * the thicknes of the turret is fiue. The saide turret hath seauen lofts, vnto which the staires ascending are very lightsome: for there are great store of windowes, which to the ende they may giue more light, are made broader within then without. Vpon the top of this turret is built a certaine spire or pinnacle rising sharpe in forme of a sugar-loafe, and containing fiue and twentie elles in compasse, but in height being not much more then two speares length: the saide spire hath three lofts one aboue another, vnto euerie of which they ascend with woodden ladders. Likewise on the top of this spire standeth a golden halfe moone, vpon a barre of iron, with three spheares of golde vnder it; which golden spheares are so fastened vnto the saide iron barre, that the greatest is lowest, and the least highest. It woulde make a man giddie to looke downe from the top of the turret; for men walking on the grounde, be they neuer so tall, seeme no bigger then a childe of one yeere old. From hence likewise may you plainly escrie the promontorie of Azaphi, which notwithstanding is an hundreth and thirtie miles distant. But mountaines (you will say) by rea∣son of their huge bignes may easily be seene a farre off: howbeit from this turret a man may in cleere weather most easily see fiftie miles into the plaine countries. The inner part of the saide temple is not very beautifull. But the roofe is most cunningly and artificially vaulted, the timbers being fra∣med and set togither with singular workmanship, so that I haue not seene many fairer temples in all Italy. And albeit you shall hardly finde any temple in the whole worlde greater then this, yet is it very meanly frequen∣ted; for the people do neuer assemble there but onely vpon fridaies. Yea a great part of this citie, especially about the foresaid temple lieth so desolate and void of inhabitants, that a man cannot without great difficultie passe, by reason of the ruines of many houses lying in the way. Vnder the porch* of this temple it is reported that in old time there were almost an hundreth shops of sale-bookes, and as many on the other side ouer against them: but at this time I thinke there is not one booke-seller in all the whole citie to be founde. And scarcely is the third part of this citie inhabited. Within the wals of Maroco are vines, palme-trees, great gardens, and most fruitefull corne-fields: for without their wals they can till no ground, by reason of the Arabians often inrodes. Know yee this for a certaintie, that the saide citie is growen to vntimely decay and old age: for scarcely fiue hundreth & sixe yeeres are past, since the first building thereof, forasmuch as the foundations thereof were laide in the time of Ioseph the sonne of Tesfin, that is to say, in the 424. yeere of the Hegeira. Which decay I can impute to none other cause, but to the iniurie of continuall warres, and to the often alterations of magistrates and of the common wealth. After king Ioseph succeeded his sonne Hali, and the sonne of Hali was ordained gouernour after his fathers decease. In whose time sprung vp a factious crue, by the meanes of a certaine Mahumetan preacher named Elmaheli, being a man both borne & brought Page  70 vp in the mountaines. The saide Elmaheli hauing leuied a great army, wa∣ged warre against Abraham his soueraigne Lord. Whereupon king Abra∣ham conducting another armie against him, had marueilous ill successe: and after the battaile ended, his passage into the citie of Maroco was so stop∣ped and restrained, that he was forced with a fewe soldiers, which remained yet aliue, to flee eastward to the mountains of Atlas. But Elmaheli not be∣ing satisfied with expelling his true soueraigne out of his owne kingdome, commaunded one of his captaines called Abdul Mumen, with the one halfe of his armie to pursue the distressed king, while himselfe with the other halfe laide siege to Maroco. The king with his followers came at length vn∣to Oran, hoping there to haue renued his forces. But Abdul Mumen and his great armie pursued the saide king so narrowly, that the citizens of Oran told him in plaine termes, that they would not hazard themselues for him. Wherefore this vnhappie king beeing vtterly driuen to dispayre, set his Queene on horsebacke behinde him, and so in the night time road foorth of the citie. But perceiuing that he was descried and knowen by his eni∣mies, he fled foorthwith vnto a certaine rocke standing vpon the sea-shore:* where, setting spurs to his horse-side, he cast himselfe, his most deere spouse, and his horse downe headlong, and was within a while after found slaine among the rockes and stones, by certaine which dwelt neere vnto the place. Wherefore Abdul Mumen hauing gotten the victorie, returned in triumphant manner toward Maroco, where the foresaide Elmaheli was de∣ceased before his comming, in whose place Abdul was chosen King and Mahumetan prelate ouer the fortie disciples, and tooke tenne persons to be of his priuie councell, which was a new inuention in the law of Mahumet. This Abdul Mumen hauing besieged the citie of Maroco for the space of an whole yeere, at last ouercame it: and killing Isaac the onely sonne of King Abraham with his owne hand, he commaunded all the soldiers, and a good part of the citizens to be slaine. This mans posteritie raigned from the fiue hundred sixteenth, to the sixe hundred sixtie eight yeere of the He∣geira, and at length they were dispossessed of the kingdome by a certaine king of the Tribe called Marin. Now, attend (I beseech you) and marke, what changes and alterations of estates befell afterwards. The family of Marin after the said kings decease bare rule till the yeere of the Hegeira 785. At length the kingdome of Maroco decreasing dayly more and more, was gouerned by kings which came out of the next mountaine. Howbeit, neuer had Maroco any gouernours which did so tyrannize ouer it, as they of the family called 〈◊〉. The principall court of this family was holden for the most part at Fez; but ouer Maroco were appointed Vice-royes and deputies: insomuch that Fez was continually the head and Metropolitan citie of all Mauritania, and of all the Western dominion: euen as (God willing) we will declare more at large in our briefe treatise concerning the law and religion of Mahumet. But now hauing made a sufficient digression, let vs resume the matter subiect where we left. In the said citie of Maroco is Page  71 a most impregnable castle, which, if you consider the bignes, the walles, the towers, and the gates built all of perfect marble, you may well thinke to be a citie rather then a castle. Within this castle there is a stately temple, 〈◊〉 a most 〈◊〉 and high steeple, on the top where of standeth an halfe moone, 〈◊〉 vnder the halfe moone are three golden spheares one bigger then ano∣ther, which all of them togither weigh 130000. ducates. Some kings there* were, who being allured with the value, went about to take downe the saide golden sphears: but they had alwaies some great misfortune or other, which hindered their attempt: insomuch that the common people thinke it verie dangerous, if a man doth but offer to touch the said sphears with his hand. Some affirme that they are there placed by so forcible an influence of the planets, that they cannot be remooued from thence by any cunning or 〈◊〉. Some others report that a certaine spirite is adiured by 〈◊〉-magique; to defend those sphears from al assaults and iniuries whatsoeuer. In our time the king of Maroco neglecting the vulgar opinion, would haue taken down the said sphears, to vse them for treasure against the Portugals, who as then prepared themselues to battell against him. Howbeit his counsellours would not suffer him so to doe, for that they esteemed them as the princi∣pall monuments of all Maroco. I remember that I read in a certaine histo∣riographer, that the wife of King Mansor, to the ende she might be famous in time to come, caused those three sphears to be made of the princely and pretious iewels which her husband Mansor bestowed vpon her, and to be placed vpon the temple which he built. Likewise the said castle containeth a most noble college, which hath thirtie hals belonging thereunto. In the* midst whereof is one hall of a maruellous greatnes, wherein publique 〈◊〉 were most solemnely read, while the studie of learning flourished among them. Such as were admitted into this college had their victuals and 〈◊〉 freely giuen them. Of their professours some were yeerely al∣lowed an hundred, and some two hundred ducates, according to the quali∣tie of their profession: neither would they admit any to heare them read, but such as perfectly vnderstood what belonged to those Arts which they professed. The walles of this 〈◊〉 hall are most stately adorned with painting and caruing, especially of 〈◊〉 hall where lectures were woont publiquely to be read. All their porches and vaulted roofes are made of painted and glittering stones, called in their language 〈◊〉, such as are yet vsed in Spaine. In the midst of the said building is a most pleasant and cleare fountaine, the wall whereof is of white and polished 〈◊〉, albeit low-built, as in Africa for the most 〈◊〉 such wals are. I haue heard that in old time here was great abundance of students, but at my beeing there I found but fiue in all: and they haue now a most 〈◊〉 professour, and one that is quite voide of all humanitie.

In the time of mine abode at Maroco I grew 〈◊◊〉 acquaintance with a certaine Iewe, who 〈◊〉 his skill in the law was but meane, was 〈◊〉 exceeding rich and well 〈◊〉 in histories. This Iewe in re∣gard Page  72 of many singular duties which he performed to his prince, found the kings bountie and liberalitie extended vnto him. All others which beare any publike office are (in mine opinion) men of no high reach. Moreouer the foresaide castell (as I remember) hath twelue courts most curiously and artificially built by one Mansor. In the first lodged about fiue hundreth Christians, which carried crosse-bowes before the king whither soeuer he went. Not farre from thence is the lodging of the Lord Chancellour and of the kings priuie counsell, which house is called by them, The house of af∣faires. The third is called The court of victorie; wherein all the armour and munition of the citie is laide vp. The fourth belongeth to the great Master of the kings horse. Vpon this court three stables adioine, each one of which stables will containe two hundreth horses. Likewise there are two other 〈◊〉, wherof one is for mules, and the other for an hundreth of the kings horses onely. Next vnto the stables were two barnes or garners adioining, in two seuerall places, in the lower of which barnes was laide straw, and barly in the other. There is also another most large place to laye vp corne in, euerie roume whereof will containe moe then three hundreth bushels. The couer of the saide roume hath a certaine hole whereunto they ascend by staires made of stone. Whither the beasts laden with corne being come, they powre the saide corne into the hole. And so when they woulde take any corne from thence, they do but open certaine holes below, suffring so much corne to come foorth as may serue their turnes, and that without any labour at all. There is likewise a certaine other hall, where the kings sonne, and the sonnes of noble men are instructed in learning. Then may you be∣holde a certaine fower-square building, containing diuers galleries with faire glasse windowes, in which galleries are many histories most curiously painted: heere likewise the glittering and gilt armour is to be seene. Next vnto this building is another, wherein certaine of the kings guard are lod∣ged: then followes that wherein state-matters are discussed: whereunto ad∣ioineth also another, which is appointed for ambassadours to conferre with the kings priuie counsell in. Likewise the kings concubines and other la∣dies of honour haue a most conuenient place assigned them: next vnto which standeth the lodging of the kings sonnes. Not farre from the castell wall, on that side which is next vnto the fields, may you behold a most plea∣sant and large garden, containing almost all kinde of trees that can be na∣med. Moreouer, there is a sumptuous and stately porch built of most ex∣cellent square marble: in the midst whereof standeth a piller with a lion very artificially made of marble, out of the mouth of which lion issueth most cleere and christall water, falling into a cesterne within the porch: at each corner of the saide porch standeth the image of a leopard framed of* white marble, which is naturally adorned with certaine blacke spots: this kinde of particoloured marble is no where to be founde but onely in a cer∣taine place of Atlas, which is about an hundreth & fiftie miles distant from Maroco. Not farre from the garden stands a certaine woode or parke wal∣led Page  73 round about: And here I thinke no kinde of wilde beasts are wanting: for heere you may behold elephants, lions, stagges, roes, and such like: how∣beit the lions are separated in a certaine place from other beasts, which place euen to this day is called The lions den. Wherefore such monuments of antiquity as are yet extant in Maroco, albeit they are but few, do not with∣standing sufficiently argue, what a noble citie it was in the time of Mansor.* At this present al the courts and lodgings before described lie vtterly voide and desolate: except perhaps some of the kings ostlery which tend his mules and horses do lie in that court, which we saide euen now was to lodge ar∣chers and crossebowe-men: all the residue are left for the fowles of the aire to nestle in. That garden which you might haue named a paradise in olde time, is now become a place where the filth and dung of the whole citie is cast foorth. Where the faire and stately librarie was of old, at this present there is nothing else to be founde, but hens, dooues, and other such like foules, which builde their nests there. Certaine it is, that the foresaid Man∣sor, whom we haue so often mentioned, was a most puissant and mightie prince: for it is well knowen that his dominion stretched from the towne of Messa to the kingdome of Tripolis in Barbary, which is the most excellent region of Africa, and so large, that a man can hardly trauell the length* therof in fourescore & ten daies, or the bredth in fifteene. This Mansor like∣wise was in times past Lord of all the kingdome of Granada in Spaine. Yea, his dominion in Spaine extended from Tariffa to Aragon, & ouer a great part of Castilia and of Portugall. Neither did this Iacob surnamed Mansor only possesse the foresaid dominiōs, but also his grandfather Abdul Mumen, his father Ioseph, & his sonne Mahumet Enasir, who being vanquished in the kingdome of Valençia, lost 60000. soldiers horsemen & footemen: howbeit himselfe escaped & returned to Maroco. The Christians being encouraged* with this victorie, refrained not from warre, till, within 30. yeeres space, they had woon all the townes following, to wit, Valençia, Denia, Alcauro, Mur∣cia, Cartagena, Cordoua, Siuillia, Iaen, and Vbeda. After which vnhappie warre succeeded the decay of Maroco. The said Mahumet deceasing, left behinde him ten sonnes of a full and perfect age, who contended much about the kingdome. Hereupon it came to passe, while the brethren were at discord, and assailed each other with mutuall warres, that the people of Fez called Marini, and the inhabitants of other regions adiacent, began to vsurpe the gouernment. The people called Habdulvad enioyed Tremizen, expel∣ling the king of Tunis, and ordaining some other, whom they pleased, in his stead. Now haue you heard the end of Mansor his progenie and successors. The kingdome therefore was translated vnto one Iacob the sonne of Habdu∣lach, who was the first king of the familie called Marin. And at length the famous citie of Maroco it selfe, by reason of the Arabians continuall out∣rages, fell into most extreme calamitie: so great is the inconstancie of all earthly things. That which we haue here reported as touching Maroco, partly we saw with our owne eies, partly we read in the historie of one Ibnu*Page  74〈◊〉 Malich, a most exact chronicler of the affaires of Maroco, and* partly we borrowed out of that treatise, which our selues haue written con∣cerning the law of Mahumet.

Of the towne of Agmet.

THE towne of Agmet built of old by the Africans vpon the top of a certaine hill which beginneth almost from Atlas, is distant from Ma∣roco about fower and twentie miles. In times past, when Muachidin was prince thereof, it contained moe then sixe thousand families: at what time the people were very ciuill, and had such plentie and magnificence of all things, that many would not sticke to compare this towne with the citie of Maroco. It had on all sides most 〈◊〉 gardens, and great store of vines, whereof 〈◊〉 grew vpon the mountaine it selfe, and others on the valley. By the foote of this hill runneth a faire riuer, which springing foorth of Atlas, falleth at length into Tensift. The field which lieth neere vnto this riuer is said to be so fruitfull, that it yeeldeth euery yeere fiftie fold encrease. The water of this riuer looketh alwaies white; albeit if a man stedfastly be∣hold the said riuer, it may seeme vnto him in colour to resemble the soile of Narnia, or the riuer Niger of Vmbria in Italie. And 〈◊〉 there are which* affirme, that the very same riuer runneth vnder ground to Maroco, and not to breake foorth of the earth, till it come to a certaine place very neere vnto the said citie. 〈◊〉 princes in times past, being desirous to know the hidden and intricate passages of the said riuer, sent certaine persons into the hollow caue, who the better to discerne the same, carried candles and torches with them. But hauing proceeded a little way vnder ground, there met them such a flaw of winde, that blew out their lights, and perforce draue them backe to the great hazard of their liues, so that they said they neuer felt the like. They affirme likewise, that, the riuer being full of rocks, which the water driueth to and fro, and by reason of the manifold chanels and streames, their passage was altogether hindred. Wherefore that secret remaineth vnknowne euen till this day, neither is there any man so hardie as to attempt the same enterprise againe. I remember that I read in some histories, that king Ioseph which built Maroco, being forewarned by the coniecture of a certaine astrologer, that the whole region should perpetually be vexed with warre, prouided by arte-magique, that the passage of this riuer should alwaies bee vnknowen: least, if any enimie should afterward practise 〈◊〉, he might cut off the course thereof from the saide citie. Neere vnto this riuer lies the common high way, which crosseth ouer mount Atlas to Guzula are∣gion* of Maroco. Howbeit the citie of Agmet, which I haue now described vnto you. hath at this day no other inhabitants but woolues, foxes, deere, and such other wilde beasts. Except onely at my being there I found a certaine Hermite, who was attended vpon by an hundred persons of his owne sect: all of them were well-horsed, and did their best endeuour to become gouer∣nours Page  75 and commanders, but their forces were insufficient. With this Her∣mite I staide (as I remember) for the space of tenne daies, and founde one amongst his followers, with whom I had old 〈◊〉, and familiaritie:* for we were certaine yeeres fellow-students together at Fez, where being of one standing and seniority, we heard that booke of the Mahumetan religion expounded, which is commonly called the epistle of Nensefi.

Of the towne of Hannimei.

VPon that side of Atlas which lieth towards the plaine countrey, stan∣deth a certain towne called by the inhabitants Hannimei, being about 40. miles eastward of Maroco: by which towne, on the same side of Atlas, li∣eth the direct way to Fez. From the said towne the riuer of Agmet is almost fifteene miles distant: and the fielde lying betweene the saide riuer and towne is a most fruitefull soile, like vnto the fielde adioining vpon the citie of Agmet before mentioned. All the region betweene Maroco and the* foresaid riuer is in subiection vnto the gouernour of Maroco, but from the riuer vnto Hannimei the townes-men of Hannimei beare rule. This towne had a famous yoong captaine, who maintained continuall warre against the gouernor of Maroco, and somtimes against the Arabians also. He had like∣wise a most ample dominion vpon the mountaines of Atlas: by naturall disposition he was right liberal & valiant, and hauing scarce attained to sixe∣teene yeeres of age, he slue his owne vncle, and vsurped his gouernment. Whereof so soone as the Arabians had intelligence, ioining three hundreth Christian horsemen, which came out of Portugale, vnto their great forces, they marched on the sodaine euen to the very gates of the towne. And the foresaide captaine with his armie containing scarce an hundreth horsemen, with a very fewe footemen met the Arabians, and gaue them such a valiant onset, that the greater part of them was slaine, and the Christians were so discomfited, that (as I suppose) not one of them returned home into Por∣tugale: which (they say) came to passe, both by reason that the Christians were ignorant of the place, and vnskilfull of the Africans manner of war∣fare. These things were done in the 920. yeere of the Hegeira, and in the yeere of our Lorde 1511. Afterward being wearied by the king of Fez his warres (which king demaunded tribute of the townes men of Hannimei) he was slaine with a bullet: whereupon the towne remained tributarie to the king of Fez. Yea, the deceased captaines wife deliuered as prisoners certaine burgesses of the towne vnto the king himselfe. And the king so soone as he had placed a lieutenant ouer Hannimei, departed from the same towne in the 921. yeere of the Hegeira, and in the yeere of our Lord 1512.

Page  76

Of the mountaine of Nififa.

HAuing before described all the cities and townes of Maroco, it now remaineth that we briefly declare the situation and qualitie of the mountaines there. Wherefore we will begin with the mountaine of Nififa, from whence the region of Maroco it selfe beginneth westward, and is thereby diuided from the prouince of Hea. The said mountaine hath great store of inhabi∣tants: and albeit the tops thereof are continually couered with snowe; yet doth it yeerely affoorde marueilous increase and abundance of barley. The rude people there are so destitute of all humanitie and ciuill behauiour, that they do admire not onely all strangers, but also do euen gaze and woonder at their apparell. I my selfe remained two daies among them, in which space all the people of the towne came flocking about me, greatly woondring at the white garment which I wore (being such as the learned men of our coun∣trey are vsually clad in) so that euery one being desirous to handle and view this garment of mine, in two daies it was turned from white to blacke, and became all greasie and filthie. Here one of the townes-men being allured with the strangenes and noueltie of my sworde, which I bought at Fez for halfe a ducate, woulde neuer leaue intreating of me, till I had exchanged it with him for an horse, which cost (as himselfe affirmed) aboue ten ducates. The reason of which fonde and childish behauiour I thinke to be, because they neuer trauaile vnto Fez nor to any other cities. And were they neuer so desirous to trauaile, yet dare they not aduenture vpon the common high waies, in regard of the great number of robbers and theeues. Of honie, goates, and oile Arganick they haue woonderfull store: for in this moun∣taine beginneth the saide oile to be put in vse.

Of the mountaine called Semede.

AT the bounds of Nififa a certaine other mountaine called by the inhabitants Semede taketh his originall: and these two mountaines are separated by the riuer of Sefsaua. Semede extendeth eastward almost 20. miles, the inhabitants where∣of are most base & witlesse people. Great store of springs & fountaines are here to be found; the snowe is perpetuall; all good lawes, ciuilitie, and honestie are quite banished from hence, except perhaps the people be mooued thereunto by the aduise of some stranger, whom they finde to be of a modest and sober disposition. Here being entertained by a certaine religious man of the same place (who was had in great reputation by the people) I was constrained to eate of such grosse meats as the saide people are accustomed vnto, to wit, of barlie meale mingled with water, and of goats-flesh, which was extremely tough and hard by reason of the stale∣nes Page  77 and long continuance. After supper we had no other bed but the bare ground to lie vpon. The next morning being ready to take horse, and desi∣rous to depart, fiftie of the people came about me, laying open each man their causes and suites vnto me, as our people vse to doe before a iudge. Vn∣to whom I answered, that I had neuer in all my life either knowen or heard of the manners and customes of that region. Foorthwith comes one of the chiefe men amongst them, affirming that it was their custome neuer to dismisse any stranger, till he had both heard and throughly decided all the quarrels and controuersies of the inhabitants. Which words he had no soo∣ner* vttered, but immediately my horse was taken from me. Wherefore I was constrained for nine daies, and so many nights, longer to abide the penurie and miserie of that region. Moreouer my trouble was the greater, for that, in such abundance of suites and affaires, there was not one man present, which could set downe so much as a word in writing: wherefore I my selfe was faine to play both the iudge and the notarie. Vpon the eight day they all of them promised to bestowe some great rewarde vpon me. Wherefore the night following seemed vnto me a yeere long: for I was in good hope the next morrow to haue receiued a masse of golde from my clients. So soone as the next day began to dawne, they placed me in a certaine church∣porch: whither, after an vsuall and short praier ended, each man full reue∣rently presented his gift vnto me. Here some offered me a cocke, others brought me nuts and onions, and some others bestowed a handfull of gar∣licke vpon me. The principall and head-men amongst them presented me with a goat; and so by reason that there was no money in all the said moun∣taine, they proffered me not one farthing for my paines: wherefore all the said gifts I bequeathed vnto mine oste for his woorthie entertaining of me. And this was all the notable reward which I reaped in regarde of so great and intolerable paines. All things being thus dispatched, they sent fiftie horsemen to accompanie and guard me from theeues in that dangerous way.

Of the mountaine called Seusaua.

THis mountaine of Seusaua taketh his beginning where Semede en∣deth, out of which springeth a certaine riuer, hauing one name with the said mountaine from whence it proceedeth. Neuer were the tops of this mountaine seene destitute of snowe. The inhabitants leade a brutish and sauage life, waging continuall warre with their next neighbours: for which purpose they vse neither swords, iauelins, nor any other warlike in∣struments, but onely certaine slings, out of which they discharge stones af∣ter a strange and woonderfull manner. Their victuals consist of barlie, ho∣nie, and goates-flesh. In the same mountaine great multitudes of Iewes ex∣ercising handy-craftes, doe inhabite: likewise they make sope, yron-hookes, and horse-shooes. Diuers masons are here to be found also. They build their walles of no other matter but onely of rough stone and lime, and the roofes Page  78 of their houses they vse to couer with thatch: neither haue they any other kind of lime or bricks. They haue among them also abundance of learned men & of skilful lawyers, whose counsell they vse at all times. Among whom I found some, who had heretofore beene my fellow-students at Fez, and for our old acquaintance sake, gaue me most courteous entertainment: and, to the end I might escape the danger of theeues, they conducted me a good part of my way.

Of the mountaine called Sesiua.

VPon this most lofty and cold mountaine there is nothing al∣most to be found, but continuall snowe and woods. The in∣habitants weare white caps: and the region in all places is full of springs and fountaines. Out of the said mountaine springeth a riuer, which in the discourse before-going we cal∣led Asifinuall. All ouer this mountaine are most deepe and hollow caues, wherein euerie yeere, for the three cold moneths of Nouember, Ianuarie, and Februarie they vsually winter their cattell, laying vp so much fodder, namely hay, and the leaues of certaine trees, as they thinke will suffice them. Most of their victuals are brought vnto them from the next mountaines, because their owne soyle yeeldeth no come at all: onely in the spring time and in sommer, they haue good plentie of new cheese and butter. Their old age they beare most lustily and stoutly, sometime at ninetie, and some∣time at an hundred yeeres. They giue attendance to their cattell all their life long, neither doe they at any time, or seldome, see any strangers. They weare no shooes at all, but certaine sandals only, to defend the soles of their feete: and their legs they wrap in a certaine piece of cloath or list insteed of an hose, to keepe themselues from the iniurie of the snow.

Of the mountaine called 〈◊〉.

THis high and cold mountaine hath verie many inhabitants: vp∣on the top whereof standeth a towne which is called by the name of the mountaine it selfe. In this towne are great store of dwellers, and a most stately and beautifull temple. It hath like∣wise a most pleasant and 〈◊〉 riuer. This towne is adorned with the monu∣ments of *Elmahdi (who was in times past a most learned Mahumetan priest) and of Abdul Mumen his disciple. And albeit the inhabitants are accounted heretiques by all other Mahumetans, yet is there no kinde of learning which they will not arrogate vnto themselues: because perhaps they are well read in the workes of Elmahdi, who was notwithstanding the ringleader of all the saide heretiques: so that if any stranger come among them, they presently chalenge him to dispute in matters of learning. In their apparell they goe verie ragged and beggerly, by reason that they haue Page  79 no taylors in the whole towne. Their common-wealth is gouerned after a wilde and sauage manner, albeit they haue a certaine priest, which vseth all the policie and meanes he can to bring it into good order. Their victuals are barley-bread and oyle of oliues: likewise they haue great store of nuts, and of pine-trees.

Of the mountaine called Gedmeua.

GEdmeua beginneth at the West frontier of the foresaide mountaine of Semede, and stretcheth Eastward almost fiue and twentie miles, extending vnto the border of Mizmizi. All the inhabitants are rude, miserable, and hunger-starued people, being subiect to the Arabians, for that they border vpon those fields which adioine vpon the mountaine of Temnella. This hill of Gedmeua aboundeth with oliues, barley, wood, and fountaines.

Of the mountaine called Hanteta.

NEuer did I see (to my remembrance) an higher mountaine, then that which the Africans call Hanteta. Westward it be∣ginneth from Gedmeua, and stretcheth fiue and fortie miles Eastward, to the mountaine of Adimmei beforenamed. The inhabitants are valiant and rich, hauing great store of horses. Heere likewise standeth a most strong and impregnable castle subiect vnto a certaine nobleman, which is reported to be of alliance vnto the prince of Maroco: howbeit they are at continuall warre for certaine landes situate within their dominions. Many Iewes exercising diuers handie-crafts doe here inhabite, and do yeerely pay vnto the gouernour of this mountaine great summes of money. As concerning religion, they follow them espe∣cially which are called Carrain. The top of this mountaine is continually couered with snow. When I first beheld this mountaine, I thought it had bin clouds; so great is the height therof. The sides of this mountaine being altogether destitute of herbes and trees, are in many places stored with ex∣cellent white marble, which the people might dig, and make a good com∣moditie thereof, were they not so sluggish and so ignorant in hewing and polishing of the fame. In this place are many pillars and arches which were most artificially and sumptuously built by those mightie princes whom we haue often before made mention of: which pillers they would haue vsed for the building of water-conduits, had they not beene hindred by the violence of warres. To be briefe, in the said mountaine I saw many notable things, whereof I will here make no discourse at all, partly because they are out of my remembrance, and partly for auoiding tediousnes to the reader; because I haue determined to passe ouer these small matters, and to proceede vnto greater.

Page  80

Of the mountaine called Adimmei.

FRom Hanteta beginneth another huge and high mountaine called by the inhabitants Adimmei, extending eastward to the riuer of Teseut. Vpon this mountaine standeth that citie, the prince whereof (as we said before) was slaine in bat∣tell against the king of Fez. This mountaine is well stored with inhabitants and aboundeth with woods which bring foorth acornes, oliues, and quinces. The people heere inhabiting are most valiant, posses∣sing beasts and cattell of all sorts, their ayre being verie temperate, and their soile exceeding fruitfull. Springs they haue great plentie, and also two riuers issuing foorth of the said mountaine, whereof in due place we will dis∣course more at large. Wherefore hauing described all the cities and moun∣taines of Maroco bordering southward vpon Atlas, let vs now passe ouer the said mountaine of Atlas, and take a view of the region beyond it commonly called Guzzula.

Of the region of Guzzula.

THis region is exceding populous: westward it abutteth vpon Ilda a mountaine of Sus; northward it ioineth vnto Atlas, and eastward it stretcheth vnto the region of Hea. It is in∣habited with sauage and fierce people, beeing most needie of money, and yet abounding greatly in cattell. Great store of copper and yron is here digged out of mines, and here are brasen* vessels made, which are carried into other countries to be solde: and these vessels they exchange for linnen and woollen cloth, for horses, and for other wares necessarie for the said region. In all this whole region there is neither towne nor castle enuironed with walles. Great villages they haue, which con∣taine, many of them, more then a thousand families a peece. They haue nei∣ther king nor gouernour to prescribe any lawes vnto them: but euerie one is his owne captaine and commander; whereupon they are at continuall warres among themselues, neither haue they any truce at all, but three daies* onely euery weeke; during which time euery man may safely and freely bar∣gaine with his enemie, and may trauell whither he listeth. But these daies of truce being past, the wretched people of this region do continually commit most horrible slaughters. The foresaide daies of truce a certaine Hermite appointed vnto them, whom they honoured and reuerenced like a god. This Hermite with one eie I my selfe saw, and found him to be a trustie; sincere, courteous, and most liberall person. The common attire of the people of Guzzula is a woollen iacket streight to their bodies & without 〈◊〉. They weare crooked, broad, and two-edged daggers: and their swords are like vnto the swords of Hea. Once euery yeere they haue a faire of two moneths long: Page  81 all which time (though the number of merchants be neuer so great) they giue* free entertainment vnto all such as either bring wares with them, or come thither to fetch away their wares. When the time of their faire approcheth, they foorthwith make truce, and each faction appointeth a captaine ouer an hundred soldiers, to the end they may keepe themselues in safetie, and may defend their said faire from the inuasion and iniurie of all lewd persons. If any offence be committed, the captaines immediately giue sentence vpon the guiltie person: and whosoeuer bee conuicted of theft, is foorthwith slaine like a brute beast, and his theeues carcase is throwne out to be deuou∣red of dogs, wilde beastes, and rauenous foules. The saide faire is kept in a certaine plaine or valley betweene two hils. All the wares are contained in tents and in certaine cottages made of boughes, so that each particular kind of merchandize hath a seuerall place to lie in by it selfe. They which sell droues of cattell are remooued farre from the tents. And euery tent hath a cottage made of boughes belonging thereunto, for their principal and head men to repose themselues in. And in the said cottages or bowers are mer∣chant strangers (as we noted before) freely entertained and bourded. Also they haue certaine Caters & purueiers among them, which make prouision of victuals, and take vpon them the friendly and well entertaining of stran∣gers. And albeit an huge deale of money is spent for this behalfe, yet make they a good gaine thereof: for thither doe resort all the merchants of that region for traffiques sake, yea and a great number out of the land of Negros, who bring with them maruellous plentie of all kindes of wares. And al∣though they are men of a dull and grosse capacitie, yet are they very indu∣strious in gouerning and maintaining the said faire: the beginning where∣of is vpon the birth-day of that great deceiuer Mahumet, that is, vpon the twelfth day of their moneth called Rabih, which is the third Haraba of the yeere, according to their account. I my selfe was present at this faire in the companie of my Lord the 〈◊〉 for the space of fifteene daies, in the yeere of the Hegeira 920. which was in the yeere of our Lord 1511.

Abriefe description of the region of Duccala.

THis region beginneth westward from the riuer of Tensift; northward it is bounded with the Ocean sea; the south part thereof lieth vpon the riuer of Habid; and the east part abutteth vpon the riuer Ommi∣rabih. It is three daies iourney long, and about two daies iourney broad. Ve∣ry populous it is; the inhabitants being a rude people, and most ignorant of all ciuilitie and humanitie. Walled cities it hath but a few, of all which we will in their due places particularly discourse, neither wil we (by Gods helpe) omit any thing which may seeme woorthie of memorie.

Page  82

Of the towne of Azaphi.

IT was built by the Africans, and standeth vpon the shore of the Ocean sea, containing fower thousand families: inhabi∣tants there are great store, being for the most part very vnci∣uill and barbarous. In times past there dwelt many Iewes in this towne, which exercised diuers handy-crafts. Their soile is exceeding fertill; but so grosse is their owne vnskilfulnes and negligence, that they know neither how to till their ground, to sow their corne, or to plant vineyards: except perhaps some few of them (who would seeme to be more prouident then the residue) sow a quantitie of pot-herbes in their smal gardens. After the kings of Maroco gaue ouer the gouerment of the saide region, the citie of Azafi was vsurped by certaine which were said to fetch their originall from Farchon. Howbeit in our daies the said citie was gouer∣ned by a certaine prince called Hebdurrahmam: this man for a greedy and ambitious desire of raigning murthered his owne vncle: after whose death he gouerned the towne for certaine yeeres. He had a daughter of most ex∣cellent beauty, who falling in loue with a certaine courtier (whose name was Hali, being sonne vnto one Goesimen) by the helpe of her mother and her wayting maide enioyed oftentimes the companie of her paramour. Which when her father had intelligence of, hee rebuked his wife, threatening death vnto her, if shee reformed not the manners of her daughter: howbeit afterwarde hee dissembled his furie. But the mother through∣ly knowing her husbandes intent, tolde her daughters paramour that the prince was not to bee trusted, and therefore aduised him to take heede vnto himselfe. Whereupon Hali fearing least some mischiefe might light vpon him, began to determine with himselfe the princes death, and for* his associate in this conspiracie he tooke a trusty friend of his who had been most familiar with him from his childhoode, and was captaine ouer a cer∣taine band of footemen. Wherefore both of them being alike mischieuous∣ly bent against their prince, expected nothing else but a fit place and opor∣tunitie to put their bloudie determination in practise. Contrariwise the king seeking by all meanes an occasion to effect his purpose, sent word vnto Hali vpon a certaine festiuall day, that after their Mahumetan deuotions were finished he shoulde come and walke with him; appointing a place, where he had laide a troupe of men in ambush to kill Hali at his comming: which being done, he went to church. Hali suspecting no harme at all, told his associate, that now was the time wherein they might bring their purpose to effect. And this intent of theirs they foorthwith declared vnto ten other of their adherents: and to the end that the whole matter might go securely and certainly forward, they presently assembled a great multitude of foote∣men (which they fained that they woulde sende the next day vnto Aza∣mor) that, if they were constrained to flie, they might haue aide and suc∣cour Page  83 in a readines. All their complices being armed, they came to church at the very same time when as the king with all his traine was entring there∣into, and had placed himselfe next vnto the Mahumetan preacher. The church was full of auditors, and the king had his guard attending vpon him, who bicause they knew the two foresaid yoong gentlemen to be very fami∣liar with the king, suspected none euill, but suffered them to draw neere vnto his person. Wherefore one of the saide yoong courtiers, as though he* would haue done obeizance vnto the king, came before him, but Hali got in at his backe and stabd him through with a dagger: and at the verie same instant the other thrust him in with his sworde, and so this vnhappie king, imbrued in his owne bloud, gaue vp the ghost. The kings guarde went about to apprehend the authors of this fact; but being ouermatched by the contrarie part, and suspecting, least the people were authors of this conspi∣racie, they sought to saue themselues by flight. And after them followed all the rest of the assemblie, till the authors of the saide murther were left alone. They also immediately came foorth, and perswaded the people with many words, that they had slaine the king for none other cause, but onely in regard that he had attempted the vtter ouerthrow both of themselues and of the whole people. The citizens beeing to too credulous, aduaunced the two foresaid conspiratours to the gouernment of the kingdome: howbeit they agreed not long thereabout, but the common-wealth was diuersly tos∣sed hither and thither, sometime inclining to one, & sometime to another. Wherefore the Portugall merchants which vsually frequented that citie in great numbers, wrote vnto their king to sende foorthwith an armie of soldi∣ers thither: for they were in good hope, that he shoulde most easily and with small disaduantage winne the saide citie. Howbeit the king being no∣thing mooued with this message of theirs, would not send any forces at al, til he was more certainly informed by his said merchants touching the death of the king of Azaphi, & the dissension betweene the two new gouernours. As also, that they had made such a compact with a certaine captaine of the con∣trary faction, that it was the easiest matter in the world for him to cōquer the towne. For they had built them a verie strong castell vpon the sea-shore, wherein their merchandize might safely be bestowed. For the Portugals had perswaded the townes-men, that during the great tumult about the kings death, they were all of them in danger to lose both their liues and goods. Wherefore into this castell, among their vessels of oile and other wares, they cunningly conueied gunnes and all other kind of warlike instruments: but the townes-men being ignorant heere of, exacted nothing of the Portu∣gals saue onely custome due for their wares. Now after the Portugales had sufficiently prouided themselues of all kinde of armour and warlike muniti∣ons, they sought by all meanes an occasion to fight with the citizens. At length it came to passe that a certaine Portugals seruant buying meat in the citie, did so prouoke a butcher, that after much quarrelling they fell to blowes, whereupon the seruant feeling himselfe hurt, thrust the butcher Page  84 with his sworde, and laide him along vpon the colde earth, and then fledde speedily to the castell, wherein he knewe the merchants to be. The people immediately rose vp in armes, and ranne all of them with one consent vn∣to the castell, to the end they might vtterly destroy it, & cut the throats of all them which were therein. But the guns and crosse-bowes which were there in a readines made such hauock among the townes-men, that it cannot be, but they were greatly daunted. At this first encounter there were an hūdreth and fiftie citizens slaine outright; howbeit the residue woulde not therefore giue ouer, but gaue the castle daily assaults. At length the king of Portugall sent aide vnto his subiects, to wit fiue thousand footemen, two hundreth horsemen, with a great number of gunnes. Which forces when the citi∣zens sawe to approch, they presently betooke themselues to their feete, and fled vnto the mountaine of Benimegher: neither durst any man staie in the towne, but onely he that was the author of building the castle. And so it* came to passe that the Portugall forces woon the towne without any perill or labour. Soone after the generall of the whole armie sent the builder of the castle vnto the king of Portugall. But the king sent him with a cer∣taine number of attendants backe againe to Azafi, and appointed him go∣uernour of all the region adiacent. For the Portugall king was not acquain∣ted with their customes, nether did he sufficiently know how they gouerned their common-wealth. Soone after ensued the miserable desolation and ruine, not onely of the citie but of the whole region thereabouts. In this dis∣course we haue beene somewhat tedious, to the end we might shew of how great euill a woman may be the instrument, and what intollerable mis∣chiefes are bred by dissension. These things were a dooing (as I remem∣ber)* when my selfe was but ten yeeres olde: and being fowerteene yeeres of age, I had some conference with the Portugall captaine aforesaide. This captaine with an armie of fiue hundreth Portugals, and more then twelue thousand Arabian horsemen giuing battaile to the king of Maroco, con∣quered all the foresaid prouince on the behalfe of his master the Portugall king, in the yeere of the Hegeira 920. as in our briefe treatise concerning the Mahumetan religion we will declare more at large.

Of Conta a towne in Duccala.

THis towne is situate from Azafi about 20. miles, & is said to haue bin built by the Gothes at the verie same time when they possessed the whole region of Duccala: but now it is vtterly layde waste: howbeit the field belonging thereto is in subiection vnto certaine Arabians which dwell in the said prouince of Duccala.

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Of Tit a citie in Duccala.

THis ancient citie of Tit built of olde by the Africans vpon the Ocean sea-shoare, is about twentie miles distant from Azamur. It hath most large and fruitfull fields belonging vnto it. The in∣habitants are men of a grosse conceit, who regard neither hus∣bandrie nor ciuilitie. Their apparell indeed is somewhat decent, by reason that they continually haue so great traffique with the Portugals. At the* same time when Azamur was subdued, this citie also yeelded it selfe vnto the kings captaine, and for certaine yeeres paied tribute vnto the king. In our time the king of Fez attempted to set Duccala at libertie: howbeit not speeding of his purpose, he caused a certaine Christian (which was his owne treasurer) and a Iewe, to be hanged. And that companie which remai∣ned with him, he brought vnto Fez, giuing them a certaine portion of grounde to dwell vpon, which was destitute of inhabitants, being distant about twelue miles from Fez.

Of the famous citie of Elmedina in Duccala.

ELmedina being in a manner the chiefe citie of the whole re∣gion, is (according to the manner there) enuironed with wals of no great force. The inhabitants are homely as well in witte and behauiour, as in apparell: wearing such cloth as is wouen in their owne countrie. Their women weare cer∣taine siluer ornaments: the men are valiant, and haue great store of horses. They were all of them banished by the king of Fez out of his dominions, for that he suspected them to be friends to the Portugals. For he had heard that a certaine gouernour of that region had counselled his subiects to pay tri∣bute vnto the Portugall king. This gouernour I sawe barefoote led so mi∣serablie captiue, that I could scarce refraine from teares; because he did not ought vpon trecherie, but being constrained. For, good man, he thought it much better to pay a little tribute vnto the Portugals, then sodainly to lose both his life and his goods. For the restoring of whom vnto his for∣mer libertie, diuers noblemen greatly laboured: and so at length for a great summe of money he was released. But afterward the citie remained voide of* inhabitants, about the yeere of the Hegeira 921.

Of the towne of Duccala called Centumputei.

THis towne is built vpon a rocke of excellent marble: in the suburbes whereof are certaine caues, wherein the inhabitants vse to lay vp their corne: which is there so woonderfully preserued, that it will continue an hundreth yeeres without any ill sauour or corruption. Of the number of*Page  86 which caues resembling pits or wels, the towne it selfe is called Centum putei. The inhabitants are of small reckoning or account, hauing no artifi∣cers dwelling among them but certaine Iewes. When the king of Fez had forced the inhabitants of Elmadin to come into his dominions, he attemp∣ted also to bring thither the inhabitants of this towne: but they refusing to go into a strange place, chose rather to inhabite neere vnto the towne of Azafi, then to forsake their owne natiue soile. Which when the king vnder∣stoode, he presently caused the towne to be sacked; wherein nothing was found but corne, hony, and other things of small value.

Of the towne of Subeit in the same region.

SVbeit is a small towne built vpon the south side of the riuer of Ommira∣bih. It is distant from Elmadin about fortie miles, and is said to be sub∣iect vnto certaine Arabians dwelling in Duccala. Honie and corne they haue great abundance: but such is their vnskilfulnes and ignorance, that they haue neither gardens nor vineyardes. At the same time when Bulahuan was woon, the king of Fez brought all the people of Subeit into his domi∣nion, and allotted vnto them a certaine peece of grounde neere vnto Fez which was neuer before inhabited: so that Subeit remaineth waste and void of inhabitants euen vntill this day.

Of the towne of Temeracost.

ALso in Duccala neere vnto the riuer Ommirabih standeth a certaine small towne, which was built by the founder of Maroco, from whom the name thereof is thought to be deriued. Inhabitants it hath great store, and containeth more then fower hundreth families. It was subiect in times past vnto the people of Azamur; but Azamur being spoiled by the Portu∣gales, this towne also came to nought, and the people heerof went to Elma∣din.

Of the towne called Terga.

THis towne being distant about thirtie miles from Azamur, is situate neere vnto the riuer Ommirabih: it is well peopled, and containeth about three hundreth families. In times past it was subiect vnto the inhabi∣tants of Duccala; but after the sacking of Azafi, Hali which fought against the Portugals, for certaine daies lay with his armie in this towne. But after∣ward being repelled thence by the king of Fez, the towne became so waste and desolate, that from thencefoorth it was an habitation for owles & bats.

Of the towne of Bulahuan.

THis towne likewise standeth vpon the banke of Ommirabih, & contai∣neth about fiue hundreth families: in times past it had most noble and Page  87 woorthie inhabitants, especially in that streete which lieth next vnto the ri∣uer, vpon the high way to Maroco. In this towne was a famous hospitall built, which had manie roomes and mansions: wherein all strangers trauai∣ling that way, were sumptuously and freely entertained at the common charge of the towne. The inhabitants are most rich both in cattell & corne. Euery cititizen almost hath an 100. yoke of oxen, and some of them yeerly reape two thousand, some three thousand measures of corne: so that the Arabians do carrie graine from thence sufficient to serue them all the yeere following. In the 919. yeere of the Hegeira, the king of Fez sent his brother to gouerne and defende the region of Duccala, who comming vnto this towne, was informed that the captaine of Azemur approched thither with a great armie, of purpose to destroy the towne and to lead the people captiue. Whereupon the king of Fez his brother sent immediately vnto the saide towne two captaines with two thousand horsemen, and eight hundreth ar∣chers. But the very same time when they entred the towne, they met there the Portugall soldiers accompanied with two thousand Arabians: by whom, being fewer in number, they were so miserablie slaine, that scarcely twelue archers of all the eight hundreth could escape with the horsemen vnto the next mountaines. Howbeit afterward the Arabians renewed the skirmish, & 150. of the Portugall horsemen being slaine, they put the enimie to flight. Whereupon the king of Fez his brother passed on to Duccala, requiring tribute of the people, and promising that as long as he liued he would stand betweene them and their enemies. Afterward being vanquished, he returned home to. Fez vnto the king his brother. But the inhabitants seeing that the kings brother had receiued tribute of them and had stood them in no stead, they presently forsooke the towne, and fled vnto the mountaine of Tedles: for they feared least the Portugals armie would come vpon them, and exa∣cting a greater summe, would lead them presently captiue which could not disburse it. At all these accidents I my selfe was present, and saw the foresaid slaughter of the archers: for I stood about a mile distant from them, and was mounted vpon a swift courser. At the same time I was trauelling to Maro∣co, being sent by the king of Fez, to declare vnto the king of Maroco, and vnto the Seriffo, that the king of Fez his brother was presently to depart vn∣to Duccala: for which cause they were requested to prouide soldiers for the better resistance of the Portugals armie.

Of the citie of Azamur.

AZamur, a towne of Duccala, was built by the Africans vpon that part of the Oceā sea shore where the riuer of* Ommira∣bih disemboqueth; being distant from Elmadina southward about thirtie miles. Very large it is, and well inhabited, and containeth to the number of fiue thousand families. Here Page  88 doe the Portugall merchants continually reside. The inhabitants are very ciuill, and decently apparelled. And albeit they are diuided into two parts, yet haue they continuall peace among themselues. Pulse and corne they haue great plentie; though their gardens and orchards bring foorth nought else but figs. They haue such plentie of fishes, that they receiue yeerely for them sometime sixe thousand, and sometime seuen thousand duckats. And their time of fishing dureth from October to the end of Aprill. They vse to frie fishes in a certaine pan with oile, whereby they gather an incredible quantitie of trane: neither vse they any other oile to put into their lampes. Once a yeere the Portugals make a voiage hither, and doe carrie away so great abundance of fish, that they onely doe disburse the summe of duckats aforesaid. Hence it is, that the king of Portugal, being allured for gaine, hath often sent most warlike fleetes to surprise this towne: the first whereof, in regarde of the Generals indiscretion, was the greatest part dispersed and sunke vpon the sea. Afterward the king sent another nauie of two hundred saile well furnished, at the very sight whereof the citizens were so discomfi∣ted, that they all betooke themselues to flight; and the throng was so great at their entrance of the gates, that moe then fowerscore citizens were slaine therein. Yea a certaine prince which came to aide them, was, for his safetie constrained to let himselfe downe by a rope on the farther side of the citie. The inhabitants were presently dispersed hither and thither; some fleeing on horse-backe, and others on foote. Neither could you (I know) haue refrai∣ned from teares, had you seene the weake women, the silly old men, and the tender children run away bare-footed and forlorne. But before the Christi∣ans gaue any assault, the Iewes (which shortly after compounded with the* king of Portugall, to yeeld the citie to him, on condition that they shoulde sustaine no iniurie) with a generall consent, opened the gates vnto them: and so the Christians obtained the citie, and the people went to dwell part of them to Sala, and part to Fez. Neither doe I thinke that God for any other cause brought this calamitie vpon them, but onely for the horrible vice of Sodomie, whereunto the greatest part of the citizens were so notoriously addicted, that they could scarce see any young stripling, who escaped their lust.

Of the towne called Meramei.

THis towne was built by the Gothes vpon a plaine, almost fourteene miles distant from Azafi, and it containeth to the number of fower hundred families: the soile thereabout aboundeth greatly with oliues and corne. It was gouerned in times past by the prince of Azafi; but afterward being surprised by the Portugals, and the inhabitants being all put to flight, it remained well nigh one whole yeere destitute of people. Howbeit soone after making a league with the Portugals, each man retired vnto his owne home. And now I thinke it not amisse to report as concerning the moun∣taines of Duccala those things which may seeme woorthie of memorie.

Page  89

Of the mountaine called Benimegher.

BEnimegher is distant from Azafi about twelue miles, containing di∣uers artizans of all sortes, euery one of which hath an house at Azafi. This mountaine is so exceeding fruitful for oile and corne, that a man would scarce beleeue it. It was once in subiection vnto the prince of Azafi, but the inhabitants of Azafi being put to flight, as hath beene aforesaid, had no other place for their refuge, but onely this mountaine of Benimegher. Af∣terward they paid tribute for certaine yeeres vnto the Portugals; but when the king of Fez came thither with his army, he caried with him part of them vnto Fez, and the residue returned to Azafi: for they were determined ra∣ther to indure any iniurie, then to submit themselues to the Christians go∣uernment.

Of the greene mountaine.

THis mountaine is of an exceeding height, beginning eastward from the riuer of Ommirabih, and extending westward to the hils called in their language Hasara, and it diuideth Duccala from some part of Tedles. Likewise this mountaine is very rough and full of woods, affoording great* store of acornes and pine-apples, and a certaine kinde of red fruit which the Italians commonly call Africano. Many Hermites also doe inhabite vpon this mountaine, liuing with no other kind of victuals, but such as the woods yeeld vnto them. For they are aboue fiue and twenty 〈◊〉 distant from all townes and cities. Here are great store of fountaines and of altars built after the Mahumetan fashion, and many auncient houses also erected by the Africans. At the foot of this mountaine there is a notable lake, very like vnto the lake of Bolsena in the Roman territorie. In which lake are found infinite numbers of fishes, as namely eeles, pickrels, and of diuers other sorts, which, to my remembrance, I neuer saw in Italie: but there is no man that goeth about to take any fish in this lake, no maruell therefore though the number be so great. Vpon a certaine time when Mahumet the king of Fez trauelled* that way towards the kingdome of Maroco, he encamped his armie eight daies vpon the side of this lake. Some of his companie he licenced to fish the same, amongst whom I saw certaine that tooke off their shirts and coats, sowing vp their sleeues and collars, and putting certaine hoops within them to keepe them from closing together, and so vsed them in steed of nets, wherewith notwithstanding they caught many thousand fishes: but others which had nets indeed, got more then they. And all by reason that the fishes (as we will now declare) were perforce driuen into the nets. For king Mahu∣met being there accompanied with fourteene thousand Arabian horsemen, which brought a great many more camels with them; and hauing fiue thou∣sand horsemen vnder the conduct of his brother, with an huge armie of fooremen, caused them all at once to enter the lake, insomuch that there Page  90 was scarce water ynough to satisfie the camels thirst: wherefore it was no maruell though the fishes came so fast into the nets. Vpon the banks of this lake are many trees bearing leaues like vnto pine-leaues, among the boughes whereof, such abundance of turtles doe nestle, that the inhabitants reape woonderfull commoditie by them. Mahumet hauing refreshed himselfe eight daies by the foresaid lake, was then desirous to view The greene moun∣taine aforesaid: my selfe with a great number of courtiers and learned men attending vpon him. So often as he saw any altar, he would command his armie there to make a stand, and lowly kneeling on his knees, would say these words following:

Thou knowest (oh Lord my God) that I came hither for none other cause, but to release the people of Duccala from the Arabians and cruell Christians: which attempt of mine if thou thinkest to be vniust, let me onely feele the punishment of this offence: for these my followers are guiltlesse.
And thus we ranged vp and downe the greene hill one whole day: but at night we returned vnto our tents. The next day it was king Ma∣humets pleasure to goe on hunting and hauking, whereupon his hounds and haukes (which he had in great abundance) were brought foorth: howbeit that sport yeelded nought but wilde geese, duckes, turtle-doues, and other fowles. But the day following the king called for his hounds, faulcons, and eagles: their game were hares, deere, porcupikes, roe-deere, woolues, quailes and starlings: and by reason that none had hunted or hawked there an hun∣dred yeeres before, they had very good pastime. And after we had here stai∣ed certaine daies, the king with his armie marching vnto the said Elmadin a towne of Duccala, willed all his learned men and priestes which hee had* brought with him, to returne vnto Fez. But my selfe (as ambassadour) and a certaine number of soldiers he sent vnto Maroco: this was done in the 922. yeere of the Hegeira, and in the yeere of our Lord 1512.

A description of the region of Hascora.

THis region is bounded northward with certaine mountaines which adioine vpon Duccala; westward with a riuer running by the foote of mount Hadimmei, which we called before Tensift; and eastward by the riuer Quadelhabid, that is, the riuer of seruants, which riuer diuideth Hascora from Tedles. And so likewise the hils of Duccala doe separate Hascora from the Ocean sea. The inhabitants of this region are far more ciuil, then the people of Duccala. This prouince yeeldeth great abundance of oyle, of Marockin skinnes, and of goates, of whose haire they make cloath and sadles. And hither do all the bordering regions bring their goat-skins, whereof the foresaid Marockin or Cordouan leather is made. This people hath great traffique with the Portugals, with whom they exchange the fore∣said leather and sadles, for cloath. Their coine is all one with the coine of Duccala. Also the Arabians vsually buy oyle and other necessaries our Page  91 of this region. Now let vs in order describe all the townes and cities of the saide region.

Of Elmadin a towne in Hascora.

THis towne of Hascora being called by the inhabitants Elma∣din, is built vpon the side of mount Atlas, and containeth 〈◊〉 then two thousand families. It standeth almost fourescore and ten miles eastward of Maroco, and about 60. miles from Duc∣cala. Heere may you finde many leather-dressers, and all other kinde of artizans, with a great multitude of Iewish merchants. This towne is enuironed with a certaine wood, which is full of oliue, and walnut-trees. The inhabitants are continually, in a manner, oppressed with warres among themselues, and against a certaine little towne beeing fower miles distant from thence. Neither dare any come vpon the plaine lying betweene these two townes, (saue women onely and slaues) except he be well and strongly guarded. So that 〈◊〉 man is faine to maintaine an harquebusier or ar∣cher for his defence, whom he monethlyalloweth ten or twelue pieces of gold, which are woorth sixeteene ducates Italian. Likewise in Elmadin there are certaine men of great and profound learning, which are appointed to be iudges and notaries. Whatsoeuer tribute or custome strangers doe pay, is deliuered vnto certaine treasurers and customers of the towne; which imploy it afterward for the publike benefite. They are likewise constrained to pay certaine tribute vnto the Arabians, for sundrie possessions which they enioy in the foresaide valley; but that money gaineth them at the A∣rabians hand ten times so much, or more. In my returne from Maroco I thought good to trauell by this towne, where I was right sumptuously en∣tertained by one of Granada my countrey-man, who was exceeding rich, ha∣uing serued as an archer in this region for fifteene yeeres. And albeit the towne of Elmadin had a stately hospitall, wherein all merchants trauelling that way, were entertained at the common charge; yet my countrey-man would not suffer vs there to lodge, but for three daies together most curte∣ously welcommed my selfe, nine courtiers, and all the seruants and retinue which we brought with vs: vnto which companie of ours the townesmen presented, some of them calues, some lambes, and some other brought hens. Seeing vpon a time so many goates in the towne, I merily demaunded of my countrey-man, why he gaue vs no kids-flesh to eate: hee answered that that was accounted among them of all others the most base and homely meate. Their faire and beautifull women are so fonde of strangers that if secret occasion be offered they will not refuse their dishonest com∣panie.

Page  92

Of the citie of Alemdin.

NEere vnto the foresaide towne standeth another commonly called Alemdin, being situate fower miles to the west there∣of in a valley, amidst fower most high hils, whereupon the place is exceeding cold. The inhabitants are merchants, ar∣tizans, and gentlemen, & families it containeth to the num∣ber of one thousand. This towne hath been at continuall war with the towne last before mentioned: but in our time both of them were by the meanes of a certaine merchant brought in subiection vnto the King of Fez, as we will now declare. There was a merchant of Fez which had a paramour in this* towne, whom he determined foorthwith to marrie; but when the marriage day was come, this merchant was beguiled of his loue by the gouernour of the towne himselfe, which disappointment grieued him full sore, albeit he dissembled the matter as well as he could. Returning home to the King of Fez, the said merchant presented vnto him most rich and costly gifts, ma∣king humble suite vnto his maiestie that hee would allow him an hundred principall archers, three hundred horsemen, and fower hundred footemen; saying, that himselfe would maintaine them all at his owne costs and char∣ges, and would winne the said towne of Alemdin for the Kings behalfe, and would assure the King seuen thousand ducates for yeerely tribute. This offer pleased the King right well, and that he might declare his princely liberali∣tie, he would not suffer the merchant to giue wages vnto any, but onely to the archers. And so with all expedition he commanded his gouernour of Tedles to prouide the saide merchant so many horsemen and so many foot∣men, and two captaines ouer the armie. At length comming before Alem∣din they besiged it sixe daies: which being expired, the townesmen told their gouernour in plaine termes, that they would not for his cause incur the king of Fez his displeasure, nor suffer any inconuenience. Whereupon he put∣ting himselfe in a beggers weede, attempted to escape away: but being kno∣wen and apprehended, he was brought before the merchant, who commit∣ted him to prison. And so the townesmen presently opening their gates receiued the merchant with all his troupes, & yeelded themselues to him & to the king of Fez. The parents of the foresaid maid protested vnto the mer∣chant', that the gouernour by maine force had depriued them of his para∣mour. Howbeit she herselfe was big with childe by the gouernour; but af∣ter the merchant knew that she was deliuered of her childe, he bore her af∣fection againe, and at length married her. And the wretched gouernour was the same day by the iudges pronounced guiltie of fornication, and was stoned to death. Well, the merchant remained gouernour and Lord of both townes, establishing most firme peace between them, & duely paying vnto the king of Fez all the yeerly tribute which he had promised. I my selfe afterward comming to the foresaide towne grew familiarly acquainted with Page  93 this famous merchant. The same yeere departing from Fez I tooke my iourney towards Constantinople.

Of Tagodast a towne in Hascora.

THis towne is built vpon the top of a certaine high mountaine, hauing fower other high mountaines round about it. Betweene which fower mountaines and the said towne are diuers most large and beautifull gardens replenished with all kinde of fruits: quinces here are of an incredible big∣nes. Their vines dispersing themselues vpon the boughes of trees doe make most pleasant bowers and walkes: the grapes whereof being red, are for their bignes, called in the language of that people, hennes egs. They haue here* great 〈◊〉 of oile and most excellent honie: some of their honie be∣ing white, and some yellow. This towne hath many fountaines about it, which ioyning into one streame, do serue for many water-mils thereabouts. Here are likewise great store of artizans, who exercise themselues onely about things necessarie. The inhabitants are somewhat ciuill, their women are most beautifull, being most gorgeously decked with siluer iewels. Their oile they carrie vnto the next cities southward of them on this side Atlas: but they send their leather vnto Fez and Mecnasa. Their plaine is almost sixe miles long: the soile being most fruitfull for corne: in regard whereof the townes-men pay certaine yeerely tribute vnto the Arabiaus. This towne hath iudges, priestes, and a great number of gentlemen. Vpon a time as I trauelled this way, it was my hap to meete with a certaine ancient gouernour of the same place, who was growne blinde with extreme age. This aged sire (as by some I vnderstood) was in his youth a most valiant and stout person, insomuch that after many other noble exploits, he slew with his owne hand fower captaines which were most deadly enemies vnto the people of Tago∣dast. And afterward he handled the matter so wisely, that he ioyned those in perfect league which before time had waged continual warre. Here no com∣monwealth-matter is concluded by the magistrates of the towne without his speciall aduise and 〈◊〉. By this worthie Senatour my selfe with fower∣score 〈◊〉 were honorably entertained, and had dainty meates euery day set before vs, of game which was newly hunted. He recounted most fa∣miliarly vnto vs all his labours which he had bestowed in concluding of the forefaid league: neither had this good man any so entire and hidden secrets, which he reuealed not vnto vs, as to his louing friends. At my departure I offered him money for my selfe and my companie: but he, like a liberall man, would by no meanes accept of it; saying, that albeit he ought the king of Fez much dutie and good will, yet did he not bestowe that liberalitie for his sake: but that whatsoeuer wealth he enioied, his parents bequeathed vnto him vpon this condition, that he should shew himselfe kinde and bountifull vnto all his kinred, acquaintance, and strangers trauelling that way: and although he were free from that condition, yet his loue towards God, and Page  94 the liberalitie which God had planted in him, could require no lesse at his hands. Yea, he said, that by Gods good blessing and prouidence he had rea∣ped the same yeere seuen thousand bushels of corne: insomuch, that him∣selfe and all his neighbours were prouided for in abundance. Moreouer, that he possessed of sheepe and goates moe then an hundred thousand, the wooll whereof only, and some small portion of butter, he reserued to himselfe, but as for the cheese and milke, he gaue it all frankly vnto his shepherds. In this towne there is none that selleth either cheese, butter, milk, or any otber such commoditie, though each one hath great abundance of cattell. Howbeit their hides, oile, and wooll they vtter in the prouinces thereabout. The re∣uerend sire added this moreouer: If it shall please (saith he) the king of Fez to returne home from Duccala through this my region, I will come foorth to meete him, and will submit my selfe wholly vnto him, as vnto my most liege and soueraigne prince. Thus my selfe a meere stranger being so hono∣rably dismissed by this woorthie Senatour, could not sufficiently commend his courtesie and bounteous dealing towards strangers.

Of the citie of Elgiumuha.

NEere vnto the foresaid towne, within fiue miles, standeth Elgiumuha. It was in our time built vpon the top of an high mountaine, and con∣taineth to the number of fiue hundred families, besides so many families comprised in the villages of that mountaine. Here are innumerable springs and fountaines, and most pleasant and fruitfull gardens in all places. Here are likewise walnut-trees huge and tall. The little hils enuironing this moun∣taine doe yeeld barlie and oliues in great abundance. In the said towne are great numbers of artizans, as smithes, leather-dressers, and such like. And be∣cause they haue here notable yron-mines, they make plentie of horse∣shooes. And whatsoeuer commoditie proceedeth of their labour, they car∣rie it to forren regions where they thinke it is wanting: from whence they bring home slaues, woad, and the skins of certaine beastes, whereof they make most defensiue and warlike shields: these shields they transport vnto Fez, exchanging them there for weapons, cloth, and other such things as they stand in neede of. This towne standeth so neere vnto the high way, that the boyes wil stand gazing and woondering at merchants as they come by, especially if they weare any strange attire. The residue of inhabitants vp∣on this mountaine are all commanded and gouerned by them of the towne. They say that the people of Tagodast aforesaid were the first founders of this towne: for so vpon a time it befell, that whereas the principall men of Tagodast grew to dissension among themselues, the common sort fauou∣ring neither faction, built Elgiumuha, and left Tagodast to be inhabited by their gouernours: hence it is, that euen at this day they are here onely igno∣ble and base people, whereas there they are all gentlemen.

Page  95

Of Bzo a towne in Hascora.

THE ancient towne of Bzo is built vpon an high hill about twenty miles westward from the towne last mentioned. Within three miles of Bzo runneth the foresaid riuer of Guadelhabid. The townesmen are honest people, exercising merchandize, and going decently apparelled: To them which inhabite the deserts they carie cloth, oile, and leather. Their mountaines abound with oliues, corne, and all kinde of fruits: and of their grapes they make euery yeere most excellent and sweete raisins. Figs they haue great plentie: and their walnut-trees are so high, that a puttocke may securely builde his nest vpon the tops: for it is impossible for any man to climbe vp. On each side of the way which leadeth from hence to the riuer Guadelhabid there are most pleasant and beautifull gardens. My selfe (I re∣member) was here present when their oranges, figs, and other fruits were growen to ripenes; and was entertained by a certaine priest, who dwelt not farre from a stately Mahumetan temple, standing by that riuer which runneth through the market-place of the towne.

Of the mountaine called Tenueues.

THis mountaine is situate ouer against Hascora vpon that part of At∣las which trendeth southward. It hath many most valiant and warlike inhabitants both horsemen and footemen; and a great number of horses of small stature. It yeeldeth abundance of woad & barlie: but other graine they haue none at all, so that they haue no other but barlie bread to eate. At all times of the yeere you shal here see plenty of snow. Here are likewise sundry noblemē & gentlemen, all which are subiect vnto one prince. To this prince they pay great yeerely tribute for the maintenance of his soldiers, for he wa∣geth continuall war with the inhabitants of mount Tensita. The said prince hath 〈◊〉 1000. most valiant horsemen alwaies in a readines: & so many likewise do the noblemen of this mountaine continually keepe at their owne costs and charges. Moreouer the prince hath an hundreth soldiers part of them bowmen, and part harquebusiers, to guard and attend vpon his per∣son in all places. Comming my selfe to see this mountaine, it was my chaunce to finde out the saide prince, who was desirous exceedingly to be praised of all men: but for liberalitie, curtesie, and ciuilitie, his like I thinke was not to be founde. Vnto the Arabian toong (albeit he were ignorant thereof) he bore a marueilous affection: and was greatly delighted to heare any man expound a sentence or verse, which was penned to his owne com∣mendation.* At the very same time when mine vncle was sent ambassadour from the king of Fez to the king of Tombuto, I my selfe also trauailed in his company: we were no sooner entred the region of Dara (which is an hun∣dreth miles distant from the saide princes dominions) but he hearing of my vncles fame (who was an excellent Oratour, and a most wittie Poet) sent Page  96 letters vnto the prince of Dara, requesting him that he woulde perswade mine vncle to trauaile vnto Tombuto by mount Tenueues: for he had a great desire to see him, & to speake with him. Howbeit my vncle answered, that it beseemed not a kings ambassadour to visite any princes farre out of his way, and so to deferre his masters waightie affaires. But, to the end that he might in some sort satisfie the saide prince, he promised to sende me his nephew vnto him, which might in his name salute him and do him due ho∣nour. Afterward he deliuered me certaine costlie gifts to present the prince withall: as namely a curious paire of stirrups double gilt and finely wrought after the Morisco fashion, which cost (as I remember) fiue and twentie ducates; and a rich paire of spurs of fifteene ducates price. More∣ouer he sent two bands of silke artificially entwined with gold, one whereos was tawnie, and the other blew. He sent also a most excellent booke, con∣taining the liues of certaine famous and deuout men of Africa, togither with certaine verses in the commendation of the prince himselfe. Thus be∣ing furnished with the things aforesaid, I set foorth on my iourney, taking two horsemen to accompanie me vnto the foresaid mountaine: and so as I road, I inuented verses in the princes praise. At our first arriuall there, the prince with a great traine of his nobilitie was ridden foorth on hunting. Who being enformed of my comming, caused me foorthwith to be sent for, and after salutations had, he asked me how my vncle did: I answered that he was in good health, and at his highnes disposition. Then he commanded me to be carried vnto a stately lodging, where, after my tedious iourney, I might repose my selfe, till he were returned from hunting. And so within night returning from his game, he sent for me immediately to come into his chamber of presence: where, hauing first performed due obeisance vnto him, I presented him with mine vncles gifts: which (as I suppose) were most acceptable vnto him. At length I gaue him the verses which mine vncle had indited: which he presently commanded one of his secretaries to read. And as he was expounding each sentence and worde vnto the prince, it was a woonder to see, what exceeding alacritie and ioy appeered in his counte∣naunce. The verses being read, he sate downe to supper, willing me not one∣ly to be his guest, but also to sit next vnto his person. His table was furni∣shed with mutton, veale rosted and sodden, and with bread baked like a cake. Diuers other dishes likewise were serued in, but I remember not all the par∣ticulars. Supper being ended, I greeted the prince in this wise: Your high∣nes (my lord) hath receiued all those gifts, which your humble seruant mine vncle (in token of his loiall disposition, and that he might be had of your highnes in remembrance) hath sent you: Now I being both his sisters sonne and his scholler, haue nought else but a fewe wordes to present your princelines withall: may it please you therefore to accept of such homely* stuffe as my witte could sodainly affoord in the time of my iourney. These words ended, I began to read my verses vnto him: and being as then but six∣teene yeeres of age, the prince gaue right ioyfull and diligent eare vnto me; Page  97 and whatsoeuer he vnderstood not sufficiently, he woulde cause it to be 〈◊〉. Now being wearie with his hunting, and perceiuing the night to be farre spent, he wished all of vs to goe to bed. Early the next morning I was sent for, to a stately breakefast, after the conclusion whereof, he caused an hundreth ducates to be deliuered me for a present vnto my vncle, togither with three slaues, which should attend vpon him in his iourney. But on me he bestowed fiftie ducates and a good horse; and to each of my two seruants he gaue ten ducates: giuing mine vncle to vnderstande, that his meane gift which he bestowed, was sent not in regard of his woorthy presents, but for a recompence of his excellent verses. For as touching mine vncles gifts, he saide he woulde deferre the requitall thereof till his returne from Tombuto, what time he would more fully manifest his good will towards him. Then commanding one of his secretaries to direct vs on our way, & most courte∣ously bidding vs farewell; he told vs that the same day he was going to make an assault vpon his enimies. And so departing from him, I returned to mine vncle. Thus much I thought good to set downe, for to shewe, that euen Africa is not vtterly destitute of curteous and bountifull persons.

Of the mountaine called Tensita.

TEnsita is a part of Atlas, beginning westward from the mountaine last before mentioned, eastward extending to mount Dedes, and south∣ward bordering vpon the desert of Dara. This mountaine is well stored with inhabitants, hauing moe then fiftie castles about it, the wals whereof are built of lime and rough stone: and by reason of the southerly situation it is euer almost destitute of raine. All the said castles stand not far from the riuer of Dara, some being three, and some fower miles distant there from. The greatest prince in all this region hath vnder his command well nigh fif∣teene hundreth horsemen, and about so many footemen as the prince of Tenueues before named. And albeit these two princes are most neerely conioined in bloud, yet can neither of them refraine from most cruel wars against the other. It is a woonder to see, what plentie of dates this moun∣taine affoordeth: the inhabitants giue themselues partly to husbandry, and partly to traffike. Barly they haue in great abundance: but of other graine and of flesh their scarcitie is incredible: for that region hath no flockes nor droues at all. The prince of this mountaine commonly receiueth for yeer∣ly tribute twentie thousand peeces of golde: euery of which peeces con∣taineth not so much by one third part, as an Italian ducate. There hath alwaies beene so great amitie betweene the king of Fez and this prince, that either often sendeth rich gifts vnto other. My selfe (I remember) once saw* a most magnificent gift presented to the saide king in the name of this prince, to wit, fiftie men slaues, and fiftie women slaues brought out of the land of Negros, tenne eunuches, twelue camels, one Giraffa, sixteene ciuet∣cats, one pound of ciuet, a pound of amber, and almost sixe hundreth skins Page  98 of a certaine beast called by them Elamt, whereof they make shieldes, 〈◊〉 skin being woorth at Fez, eight ducates; twentie of the men slaues cost twen∣tie ducates a peece, and so did fifteene of the women slaues; euery 〈◊〉 was valued at fortie, euery camell at fiftie, and euery ciuet-cat at two hun∣dreth ducates: and a pound of ciuet and amber is solde at Fez for threescore 〈◊〉. Besides these were sent diuers other particulars, which for breuities sake I omit. I my selfe was in presence when these gifts were offred to the king: the princes ambassadour was a Negro borne, being grosse and of a 〈◊〉 stature, and for his speech and behauiour most barbarous: this fellow deliuered a letter vnto the king, which was most absurdly and rudely pen∣ned: but the Oration which he made in the behalfe of his prince was well woorse; so that at the pronouncing thereof the king and all that were in pre∣sence could hardly 〈◊〉 from laughter, but were faine to hold their hands and garments before their faces, least they should haue seemed too vnciuile. Howbeit his oration being ended, the king caused him to be most hono∣rablie entertained by the priest of the chiefe temple; with whom himselfe and all his company hauing remained foureteene daies, were at length by the kings liberalitie frankely and freely dismissed.

Of the mountaine called Gogideme.

NEere vnto the foresaid mountaiue standeth another called Gogideme. This mountaine is inhabited only vpon the north part therof: but the south side is vtterly destitute of inhabitāts: the reason whereof they affirme to be, because that when *Abraham king of Maroco was vanquished and expelled out of his kingdome by his disciple Elmaheli, he fled vnto this mountaine. The inhabitants mooued with the kings distresse endeuoured (though to small purpose) all that they could, to succour him: whereof his disciple Elmaheli was no sooner enformed; but comming with an huge armie and with great furie vpon them, he destroyed all their mansions and villages, and the inha∣bitants he partly put to flight, and partly to the sword. And those which now remaine there are most base, beggerly and slauish people: Howbeit they sell some quantitie of oyle and barley: neither indeed will their soyle affoorde any other commodities. They haue plentie of goates and mules; but their mules and horses are but of meane stature. The situation and qua∣litie of this mountaine will not suffer the inhabitants to be liberall.

Of the two mountaines called Teseuon.

TEseuon consisteth of two mountaines standing together, begin∣ning westward from Gogideme, & ending at the mountaine of Tagodast. The inhabitants are oppressed with extreme pouerty: for their ground will yeelde nothing but barley and mill. Forth Page  99 of this mountaine springeth a certaine riuer, which runneth through most pleasant fields. But because the mountainers neuer descend into the same fields, hence it is that the Arabians onely enioy that riuer. To haue said thus much of these may suffice: now let vs come vnto the description of Tedles.

A description of the region of Tedles.

THE small region of Tedles beginneth westward at the riuer of Gua∣delhabid, and stretcheth to that part of the great riuer Ommirabih where Guadelhabid taketh his beginning; southward it bordereth vp∣on Atlas, and northward it extendeth vnto that place where Guadelhabid falleth into Ommirabih. This region is in a manner three square: for the said two riuers springing out of Atlas run northward, till approching by lit∣tle and little, they meet all in one.

Of Tefza the principall towne in Tedles

TEfza the chiefe towne of all Tedles, was built by the Africans vpon the side of mount Atlas, some fiue miles from the plaine. The towne wals are built of most excellent marble, which is called in their lan∣guage Tefza, and hereupon the towne was so called likewise. Heere doe reside most rich merchants of all sorts: of Iewes here are two hundred families, who ex∣ercise merchandise and diuers other trades. And here you shall finde many outlandish merchants which buy from hence certaine blacke mantles with hoods, commonly called Ilbernus: of these there are great numbers both in* Italy and Spaine. Neither are there in Fez any kinde of wares, which are not heere to be bought: if any merchant will exchange his wares for other, hee may the sooner be dispatched: for the townesmen are furnished with diuers kindes of merchandise, as namely with slaues, horses, woad, leather, and such like: whereas if the forreiners were desirous to sell their wares for ready mo∣ney, they should neuer attaine to the value of them. They haue golden coine without any image or superscription: their apparell is decent: and their women are beautifull and of good behauiour. In this towne are di∣uers Mahumetan temples, and many priests and iudges. Their common∣wealth was woont alwaies to be most prosperous and well-gouerned; but degenerating from better to woorse, they were afterward so turmoyled with dissensions and wars, that certaine being expelled hence, came vnto the king of Fez, humbly beseeching him that by force he would restore them to their natiue countrey, conditionally that all matters wel succeeding on their side, they should deliuer the towne vnto the king. This condition was accepted, and the king hauing a thousand braue horsemen readie to doe the feat, ioy∣ned fiue hundred horse, and two hundred gunners on horsebacke vnto Page  100 them. Moreouer he wrote vnto certaine Arabians (which are commonly called Zuair, and haue almost fower thousand horesemen at commaund) that, if need so required, they would come in, and ayde his troupes. Ouer the saide armie the king appointed as captaine one Ezzeranghi, a most vali∣ant and redoubted warriour. Who hauing pitched his tents neere vnto the towne, began presently to giue the townesmen an assault. But when he had done his best, the warlike citizens easily gaue him the repulse. Moreouer the Arabians called Benigeber were comming with fiue thousand horsemen to succour the towne. Which so soone as Captaine Ezzeranghi was ad∣uertised of, he raised his siege, and went suddenly to meete with the foresaid Arabians; whom after he had discomfited in three daies, he then safely re∣turned to lay new siege. The citizens seeing themselues cut off from all hope of the Arabians ayde, began seriously to treat of peace with the ene∣mie; which the easlier to obtaine, they promised to defray all the kings charges layde out in this expedition, and to pay him for yeerly tribute moe then ten thousand ducates: howbeit with this prouiso, that they for whose cause the king had sent the said armie, if they entred the towne, should bee secluded from all Magistracie and gouernment. But they hearing of these conditions, spake vnto the Captaine in manner following: Sir, if it shall please you to restore vs vnto our former dignitie and state, we will procure you aboue an hundreth thousand ducates. Neither is there cause why any man should feare any iniurie or violence; for we protest vnto you that no man shall be a farthing endamaged by vs: onely we will exact at our aduer∣saries handes the reuenues of our possessions which they haue these three yeeres vniustly detained from vs. The summe whereof will amount vnto thirtie thousand ducates, all which we are most willing to bestow vpon you, in regard of those labours which you haue vndergone for our sakes. Moreo∣uer the reuenues of the whole region shall bee yours, which will come to twentie thousand ducates. And the Iewes tribute shall yeeld you ten thou∣sand more. Vpon these speeches the Captaine returned answere vnto the citizens, that his master the king of Fez had most faithfully promised those which mooued him vnto this warre, that he would neuer forsake them till they had attained their harts desire: for which cause he was more willing to haue them gouerne, then the townesmen which were now in possession, and that for many reasons: wherefore (saith he) if you be determined to yeelde vnto the king, assure your selues, that no inconuenience shall light vpon you: but if you will to the ende remaine peruerse and obstinate, be yee assu∣red also, that the king will deale most extremely with you. This message was no sooner knowen vnto the people, but foorthwith they began to be distra∣cted into diuers factions: some there were which stood for the king, and others chose rather manfully to fight it out, then that the king should be admitted: insomuch that the whole citie resounded with brawlings, quarels, and contentions. This tumult came at length by spies vnto the Captaines eare, who presently caused halfe his forces to take armes; and by their Page  101 meanes in three howers space he wan the citie with little slaughter on his part. For those townesmen that fauoured the king, did what they could on the inside, to set open the gates, and so did the assailants on the outside, nei∣ther did any resist their attempts, by reason of the foresaid ciuill dissensions. Whereupon Captaine Ezzeranghi entring the citie, caused the kings co∣lours to be aduanced in the market-place, and vpon the wals, charging his horsemen to range about the citie, that no citizens might escape by flight; and last of all made a proclamation vnto all his souldiers, that they should not vpon paine of death offer any iniurie vnto the townesmen. Then he caused all the chieftaines of the contrarie faction to be brought prisoners vnto him: to whom he threatned captiuitie and thraldome, till they should disburse so much as the king had spent in that expedition: the totall summe was twelue thousand ducates, which the wiues and kinsfolkes of the captiues presently payde. Neither could they yet obtaine their libertie: for the ex∣iles, for whose cause the king had sent that armie, demaunded restitution of all their goods, which the other had for certaine yeeres detained from them. The captiues therfore were committed that night, & the next morning law∣yers & atturnies came to plead on both sides before a iudge & the captaine. Howbeit after a great deale of tedious fending and proouing, hauing con∣cluded nothing at all, the captaine was so weary, that he left them, and went to supper. Afterward he caused the captiues to be brought foorth, wishing them to pay the sums demaunded; for (saith he) If you come before the king of Fez he wil make you to disburse more then twise the value. At which words being terrified, they wrote vnto their wiues, if they woulde euer see them aliue, to procure them money by some meanes. Eight daies after, the women brought as many golde rings, bracelets, and other such iewels, as were valued at eight and twenty thousand ducates: for they had rather be∣stowe these for the ransome of their husbandes, then to reueale their great wealth; bringing foorth all their costly ornaments, as if their money had beene quite exhaust. When therefore the king and the exiles were fully satisfied, insomuch that nothing seemed nowe to let the said captiues from libertie, the captaine spake vnto them in this wise: Sirs, I haue signified (though vnwillingly) vnto my master the king all matters which haue here passed betweene vs: for I dare by no meanes release you, till the kings letters authorize me so to do: Howbeit, I wish you to be of good cheere; for sithens you haue honestly restored to euery man his owne, there is no doubt but your selues shall shortly be set at libertie. The same night the cap∣taine* called a friend of his, whose counsell he founde oftentimes to take good effect, and asked him by what meanes he might without suspicion of guile or trechery, wring any more sums of money from them. Whereunto his friend replied: make them beleeue (quoth he) that you are willed by the kings letters to put them all to death: howbeit, that you will not, for pitties sake, deale so extremely with innocent persons: but that you will send them to Fez to receiue punishment or pardon at the kings pleasure. Heereupon Page  102 the kings letters were counterfeited, which the day following the captaine with a lamētable voice published vnto his two & forty prisoners. My friends (quoth he) so it is, that the king hauing receiued some sinister and wrong information, that you should go about to make a conspiracie: most firme∣ly enioineth me by these his letters, to put each one of you to death: which, though it be ful sore against my wil, yet needs I must obey my prince, if I wil not wittingly runne vpon mine owne destruction. And then shedding some fained teares: sithens (quoth he) we can vpon the sodaine deuise no better course, I thinke it most conuenient to send you with a troupe of horsemen vnto the king, whose wrath (perhaps) you may by some meanes pacifie. Whereupon the captiues growing farre more pensiue then before, recom∣mended themselues vnto God, and to the captaines clemencie, requesting his good will with many teares. And foorthwith there comes one in among them, who aduised them to make vp some round summe of money, & there∣withall to trie if they could appease the king: and seemed likewise to intreat the captaine, that he woulde by his letters stande their friend to the king. Heereunto the captiues agreeing with one voice, promised that they would giue the king a great summe of golde, and woulde most liberally reward the captaine. The captaine, as though forsooth this condition much disliked him, asked at length how much golde they ment to send the king: one saide that he woulde disburse a thousand ducates, another, that he would giue fiue hundreth, and the third, eight hundreth. But the captaine making shew, that this was too little, saide that he was loth to make signification of so small a summe vnto the king: howbeit, better it were for you (quoth the captaine) to goe your selues vnto the king, with whom perhaps you shall make a more reasonable end then you are aware of. But they fearing hard measure, if they should be caried vnto the king, were far more importunate with the captaine then before, that he would (to his power) be good vnto them. Wherefore the captaine (as though at length he had been mooued with their vehement pe∣titions) spake vnto them in this wise: heere are of you (my masters) two and fortie noble & rich persons; if you wil promise two thousand ducates a man, I will signifie on your behalfe so much vnto the king, and so I hope to per∣swade him: but if this condition will not please him, then must I needs send you to make answere for your selues. This condition they al of them yeelded vnto; howbeit with this prouizo, that euery man should giue proportiona∣blie to his wealth, and that they might haue for the paiment fifteene daies of farther respite. The twelfth day following the captaine fained, that he had receiued letters from his king, signifying that the king, for his sake, woulde shewe the captiues more fauour. The fifteenth day he had paied vnto him eightie fowre thousand ducates: neither coulde he sufficiently woonder, how in so small a towne, among two and fortie inhabitants onely, such huge sums of money could so readily be found. Then wrote he vnto his king how all matters had passed, demaunding what should be done with the gold. And so the king foorthwith sent two of his secretaries with an hundreth horse∣men Page  103 to fetch home the saide golde vnto Fez. The captiues being restored to their libertie, presented the saide captaine with horses, slaues, ciuet, and such like gifts, to the value of two thousand ducates: giuing him exceeding thankes for their libertie; and requesting him to take their presents in good woorth: for, had not their treasure beene quite consumed, they saide, they woulde haue bestowed farre greater vpon him. Wherefore, from thence forward, that region was subiect vnto the king of Fez, and to the foresaide captaine Ezzeranghi, till he was trecherously slaine by certaine Arabians. Moreouer the king receiueth from that citie, euen at this present twentie thousand ducats for yeerely tribute. I haue in this narration beene indeede somewhat more large then neede required; howbeit perhaps I did it, bicause I my selfe was present in al the expedition, and was an earnest mediatour for the citizens release: neither saw I euer (to my remembrance) a greater masse of golde, then was by subtiltie drawne from them. Yea the king himselfe neuer had so much golde in his coffers at one time: for albeit he receiueth yeerely thirtie thousand ducates, yet neuer could he store himselfe with so much at once, nor his father before him. These things were done in the yeere of the Hegeira 915. and in the yeere of our Lord 1506. And here I would haue the reader to consider, what mans industrie and wit may doe in getting of money. The King maruelled much at this summe of gold; but afterward he had greater cause to woonder at the wealth of a certaine Iewe, who payed more out of his owne purse, then all the forenamed captiues. And his riches were the cause, why the King of Fez exacted fiftie thousand ducates from the Iewes, for that they were said to fauour his enimies. I my selfe bare him companie, that went in the Kings name to receiue the sayd summe of the Iewes.

Of Efza a towne of Tedles.

THis towne standeth two miles from Tefza, and containeth almost sixe hundred families, being built vpon a little hill at the foote of mount Atlas. In this towne are many Moores and Iewes which make * Bernussi. The naturall inhabitants are either artificers or husbandmen, being in subiection to the gouernours of Tefza. Their women are excellent spinsters, wherby they are saide to gaine more then the men of the towne. Betweene this towne and Tefza runneth a certaine riuer called by the inhabitants Derne, which springing foorth of Atlas, runneth through the plaines of that region, till at length it falleth into Ommirabih. On both sides of this riuer are most beautifull and large gardens replenished with all kindes of fruits. The townesmen here are most liberall and curteous people, and will permit mer∣chants trauelling that way freely to come into their gardens, and to take thence as much fruit as they will. No people are slower then they for pay∣ing of debts: for albeit the merchants lay downe readie money to receiue Page  104 Bernussi within three moneths, yet are they sometime faine to stay an whole yeere. My selfe was in this towne when the kings armie lay in Ted∣les, and then they yeelded themselues to the king. The second time that the kings generall of his armie came vnto them, they presented him with fifteen horses, and as many slaues. Afterward they gaue him fifteene kine, in token that they were the kings loyall subiects.

Of Cithiteb.

THis towne was built by the Africans vpon an high hill, almost tenne miles westward of Efza. Well peopled it is with rich and noble inha∣bitants: and because Bernussi be here made, it is alwaies frequented with* store of merchants. The top of the said high mountaine is continually co∣uered with snow. The fields adioyning to the towne are full of vineyards and gardens, which bring foorth fruits in such abundance, that they are nought woorth to be sold in the markets. Their women are beautifull, fat, and come∣ly, being adorned with much siluer: their eies and haire are of a browne co∣lour. The inhabitants are so stout and sullen, that when the other cities of Tedles yeelded to the king, they alone stood out: yea they assembled vnder a certaine captaine an armie of a thousand horsemen, wherewith they so vexed the kings forces, that he was often in danger to haue lost al that which he had got. Afterward the king sent his brother with a new supply of men to aide his lieutenant; but he also had hard successe. At length hauing main∣tained warre for three whole yeeres, the king commanded a Iew to poyson their captaine. And so at last the king wan this citie also, in the yeere of the Hegeira 921.

Of the towne of Eithiad.

THis towne being built by the Africans vpon a certaine hillocke of At∣las, containeth to the number of three hundred families. It is walled onely towards the mountaine; for that side which respecteth the plaine, is so fortified naturally with rocks, that it seemeth not to need any wall. From Cithiteb it is about twelue miles distant. The temple of this towne is little, but most beautiful, round about which runneth a mote, in manner of a riuer. The inhabitants are wealthie and noble: they haue great store of merchants, as well townesmen as forreiners. The Iewes here inhabiting are partly artifi∣cers and partly merchants. About this towne are abundance of springs, which breaking through the rocks of the mountaine, doe fall into a certaine riuer vnder the towne. On both sides of this riuer are diuers gardens woon∣derfully replenished with grapes, figs, and walnuts. Likewise the sides of the mountaine it selfe abound greatly with oliues. Their women are no lesse beautifull then ciuil, being adorned with much siluer, and wearing fine rings vpon their fingers and armes. Their vallie is fruitfull for all kinde of graine, Page  105 but their hill is meete onely for barly, and for goates-pasture. In my time one Raoman Benguihazzan vsurped this towne, and enioied it to his dying day. My selfe was once entertained by a priest of this place, in the yeere of the Hegeira 921.

Of Seggheme a mountaine of Tedles.

ALbeit this mountaine standeth much southerly, yet is it to be accoun∣ted one of the mountaines of Tedles. Westward it beginneth from the mountaine of Tesauon, extending it selfe eastward to mount Magran, from whence the famous riuer of Ommirabih is said to take his beginning. The south part bordreth vpon mount Dedes. The inhabitants are said origi∣nally to bee descended from the people of Zanaga: they are personable, cheerefull, valiant, and warlike people. Their weapons are dartes, Turkish swords, and daggers. They sling stones likewise with great dexteritie and force. They are at continuall war with the inhabitants of Tedles, insomuch that no merchants can passe that way without publike safe-conduct, and without great expense of mony. Their houses are so homely built, that som∣time three or fower roomes are contained in one. Of goates they haue great abundance, as likewise of mules scarcely so big as asses, which range so farre into the forrest to seeke their foode, that they are often deuoured of lions. They would neuer submit themselues to any prince; for their mountaine is so rough and steepe, that it seemeth almost impregnable. In my time the same captaine which had woon the townes of Tedles went about to assaile them in like manner. Which when the mountainers vnderstood, assem∣bling a great armie, they shrowded themselues in a certaine part of the mountaine, neere which they knew their enemies would passe. And so soone as they saw all the enemies horsemen ascended vp the hill, suddenly rushing foorth, they gaue them the onset. The skirmish was not so long as bloodie: for the captaines armie being too weake for the mountainers, could neither march on, nor retire: wherefore they were constrained to fight it out by hand-blowes: many of them with their horses being throwen headlong downe the rocks, were miserably crushed in peeces: the residue were either taken or slaine, so that I thinke scarce one man of them escaped. But of all others the captiues were most miserable: for the mountainers themselues would not slay them, but deliuered them ouer to their wiues to be tormen∣ted, who, as if they had beene she-tigres or lionesses, put them to a most hor∣rible and vile death. From thencefoorth they had no traffique nor familia∣ritie with the people of Tedles, neither seemed they greatly to stand in need of their friendship (for they haue great store of barlie, of cattell, and of sweet fountaines) vnlesse it bee for that they are excluded from all trade of mer∣chandize.

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Of the mountaine called Magran.

SOmwhat beyond the foresaid mountaine of Seggheme standeth mount Magran. Southward it bordereth vpon the region of Farcala, neere vnto the Lybian desert: westward it beginneth at Seggheme, and extendeth east∣ward to the foote of mount Dedes. It is continually couered with snow. The inhabitants haue such abundance of small and great cattell that they cannot long remaine in one place together. They build their houses of the barke of certaine trees, the rooffe whereof dependeth on slender sparres, fashioned like vnto the hoops enuironing the lids of such chests or trunks, as the wo∣men of Italie, when they trauell, carrie vpon their mules. So likewise these* people transport their whole houses vp and downe by the strength of mules, till they haue found a fit place of aboad; where, so soone as they arriue, they plant their said houses, remaining there with their whole families, so long as they haue grasse sufficient to feede their cattell. Howbeit all the spring time they settle themselues in one place, making certaine low stables or cottages, & 〈◊〉 thē with the boughs of trees, which serue for their cattel to lie in a nights: and to the end that the cold may not pinch them ouermuch, they kindle certaine huge fires neere vnto their said stables, wherupon sometimes the winde so violently driueth the fire; that vnles the cattell escape by flight, they are in great danger to be consumed: and as their houses are destitute of walles, so are their 〈◊〉. They are continually molested and haunted with lions and woolues. In their apparell and customes they wholy agree with the foresaid people of Seggheme, sauing that these haue houses of bark and wood, and the other of stone. I my selfe, in the 917. yeere of the Hegeira, was in this mountaine, as I trauelled from Dara to Fez.

A description of mount Dedes.

THis high and cold mountaine greatly aboundeth with fountaines and woods. Westward it beginneth at mount Magran, extending thence almost as far as the mountaine of Adesan; and southward it bordereth vpon the plaines of Todga. The length thereof is almost fowerscore miles. Vpon the very top of this mountaine there was a citie built in ancient time, whereof a few ruinous monuments are to be seene at this present; namely certaine walles of white stone, wherein are diuers letters and wordes grauen, which the inhabitants themselues doe not vnderstand. Many are of opinion, that this citie was built long agoe by the Romans: howbeit I my selfe could neuer finde so much affirmed by any African writer, nor yet the citie it selfe mentioned. Sauing that 〈◊〉 Essacalli in a certaine storie of his maketh mention of Tedsi, which he saith is neere vnto Segel∣messe and Dara: but he declareth not whether it bee built vpon mount Dedes or no. Howbeit for mine owne part I thinke it to be the very same: Page  107 for there is no other citie in the whole region. The inhabitants of Dedes are in very deede most base people; of whom the greater part dwell in caues vn∣der the ground: their foode is barly and Elhasid, that is to say, barly meale sodden with water, and salt, which we mentioned before in our description of Hea: For heere is nothing but barly to be had. Goates and asses they haue in great abundance. The caues wherein their cattell lodge are excee∣dingly full of * Nitre: so that I verily thinke if this mountaine were neer vnto Italy, the saide Nitre woulde yeerely be woorth fiue and twentie thousand ducates. But such is their negligence and vnskilfulnes, that they are vtterly ignorant to what purposes Nitre serueth. Their garments are so rude, that they scarce couer halfe their nakednes. Their houses are very loathsome, being annoied with the stinking smell of their goates. In all this mountaine you shall finde neither castle nor walled towne: when they builde an house, they pile one stone vpon another without any morter at all, the roofe where∣of they make of certaine rubbish, like as they doe in some places of Sisa and Fabbriano: the residue (as we haue saide) do inhabite in caues, neither sawe I euer, to my remembrance, greater swarmes of fleas then among these peo∣ple. Moreouer they are trecherous and strong theeues, so giuen to stealing and quarrelling, that for one vnkinde worde they wil not onely contend, but seeke also the destruction one of another. They haue neither iudge, priest, nor any honest gouernour among them. No merchants resort vnto them: for being giuen to continuall idlenes, and not exercising any trades or han∣die-crafts, they haue nothing meet for merchants to buy. If any merchant bring any wares into their region, vnlesse he be safe conducted by their cap∣taine, he is in danger to be robbed of altogither. And if the wares serue not for their owne necessarie vses, they will exact one fourth part of them for custome. Their women are most forlorne and sluttish, going more beggerly apparelled then the men. So continual and slauish are the toiles of these wo∣men, that for miserie, the life of asses is not comparable to theirs. And, to be briefe, neuer was I so wearie of any place in all Africa, as I was of this: how∣beit in the yeere of the Hegeira 918. being commanded by one, to whom I was in dutie bound, to trauell vnto Segelmesse, I could not choose but come this way.

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IOHN LEO HIS THIRD BOOKE OF the Historie of Africa, and of the memorable things contained therein.

A most exact description of the kingdome of Fez.

THE kingdome of Fez beginneth westward at the famous riuer Ommirabih, and extendeth eastward to the riuer Muluia; northward it is enclosed partly with the Ocean, and partly with the Mediterran sea. The said kingdome of Fez is diuided into seuen prouinces; to wit, Temes∣na, the territorie of Fez, Azgar,* Elhabet, Er∣rif, Garet, and* Elchauz: euery of which pro∣uinces had in olde time a seuerall gouernour: neither indeed hath the citie of Fez alwaies beene the kings royall seate, but being built by a certaine Mahumetan apostata, was gouerned by his poste∣ritie almost an hundred and fiftie yeeres. After which time the familie of Marin got the vpper hand, who here setling their aboad, were the first that euer called Fez by the name of a kingdome: the reasons why they did so, we will declare more at large in our small treatise concerning the Mahumetan religion. But now let vs as briefly as we may, describe the foresaid seuen pro∣uinces.

Of Temesna one of the prouinces of Fez.

WEstward it beginneth at the riuer Ommirabih, and stretcheth to the riuer Buragrag eastward; the south frontire thereof bor∣dereth vpon Atlas, and the north vpon the Ocean sea. It is all ouer a plaine countrie, containing in length from west to east almost fowerscore miles, and in breadth from Atlas to the Ocean sea about threescore. This prouince hath euer almost beene the prin∣cipall of the seuen before named: for it contained to the number of fortie great townes, besides three hundred castles, all which were inhabited by Bar∣barian Africans. In the 323. yeere of the Hegeira this prouince was by a certaine heretike against the Mahumetan religion called Chemim the sonne of Mennal freed from paying of tribute. This bad fellow perswaded the peo∣ple* of Fez to yeeld no tribute nor honour vnto their prince, and himselfe he professed to be a prophet: but a while after he dealt not onely in matters of Page  109 religion, but in commonwealth-affaires also. At length waging war against the king of Fez (who was himselfe then warring with the people of Zenete) it so befell, that a league was concluded betweene them, conditionally that Chemim shoulde enioy Temesne, and that the king should containe himselfe within his signiorie of Fez, so that from thencefoorth neither should molest other. The said Chemim gouerned the prouince of Temesne about fiue and thirtie yeeres: and his successours enioyed it almost an hun∣dred yeeres after his decease. But king Ioseph hauing built Maroco, went about to bring this prouince vnder his subiection. Whereupon he sent sun∣dry Mahumetan doctors, and priestes to reclaime the gouernour thereof from his heresie, and to perswade him, if it were possible, to yeelde vnto the king by faire meanes. Whereof the inhabitants being aduertised, they con∣sulted with a certaine kinsman of the foresaid gouernour, in the citie called Anfa, to murther the king of Maroco his ambassadours: and so they did. Soone after leuying an armie of fiftie thousand men, he marched towards Maroco, intending to expell thence the familie of Luntuna, and Ioseph their king. King Ioseph hearing of this newes, was driuen into woonderfull per∣plexitie of minde. Wherefore preparing an huge and mighty armie, he staied not the comming of his enemies: but on the sudden within three daies, hauing conducted his forces ouer the riuer of Ommirabih, he entred Temesne, when as the foresaid fiftie thousand men were so dismaied at the kings armie, that they all passed the riuer Buragrag, and so fled into Fez. But the king so dispeopled and wasted Temesne, that without all remorse he put both man, woman, and childe to the sword. This armie remained in the re∣gion eight daies, in which space they so razed and demolished all the towns* and cities thereof, that there scarce remaine any fragments of them at this time. But the king of Fez on the other side hearing that the people of Te∣mesne were come into his dominions, made a truce with the tribe of Ze∣nete, and bent his great armie against the said Temesnites. And at length ha∣uing found them halfe famished neere vnto the riuer of Buragrag, he so stopped their passage on all sides, that they were constrained to run vp the craggie mountaines and thickets. At last being enuironed with the kings forces, some of them were drowned in the riuer, others were throwne downe headlong from the rocks, and the residue were miserably slaine by their ene∣mies. And for the space of ten moneths there was such hauock made among the Temesnites, that a sillie remnant of them was left aliue. But king Ioseph prince of the Luntunes returned foorthwith to Maroco for the repairing of his forces, to the end he might bid the king of Fez a battell. Howbeit Te∣mesne being bereft of her people, was left to be inhabited of wilde beastes. Neither had that prouince any new colonie, or supply of inhabitants, till that about 150. yeeres after, king Mansor returning from Tunis, brought thence certaine Arabians with him, vnto whom he gaue the possession of Temesne. And these Arabians enioyed the said prouince for fiftie yeeres, till such time as king Mansor himselfe was expelled out of his kingdome: Page  110 and then were they also expolled by the 〈◊〉, and were brought vnto extreme miserie. Afterward the kings of the familie of Marin bestowed the said prouince vpon the people of Zenete and Haoara. Hence it came to passe that the said people of Zenete and Haoara were alwaies great friends vnto the Marin familie, and were thought to haue defended them from the furie of the king of Maroco. From which time they haue peaceably enioyed Maroco, & now they are growne in lesse then an hundred yeeres so mighty, that they stand not in feare of the king of Fez. For they are able to bring threescore thousand horsemen to the field, and haue two hundred castles at their command. My selfe had great familiaritie and acquaintance with them, and therefore I will not sticke to record all memorable things which I sawe among them.

Of Anfa a towne in Temesna.

THis famous towne was built by the Romans vpon the Ocean sea shore, northward of Atlas sixtie, eastward of Azamursixtie, and westward of Rebat fortie miles. The citizens thereof were most ciuill and wealthie people: the fields thereto adioyning are exceeding fruitfull for all kinde of graine: neither doe I thinke, that any towne in all Africa is for pleasant si∣tuation comparable thereto. The plaine round about it (except it be to the sea northward) is almost fowerscore miles ouer. In olde time it was fraught with stately temples, rich ware-houses and shops, and beautifull palaces: which the monuments as yet remaining doe sufficiently testifie. They had also most large and faire gardens, out of which they gather great abundance of fruit, especially of melons, and pome-citrons euen at this day: all which are perfectly ripe by mid-Aprill. So that the inhabitants vsually carrie their fruits vnto Fez, by reason that the fruits of Fez are not so soone ripe. Their attire is trim and decent, and they haue alwaies had great traffique with the Portugals and the English. Likewise they haue many learned men among* them. Howbeit two reasons are alleaged of the destruction of this towne: first, because they were too desirous of libertie; and secondly, for that they maintained certaine gallies or foistes, wherewith they daily molested the Island of Cadiz and the Portugals. Wherefore at length the king of Portu∣gall sent a strong nauie of fiftie sailes against them, the consideration where∣of strooke such terrour into the inhabitants, that taking such goods as they could carrie, fome fled to Rebat, and others to Sela, and so their towne was* left naked to the spoile of the enemie. But the Generall of the kings fleete not knowing that they were fled, put all his forces into battell-array. How∣beit after a while being aduertised how the matter stood, he conducted his soldiers into the citie, which in one daies space they so defaced, burning the houses, and laying the walles euen with the ground, that vntill this day it hath remained voide of inhabitants. My selfe being in this place, I coulde scarce refraine from teares, when I seriously beheld the miserable ruine of Page  111 so many faire buildings and temples, whereof some monuments are as yet extant. The gardens, albeit they bring foorth some fruit, yet are they more like vnto woods then gardens. And now by reason of the king of Fez his weaknes and default, this place is fallen into so great desolation, as I vt∣terly despaire, that euer it will be inhabited againe.

Of the citie of Mansora.

THis towne was built by Mansor the king and Mahumetan patriarke of Maroco vpon a most pleasant field, being two miles distant from the Ocean sea, fiue and twenty miles from Rebat, and fiue and twenty from Anfa: it contained in times past almost fower hundred families. By this towne runneth a certaine riuer called by the inhabitants Guir, on both sides whereof in times past were most beautifull gardens, but now there are no fruits at all to be found. For vpon the surprize of Anfa the inhabitants of this towne fled vnto Rebat, fearing least they also should haue beene as∣sailed by the Portugals. Howbeit the wall of this towne remained all whole, sauing that the Arabians of Temesne brake it downe in certaine places. This towne also I could not but with great sorrow behold; for easie it were to repaire it, and to furnish it with new inhabitants, if but a few houses were saued from ruine: but such is the malice of the Arabians thereabout, that they will suffer no people to reedifie the same.

Of the towne of Nuchaila.

THis little towne called by the inhabitants Nuchaila, is built almost in the midst of Temesne. It was well peopled in times past, and then (so long as the foresaid Chemim and his successours bare rule) there were fayres yeerely holden, whereunto all the inhabitants of Temesne vsually resorted. The townesmen were exceeding wealthie; for the plaines stret∣ched almost fortie miles right foorth from each side of their towne. I red (as I remember) in a certaine storie, that they had in times past such abun∣dance of corne, as they would giue a camels burthen thereof for a paire of shooes. Howbeit when king Ioseph of Maroco destroied all the region of Temesne, this towne was laid waste, together with all the townes and cities of the same prouince: howbeit at this day certaine fragments thereof are to be seene, namely some partes of the towne-wall, and one high steeple Here also in the large and pleasant gardens you may see many vines and trees planted, which are so olde and sear, that they yeeld no fruit at all. The hus∣bandmen thereabout hauing finished their daies worke, doe lay vp their rakes and other such countrey tooles in the said steeple: supposing that by vertue of a certaine holy man which lieth there buried, no man dare re∣mooue them out of their place. I haue often seene this towne, as I trauelled betweene Rebat and Maroco.

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Of the towne of Adendum.

THis towne was situate among certaine hils almost fifteene miles from mount Atlas, and fiue and twenty miles from the towne last named. The soile neere vnto it is exceeding fruitfull for corne. Not farre from the walles thereof springeth a certaine riuer; about which place are great store of palme-trees, being but low and fruitles. The said riuer runneth through certaine vallies and rocks, where iron-mines are said to haue beene of olde,* which may seeme probable, for the earth resembleth iron in colour, and the water in taste. Here is nothing now to be seene but a few reliques and ruines of houses and pillers ouerturned: for this towne was destroied at the same time, when the whole region (as is before declared) was laid waste.

Of the towne of Tegeget.

THis towne was built by the Africans vpon the banke of Ommirabih neere vnto the high way leading from Tedles to Fez. It had in times past ciuill and wealthie inhabitants, for it stood not far from the way which passeth ouer Atlas into the deserts: hither were all the neighbour-people woont to resort for to buy corne. And albeit this towne was razed with all the residue in the prouince, yet is it after long time replanted with inhabi∣tants. Hither doe all the Arabians of Temesne bring their corne, deliuering it vnto the townesmen, to be kept. Here are no shops nor artificers at all, but certaine smithes onely, which make tooles of husbandrie and horseshooes. The townesmen are streightly inioyned by the Arabians their gouernours courteously to entertaine all strangers trauelling that way. Merchants pay custome there for each packe of cloth to the value of a riall: but for their horses and camels they giue no custome at all. Often trauelling the same way, the towne did not greatly please me, albeit the grounds about it doe plentifully abound with cattell and corne.

Of the towne called Hain Elchallu.

THis small towne standeth on a certaine plaine not farre from Man∣sora. About this towne grow abundance of wilde cherrie-trees, and of other thornie trees, bearing a round fruit not much vnlike to a cherrie, sa∣uing that it is yellow: it is somewhat bigger then an oliue, and the vtter part thereof is nothing pleasant in taste. The fennes and marishes on all sides of the towne are full of snailes and toades: which toades (as the inhabitants told me) are no whit venemous. There is not any African historiographer which maketh description or mention of this towne; because perhaps they thought it not woorthie the name of a towne, or for that it was long since destroied. Neither was it (as I coniecture) built by the Africans, but either by the Romans or some other forren people.

Page  113

A description of Rebat.

THis great and famous towne was built not many yeeres agoe by Man∣sor the king and Mahumetan patriarke of Maroco, vpon the Ocean sea shore. By the east part thereof runneth the riuer Buragrag beforenamed, and there dischargeth itselfe into the maine sea. The rocke whereon this towne is founded, standeth neere the mouth of the said riuer, hauing the riuer on the one side thereof, and the sea on the other. In building it much resem∣bleth Maroco, which Mansor willed to be a paterne thereof: sauing that it is a great deale lesse then Maroco. Some say that the reason why it was built* in this place was, for that king Mansor possessing the kingdome of Granada and a great part of Spaine besides, and considering that Maroco was so far distant, that if any warres should happen, he could not in due time send new forces against the Christians, determined to built some towne vpon the sea shore, where he and his armie might remaine all summer time. Some per∣swaded him to lie with his armie at Ceuta a towne vpon the streites of Gi∣braltar: but Mansor seeing that by reason of the barrennes of the soile he could not maintaine an armie royall for three or fower monethes in the towne of Ceuta, he caused this towne of Rebat in short space to be erected, and to be exceedingly beautified with temples, colleges, pallaces, shops, stoues, hospitals, and other such buildings. Moreouer on the south side without the walles he caused a certaine high tower like the tower of Maro∣co to be built, sauing that the winding staires were somewhat larger, inso∣much that three horses a-breast might well ascend vp: from the top whereof they might escrie ships an huge way into the sea. So exceeding is the height thereof, that I thinke there is no where the like building to be found. And to the end that greater store of artificers and merchants might hither from all places make resort, he appointed, that euery man according to his trade and occupation should be allowed a yeerely stipend: whereupon it came to passe that within few moneths, this towne was better stored with all kinde of artificers and merchants, then any towne in all Africa besides, and that because they reaped a double gaine. Here vsed Mansor with his troupes to remaine from the beginning of April, till the moneth of September. And whereas there was no water about the towne meete to be drunke (for the sea runneth ten miles vp into the riuer, and the wels likewise yeeld salt-water) Mansor caused fresh water to be conueied to the towne by certaine pipes and chanels, from a fountaine twelue miles distant. And the conducts hee made arch-wise, like vnto the conducts of Italie in many places and specially at Rome. So soone as the said water-conduct was deriued vnto the towne, he caused it to be diuided and sent into sundry places, as namely some pipes thereof to the temples, some to the colleges, others to the kings pallace, and the rest into the common cesternes, throughout all the citie. Howbeit after king Mansors death this towne grew into such decay, that scarce the tenth Page  114 part thereof now remaineth. The said notable water-conduct was vtterly for∣done in the warre betweene the Marin-familie and the successors of Man∣sor, and the famous towne it selfe decaieth euery day more then other: so that at this present a man shall hardly finde throughout the whole towne fower hundred houses inhabited; the residue are changed into fields and vineyards. About the foresaid rocke are two or three streetes with a few shops in them, which notwithstanding are in continuall danger, for they daily feare least the Portugals should surprize them; because the Portugall king often determined their ouerthrow, thinking if he might but win Rebat, that the kingdome of Fez were easie to be conquered. Howbeit the king of Fez hath alwaies endeuoured to defend the same, and strongly to fortifie it against the enemie. But comparing their former felicitie with the present alteration whereinto they are fallen, I cannot but greatly lament their mise∣rable case.

Of the towne of Sella.

THis towne was built by the Romans vpon the riuer of Buragrag, two miles from the Ocean sea, and a mile from Rebat: from whence, if a man will goe to the sea, he must take Rebat in his way. This towne also was destroied when (as is aforesaid) king Ioseph spoyled all Temesne. Howbeit afterward king Mansor caused it to be walled round about, and built therein a faire hospitall and a stately pallace, into which his soldiers might at their pleasure retire themselues. Here likewise he erected a most beautifull tem∣ple,* wherein he caused a goodly hall or chappell to be set vp, which was curi∣ously carued, and had many faire windowes about it: and in this hall (when he perceiued death to seaze vpon him) he commanded his subiects to 〈◊〉 his corpes. Which being done, they laid one marble-stone ouer his head and another ouer his feete, whereon sundry 〈◊〉 were engrauen. After him likewise all the honourable personages of his familie and blood, chose to be interred in the same hall. And so did the kings of the Marin-familie, so long as their commonwealth prospered. My selfe on a time entring the same hall, beheld there thirtie monuments of noble and great personages, and diligently wrote out all their epitaphes: this I did in the yeere of the Hegeira 915.

Of the towne called Mader Avuam.

THis towne was built in my time by a certaine treasurer of the Mahu∣metan prelate Abdulmumen, vpon the banke of Buragrag. Some say it* was built onely for yron-mines. From mount Atlas it is ten miles distant, and betweene it and Atlas are certaine shadie woods, full of terrible lions* and leopards. So long as the founders posteritie gouerned this towne, it was well stored with people, with faire buildings, temples, innes, and hospitals: but, the Marin-familie preuailing daily more and more, it was at length by Page  115 them vtterly destroyed. Part of the inhabitants were slaine, and part taken prisoners, and the residue by flight escaped to Sella. The king of Maroco sent forces to succour the towne, but the citizens being vanquished before their comming, were constrained to forsake the same, and to yeeld it vnto the Marin-soldiers. Howbeit the king of Maroco his captaine comming vpon the Marin-captaine with round forces, draue him and his foorth of the towne, and tooke possession thereof himselfe. At length the king of the said Marin-familie marching with an armie against Maroco, tooke his iourney by this towne: whereat the gouernour being dismaied left the said towne, and before the kings approch betooke himselfe to flight. But the king put∣ting all the inhabitants to the sword, left the towne it selfe so defaced and desolate, that by report it hath lien dispeopled euer since. The towne-walles and certaine steeples are as yet to be seene. My selfe sawe this towne, when the king of Fez hauing concluded a league with his cozen, tooke his iour∣ney to Thagia, for to visite the sepulchre of one accounted in his life time an holy man, called*Seudi Buhasa: which was in the yeere of the Hegeira 920. Anno Dom. 1511.

Of Thagia a towne in Temesne.

THis little towne was in ancient time built by the Africans among cer∣taine hils of mount Atlas. The aire is extreme cold, and the soile drie and barren. It is enuironed with huge woods, which are full of lions and other cruell beasts. Their scarcitie of corne is sufficiently counteruailed with abundance of hony and goates. Ciuilitie they haue none at all; and their houses are most rudely built; for they haue no vse of lime. In this towne is visited the sepulchre of one accounted for a most holy man, who is reported in the time of Habdulmumen, to haue wrought many miracles against the furie of lions: whereupon he was reputed by many as a great prophet. I re∣member that I read in a certaine writer of that nation commonly called Et∣dedle, a whole catalogue of the said holy mans miracles: which whether he wrought by arte-magique, or by some woonderfull secret of nature, it is al∣together vncertaine. Howbeit his great fame and honorable reputation is the cause why this towne is so well fraught with inhabitants. The people of Fez hauing solemnized their passeouer, doe yeerely frequent this towne to visite the said sepulchre, and that in such huge numbers, that you woulde esteeme them to be an whole armie; for euery principall man carries his tent and other necessaries with him: and so you shall see sometime an hun∣dred tents and sometimes more in that company. Fifteene daies they are in performing of that pilgrimage; for Thagia standeth from Fez almost an hundred and twenty miles. My selfe being a childe, went thither on pilgri∣mage oftentimes with my father; as likewise being growne vp to mans estate, I repaired thither as often, making supplication to be deliuered from the danger of lions.

Page  116

Of the towne of Zarfa.

THis towne the Africans built vpon a certaine large and beau∣tifull plaine, watred with pleasant riuers, and christall-foun∣taines. About the ancient bounds of this citie you may behold many shrubs, together with fig-trees and cherrie-trees, which beare such cherries, as at Rome are called Marene. Here are likewise certaine thornie trees, the fruit whereof is by the Arabians called Rabich. Somewhat lesser it is then a cherie, resembling in taste the fruit called Ziziphum, or Iu∣juba. Here also may you finde great store of wilde palme-trees, from which they gather a kinde of fruit like vnto Spanish oliues, sauing that the stone or 〈◊〉 is greater, and not so pleasant in taste: before they be ripe they taste somewhat like vnto Seruice-apples. This towne was destroied when king Ioseph aforesaid spoiled Temesne. Now the Arabians of Temesne sow their 〈◊〉 where the towne stood, with great increase and gaine.

Of the territorie of Fez.

WEstward it beginneth at the riuer of Buragrag, and stretcheth eastward to the riuer called Inauen: which two riuers are al∣most a hundred miles distant asunder. Northward it borde∣reth vpon the riuer* Subu, and southward vpon the foote of Atlas. The soile both for abundance of corne, fruits, and cat∣tell seemeth to be inferiour to none other. Within this prouince you shall see many exceeding great villages, which may for their bignes, not vnfitly be called townes. The plaines of this region haue beene so wasted with for∣mer warres, that very few inhabitants dwell vpon them, except certaine poore silly Arabians, some of whom haue ground of their owne, and some possesse ground in common, either with the citizens of Fez, or with the king, or else with some 〈◊〉. But the fields of Sala and Mecnase are tilled by other Arabians of better account, and are for the most part subiect to the king of Fez. And now those things which are woorthy of memorie in this region let vs here make report of.

Of the citie or towne of Sella.

THis most ancient citie was built by the Romans, and sacked by the Gothes. And afterward when the Mahumetans armie were entred into the same region, the Gothes gaue it to Tarick one of their captaines. But euer since the time that Fez was built, Sela hath beene subiect vnto the gouernours thereof. It is most pleasantly situate vpon the Ocean sea-shore, within halfe a mile of Rebat; both which townes the riuer Buragrag separa∣teth insunder. The buildings of this towne carrie a shew of antiquitie on Page  117 them, being artificially carued and stately supported with marble pillers. Their temples are most beautifull, and their shops are built vnder large por∣ches. And at the end of euery row of shops is an arch, which (as they say) is to diuide one occupation frō another. And (to say all in a word) here is no∣thing wanting, which may be required either in a most honourable citie, or in a flourishing commonwealth. Moreouer hither resort all kinde of merchants both Christians and others. Here the Genowaies, Venetians,* English, and lowe Dutch vsed to traffique. In the 670. yeere of the Hegeira this towne was surprized by a certaine Castilian captaine, the inhabitants* being put to flight, and the Christians enioying the citie. And when they had kept it ten daies, being on the sudden assailed by Iacob the first king of the Marin-familie (who could not, they thought, surcease his warre against Tremizen) they were put to the woorst, the greater part being slaine, and the residue put to flight. From thencefoorth that prince fauoured of all his sub∣iects, enioyed the kingdome, after whom lineally succeeded those of his owne race and blood. And albeit this towne was in so few daies recouered from the enemie; yet a worlde it was to see, what a woonderfull altera∣tion both of the houses and of the state of gouernment happened. Many houses of this towne are left desolate, especially neere the towne-walles: which, albeit they are most stately and curiously built, yet no man there is that will inhabit them. The grounds adioyning vpon this towne are sandie: neither are they fit for corne, but for cotton-wooll in diuers places very pro∣fitable. The inhabitants, diuers of them, doe weaue most excellent cotton. Here likewise are made very fine combes, which are sold in all the kingdome of Fez, for the region thereabout yeeldeth great plenty of box, and of other wood fit for the same purpose. Their gouernment is very orderly and dis∣creet euen vntill this day: for they haue most learned iudges, vmpires, and deciders of doubtfull cases in lawe. This towne is frequented by many rich merchants of Genoa, whom the king hath alwaies had in great regarde; be∣cause he gaineth much yeerely by their traffique. The said merchants haue their aboad and diet, partly here at Sella, and partly at Fez: from both which towns they mutually helpe the traffique one of another. These Genowaies I found in their affaires of merchandize to be exceeding liberall: for they will spend frankly to get a courtiers fauour, not so much for their owne priuate gaine, as to be esteemed bountifull by strangers. In my time there was an ho∣norable* gentlemā of Genoa in the king of Fez his court, called Messer Tho∣maso di Marino, a man both learned & wise, & highly reputed of by the king. This man hauing continued almost thirtie yeeres in the Fessan court, hee there deceased, and requesting on his death-bed to haue his corpes interred at Genoa, the king commanded the same to be transported thither. After his decease he left many sonnes in the Fessan kings court, who all of them proo∣ued rich, and were greatly fauoured by the king.

Page  118

Of the towne called Fanzara.

THis towne being not very large, was built by a certaine king of the familie called Muachidin, on a beautiful plaine almost ten miles from Sella. The soile there abouts yeeldeth corne in great plenty. Without the towne walles are very many cleere fountaines' and wels, which Albu∣chesen* the king of Fez caused there to be digged. In the time of Abusaid the last king of the Marin-familie, his cozen called Sahid was taken by Habdilla the king of Granada; whereupon by letters he requested his cozen the king of Fez to send him a certaine summe of money required by the king of Gra∣nada for his ransome. Which when the 〈◊〉 king refused to yeeld vnto, Habdilla restored his prisoner to libertie, and sent him towardes Fez to de∣stroy both the citie and the king. Afterward Sahid, with the helpe of certaine* wilde Arabians besieged Fez for seuen yeeres together; in which space most of the townes, villages, and hamlets throughout the whole kingdome were destroied. But at length such a pestilence inuaded Sahids forces, that him∣selfe, with a great part of his armie, in the* 918. yeere of the Hegeira, died thereof. Howbeit those desolate townes neuer receiued from thencefoorth any new inhabitants, especially Fanzara, which was giuen to certaine Ara∣bian captaines, that came to assist Sahid.

Of the towne of Mahmora.

THis towne was built vpon the mouth of the great riuer Subu by a cer∣taine king of the Muachidin-familie, being almost halfe a mile distant from the sea, and about twelue miles from Sella. The places neere vnto it are sandie and barren. It was built (they say) of purpose to keepe the ene∣mies from entring the mouth of the said riuer. Not farre from this towne standeth a mighty wood; the trees whereof beare a kinde of nuts or acornes about the bignes of Damascen-plums, being sweeter in taste then chest∣nuts. Of which nuts certaine Arabians, dwelling neer vnto the place, conuey* great plenty vnto the citie of Fez, and reape much gaine thereby: howbeit in going to gather this fruit, vnles they take good heede vnto themselues, they are in great danger of the most cruell and deuouring lions in all Afri∣ca, which there oftentimes doe seaze vpon them. This towne a hundred and twenty yeeres agoe was razed in the foresaid warre of Sahid against the king of Fez, nothing but a few ruines thereof remaining, whereby it appeereth* to haue beene of no great bignes. In the 921. yeere of the Hegeira the king of Portugal sent an armie to build a forte in the foresaid riuers mouth; which they accordingly attempted to doe. But hauing laide the foundations, and reared the walles a good height, the king of Fez his brother so defeated them of their purpose, that he slue of them in one night almost three thou∣sand in maner following: on a certaine morning before sun-rise three thou∣sand Page  119 Portugals marching towards the king of Fez his campe, determined to bring thence all the ordinance and field-peeces vnto their new-erected fort: howbeit most rashly and inconsiderately, themselues being but three thou∣sand, and the kings armie containing fiftie thousand footemen, and fower thousand horsemen. And yet the Portugals hoped so slyly and closely to performe this attempt, that before the Moores were ready to pursue them, they should conuey all their ordinance vnto the forte which was two miles distant. The Moores which kept the ordinance being seuen thousand men, were all asleepe when the Portugals came: whereupon the Portugals had so good successe, that they had carried the ordinance almost a mile, before the enemie was aware thereof. But at last, some rumour or alarme being gi∣uen in the Moores campe, they all betooke themselues to armes, and fierce∣ly pursued the Portugals, who likewise arranged their whole companie into battell-array. And albeit the enemie enuironed them on all sides; yet they made such stout and valiant resistance, that they had all escaped to their forte in safetie, had not certaine villains in the king of Fez his armie cried out amaine in the Portugall toong: Hold your hands (fellow soldiers) and throw downe your weapons, for the kings brother will make a truce. Which the Portugals no sooner yeelded vnto, but the sauage and merciles Moores put them euery one to the sword, sauing three or fower onely, who were sa∣ued at the request of a captaine in the Moores campe. The Portugals Gene∣rall being sore dismaied with this slaughter (for thereby he had lost all his principal soldiers) craued aide of a certaine other captaine, which by chance arriued there with a mightie fleete, being accompanied with a great number of noblemen and gentlemen. Howbeit, he was so hindred by the Moores (who daily did him all the villanie they could, and sunke diuers of his ships) that he was not able to performe that which he desired. In the meane space newes was published among the Portugals, of the king of Spaines death; whereupon diuers ships were prouided, and many Portugals were sent into Spaine. Likewise the captaine of the said new forte seeing himselfe destitute of all succour, leauing the forte, embarked himselfe in those ships, which then lay vpon the riuer. But the greatest part of the fleete were cast away at their setting foorth, and the residue, to escape the Moores shot, ran them∣selues a-ground on the flats and shouldes of the riuer, and were there mise∣rably slaine by the Moores. Many of their ships were here burnt, and their ordinance sunke in the sea. So many Christians were then slaine (some say* to the number of ten thousand) that the sea-water in that place continued red with their blood for three daies after. Soone after the Moores tooke vp fower hundred great peeces of brasse out of the sea. This huge calamitie be∣fell the Portugals for two causes: first because they would with such a small number make so rash an assault vpon the Moores, whom they knew to be so strong: and secondly, whereas the Portugall-king might at his owne cost haue sent another fleete for a new supply, he would by no meanes ioine his owne people and Castilians together. For by reason of the diuersitie of Page  120 counsels and of people, there is nothing more pernicious then for an armie to consist of two nations: yea the Moores certainly expect the vpper hand, when they are to fight with such an armie. I my selfe was present in the fore∣said* warre, and sawe each particular accident, a little before my voyage to Constantinople.

Of the towne called Tefelfelt.

THis towne is situate vpon a sandie plaine, fifteene miles eastward of Mahmora, and almost twelue miles from the Ocean sea. Not far from this towne runneth a certaine riuer, on both sides whereof are thicke woods haunted with more fierce and cruell lions, then the last before mentioned,* which greatly endanger those trauellers that haue occasion to lodge there∣about. Without this towne, vpon the high way to Fez, standeth an olde cot∣tage with a plancherd chamber therein: here the mulettiers and carriers are said to take vp their lodging; but the doore of the said cottage they stop as sure as they can with boughes and thornes. Some affirme, that this rotten cottage (while the towne was inhabited) was a most stately inne. But it was defaced in the foresaid war of Sahid.

A description of Mecnase.

THis towne was so called after the name of the Mecnasites who were the founders thereof. From Fez it is 36. miles, about fiftie from Sella, and from Atlas almost 15. miles distant. It is exceeding rich, and containeth families to the number of six thousand. The inhabitants hereof while they dwelt in the fields liued a most peaceable life: howbeit at length they fell to dissension among themselues, and the weaker part hauing all their cattell ta∣ken from them, and hauing nothing in the fields to maintaine their estaste, agreed among themselues to build this citie of Mecnase in a most beauti∣full plaine. Neere vnto this towne runneth a little riuer: and within three miles thereof are most pleasant gardens replenished with all manner of fruits. Quinces there are of great bignes, and of a most fragrant smell; and pomegranates likewise, which being very great and most pleasant in taste, haue no stones within them, and yet they are sold exceeding cheape. Like∣wise here are plentie of damascens, of white plums, and of the fruite called Iujuba, which being dried in the sunne, they eate in the spring, and carrie a great number of them to Fez. They haue likewise great store of figs and grapes, which are not to be eaten but while they are greene & new: for their figs being dried become so brittle, that they waste all to powder, and their grapes when they are made raisins, prooue vnsauorie. Peaches and oranges they haue in so great quantitie, that they make no store of them: but their limons are waterish and vnpleasant. Oliues are sold among them for a duc∣kat and a halfe the Cantharo, which measure containeth a hundred pounds Page  121 Italian. Moreouer their fields yeeld them great plentie of hempe and flaxe, which they sell at Fez and Sela. In this towne are most stately and beautifull temples, three colleges, and ten bath-stoues. Euery monday they haue a great market without the towne-walles, whereunto the bordering Arabians doe vsually resort. Here are oxen, sheepe, and other such beastes to be sold: butter and wooll are here plentifull and at an easie rate. In my time the king bestowed this towne vpon a certaine noble man of his, where as much fruits are reaped as in the third part of the whole kingdome of Fez. This towne hath beene so afflicted by warres, that the yeerely tribute thereof hath beene diminished sometime fortie thousand, and fiftie thousand duckats, and som∣times more: and I haue red, that it hath beene besieged for sixe or seuen yeeres together. In my time the gouernour thereof the king of Fez his co∣zen, relying vpon the fauour of the people, rebelled against his kinsman and soueraigne. Whereupon the Fessan king with a great armie besieged the towne two moneths together, and, because it would not yeeld, so wasted and destroied all the countrie thereabout, that the gouernour lost by that means fiue and twentie thousand duckats of yeerely reuenue. What then shall we thinke of the sixe and seuen yeeres siege before mentioned? At length those* citizens which fauoured the king of Fez opened the gates, and stoutly resi∣sting the contrarie faction, gaue the king and his soldiers entrance. Thus by their meanes the king wan the citie, carrying home to Fez the rebellious gouernour captiue, who within fewe daies escaped from him. This most strong and beautifull citie hath many faire streetes, whereinto by conducts from a fountaine three miles distant, is conueied most sweet and holesome water, which serueth all the whole citie. The mils are two miles distant from the towne. The inhabitants are most valiant, warlike, liberall, and ciuill peo∣ple, but their wits are not so refined as others: some of them are merchants, some artificers, and the residue gentlemen. They count it vnseemely for any man to send an horse-lode of seede to his husbandman or farmer. They are at continuall iarre with the citizens of Fez; but whereupon this dissension of theirs should arise, I cannot well determine. Their gentlemens wiues ne∣uer goe foorth of the doores but onely in the night season, and then also they must be so vailed and muffeled that no man may see them: so great is the ielousie of this people. This towne is so durtie in the spring-time, that it would irke a man to walke the streetes.

Of a towne called Gemiha Elchmen.

THis ancient towne standeth on a plaine neere vnto certaine baths, be∣ing distant southward of Mecnase fifteene miles, westard of Fez thir∣tie, and from Atlas about ten miles. By this towne lieth the common high way from Fez to Tedle. The fielde of this towne was possessed by certaine Arabians, and the towne it selfe vtterly destroied in the war of Sahid. How∣beit in certaine places the walles are yet remaining, and diuers towers and temples standing without roofes.

Page  122

Of the towne called Cannis Metgara.

THis towne was built by certaine Africans in the field of Zuaga almost fifteene miles westward from Fez. Without this towne for two miles together were most pleasant and fruitfull gardens: but by the cruell warre of Sahid all was laide waste; and the place it selfe remained void of inhabitauts an hundred and twenty yeeres. Howbeit when part of the people of Gra∣nada came ouer into Africa, this region began to be inhabited anew. And whereas the Granatines are great merchants of silke, they caused, for the breeding of silkewormes, great store of white mulberrie trees to be brought hither. Here likewise they planted abundance of sugar-canes, which prosper not so well in this place as in the prouince of Andaluzia. In times past the inhabitants of this place were very ciuill people, but in our time they haue not beene so, by reason that all of them exercise husbandrie.

Of the towne of Banibasil.

THis towne was built by the Africans vpon a certaine small riuer iust in the mid way betweene Mecnase and Fez, being distant from Fez about eighteene miles westward. Out of their fields many riuers take their originall, which fieldes are by the Arabians sowen all ouer with barlie and hempe: neither indeed will the soile yeeld any other commoditie, both by reason of the barrennes, and also for that it is for the most part ouerflowed with water. Whatsoeuer commoditie ariseth out of this place redoundeth to the priestes of the principall Mahumetan temple in Fez, and it amoun∣teth almost yeerely to twenty thousand duckats. Here also in times past were most large, pleasant, and fruitfull gardens, as appeereth by the monu∣ments and reliques thereof, howbeit they were, like other places, laide waste by the war of Sahid. The towne it selfe remained destitute of inhabitants an hundred and ten yeeres; but as the king of Fez returned home from Duc∣cala, he commanded part of his people to inhabite the same: albeit their in∣ciuilitie made them loth so to doe.

Of Fez the principall citie of all Barbarie, and of the founders thereof.

FEz was built in the time of one Aron a Mahumetan patriarke, in the yeere of the Hegeira 185. and in the yeere of our Lord 786. by a certaine heretike against the religion of Ma∣humet. But why it should so be called some are of opinion, because when the first foundations thereof were digged, there was found some quantitie of golde, which mettall in the Arabian lan∣guage is called Fez. Which etymologie seemeth to me not improbable, Page  123 albeit some would haue it so called from a certaine riuer of that name. But howsoeuer it be, we leaue that to be discussed by others, affirming for an vn∣doubted truth, that the founder of this citie was one Idris, being the foresaid Aron his neere kinsman. This Idris ought rather to haue beene Mahumetan* patriarke, because he was nephew vnto Hali the cozen-german of Mahumet, who married Falerna Mahumets owne daughter, so that Idris both by father and mother was of Mahumets linage: but Aron being nephew vnto one Habbus the vncle of Mahumet, was of kinred onely by the fathers side How∣beit both of them were excluded from the said patriarkship for certaine cau∣ses mentioned in the African chronicles, although Aron vsurped the same by deceit. For Arons vncle being a most cunning and craftie man, and fai∣ning himselfe to beare greatest fauour vnto the familie of Hali, and to bee most desirous, that the patriarkship should light thereon, sent his ambassa∣dours almost throughout the whole world. Whereupon the dignitie was translated from Vmeve to Habdulla Seffec the first patriarke. Which, Vmeve being informed of, waged warre against the familie of Hali, and so preuailed, that some of them he chased into Asia, and some into India. Howbeit an ancient religious man of the same familie remained still aliue at Elmadina, who being very olde, no whit regarded the dignitie. But this ancient sire left behinde him two sonnes, who when they were come to mans estate, grew in∣to so great fauour with the people of Elmadin, that they were chased thence by their enemies; the one being taken & hanged; and the other (whose name was Idris) escaping into Mauritania. This Idris dwelling vpon mount Zaron about thirtie miles from Fez, gouerned not onely the commonwealth, but matters of religion also: and all the region adiacent paid him tribute. At length Idris deceasing without lawfull issue, left one of his maides big with childe, which had beene turned from the Gothes religion to the Moores. Being deliuered of her sonne, they called him after his fathers name, Idris. This childe the inhabitants chusing for their prince, caused him to be most carefully brought vp: and as he grew in yeeres, to the end they might traine him vp in feates of chiualrie, they appointed one Rasid a most valiant and skilfull captaine to instruct him. Insomuch, that while he was but fifteene* yeeres of age, he grew famous for his valiant actes and stratagems, and be∣gan woonderfully to inlarge his dominions. Wherefore his troupes and familie increasing euery day more and more, he set his minde vpon buil∣ding of a citie, and changing of his habitation. And so he sent for cunning builders into all nations, who hauing diligently perused all places in the region, at last made choise of that where the citie of Fez now standeth. For here they found great store of fountaines, and a faire riuer, which springing foorth of a plaine not far of, runneth pleasantly almost eight miles amidst the little hils, till at length it casteth itselfe vpon another plaine. Southward of the place they found a wood, which they knew would be right commodi∣ous for the towne. Here therefore vpon the east banke of the said riuer, they built a towne containing three thousand families: neither omitted they Page  124 ought at al which might be required in a flourishing commonwealth. After the decease of Idris, his sonne erected another towne directly ouer against the foresaid, on the other side of the riuer. But in processe of time either towne so encreased, that there was but a small distance betweene them: for the gouernours of each laboured might and maine to augment their owne iurisdictions. An hundred and fowerscore yeeres after, there fell out great dissension and ciuill warre betweene these two cities, which by report con∣tinued an hundred yeeres together. At length Ioseph king of Maroco of the Luntune-familie, conducting an huge armie against both these princes, tooke them prisoners, carried them home vnto his dominions, and put them to a most cruell death. And he so vanquished the citizens, that there were slaine of them thirtie thousand. Then determined king Ioseph to re∣duce those two townes into firme vnitie and concord: for which cause, ma∣king a bridge ouer the riuer, and beating downe the walles of either towne right against it, he vnited both into one, which afterward he diuided into twelue regions or wardes. Now let vs make report of all such memorable things as are there to be seene * at this day.

A most exact description of the citie of Fez.

A World it is to see, how large, how populous, how well-forti∣fied and walled this citie is. The most part thereof standeth vpon great and little hils: neither is there any plaine ground but onely in the midst of the citie. The riuer entreth the towne in two places, for it is diuided into a double branch, one whereof runneth by new Fez, that is, by the south side of the towne, and another commeth in at the west side. And so almost infinitely dispersing it selfe into the citie, it is deriued by certaine conducts and chanels vnto eue∣ry temple, college, inne, hospitall, and almost to euery priuate house. Vnto the temples are certaine square conducts adioined, hauing celles and recep∣tacles round about them; each one of which hath a cocke, whereby water is conueied through the wall into a trough of marble. From whence flowing into the sinks and gutters, it carrieth away all the filth of the citie into the riuer. In the midst of each square conduct standeth a lowe cesterne, being three cubites in depth, fower in bredth, and twelue in length: and the water is conueied by certaine pipes into the foresaid square conducts, which are almost an hundred and fiftie in number. The most part of the houses are built of fine bricks and stones curiously painted. Likewise their bay-win∣dowes and portals are made of partie-coloured bricke, like vnto the stones of Majorica. The roofes of their houses they adorne with golde, azure, and other excellent colours, which roofes are made of wood, and plaine on the top, to the end that in summer-time carpets may be spred vpon them, for here they vse to lodge by reason of the exceeding heate of that countrie. Some houses are of two and some of three stories high, whereunto they Page  125 make fine staires, by which they passe from one roome to another vnder the same roofe: for the middle part of the house is alwaies open or vncouered, hauing some chambers built on the one side, and some on the other. The chamber-doores are very high and wide: which in rich mens houses are fra∣med of excellent and carued wood. Each chamber hath a presse curiously painted and varnished belonging thereunto, being as long as the chamber it selfe is broad: some will haue it very high, and others but sixe handfuls in height, that they may set it on the tester of a bed. All the portals of their houses are supported with bricke-pillers finely plaistered ouer, except some which stand vpon pillers of marble. The beames and transoms vpholding their chambers are most curiously painted and carued. To some houses like∣wise belong certaine square cesternes, containing in bredth sixe or seuen cubites, in length ten or twelue, and in height but sixe or seuen handfuls, be∣ing all vncouered, and built of bricks trimly plaistered ouer. Along the sides of these cesternes are certaine cocks, which conuey the water into marble∣troughes, as I haue seene in many places of Europe. When the foresaide conducts are full of water, that which floweth ouer, runneth by certaine se∣cret pipes and conueiances into the cesternes: and that which ouerfloweth the cesternes, is carried likewise by other passages into the common sinks and gutters, and so into the riuer. The said cesternes are alwaies kept sweete and cleane, neither are they 〈◊〉 but onely in summer-〈◊〉, when men, women, and children bathe themselues therein. Moreouer on the tops of their houses they vsually build a turret with many pleasant roomes therein, whither the women, for recreations sake, when they are wearie of working, retire themselues; from whence they may see well-nigh all the citie ouer. Of Mahumetan temples and oratories there are almost seuen hundred in* this towne, fiftie whereof are most stately and sumptuously built, hauing their conducts made of marble and other excellent stones vnknowen to the Italians; and the chapiters of their pillers be artificially adorned with pain∣ting and caruing. The tops of these temples, after the fashion of Christian churches in Europe, are made of ioises and planks: but the pauement is co∣uered with mats which are so cunningly sowed together, that a man cannot see the bredth of a finger vncouered. The walles likewise on the inner side are lined a mans height with such mats. Moreouer, each temple hath a turret or steeple, from whence certaine are appointed with a lowd voice to call the people at their set-time of praier. Euery temple hath one onely priest to say seruice therin; who hath the bestowing of all reuenues belōging to his owne temple, as occasion requireth: for thereby are maintained lampes to burne in the night, and porters to keepe the doores are paid their wages out of it, and so likewise are they that call the people to ordinarie praiers in the night season: for those which crie from the said towers in the day-time haue no wages, but are onely released from all tributes and exactions. The chiefe* Mahumetan temple in this towne is called Caruven, being of so incredible a bignes, that the circuit thereof and of the buildings longing vnto it, is a Page  126 good mile and a halfe about. This temple hath one and thirtie gates or por∣tals of a woonderfull greatnes and height. The roofe of this temple is in length 150. and in bredth about fowerscore Florentine cubites. The turret or steeple, from whence they crie amaine to assemble the people to∣gither, is exceedingly high; the bredth whereof is supported with twentie, and the length with thirtie pillers. On the east, west, and north sides, it hath certaine walkes or galleries, fortie cubites in length, and thirtie in bredth. Vnder which galleries there is a cell or storehouse, wherein oile, candles, mats, and other such necessaries for the temple are laid vp. Euery night in this temple are burnt nine hundred lightes; for euery arch hath a seuerall lampe, especially those which extend through the mid-quire. Some ar∣ches there are that haue 120. candles apeece: there are likewise certaine brasse-candlestickes so great and with so many sockets, as they will holde each one fifteene hundred candles: and these candlestickes are reported to haue beene made of bels, which the king of Fez in times past tooke from Christians. About the wals of the said temple are diuers pulpits, out of which those that are learned in the Mahumetan lawe instruct the people. Their winter-lectures begin presently after sun-rise, and continue the space of an hower. But their summer-lectures holde on from the sunne going downe, till an hower and a halfe within night. And here they teach as well morall philosophie as the law of Mahumet. The summer-lectures are per∣formed by certaine priuate and obscure persons; but in winter such onely are admitted to read, as be reputed their greatest clerkes. All which readers and professours are yeerely allowed most liberall stipends. The priest of this great temple is inioined onely to read praiers, and faithfully to distribute almes among the poore. Euery festiuall day he bestoweth all such corne and money as he hath in his custodie, to all poore people, according to their neede. The treasurer or collector of the reuenues of this church hath euery day a duckat for his pay. Likewise he hath eight notaries or clerkes vnder him; euery one of which gaineth sixe duckats a moneth: and other sixe clerks who receiue the rent of houses, shops, and other such places as be∣long to the temple, hauing for their wages the twentith part of all such rents and duties as they gather. Moreouer there belong to this temple twentie factors or bailies of husbandrie, that without the citie-walles haue an eie to the labourers, plowemen, vine-planters, and gardeners, and that prouide them things necessarie: their gaine is three duckats a moneth. Not far from the citie are about twentie lime-kils, and as many bricke-kils, seruing for the reparation of their temple, and of all houses thereto belonging. The reue∣nues* of the said temple daily receiued, are two hundred duckats a day; the better halfe whereof is laid out vpon the particulars aforesaid. Also if there be any temples in the citie destitute of liuing, they must all be maintained at the charges of this great temple: and then that which remaineth after all expences, is bestowed for the behoofe of the commonwealth: for the peo∣ple receiue no reuenues at all. In our time the king commanded the priest Page  127 of the said temple to lend him an huge summe of money, which he neuer repaied againe. Moreouer in the citie of Fez are two most stately colleges, of which diuers roomes are adorned with curious painting; all their beames are carued, their walles consisting both of marble and freestone. Some col∣leges here are which containe an hundred studies, some more, and some fewer, all which were built by diuers kings of the Marin-familie. One there is among the rest most beautifull and admirable to behold, which was ere∣cted by a certaine king called Habu Henon. Here is to be seene an excellent fountaine of marble, the cesterne whereof containeth two pipes. Through this college runneth a little streame in a most cleere and pleasant chanell, the brims and edges whereof are workmanly framed of marble, and stones of Majorica. Likewise here are three cloysters to walke in, most curiously and artificially made, with certaine eight-square pillers of diuers colours to support them. And betweene piller and piller the arches are beautifully ouercast with golde, azure, and diuers other colours; and the roofe is very artificially built of wood. The sides of these cloysters are so close, that they which are without cannot see such as walke within. The walles round about as high as a man can reach, are adorned with plaister-worke of Majorica. In many places you may finde certaine verses, which declare what yeere the college was built in, together with many epigrams in the founders com∣mendation. The letters of which verses are very great and blacke, so that they may be red a far off. This college-gates are of brasse most curiously carued, and so are the doores artificially made of wood. In the chappell of this college standeth a certaine pulpit mounted nine staires high, which staires are of iuorie and eben. Some affirme, that the king hauing built this college, was desirous to knowe how much money he had spent in building it; but after he had perused a leafe or two of his account-booke, finding the summe of fortie thousand duckats, he rent it asunder, and threw it into the foresaid little riuer, adding this sentence out of a certaine Arabian writer: Each pretious and amiable thing, though it costeth deere, yet if it be beau∣tifull, it cannot choose but be good cheape: neither is any thing of too high a price, which pleaseth a mans affection. Howbeit a certaine treasurer of the kings, making a particular account of all the said expences, found that this excellent building stood his master in 480000. duckats. The other colleges of Fez are somwhat like vnto this, hauing euery one readers and professors, some of which read in the forenoone, and some in the afternoone. In times past the students of these colleges had their apparell and victuals allowed them for seuen yeeres, but now they haue nothing gratìs but their chamber. For the warre of Sahid destroied many possessions, whereby learning was* maintained; so that now the greatest college of al hath yeerely but two hun∣dred, and the second but an hundred duckats for the maintenance of their professors. And this perhaps may be one reason, among many, why the go∣uernment not onely of Fez, but of all the cities in Africa, is so base. Now these colleges are furnished with no schollers but such as are strangers, and Page  128 liue of the citie-almes: and if any citizens dwell there, they are not aboue two or three at the most. The professor being ready for his lecture, some of his auditors readeth a text, whereupon the said professor dilateth, and expla∣neth obscure and difficult places. Sometimes also the schollers dispute be∣fore their professor.

A description of the hospitals and bathes in the citie of Fez.

MAny hospitals there are in Fez, no whit inferiour, either for building or beautie, vnto the foresaid colleges. For in them whatsoeuer stran∣gers came to the citie were intertained at the common charge for three daies together. There are likewise as faire and as stately hospitals in the sub∣urbes. In times past their wealth was maruellous great; but in the time of Sahids warre, the king standing in neede of a great summe of money, was counselled by some of his greedy courtiers to sell the liuings of the said hos∣pitals. Which when the people would in no case yeeld vnto, the kings ora∣tour or speaker, perswaded them that all those liuings were giuen by his ma∣iesties predecessours, and therefore (because when the warres were ended, they should soone recouer all againe) that it were far better for them by that meanes to pleasure their soueraigne, then to let his kingly estate fall into so great danger. Whereupon all the said liuings being sold, the king was pre∣uented by vntimely and sudden death before he could bring his purpose to effect: and so these famous hospitals were depriued of all their maintenance. The poore indeede and impotent people of the city are at this day relieued; but no strangers are 〈◊〉, saue only learned men or gentlemen. How∣beit there is another hospital for the releefe of sick & diseased strangers, who haue their diet onely allowed them, but no phisition or medicine: certaine women there are which attend vpon them, till they recouer their former health, or die. In this hospitall likewise there is a place for franticke or di∣straught persons, where they are bound in strong iron chaines; whereof the part next vnto their walks is strengthened with mighty beames of wood and iron. The gouernour of these distraught persons, when he bringeth them any sustenance, hath a whip of purpose to chastise those that offer to bite, strike, or play any mad part. Sometimes it falleth out that these franticke people will call vnto them such as passe by; declaring how vniustly they are there detained, and how cruelly they are handled by the officers, when as notwithstanding they affirme themselues to bee restored vnto their right minde. And hauing thus perswaded the commers-by, approching neerer and neerer vnto them, at length they take hold with one hand on their gar∣ments, and (like villans) with the other hand they shamefully defile their faces and apparell with dung. And though all of them haue their priuies and close stooles, yet would they be poysoned in their owne filth, if the seruants did not often wash their lodgings: so that their abhominable and continuall Page  129 stinke is the cause why citizens neuer visite them. Likewise this hospitall hath many roomes for the purueiors, notaries, cookes, and other officers* belonging to the sicke persons; who each of them haue some small yeerely stipend. Being a yoong man I my selfe was notarie heere for two yeeres, which office is woorth three duckats a moneth.

In this citie are moe then an hundred bath-stoues very artificially and stately built: which though they be not of equall bignes, yet are they all of one fashion. Each stoue hath fower halles, without which are certaine galle∣ries in an higher place, with fiue or sixe staires to ascend vnto them: here men put off their apparell, and hence they goe naked into the bath. In the midst they alwaies keepe a cesterne full of water. First therefore they that meane to bathe themselues must passe through a cold hall, where they vse to temper hot water and cold together, then they goe into a roome some∣what hotter, where the seruants clense and wash them; and last of all they proceede into a third hot-house, where they sweate as much as they thinke good. Of the said water they giue vnto euery man two vessels onely: but he that will haue more and will be extraordinarily washed, must giue to the ser∣uant one Liardo at the least, and to the master of the stoue but two far∣things. The fire that heateth their water is made of nought else but beastes dung: for which purpose many boyes are set on worke to run vp and downe to stables, and thence to carrie all the dung, and to lay it on heapes without the towne-walles; which being parched in the sunne for two or three mo∣nethes together, they vse for fewell. Likewise the women haue their stoues apart from the men. And yet some hot-houses serue both for men and wo∣men, but at sundry times, namely for men from the third to the fourteenth hower of the day, and the residue for women. While women 〈◊〉 bathing themselues, they hang out a rope at the first entrance of the house, which is a signe for men, that they may then proceed no farther. Neither may hus∣bands here be permitted to speake with their owne wiues; so great a regarde they haue of their honestie. Here men and women both, after they haue done bathing, vse to banquet and make merrie with pleasant musicke and singing. Yoong striplings enter the bath starke naked without any shame, but men couer their priuities with a linnen cloth. The richer sort will not enter the common bath, but that which is adorned and finely set foorth, and which serueth for noblemen and gentlemen. When any one is to be bathed, they lay him along vpon the ground, annointing him with a certaine oint∣ment, and with certaine instruments doing away his filth. The richer sort haue a carpet to lie on, their head lying on a woodden cushion couered with the same carpet. Likewise here are many barbers and chirurgions which at∣tend to doe their office. The most part of these baths pertaine to the tem∣ples and colleges, yeelding vnto them a great summe of money for yeerely rent; for some giue an hundred, some an hundred and fiftie duckats a yeere. Neither must I here omit the festiuall day which the seruants and officers of the bathes yeerely celebrate. Who with trumpets and pipes calling their Page  130 friendes together, goe foorth of the towne, and there gather a wilde onion, putting it in a certaine brazen vessell, and couering the same with a linnen cloth wet in lee: afterward with a great noise of trumpets and pipes they solemnely bring the said onion vnto the hot-house doore, and there they hang it vp in the little brazen vessell or lauer, saying that this is a most happy boading or signe of good lucke vnto their stoue. Howbeit I suppose it to be some such sacrifice, as the ancient Moores were woont in times past, when they were destitute of lawes and ciuilitie, to offer, and that the same custome hath remained till this very day. The like is to be seen euen among Christi∣ans, who celebrate many feasts whereof they can yeeld no reason. Likewise euery African towne had their peculiar feast, which, when the Christians once enioied Africa, were vtterly abolished and done away.

Of the Innes of Fez.

IN this citie are almost two hundred innes, the greatest wher∣of are in the principall part of the citie neere vnto the chiefe temple. Euery of these innes are three stories high, and con∣taine an hundred and twenty or moe chambers apeece. Like∣wise each one hath a fountaine together with sinks and water∣pipes, which make auoidance of all the filth. Neuer, to my remembrance, did I see greater buildings, except it were the Spanish college at Bologna, or the pallace of the Cardinall di San Giorgio at Rome: of which innes all the chamber-doores haue walkes or galleries before them. And albeit the innes of this citie are very faire and large, yet they affoord most beggerly enter∣tainment to strangers: for there are neither beds nor couches for a man to lie vpon, vnlesse it be a course blanket and a mat. And if you will haue any victuals, you must goe to the shambles your selfe, and buie such meate for your host to dresse, as your stomack stands-to. In these innes certaine poore widowes of Fez, which haue neither wealth nor friends to succour them, are relieued: sometimes one, and sometimes two of them together are allowed a chamber; for which courtesie they play both the chamberlaines and cookes of the inne. The inne-keepers of Fez being all of one familie called Elcheua, goe apparelled like women, and shaue their beards, and are so de∣lighted to imitate women, that they will not only counterfeite their speech, but will sometimes also sit downe and spin. Each one of these hath his con∣cubine, whom he accompanieth as if she were his owne lawfull wife; albeit the said concubines are not onely ill-fauoured in countenance, but notori∣ous for their bad life and behauiour. They buie and sell wine so freely, that no man controules them for it. None resort hither but most lewd & wicked people, to the end they may more boldly commit villany. The inne-keepers haue a consul ouer them, and they pay tribute vnto the gouernour of the citie. And when the king hath occasion to send foorth an armie, then they, as being most meete for the purpose, are constrained largely to victuall the Page  131 campe. Had not the streit law of historie enforced me to make relation of the foresaid particulars as they stand, I would much rather haue smothered such matters in silence, as tend so extremely to the disgrace of Fez; which being reformed, there is not any citie in al Africa, for the honestie and good demeanour of the citizens, comparable thereunto. For the very companie of these inne-keepers is so odious and detestable in the sight of all honest men, learned men, and merchants, that they will in no wise vouchsafe to speake vnto them. And they are firmely enioined not to enter into the tem∣ple, into the burse, nor into any bath. Neither yet are they permitted to re∣sort vnto those innes which are next vnto the great temple, and wherein merchants are vsually entertained. All men in a manner are in vtter detesta∣tion of these wretches: but because the kings armie hath some vse of them (as is aforesaid) they are borne withall, whether the citizens will or no.

Of the mils of Fez.

IN this citie are mils in fower hundred places at least. And euery of these places containeth fiue or sixe mils; so that there are some thousands of mils in the whole citie. Euery mill standeth in a large roome* vpon some strong piller or post; whereunto many countrie-people vse to resort. Cer∣taine merchants there are in Fez, which hiring mils and shops, buie corne and sell it ready ground vnto the citizens, whereby they reape exceeding gaine: for the greatest part of the citizens being poore, and not able to lay vp corne sufficient in store, are faine to buie meale of them. But the richer sort buie their owne corne, and send it to some common mill, where they pay a shilling for the grinding of each measure. All the saide mils pertaine either to the temples or colleges: for he must be very rich that hath a mill of his owne; for euery mill gaineth the owner two duckats.

A description of the occupations, the shops, and the market.

EAch trade or occupation hath a peculiar place allotted thereto, the principall whereof are next vnto the great temple: for there first you may beholde to the number of fowerscore notaries or scriueners shops, whereof some ioine vpon the temple, and the residue stand ouer against them: euery of which shops hath alwaies two notaries. Then westward there are about thirtie stationers or booke-sellers. The shoo-merchants which buie shooes and buskins of the shoomakers, and sell them againe to the citizens, inhabite on the south side of the temple: and next vnto them, such as make shooes for children onely, their shops being about fiftie. On the east side dwell those that sell vessels and other commodities made of brasse. Ouer against the great gate of the said temple stands the fruit-market, containing fiftie shops, where no kinde of fruit is wanting. Next vnto them stand the Page  132 waxe-merchants, very ingenious and cunning workmen, and much to be admired. Here are merchants factors likewise, though they be but few. Then followes the herbe-market, wherein the pome-citrons, and diuers kindes of greene boughes and herbes doe represent the sweete and flourishing spring, and in this market are about twentie tauernes: for they which drinke wine, will shrowd themselues vnder the shadie and pleasant boughes. Next vnto them stand the milke-sellers, who haue great store of such 〈◊〉 vessels by them, as the Italians call Vasidi Maiolica: but their milke they cause to be brought thither in certaine vessels of wood bound with iron-hoops, being narrow-mouthed and broad at the bottome. From these milke-sellers some there are which daily buie great store of milke to make butter thereof: and the residue of their milke they sell either crudded or sometimes sower vnto the citizens: so that I thinke there passeth scarce one day ouer their heads, wherein they vtter not fiue and twentie tunnes of milke. Next vnto these are such as sell cotton, and they haue about thirtie shops: then follow those that sell hempe, ropes, halters, and such other hempen commodities. Then come you to the girdlers, and such as make pantofles, and leather-bridles embrodered with silke: next, their shops adioine that make sword-scabberds and caparisons for horses. Immediately after dwell those that sell salt and lime. And vpon them border an hundred shops of potters, who frame all kinde of earthen vessels adorned with diuers colours. Then come you to the sadlers-shops: and next of all to the street of porters, who (as I suppose) are* aboue three hundred: these porters haue a consul or gouernour, who euery weeke allotteth vnto part of them some set busines. The gaine which re∣doundeth thereof they put into a coffer, diuiding it at the weekes end among them, which haue wrought the same weeke. Strange it is to consider how exceedingly these porters loue one another; for when any of them decea∣seth, the whole companie maintaineth his widow and fatherlesse children at their common charge, till either she die, or marrieth a new husband. The children they carefully bring vp, till they haue attained to some good arte or occupation. Whosoeuer of them marrieth and hath children by his wife, inuiteth most part of his companie vnto a banquet: who being thus inuited, present each of them some gift or other vnto the good man, or his wife. No man can be admitted into their companie, vnlesse first he banque∣teth the principall men thereof: otherwise he is to haue but halfe a share of the common gaine. Free they are from all tributes and exactions: yea their bread is baked of free cost. If any of them be taken in any hainous offence, he is not publikely but priuately punished. While they are at worke they all weare short garments of one colour: and at vacant times they are apparel∣led as themselues thinke good: but howsoeuer it be, they are most honest and faire-conditioned people. Next vnto the porters companie dwell the chiefe cookes and victuallers. Here also stands a certaine square house co∣uered with reed, wherein pease and turnep-rootes are to be sold, which are so greatly esteemed of in Fez, that none may buie them of the countrie∣people Page  133 at the first hand, but such as are appointed, who are boūd to pay tole & tribute vnto the customers: & scarcely one day passeth, wherein mo then 500. sacks of pease and turneps are not sold. And albeit (as we haue said) they are so much esteemed of, yet are they sold at a most easie price: for a man may buie 30, or at least 20. pound weight for one * Liardo. Greene beanes likewise in time of yeere are sold good cheape. Not far frō the place before mentioned are certaine shops, wherein lumps or steakes of flesh beaten in a morter, & thē fried with oile, & seasoned with much spice, are to be bought, euery one of the said lumps or steakes being about the bignes of a fig, & be∣ing made only of dried beefe. On the north side of the temple is a place whi∣ther all kind of herbes are brought to make sallets withall: for which purpose there are 40. shops appointed. Next wherunto is The place of smoke, so cal∣led by reason of continuall smoke: here are certaine fritters or cakes fried in oile, like vnto such as are called at Rome Pan Melato. Of these fritters great store are daily vttered: for euery day they vse to breake their fasts therwith, & especially vpon festiual daies: vnto which fritters they adde for a conclusion either rostmeat or honie: somtimes they steepe them in an homely kinde of broth made of bruised meat, which being sodden, they bray the second time in a morter, making pottage therof, & colouring it with a kinde of red earth. They roste their flesh not vpon a spit, but in an ouen: for making two ouens one ouer another for the same purpose, in the lower they kindle a fire, put∣ting the flesh into the vpper ouen when it is wel het. You would not beleeue how finely their meat is thus rosted, for it cannot be spoiled either by smoke, or too much heat: for they are all night rosting it by a gentle fire, and in the morning they set it to sale. The foresaid steakes & fritters they sell vnto the citizens in so great abūdance, that they daily take for them mo thē 200. duc∣kats. For there are 15. shops which sell nothing else. Likewise here are sold certaine fishes & flesh fried, & a kind of excellent sauorie bread, tasting som∣what like a fritter: which being baked with butter, they neuer eat but with but∣ter and honie Here also are the feet of certaine beasts sodden; wherewith the husbandmen betimes in the morning breake their fast, and then hie them to their labour. Next vnto these are such as sell oile, salt, butter, cheese, oliues, pome-citrons & capers: their shops are full of fine earthen vessels, which are of much greater value then the things contained in them. Their butter and honie they sell by certaine criers, which are porters appointed for the same office. Neither doe they admit euery one to fill their vessels; but that worke is reserued for certaine porters appointed to doe it, which also fill the mea∣sures of oile when merchants buie the same. The said vessels are sufficient to containe an hundred and fiftie pounds of butter; for so much butter the countrie-people put into each vessell. Then follow the shambles, consisting of about fortie shops, wherein the butchers cut their flesh a peeces, and sell it by weight. They kill no beastes within the shambles, for there is a place allotted for this purpose neere vnto the riuer, where hauing once dressed their flesh, they send it to the shambles by certaine seruants appointed for Page  134 that end. But before any butcher dare sell his flesh vnto the citizens, he must carrie it to the gouernour of the shambles, who so soone as he seeth the* flesh, he sets downe in a peece of paper the price thereof, which they shew together with their meate vnto the people; neither may they in any case exceed the said price. Next vnto the shambles standeth the market where course cloathes are sold, which containeth at least an hundred shops: the said cloth is deliuered vnto certaine criers (which are about threescore in number) who carrying the cloth from shop to shop tell the price thereof, and for the selling of euery duckats-woorth they haue two * Liardos allowed them. This traffique of cloth indureth from noone till night, to the mer∣chants great aduantage. Then follow their shops that scowre and sell ar∣mour, swordes, iauelings, and such like warlike instruments. Next vnto them stand the fishmongers, who sell most excellent and great fish, taken both in the riuer of Fez and in other waters, exceeding cheape; for you may buie a pound of fish for two farthings onely. There is great abundance of the fish called in Rome Laccia, and that especially from the beginning of October till the moneth of Aprill, as we will declare more at large when we come to speake of the riuers. Next vnto the fishmongers dwell such as make of a cer∣taine hard reed, coopes and cages for fowles; their shops being about fortie in number. For each of the citizens vseth to bring vp great store of hennes and capons. And that their houses may not be defiled with hennes-dung, they keepe them continually in coopes and cages. Then follow their shops that sell liquide sope, but they be not many, for you shall finde more of them in other partes of the citie. Neither make they sope at Fez onely, but also in the mountaines thereabout, from whence it is brought vnto the citie vpon mules backes. Next of all are certaine of their shops that sell meale, albeit they are diuersly dispersed throughout the whole citie. Next vnto them are such as sell seed-graine and seed-pulse: which you cannot buie of any citi∣zen, because that euery one had rather keepe his corne in store: many there are likewise in the same place, that will carrie pulse or corne to mules or hor∣ses, whithersoeuer you will haue them. A mule vseth to carrie three measures of pulse vpon his backe (which the muliter is enioined to measure) in three sacks lying one vpon another. Then are there ten shops of them that sell straw. Next them is the market where threed and hempe is to be sold, and where hempe vseth to be kempt: which place is built after the fashion of great houses, with fower galleries or spare-roomes round about it: in the first whereof they sell linnen-cloth, and weigh hempe: in two other sit a great many women hauing abundance of sale-threed, which is there solde by the criers, who carrie the same vp and downe from noone till night. In the midst of this place growe diuers mulberie trees, affoordiug pleasant shade and shelter vnto the merchants: and hither such swarmes of women resort, that a man shall hardly withdraw himselfe from among them: good sport it is sometime to see how they will barret and scould one at another: yea and oftentimes you shall see them fall together by the eares. Let vs now Page  135 come to the west part; which stretcheth from the temple to that gate that leadeth vnto Mecnase. Next vnto the smokie place before mentioned, their habitations directly stand, that make leather-tankards, to draw water out of wels; of whom there are some fourteene shops. Vnto these adioine such as make wicker-vessels and other, to lay vp meale and corne in: and these enioy about thirtie shops. Next them are 150. shops of tailors. And next the tailors are those that make leather-shieldes, such as I haue often seene brought into Europe. Then follow twenty shops of laundresses or washers, being people of a base condition; to whom the citizens that haue not maids of their owne, carrie their shirtes and other fowle linnen, which after few daies are restored vnto them so cleane and white as it is woonderfull. These laundresses haue diuers shops adioining together in the same place: but here and there throughout the citie are aboue two hundred families of such persons. Next vnto the laundresses are those that make trees for saddles; who dwell likewise in great numbers eastwarde right in the way to the college founded by king Abuhinan. Vpon these adioine about fortie shops of such as work stirrops, spurres, and bridles, so artificially, as I thinke the like are not to be seene in Europe. Next standeth their street, that first rudely make the said stirrops, bridles, and spurres. From thence you may go into the street of sadlers, which couer the saddles before mentioned threefold with most ex∣cellent leather: the best leather they lay vppermost, and the woorst beneath, and that with notable workmanship; as may be seene in most places of Italie. And of them there are moe then an hundred shops. Then follow their long shops that make pikes and launces. Next standeth a rocke or mount, hauing two walks thereupon; the one whereof leadeth to the east gate, and the other to one of the kings pallaces, where the kings sisters, or some other of his kinred are vsually kept. But this is by the way to be noted, that all the foresaid shops or market begin at the great temple: howbeit, that I might not inuert my set-order, I haue onely described those places that are round about the said temple, minding last of all to speake of the merchants station or burse.

Of the station or burse of merchants in Fez.

THis burse you may well call a citie, which being walled round about hath twelue gates, & before euery gate an iron chaine, to keepe horses & cartes from comming in. The said burse is diuided into 12. seuerall wards or partes: two whereof are allotted vnto such shoomakers as make shooes onely for noblemen and gentlemen, and two also to silke-merchants or haberdashers, that sell ribands, garters, skarfes, and such other like orna∣ments; and of these there are about fiftie shops. Others there are that sell silke onely for the embrodering of shirts, cushions, and other such furniture made of cloth, possessing almost as many shops as the former. Then follow those that make womens girdles of course wooll (which some make of silke) Page  136 but very grossely, for I thinke they are 〈◊〉 then two fingers thicke, so that they may serue almost for cables to a ship. Next vnto these girdlers are such as sell woollen and linnen cloth brought out of Europe: which haue also silke-stuffes, caps, and other like commodities to sell. Hauing passed these, you come to them that sel mats, mattresses, cushions, and other things made of leather. Next adioineth the customers office; for their cloth is sent about by certaine criers to be solde, who before they can passe, must goe to the customers to haue the said cloth sealed, and to pay toll vnto the custo∣mers. Criers here are, to the number of sixtie, which for the crying of euery cloth haue one* Liardo allowed them. Next of all dwell the tailors, and that in three seuerall streetes. Then come you to the linnen-drapers, which sell smocks and other apparell for women: and these are accounted the ri∣chest merchants in all Fez, for their wares are the most gainful of all others. Next vnto these are certaine woollen garments to be sold, made of such cloth as is brought thither out of Europe. Euery afternoone cloth is sold in this place by the criers, which is lawfull for any man to doe, when neces∣sarie occasion vrgeth him. Last of all is that place where they vse to sell wrought shirts, towels, and other embrodered works; as also where carpets, beds, and blankets are to be sold.

The reason why this part of the citie was called Caesaria.

THe foresaid burse or station of merchants was in times past called Caesaria, according to the name of that renowmed conquerour 〈◊〉 Caesar: the reason whereof some affirme to be; because all the cities of Barbarie were in those daies first subiect to the Romans, and then to the Goths. And each citie alwaies had either Romans or Goths to receiue and take charge of the tribute. Howbeit because the people often made ciuill* wars and assaults vpon them, their determination was in euery citie to build some strong walled place, where both the tribute and the principall goods of the citizens might remaine in safetie: hoping by this meanes that the citizens would be as carefull of the princes goods as of their owne. Which course had the Italians imitated, they had neuer beene spoiled so often of their goods. For in ciuill wars it many times befalleth, that the greedie soldi∣ers not being satisfied with the enimies goods, will prey vpon the wealth of their friendes.

Of the grocers, apothecaries, and other tradesmen, and 〈◊〉 of Fez.

NExt vnto the said burse, on the north side, in a streight lane, stand an hundred and fiftie grocers and apothecaries shops, which are fortified on both sides with two strong gates. These shops are garded in the night season by certaine hired and armed watchmen, which keepe their station Page  137 with lanternes and mastiues. The said apothecaries can make neither 〈◊〉, ointments, nor electuaries: but such things are made at home by the phisi∣tions, and are of them to be bought. The phisitions houses adioine for the most part vnto the apothecaries: howbeitvery few of the people knowe either the phisition or the vse of his phisicke. The shops here are so artifici∣ally built and adorned, that the like (I thinke) are no where else to be found.* Being in Tauris a citie of Persia, I remember that I saw diuers stately shops curiously built 〈◊〉 certaine galleries, but very darke, so that (in my iudge∣ment) they be far inferiour vnto the shops of Fez. Next the apothecaries are certaine artificers that make combes of boxe and other wood. Eastward of the apothecaries dwell the needle-makers, possessing to the number of fiftie shops. Then follow those that turne iuorie, and such other matter, who (because their craft is practised by some other artizans) are but few in number. Vnto the turners adioine certaine that sell meale, sope, & brooms: who dwelling next vnto the threed-market beforementioned, are scarce twenty shops in all: for the residue are dispersed in other places of the citie, as we will hereafter declare. Amongst the cotton-merchants are certaine that sell ornaments for tents, and beds. Next of all stand the fowlers, who, though they be but few, yet are they stored with all kinde of choise and dain∣tie fowles: whereupon the place is called the fowlers market. Then come you to their shops that sell cords and ropes of hempe: and then to such as make high corke slippers for noblemen and gentlemen to walke the streetes in, when it is fowle weather: these corke-slippers are finely trimmed with much silke, and most excellent vpper leathers, so that the cheapest will cost a duckat, 〈◊〉 some there are of ten duckats, and some of fiue and twentie duckats price. Such slippers as are accounted most fine and costly are made of blacke and white mulberie-tree, of blacke walnut-tree, and of the Iujuba∣tree, albeit the corke-slippers are the most durable and strong. Vnto these adioine ten shops of Spanish Moores, which make crosse-bowes: as also those that make broomes of a certaine wilde palme-tree, such as are daily brought out of 〈◊〉 to Rome. These broomes they cartie about the citie in a great basket, either selling them, or exchanging them for bran, ashes, or olde shooes: the bran they sell againe to shepherds, the ashes to such as white threed, & the old shooes to coblers. Next vnto them are smithes that make nailes; & coopers which make certaine great vessels in forme of a buc∣ket, hauing corne-measures to sell also: which measures, when the officer, appointed for the same purpose, hath made triall of, he is to receiue a far∣thing apeece for his fee. Then follow the wooll-chapmen, who hauing bought wooll of the butchers, put it foorth vnto others to be scowred and washed: the sheepe-skins they themselues dresse: but as for oxe-hides they belong to another occupation, and are tanned in another place. Vnto these adioine such as make certaine langols or withs, which the Africans put vpon their horses feete. Next of all are the braziers; then such as make weights and measures; and those likewise that make instruments to carde Page  138 wooll or flaxe. At length you descend into a long streete, where men of di∣uers occupations dwell together, some of which doe polish and enamell stirrops, spurres, and other such commodities, as they receiue from the smithes roughly and rudely hammered. Next whom dwell certaine cart∣wrights, plow-wrights, mill-wrights, and of other like occupations. Diers haue their aboad by the riuers side, and haue each of them a most cleere fountaine or cesterne, to wash their silke-stuffes in. Ouer against the diers dwell makers of bulwarkes or trenches, in a very large place, which being planted with shadie mulberie-trees is exceeding pleasant in the summer∣time. Next them are a companie offarriers, that shooe mules and horses: and then those that make the iron-worke of crosse-bowes. Then followe smithes that make horse-shooes; and last of all those that white linnen-cloth: and here the west part of the citie endeth, which in times past (as is aforesaid) was a citie by it selfe, and was built after the citie on the east side of the riuer.

A description of the second part of Fez.

THe second part of Fez situate eastward, is beautified with most stately palaces, temples, houses, and colleges; albeit there are not so many trades and occupations as in the part before described. For here are neither merchants, tailors, shoomakers, &c. but of the meaner sort. Here are notwithstanding thirtie shops of grocers. Neere vnto the walles dwell cer∣taine bricke-burners and potters: and not far from thence is a great market of white earthen vessels, platters, cups, and dishes. Next of all standes the corne-market, wherein are diuers granaries to lay vp corne. Ouer against the great temple there is a broad street paued with brick, round about which diuers handy-crafts and occupations are exercised. There are likewise many other trades diuersly dispersed ouer this east part of the citie. The drapers and grocers haue certaine peculiar places allotted vnto them. In this east part of Fez likewise there are fiue hundred and twenty weauers houses, very stately and sumptuously built: hauing in each of them many worke-houses and loomes, which yeeld great rent vnto the owners. 〈◊〉 there are (by report) in this citie twenty thousand, and as many millers. Moreouer in this part of Fez are an hundred shops for the whiting of threed; the principall whereof being situate vpon the riuer, are exceedingly well furnished with kettles, cauldrons, and other such vessels: here are likewise many great hou∣ses to saw wood in, which worke is performed by Christian captiues, and whatsoeuer wages they earne, redoundeth vnto their Lordes and masters. These Christian captiues are not suffered to rest from their labours, but only vpon fridaies, and vpon eight seuerall daies of the yeere besides, where∣on the Moores feastes are solemnized. Here also are the common stewes for harlots, which are fauoured by great men, and sometime by the cheefe gouernours of the citie. Likewise there are certaine vintners, who are freely permitted to keepe harlots, and to take filthie hire for them. Here are also Page  139 moe then sixe hundred cleere fountaines walled round about and most cha∣rily kept, euery one of which is seuerally conueied by certaine pipes vnto each house, temple, college, and hospitall: and this fountaine-water is ac∣counted the best: for that which commeth out of the riuer is in summer oftentimes dried vp: as likewise when the conducts are to be cleansed, the course of the riuer must of necessitie be turned out of the citie. Wherefore euery familie vseth to fetch water out of the said fountaines, and albeit in summer-time the chiefe gentlemen vse riuer-water, yet they will often call for fountaine-water, because it is more coole and pleasant in taste. But in the spring-time it is nothing so. These fountaines haue their originall for the most part from the west and south, for the north part is all full of mountains and marble-rocks, containing certaine caues or cels, wherein corne may be kept for many yeeres; of which caues some are so large, that they will holde two hundred bushels of corne. The citizens dwelling neere those caues, and such as possesse them, do sufficiently maintaine themselues in taking yeere∣ly euery hundred bushell for rent. The south part of east Fez is almost halfe destitute of inhabitants: howbeit the gardens abound with fruites and flow∣ers of all sortes. Euery garden hath an house belonging thereunto, and a christall-fountaine enuironed with roses and other odoriferous flowers and herbes; so that in the spring-time a man may both satisfie his eies, and so∣lace his minde in visiting this part of the citie: and well it may be called a Paradise, sithence the noblemen doe here reside from the moneth of April till the end of September. Westward, that is, toward the kings palace, stan∣deth a castle built by a king of the Luntune-familie, resembling in bignes an whole towne: wherein the kings of Fez, before the said palace was built, kept their royal residence. But after new Fez began to be built by the Marin∣kings, the said castle was left onely to the gouernour of the citie. Within this castle standes a stately temple built (as aforesaid) what time it was inhabited by princes and nobles, many places being afterward defaced and tur∣ned into gardens: howbeit certaine houses were left vnto the gouernour, partly to dwell in, and partly for the deciding of 〈◊〉. Here is like∣wise a certaine prison for captiues supported with many pillers, and being so large, that it will hold (as diuers are of opinion) three thousand men. Nei∣ther are there any seuerall roomes in this prison: for at Fez one prison ser∣ueth for all. By this castle runneth a certaine riuer very commodious for the gouernour.

Of the magistrates, the administration of iustice; and of the apparell vsed in Fez.

IN the citie of Fez are certaine particular iudges and magistrates: and there is a gouernour that defineth ciuill controuersies, and giueth sen∣tence against malefactors. Likewise there is a iudge of the canon law, who hath to doe with all matters concerning the Mahumetan religion. A third Page  140 iudge there is also that dealeth about marriages and diuorcements, whose authoritie is to heare all witnesses, and to giue sentence accordingly. Next vnto them is the high aduocate, vnto whom they appeale from the sentence of the saide iudges, when as they doe either mistake themselues, or doe ground their sentence vpon the authoritie of some inferiour doctor. The gouernour gaineth a great summe of money by condemning of parties at seuerall times. Their manner of proceeding against a malefactor is this:* hauing giuen him an hundred or two hundred stripes before the gouer∣nour, the executioner putteth an iron-chaine about his necke, and so lea∣deth him starke-naked (his priuities onely excepted) through all partes of the citie: after the executioner followes a sergeant, declaring vnto all the people what fact the guiltie person hath committed, till at length hauing put on his apparell againe, they carrie him backe to prison. Sometimes it falleth out that many offenders chained together are led about the citie: and the gouernour for each malefactor thus punished, receiueth one duckat and one fourth part; and likewise at their first entrance into the iaile, he de∣maunds of each one a certaine dutie, which is paid particularly vnto him by diuers merchants and artificers appointed of purpose. And amongst his other liuings, he gathereth out of a certaine mountaine seuen thousand duc∣kats of yeerely reuenue: so that when occasion serueth, he is at his proper costs to finde the king of Fez three hundred horses, and to giue them their pay. Those which follow the canon-lawe haue neither stipend nor rewarde allowed them: for it is forbidden by the law of Mahumet, that the iudges of his religion should reape any commoditie or fees by their office; but that they shoulde liue onely by reading of lectures, and by their priesthood. In this facultie are many aduocates and proctors, which are extreme idiotes, and vtterly voide of all good learning. There is a place also in Fez whereinto the iudges vseto cast the citizens, for debt, or for some light of∣fence. In all this citie are fower officers or sergeants onely; who from mid∣night till two a clocke in the morning doe walke about all partes of the citie; neither haue they any stipend, but a certaine fee of such malefactors as they lead about in chaines, according to the qualitie of euery mans crime; more∣ouer, they are freely permitted to sell wine, and to keepe harlots. The saide gouernour hath neither scribes nor notaries, but pronounceth all sentences by word of mouth. One onely there is that gathereth customes and tributes ouer all the citie, who daily paieth to the kings vse thirtie duckats. This man appointeth certaine substitutes to watch at euery gate, where nothing, be it of neuer so small value, can passe before some tribute be paid. Yea sometime they goe foorth of the citie to meete with the carriers and muliters vpon the high waies, to the end they may not conceale nor closely conuey any merchandize into the citie. And if they be taken in any deceite, they pay double. The set order or proportion of their custome is this, namely to pay two duckats for the woorth of an hundred: for Onix-stones, which are brought hither in great plentie, they pay one fourth part: but for wood, Page  141 corne, oxen, and hennes, they giue nothing at all. Neither at the entring of the citie doe they pay any tribute for rammes, but at the shambles they giue two* Liardos apeece, and to the gouernour of the shambles one. The said gouernour of the shambles hath alwaies twelue men waiting vpon him, and oftentimes he rideth about the citie to examine the weight of bread, and finding any bread to faile of the due waight, he causeth the baker to be beaten with cudgels, and to be led in contempt vp and downe the citie. The said office was woont to be allotted vnto men of singular honestie; but now adaies euery ignorant and lewd person enioieth it. The citizens of Fez goe very ciuilly and decently attired, in the spring-time wearing garments made of outlandish cloth: ouer these shirtes they weare a iac∣ket or cassocke being narrow and halfe-sleeued, whereupon they weare a certaine wide garment, close before on the breast. Their caps are thinne and single, like vnto the night-caps vsed in Italie, sauing that they couer not their eares: these caps are couered with a certaine skarfe, which being twise wreathed about their head and beard, hangeth by a knot. They weare neither hose nor breeches, but in the spring-time when they ride a iourney they put on bootes: mary the poorer sort haue onely their cassocke, and a mantle ouer that called* Barnussi, and a most course cap. The doctors and ancient gentlemen weare a certaine garment with wide sleeues, somewhat like to the gentlemen of Venice. The common sort of people are for the most part clad in a kinde of course white cloth. The women are not altogether vn∣seemely apparelled, but in sommer-time they weare nothing saue their smocks onely. In winter they weare such a wide sleeued garment, being close at the breast, as that of the men before mentioned. When they goe abroad, they put on certaine long breeches, wherewith their legs are all couered, hauing also, after the fashion of Syria, a vaile hanging downe from their heads, which couereth their whole bodies. On their faces likewise they weare a maske with two little holes onely for their eies, to peepe out at. Their eares they adorne with golden eare-rings & with most pretious iewels: the meaner sort weare 〈◊〉 of siluer and gilt only. Vpon their armes the ladies and gentlewomen weare golden bracelets, and the residue siluer, as likewise gold or siluer-rings vpon their legs, according to each ones estate and abilitie.

Of their manner of eating and drinking.

LEt vs now speake somewhat of their victuals and manner of eating. The common sort set on the pot with fresh meat twise euery weeke: but the gentlemen and richer sort euery day, and as often as they list. They take three meales a day: their breakefast consisteth of certaine fruits and bread, or else of a kinde of liquid pap made like vnto frumentie: in winter they sup off the broth of sal flesh thickened with course meale. To dinner they haue flesh, sallets, cheese, and oliues: but in summer they haue greater cheere. Their supper is easie of digestion, consisting of bread, melons, grapes, or Page  142 milke: but in winter they haue sodden flesh, together with a kinde of meate called Cuscusu, which being made of a lumpe of dowe is set first vpon the* fire in certaine vessels full of holes, and afterwarde is tempered with butter and pottage. Some also vse often to haue roste-meat. And thus you see after what sort both the gentlemen & common people lead their liues: albeit the 〈◊〉 fare somewhat more daintily: but if you compare them with the noblemen and gentlemen of Europe, they may seeme to be miserable and base fellowes; not for any want or scarcitie of victuals, but for want of good manners and cleanlines. The table whereat they sit is lowe, vncouered, and filthie: seats they haue none but the bare ground, neither kniues or 〈◊〉 but only their ten talons. The said Cuscusu is set before them all in one only platter, whereout as well gentlemen as others take it not with spoones, but with their clawes fiue. The meat & pottage is putal in one dish; out of which euery one raketh with his greasie fists what he thinkes good: you shall ne∣uer see knife vpon the table, but they teare and greedily deuoure their meate like hungrie dogs. Neither doth any of them desire to drinke before he hath well stuffed his panch; and then will he sup off a cup of cold water as big as a milke-bowle. The doctors indeede are somewhat more orderly at meales: but, to tell you the very truth, in all Italie there is no gentleman so meane, which for fine diet and stately furniture excelleth not the greatest poten∣tates and lords of all Africa.

The manner of solemnizing mariages.

AS touching their mariages, they obserue these courses following. So soone as the maides father hath espoused her vnto her louer, they goe foorthwith like bride and bridegroome to church, accompanied with their parents and kinsfolkes, and call likewise two notaries with them to make re∣cord before all that are present of the couenants and dowrie. The meaner sort of people vsually giue for their daughters dowrie thirtie duckats and a woman-slaue of fifteene duckats price; as likewise a partie-coloured gar∣ment embrodered with silke, and certaine other silke skarfs or iags, to weare vpon her head in stead of a hood or vaile; then a paire of fine shooes, and two excellent paire of startups; and lastly many pretie knackes curiously made of siluer and other metals, as namely combes, perfuming-pans, bel∣lowes, and such other trinkets as women haue in estimation. Which being done, all the guests present are inuited to a banket, whereunto for great dain∣ties is brought a kinde of bread fried and tempered with honie, which wee haue before described; then they bring roste-meate to the boord, all this being at the bridegroomes cost: afterward the brides father maketh a ban∣ket in like sort. Who if he bestow on his daughter some apparell besides her dowrie, it is accounted a point of liberalitie. And albeit the father promiseth but thirtie duckats onely for a dowrie, yet will he sometimes bestow, in ap∣parell and other ornaments belonging to women, two hundred, yea some∣times Page  143 three hundred duckats besides. But they seldome giue an house, a vine∣yarde, or a field for a dowrie. Moreouer vpon the bride they bestowe three gownes made of costly cloth; and three others of silke chamlet, or of some other excellent stuffe. They giue her smockes likewise curiously wrought, with fine vailes, and other embrodered vestures; as also pillowes and cushi∣ons of the best sort. And besides all the former giftes, they bestow eight car∣pets or couerlets on the bride, fower whereof are onely for seemelines to spread vpon their presses and cupboords: two of the courser they vse for their beds; and the other two of leather, to lay vpon the floore of their bed∣chambers. Also they haue certaine rugs of about twenty elles compasse or length; as likewise three quilts being made of linnen and woollen on the one side, and stuffed with flockes on the other side, which they vse in the night in manner following. With the one halfe they couer themselues, and the other halfe they lay vnder them: which they may easily doe, when as they are both waies about ten elles long. Vnto the former they adde as many couerlets of silke very curiously embrodered on the vpperside, and beneath lined double with linnen and cotton. They bestow likewise white couerlets to vse in summer-time onely: and lastly they bestow a woollen hanging di∣uided into many partes, and finely wrought, as namely with certaine peeces of gilt leather; whereupon they sowe iags of partie-coloured silke, and vpon euery iag a little ball or button of silke, whereby the saide hanging may for ornaments sake be fastened vnto a wall. Here you see what be the appurte∣nances of their dowries; wherein some doe striue so much to excell others, that oftentimes many gentlemen haue brought themselues vnto pouertie thereby. Some Italians thinke that the husband bestowes a dowrie vpon his wife; but they altogether mistake the matter. The bridegroome being ready to carrie home his bride, causeth her to be placed in a woodden cage or cabinet eight-square couered with silke, in which she is carried by por∣ters, her parents and kinsfolkes following, with a great noise of trumpets, pipes, and drums, and with a number of torches; the bridegroomes kinsmen goe before with torches, and the brides kinsfolkes followe after: and so they goe vnto the great market place, and hauing passed by the temple, the bride∣groome takes his leaue of his father in lawe and the rest, hying him home with all speed, and in his chamber expecting the presence of his spouse. The father, brother, and vncle of the bride lead her vnto the chamber-doore, and there deliuer her with one consent vnto the mother of the bridegroome: who, as soone as she is entred, toucheth her foote with his, and foorthwith they depart into a seuerall roome by themselues. In the meane season the banket is comming foorth: and a certaine woman standeth before the 〈◊〉 doore, expecting till the bridegroome hauing defloured his bride reacheth her a napkin stained with blood, which napkin she carrieth incon∣tinent and sheweth to the guestes, proclaiming with a lowd voice, that the bride was euer till that time an vnspotted and pure virgine. This woman to∣gether with other women her companions, first the parents of the bride∣groome Page  144 and then of the bride doe honourably entertaine. But if the bride be found not to be a virgine, the mariage is made frustrate, and she with great disgrace is turned home to her parents. At complete mariages they make for the most part three bankets: the first the same day when the bride∣groome and bride are ioined in wedlocke; the second the day following for women onely; and the third seuen daies after; whereat all the kinsfolks and friends of the bride are present; and this day the brides father, according to his abilitie, sendes great store of daintie dishes vnto his sonne in lawe: but so soone as the new married man goeth foorth of the house (which is for the most part on the seuenth day after the mariage) he buieth great plentie of fishes, which he causeth his mother or some other woman to cast vpon his wiues feete; and this they, from an ancient superstitious custome, take for a good boading. Likewise at the bridegroomes fathers they vse to make two other feasts; the one vpon the day before the bride is married; and so that night they spend in dauncing and disport. The morrow after a companie of women goe to dresse the bride, to combe her locks, and to paint her cheekes with vermillion; her hands and her feete they die blacke, but all this pain∣ting presently looseth the fresh hew; and this day they haue another ban∣ket. The bride they place in the highest roome that she may be seene of all, and then those that dressed the bride are condignely entertained. Being come to the bridegroomes house, his parents salute the new bride with cer∣taine great cups full of new wine and cakes, with other iuncats, (which wee wil here passe ouer in silence) all which are bestowed vpon the bridegroomes companions. The same night which we said was spent in dauncing, there are present at the bridall-house certaine minstrels and singers, which by turnes sometimes vse their instruments and sometimes voice-musicke: they daunce alwaies one by one, and at the end of each galliard they bestow a largesse vpon the musitions. If any one wil honour the dancer, he bids him kneele downe before him, and hauing fastened peeces of money all ouer his face, the musitions presently take it off for their fee. The women daunce alone without any men, at the noise of their owne musitions. All these things vse to be performed when the bride is a maide. But the mariages of* widowes are concluded with lesse adoe. Their cheere is boiled beefe and mutton, and stued hens, with diuers iuncating dishes among. In stead of trenchers, the guestes being ten or twelue in number, haue so many great round platters of wood set before them. And this is the common custome of gentlemen and merchants. The meaner sort present their guestes with certaine sops or bruesse of bread like vnto a pan-cake, which being dipped in flesh-pottage, they eate out of a great platter not with spoones but with their fingers onely: and round about each great platter stand to the number of ten or twelue persons. Likewise they make a solemne feast at the circum∣cision of their male children, which is vpon the seuenth day after their birth;* and at this feast the circumciser, together with all their friends and kinsfolks is present: which being done, each one, according to his abilitie, bestoweth Page  145 a gift vpon the circumciser in manner following. Euery man laies his mo∣ney vpon a lads face which the circumciser brought with him. Whereupon the lad calling euery one by his name, giueth them thanks in particular: and then the infant being circumcised, they spend that day with as great iollitie as a day of mariage. But at the birth of a daughter they shew not so much alacritie.

Of their rites obserued vpon festiuall dates, and their manner of mourning for the dead.

AMong the people of Fez there haue remained certaine re∣liques* of festiuall daies instituted of olde by the Christians; whereupon they vse certaine ceremonies which themselues vnderstande not. Vpon Christmas euen they eate a sallet made of diuers herbs: they seeth likewise that night all kind of pulse, which they feede vpon for great dainties. Vpon New-yeeres day the children goe with maskes and vizards on their faces to the houses of gentlemen and merchants, and haue fruits giuen them for singing certaine carols or songs. When as the feast of Saint Iohn Baptist is hallowed among Christians, you shall here see all about great store of fires made with straw. And when their childrens teeth begin to grow, they make another feast cal∣led, according to the Latines, Dentilla. They haue also many other rites and customes of diuining or soothsaying, the like wherof I haue seene at Rome and in other cities of Italie. As touching their feasts prescribed by the Ma∣humetan lawe, they are at large set downe in that briefe treatise which we haue written concerning the same law. The women hauing by death lost* their husbands, fathers, or any other of their deere friends, assemble foorth∣with a great multitude of their own sexe together, who stripping themselues out of their owne attire, put on most vile sackcloth, and defile their faces with much durt: then call they certaine men clad in womens attire, bring∣ing great fower-square drums with them, at the noise of which drums the women-mourners sing a funerall song, tending as much as may be, to the commendation of the partie deceased: and at the end of euery verse, the said womē vtter most hideous shrikes & outcries, tearing their haire, & with much lamentation beating their cheekes & breasts, till they be all-imbrued with blood: and so these heathenish superstitions continue for seuen whole daies together. At which seuen daies ende they surcease their mourning for the space of 40. daies, & then they begin anew to torment thēselues for three daies togither in maner aforesaid: howbeit these kinds of obsequies are ob∣serued onely by the baser people, but the gentlemen and better sort behaue themselues more modestly. At this time all the widowes friends come about her to comfort her, and send diuers kinds of meats vnto her: for in the mour∣ning house they may dresse no meate at all, till the dead corpes be carried foorth. The woman her selfe that looseth her husband, father, or brother, Page  146 neuer goeth foorth with the funerall. But how they wash and burie the dead corpes, and what superstitions they vse thereabout, you shall finde recorded in my little treatise aboue mentioned.

Of their doue-houses.

DIuers there are in this citie, that take much pleasure in keeping of doues, which are here in great plentie, of all colours. These doues they keepe in certaine cages or lockers on the tops of their houses, which lockers they set open twise a day, to wit, morning and euening, delighting greatly to see them flie, for those that out-flie the residue are accounted the best. Of∣tentimes it falleth out, that neighbours doues will be mingled together, for which cause you shall see the owners goe together by the eares. Some haue a certaine net bound vnto two long canes, wherewith they vse to take their neighbours doues, as they come flying foorth of their louers. Amongst the colliers you shall find seuen or eight shops onely of those that sel doues.

Their manner of gaming at Fez.

THe citizens vse most of all to play at chesse, and that from ancient times. Other games there are also, but very rude, and vsed onely by the common people. At certaine times of the yeere the boies of one street wil fight with clubs against the boies of another street, and that some∣times with so great furie, that they 〈◊〉 themselues to other weapons and slay one another, especially vpon their festiuall daies, what time they will challenge and prouoke one another foorth of the citie-walles. And hauing fought hard all the whole day, at night they fall to throwing of stones: till at length the citie-officers come vpon them, taking some, and beating them publiquely throughout the citie. Sometimes it falleth 〈◊〉, that the yoong striplings arming themselues, and going by night out of the citie, range vp and downe the fields and gardens: and if the contrarie faction of yoonkers and they meere, it is woonderfull what a bloodie skirmish ensueth: howbeit they are often most seuerely punished for it.

Of the African poets.

IN Fez there are diuers most excellent poets, which make ver∣ses in their owne mother toong. Most of their poems and songs intreat of loue. Euery yeere they pen certaine verses in the commendation of Mahumet, especially vpon his birth∣day: for then betimes in the morning they resort vnto the palace of the chiefe iudge or gouernour, ascending his tribunall-seate, and from thence reading their verses to a great audience of people: and hee* whose verses are most elegant and pithie, is that yeere proclaimed prince of Page  147 the poets. But when as the kings of the Marin-familie prospered, they vsed to inuite all the learned men of the citie vnto their palace; and honourably entertaining them, they commanded each man in their hearing to recite their verses to the commendation of Mahumet: and he that was in all mens opinions esteemed the best poet, was rewarded by the king with an hundred duckats, with an excellent horse, with a woman-slaue, and with the kings owne robes wherewith he was then apparelled: all the rest had fiftie duckats apeece giuen them, so that none departed without the kings liberalitie: but an hundred and thirtie yeeres are expired since this custome, together with the maiestie of the Fessan kingdome, decaied.

A description of the grammar-schooles in Fez.

OF schooles in Fez for the instructing of children, there are almost two hundred, euery one of which is in fashion like a great hall. The schoolemasters teach their children to write and read not out of a booke, but out of a certaine great table. Euery day they expound one sentence of the Alcoran: and hauing red quite through they begin it againe, repeating it so often, til they haue most firmely committed the same to memorie: which they doe right well in the space of 7. yeeres. Then read they vnto their scholers some part of orthographie: howbeit both this and the other parts of Grammar are far more exactly taught in the colleges, then in these triuiall schooles. The said schoolemasters are allowed a very small stipend; but when their boies haue learned some part of the Alcoran, they present certaine gifts vnto their ma∣ster, according to each ones abilitie. Afterward so soon as any boy hath per∣fectly learned the whole Alcaron, his father inuiteth all his sonnes schoole∣fellowes vnto a great banket: and his sonne in costly apparell rides through the street vpon a gallant horse, which horse and apparell the gouernour of the royall citadell is bound to lend him. The rest of his schoole-fellowes being mounted likewise on horse-backe accompany him to the banketing house, singing diuers songs to the praise of God and of Mahumet. Then are they brought to a most sumptuous banket, whereat all the kinsfolkes of the foresaid boyes father are vsually present: euery one of whom bestoweth on the schoolemaster some small gift, and the boyes father giues him a new sute of apparell. The said scholers likewise vse to celebrate a feast vpon the birth-day of Mahumet, and then their fathers are bound to send each man a torch vnto the schoole: whereupon euery boy carrieth a torch in his hand, some of which waigh thirty pound. These torches are most curiously made, being adorned round about with diuers fruits of waxe, which being lighted betimes in the morning doe burne till sun-rise, in the meane while certaine singers resound the praises of Mahumet, and so soone as the sunne is vp, all their solemnitie ceaseth: this day vseth to be very gainfull vnto the schoole∣masters, for they sell the remnant of the waxe vpon the torches for an hun∣dred Page  148 duckats, and sometimes for more. None of them paies any rent for his schoole: for all their schooles were built many yeeres agoe, and were freely bestowed for the training vp of youth. Whatsoeuer ornaments or toyes are vpon the 〈◊〉, the schoolemasters diuide them among their scholers and among the singers. Both in these common schooles and also in the colleges they haue two daies of recreation euery weeke, wherein they neither teach nor studie.

Of the fortune-tellers and some other artizans in Fez.

WE haue said nothing as yet of the leather-dressers, who haue diuers mansions by the riuers side, paying for euery skin an halfepeny cu∣stome, which amounteth yeerely almost vnto three hundred duckats. Here are likewise chirurgions & barbers, whom, because they are so few, I thought not to haue mentioned in this place. Now let vs speake of the fortune-tellers and diuiners, of whom there is a great number, and three kindes. For one* sort vseth certaine Geomanticall figures. Others powring a drop of oile into a viall or glasse of water, make the saide water to bee transparent and bright, wherein, as it were in a mirrour, they affirme that they see huge swarmes of diuels that resemble an whole armie, some whereof are trauel∣ling, some are passing ouer a riuer, and others fighting a land-battell, whom when the diuiner seeth at quiet, he demandeth such questions of them as he is desirous to be resolued of: and the diuels giue them answere with beck∣ning, or with some gesture of their hands or eies: so inconsiderate and dam∣nable is their credulitie in this behalfe. The foresaid glasse-viall they will de∣liuer into childrens hands scarce of eight yeeres old, of whom they will aske whether they see this or that diuell. Many of the citie are so besotted with these vanities, that they spend great summes vpon them. The third kinde of diuiners are women-witches, which are affirmed to haue familiaritie with diuels: some diuels they call red, some white, and some blacke diuels: and when they will tell any mans fortune, they perfume themselues with cer∣taine odours, saying, that then they possesse themselues with that diuell which they called for: afterward changing their voice, they faine the diuell to speake within them: then they which come to enquire, ought with great feare & trembling aske these vile & abominable witches such questions as they meane to propound, and lastly offering some fee vnto the diuell, they depart. But the wiser and honester sort of people call these women Sahaoat, which in Latin signifieth Fricatrices, because they haue a damnable custome to commit vnlawfull Venerie among themselues, which I cannot expresse in any modester termes. If faire women come vnto them at any time, these abominable witches will burne in lust towardes them no otherwise then lustie yoonkers doe towards yoong maides, and will in the diuels behalfe demaunde for a rewarde, that they may lie with them: and so by this meanes it often falleth out, that thinking thereby to fulfill the diuels Page  149 command they lie with the witches. Yea some there are, which being allured with the delight of this abominable vice, will desire the companie of these witches, and faining themselues to be sicke, will either call one of the wit∣ches home to them, or will send their husbands for the same purpose: and so the witches perceiuing how the matter stands, will say that the woman is possessed with a diuell, and that she can no way be cured, vnlesse she be ad∣mitted into their societie. With these words her silly husband being persua∣ded, doth not onely permit her so to doe, but makes also a sumptuous ban∣ket vnto the damned crew of witches: which being done, they vse to daunce very strangely at the noise of drums: and so the poore man commits his false wife to their filthie disposition. Howbeit some there are that will soone coniure the diuell with a good cudgell out of their wiues: others faining themselues to be possessed with a diuell, wil deceiue the said witches, as their wiues haue been deceiued by them.

Of the coniurers, inchanters, and iuglers in Fez.

IN Fez likewise there are a kinde of iuglers or coniurers called Muhaz∣zimin: who of all others are reported to be most speedie casters out of diuels. And because their Necromancie sometimes taketh effect, it is a won∣der to see into what reputation they grow thereby: but when they cannot cast foorth a diuell, they say it is an airie spirite. Their manner of adiuring diuels is this: first they drawe certaine characters and circles vpon an ash∣heape or some other place; then describe they certaine signes vpon the hands and forehead of the partie possessed, and perfume him after a strange kinde of manner. Afterward they make their inchantment or coniuration; enquiring of the diuell, which way or by what meanes he entred the partie, as likewise what he is, and by what name he is called, and lastly charging him to come foorth. Others there are that worke by a certaine Cabalisticall rule called Zairagia: this rule is contained in many writings, for it is thought to be naturall magique: neither are there any other Necromancers in all Fez, that will more certainly and truly resolue a doubtfull question; how∣beit their arte is exceeding difficult: for the students thereof must haue as great skill in Astrologie, as in Cabala. My selfe in times past hauing attained to some knowledge in this facultie, continued (I remember) an whole day in describing one figure onely: which kinde of figures are described in manner following. First they draw many circles within the compasse of a great cir∣cle: in the first circle they make a crosse, at the fower extremities whereof they set downe the fower quarters of the world, to wit, East, West, North, and South: at each end of one of the said crosse lines, they note either pole: likewise about the circumference of the first circle, they paint the fower elements: then diuide they the same circle and the circle following into fower partes: and euery fourth part they diuide into other seuen, each one being distinguished with certaine great Arabian characters, so that Page  150 euery element containeth eight and twentie characters. In the third circle they set downe the seuen planets; in the fourth the twelue signes of the Zo∣diacke; in the fift the twelue Latine names of the moneths; in the sixt the eight and twentie houses of the moone; in the seuenth the 365. daies of the yeere, and about the conuexitie thereof, the fower cardinall or principall windes. Then take they one onely letter of the question propounded, multi∣plying the same by all the particulars aforenamed, & the product or summe totall they diuide after a certaine manner, placing it in some roome, accor∣ding to the qualitie of the character, and as the element requireth wherein the said character is found without a figure. All which being done, they marke that figure which seemeth to agree with the foresaid number or sum produced, wherewith they proceed as they did with the former, till they haue found eight and twentie characters, whereof they make one word, and of this word the speech is made that resolueth the question demanded: this speech is alwaies turned into a verse of the first kinde, which the Arabians call Ethauil, consisting of eight Stipites and twelue Chordi, according to the meeter of the Arabian toong, whereof we haue intreated in the last part of* our Arabian grammar. And the verse consisting of those characters, com∣prehendeth alwaies a true and infallible answer vnto the question propoun∣ded, resoluing first that which is demanded, and then expounding the sense of the question it selfe. These practitioners are neuer found to erre, which causeth their arte of Cabala to be had in great admiration: which although it be accounted naturall, yet neuer saw I any thing that hath more affinitie with supernaturall and diuine knowledge. I remember that I saw in a certaine open place of king Abulunan his college in Fez, vpon a floore paued with excellent smooth marble, the description of a figure. Each side of this floore or court was fiftie 〈◊〉 long, and yet two third parts thereof were occupied about the figure, and about the things pertaining thereto: three there were that made the description, euery one attending his appointed place, and they were an whole day in setting it downe. Another such figure I saw at Tu∣nis, drawen by one that was maruellous cunning in the arte, whose father had written two volumes of commentaries or expositions vpon the pre∣cepts of the same arte, wherein whosoeuer hath exact skill, is most highly esteemed of by all men. I my selfe neuer sawe but three of this profession, namely one at Tunis, and two other at Fez: likewise I haue seene two expo∣sitions vpon the precepts of the said arte, together with a commentarie of one Margian father vnto the foresaid Cabalist which I sawe at Tunis: and another written by Ibnu Caldim the historiographer. And if any were desi∣rous to see the precepts and commentaries of that arte, he might doe it with the expence of fiftie duckats: for sailing to Tunis a towne neere vnto Italie, he might haue a sight of all the particulars aforesaid. I my selfe had fit opor∣tunitie* of time, and a teacher that offered to instruct me gratìs in the same arte: howbeit I thought good not to accept his offer, because the said arte is forbidden and accounted hereticall by the law of Mahumet: for Mahumets Page  151 law affirmeth all kinde of diuinations to be vaine, and that God onely know∣eth secrets and things to come: wherefore sometimes the saide Cabalistes are imprisoned by the Mahumetan inquisitours, who cease not to persecute the professours of that arte.

Of certaine rules and super stitions obserued in the Mahumet an law.

HEre also you may finde certaine learned men, which will haue them∣selues called wizards and morall philosophers. They obserue certaine rules which Mahumet neuer prescribed. By some they are accounted catho∣lique or true Mahumetans, and by others they are holden for heretiks, how∣beit the greatest part of the common people reuerence them as if they were gods, notwithstanding they commit many things vnlawfull and forbidden* by the Mahumetan lawe, as namely; whereas the said lawe forbiddeth any loue-matters to be expressed in any musicall ditties or songs, these moralists affirme the contrarie. In the foresaid Mahumetan religion are a great num∣ber of rules or sectes, euery of which hath most learned patrones and prote∣ctours. The foresaid sect sprang vp fowerscore yeeres after Mahumet, the first author thereof being called Elhesen Ibnu Abilhasen, and being borne in the towne of Basora: this man taught his disciples & followers certaine pre∣cepts, but writings he left none behinde him. About an hundred yeeres after there came another notable doctor of that sect from Bagaded, called Elharit Ibnu Esed, who left volumes of writings vnto his disciples. Afterward those that were found to be his followers, were all condemned by the Mahumetan patriarks and lawyers. Howbeit 80. yeeres after, that sect began to reuiue againe vnder a certaine famous professour, who drew after him many disci∣ples, vnto whom he published his doctrine. This man at length and all his followers were by the patriarke and lawyers condemned to die. Which he vnderstanding, wrote foorthwith vnto the patriarke, requesting that hee might be licenced to dispute with the lawyers as touching his doctrine, of whom if he were conuinced, he would most willingly suffer death; otherwise that it would be against all equitie, that so many innocents should perish vpon an vniust accusation. The patriarke thinking his demand to be reaso∣nable, condescended wholy thereunto. But when the matter came to dispu∣tation, the partie condemned soone put all the lawyers to silence. Which when the patriarke perceiued, he reuoked the sentence as vniust, and caused many colleges and monasteries to be erected for the said partie and his fol∣lowers. After which time this sect continued about an hundred yeeres, till the emperour Malicsach of the Turkish race came thither out of Asia the greater, and destroied all the maintainers thereof. Whereupon some of them fled vnto Cairo, and the rest into Arabia, being dispersed here and there for the space of twenty yeeres, till in the raigne of Caselsah nephew vnto Malicsach, Nidam Elmule one of his counsellers, and a man of an high Page  152 spirit, being addicted vnto the said sect, so restored, erected, and confirmed the same, that by the helpe of one Elgazzuli a most learned man (who had written of the same argument a notable worke diuided into seuen partes) he reconciled the lawyers with the disciples of this sect, conditionally, that the lawyers should be called Conseruers of the prophet Mahumet his lawes, & the sectaries Reformers of the same. This concord lasted betweene them, til Bagaded was sacked by the Tartars; which befell in the yeere of the Hegeira* 656. at what time those sectaries so increased, that they swarmed almost ouer all Africa and Asia. Neither would they admit any into their societie, but such as were very learned, and trained vp in all kinde of liberall sciences; to the end they might the better defend their owne opinions, and confute their aduersaries: but now adaies they admit all kinde of rude and ignorant persons, affirming all sortes of learning to be needlesse; for the holy spirit (say they) reuealeth the knowledge of the truth vnto such as are of a cleane hart; and they alleage many reasons for the confirmation of this their opi∣nion, though not very forcible. Wherefore despising their ancesters rites, and the strict obseruations of the law, they addict themselues to nought else but delights and pleasures, feasting often & singing lasciuious songs. Some∣times they will rend their garments, either alluding thereby to the verses that they sing, or being mooued thereunto by their corrupt and vile disposi∣tion; saying falsly that they are then rauished with a fit of diuine loue: but I rather impute it to their abundance of meat, and gluttonie. For each one of them will deuoure as much meate, as may well suffice three. Or (which is more likely) they vtter those passionate clamours and out-cries, bicause they are inflamed with vnlawfull and filthie lust. For sometimes it happeneth that some one of the principall of them, with all his scholers and disciples, is 〈◊〉 to the mariage of some gentleman, and at the beginning of the banket they will rehearse their deuout orizons and songs, but so soone as they are risen from the table, the elder of the companie being about to daunce, teare their garments: and if any one in the middest of their dauncing, that hath drunke immoderately, chaunceth to fall downe, he is taken vp foorthwith by one of the scholers, and to too lasciuiously kissed. Whereupon this pro∣uerbe grew among the people of Fez: The heremites banket. Which they vse in reproch of those masters, that make their scholers their minions.

Of diuers other rules and sectes, and of the superstitious credulitie of many.

AMongst these sectes there are some, that haue not onely a diuers law, but also a different beleefe from the residue, whereupon by some others they are called heretikes. Some there are also which hold, that a man by good works, by fasting and abstinence, may attaine vnto the nature of an angell, which good works, fastings, &c. doe (say they) so purge and free the minde from all contagion of euill, that by no meanes it can sinne any more, Page  153 though it would neuer so faine. Howbeit they thinke themselues not capa∣ble of this felicitie, before they haue ascended thereunto by the degrees of fiftie disciplines or sciences: and although they fall into sinne before they be come to the fiftith degree, yet they say that God will not impute that sinne vnto them. These fellowes indeed in the beginning leade a most strict life, and doe euen macerate and consume themselues with fasting; but afterward they giue themselues to al licentiousnes and pleasure. They haue also a most seuere forme of liuing set downe in fower bookes, by a certaine learned man of their faction, called Essehrauar de Sehrauard, and borne in the citie of Co∣rasan. Likewise there was another author called Ibnul Farid, that described all their religion in wittie verses, which being fraught with allegories seemed to intreate of nought but loue: wherefore one Elfargani expounded the said verses with a commentarie, and thereout gathered the canons and orders of the sect, and shewed the degrees to the attainment of felicitie. Moreouer the said verses are so sweet and elegant, that the maintainers of this sect will sing and repeate none other in their bankets: for these three hundred yeeres no author hath so adorned their language as the said Ibnul. These sectaries take the heauens, the elements, the planets, and the fixed starres to be one god, and that no law nor religion is erronious: for euery man (say they) may law∣fully worship that which his mind is most addicted to worship. They thinke that all the knowledge of God was infused into one man, whom they call in their language Elcorb; this man, they say, was elect by god, and was made equall in knowledge to him. Fourtie there are among them called all by the name of Elauted, which signifieth in our language, a blocke, or stocke of a tree: out of this number, when their Elcoth deceaseth, they create another in his roome, namely seuentie persons that haue the authoritie of election committed vnto them. There are likewise 765. others (whose names I doe not well remember) who are chosen into the said electors roomes, when any of them decease. These 765. being bound thereunto by a certaine canon or rule of their order, are constrained alwaies to goe vnknowen, and they range almost all the world ouer in a most vile and beggerly habite, so that a man would take them for mad men and estranged from all sense of huma∣nitie: for these lewd miscreants vnder pretence of their religion run like roagues naked and sauage throughout all Africa, hauing so little regarde of honestie or shame, that they will like brute beastes rauish women in publike places; and yet forsooth the grosse common people reuerence them as men of woonderfull holines. Great swarmes of these filthie vagabonds you may see in Tunis, but many more in Egypt, and especially at Alcair, where∣as in the market called Bain Elcasrain I saw one of these villaines with mine owne eies, in the presence of much people, deflowre a most beautifull wo∣man as she was comming foorth of the bath: which being done, the fond people came flocking about the said woman, striuing to touch her garment as a most holie thing: saying that the adulterer was a man of great sancti∣tie, and that he did not commit the sinne, but onely seemed to commit it: Page  154 which when the sillie cuckold her husband vnderstood, he shewed himselfe thankfull to his false god with a solemne banket, and with liberall giuing of almes. The magistrates of the citie would haue punished the adulterer, but they were in hazard to be slaine of the people for their labours, who (as is be∣fore said) adore these varlets for saints and men of singular holines. Other more villanous actes I saw committed by them, which I am ashamed to re∣port.

Of the Caballistes and certaine other sectes.

LIkewise there is another sort of men, which we may fitly call Caballists. These fast most streitly, neither doe they eate the flesh of any liuing creature, but haue certaine meates and garments allotted vnto them: they rehearse likewise certaine set-praiers appointed for euery hower of the day and for the night, according to the varietie of daies and monethes, and they vse to carrie about certaine square tables with characters and numbers en∣grauen therein. They faine themselues to haue daily conference with the angels, of whom they learne (they say) the knowledge of all things. They had once a famous doctor of their sect called 〈◊〉, who was author of their ca∣nons, praiers, and square tables. Which when I saw, me thought their pro∣fession had more affinitie with magique then with Cabala. Their arte was diuided into eight partes; whereof the first was called Elumha Enormita, that is, the demonstration of light: the which contained praiers and fastings. The second called Semsul Meharif, that is, the sunne of sciences, contained the foresaid square tables, together with their vse and profit. The third part they call 〈◊〉 Lasmei Elchusne; this part contained a catalogue of those 99. vertues, which (they say) are contained in the names of God, which I remember I saw at Rome in the custodie of a certaine Venetian Iew. They haue also a certaine other rule called Suvach, that is, the rule of heremites, the professors and followers whereof inhabite woods and solitarie places, neither haue they any other food, but such as those wilde deserts wil affoord: the conuersation of these heremites no man is able exactly to describe, be∣cause they are estranged from all humane societie. But if I should take vpon me to describe the varietie of Mahumetan sectes, I should digresse too farre from my present purpose. He that desireth to know more of this matter, let him read ouer the booke of Elefacni, who discourseth at large of the sectes* belonging to the Mahumetan religion, the principall whereof are 72. euery one of which defend their opinions to be true and good, and such as a man may attaine saluation by. At this day you shall finde but two principall sects onely, the one of Leshari being dispersed ouer all Africa, Egypt, Syria, Ara∣bia, and Turkie: the other of Imamia, which is authorized throughout the whole kingdome of Persia, and in certaine townes of Corasan; and this sect the great Sophi of Persia maintaineth, insomuch that all Asia had like to been destroied thereabout. For whereas before they followed the sect of Page  155Leshari, the great Sophi by force of armes established his owne of Imamia: and yet one onely sect stretcheth ouer all the Mahumetans dominions.

Of such as search for treasures in Fez.

MOreouer in the citie of Fez there are certaine men called Elcanesin, who supposing to finde treasure vnder the foundations of old houses, doe perpetually search and delue. These grosse fellowes vse to resort vnto certaine dennes and caues without the citie-walles, certainly perswading themselues, that when the Romans were chased out of Africa, and driuen into Baetica or Granada in Spaine, they hid great abundance of treasure in the bowels of the earth, which they could not carrie with them, and so en∣chanted the same by art-magique, that it can by no meanes be attained vnto but by the same arte; wherefore they seeke vnto inchanters to teach them the arte of digging vp the said treasures. Some of them there are that will stedfastly affirme, that they sawe gold in this or that caue: others, that they saw siluer, but could not digge it out, by reason that they were destitute of perfumes and enchantments fit for the purpose; so that being seduced with this vaine opinion, and deepely deluing into the earth, they turne vpside downe the foundations of houses and sepulchers, and sometimes they pro∣ceede in this manner ten or twelue daies iourney from Fez: yea so fond they are and so besotted, that they esteeme those bookes that professe the arte of digging gold, as diuine oracles. Before my departure from Fez these fanta∣sticall people had chosen them a consul, and getting licence of certaine ow∣ners to dig their grounds, when they had digged as much as they thought good, they paid the said owners for all dammages committed.

Of the Alchymistes of Fez.

IN this citie likewise there are great store of Alchymists which are migh∣tily addicted to that vaine practise: they are most base fellowes, and con∣taminate themselues with the steam of Sulphur, and other stinking smels. In the euening they vse to assemble themselues at the great temple, where they dispute of their false opinions. They haue of their arte of Alchymie many bookes written by learned men, amongst which one Geber is of principall account, who liued an hundred yeeres after Mahumet, and being a Greeke borne, is said to haue renounced his owne religion. This Geber his works and all his precepts are full of allegories or darke borrowed speeches. Likewise they haue another author, that wrote an huge volume of the same arte, inti∣tuled by the name of Attogrehi: this man was secretarie vnto the Soldan of Bagaded, of whom we haue written in the liues of the Arabian philosophers.* Also the songs or articles of the said science were written by one Mugairibi of Granada, whereupon a most learned Mamaluch of Damasco wrote a commentarie; yet so, that a man may much more easily vnderstand the text Page  156 then the exposition thereof. Of Alchymistes here are two sorts; whereof the one seeke for the Elissir, that is, the matter which coloureth brasse and other metals; and the other are conuersant about multiplication of the quantities of metals, whereby they may conueniently temper the same. But their chiefest drift is to coine counterfeit money: for which cause you shall see most of them in Fez with their hands cut off.

Of charmers andinchanters of snakes.

IN this citie likewise there is a great swarme of base people, such as the Ita∣lians commonly call Ciurmatori: these sing foolish songs and rimes in all the streets of the citie, and broching meere trifles with the musicke of drums, harpes, and citterns, they sell vnto the rude people certaine scroules or briefe charmes instead of preseruatiues. Vnto these you may adde ano∣ther kinde of reffuse people of one family and disposition with the former, who carrie dauncing apes vp and downe, and haue their neckes and armes all entwined with 〈◊〉 snakes. These also professe Geomancie, and per∣swade women that they can foretell them their 〈◊〉. Likewise they carrie stone-horses about with them, which for a certaine fee, they will let others haue to couer their mares. I coulde heere reckon vp more sorts of people; but let it suffice to haue admonished in this place, that the greatest part of the forenamed are people of most base condition, and such as beare little good will to strangers, albeit there are but a fewe in this citie, by reason it is distant more then an hundreth miles from the sea, the way thither also being rough and dangerous. Their gentle men are very stately and high minded, and will haue little or no familiaritie at all with the citizens: so likewise the doctors and iudges of principall account will admit but fewe vnto their acquain∣tance. This citie it selfe is most beautifull and right commodiously situate; where albeit in winter time the streetes are so mirie, that you cannot walke in them without startups, yet they let passe such abundance of water out of their conducts, that all the filth is washed cleane away. Where conducts are wanting, they carry all the durt in carts vnto the next part of the riuer.

A description of the suburbes without the fore∣said citie of Fez.

WIthout the wals of this citie westward standeth a suburbe containing almost fiue hundreth families, the houses whereof are but meane, and the inhabitants base, as namely driuers of camels, water-bearers, and cleauers of woode for the kings pallace. Yet here you may finde diuers shops, and all kinds of artificers. Here likewise dwell all the charmers and roguish minstrels before named; as also great swarmes of sluttish and filthie harlots. In the principall streete of this suburbe, you shall finde certaine caues most artificially hewen out of excellent marble, wherein the noble Page  157 men of Fez were woont to lay vp their corne: but after that by reason of the warres it was often taken from thence, they haue since vsually conueied their corne into new Fez, and there stored it vp: and from that time to this the marble-caues haue remained desolate. It is a woonder to see howe wide and large these caues are; for the least of them will containe more then a thousand measures of corne, there being aboue an hundreth and fiftie of them in all, but now they lie waste and open, insomuch that diuers fall into them at vnawares, for which cause their brimmes are enuironed with wals. Here euery one may play the vintener and the baud; so that this suburbe may iustly be called the sinke of Fez. From the twentith hower you shall see none at all in their shops: for then euery man runs to the tauerne to disport, to spend riotously, and to bee drunken. Another suburbe there is allotted vnto the lepers, of whom there are two hundreth families: these leprous per∣sons* haue a gouernour, which gathereth certaine yeerely reuenues from the noble-men, and taketh such care of the saide lepers, that they want no neces∣sarie thing. He is bound by his office to discharge the citie of all leprous persons, and to compell all such as he vnderstandes to be infected with that disease, to depart into the foresaide suburbes. If any leper chanceth to die without issue, part of his goods are emploied to the common benefite of the lepers, and part fall to the gouernours share: but if he hath any children, they enioy his goods. Among the lepers also those are placed, which are in∣fected with white botches, or with any other incurable maladie. Next be∣yond standeth another suburbe inhabited onely with muleters, plaisterers, and wood-mongers: which although it be but little, yet containeth it about an hundreth and fiftie families. Moreouer vpon the way leading westward from the citie there is another great suburbe of moe then fower hundreth houses: howbeit they are low & base, and the inhabitants are beggerly, which neither can nor will dwell among any other people. By this suburbe there is a certaine broad plaine which leadeth to the riuer two miles off, and exten∣deth westward almost three miles. Vpon this plaine euery weeke there is an exceeding great market of cattell. Likewise the shopkeepers of the citie re∣sort hither and sell their wares in tents. Also a certaine companie of gentle∣men vse to come hither, and to diuide a ramme among themselues, leauing the head vnto the butcher for his fee, but the feete and the skin they sell vn∣to the wooll-chapmen. For those wares that are heere sold they pay so little tribute to the king, that it is not woorth the mentioning. But this one thing I must in no wise passe ouer in silence, namely, that I neuer sawe neither in Asia, Africa, nor Italy, a market either more populous, or better furnished with wares. Not farre from Fez stand certaine high rockes enuironed with a ditch of two miles compasse, out of which rockes certaine matter is hewed to make lime withall. Neere vnto the saide ditch are many furnaces, some whereof are so large, that they will containe moe then sixe thousand mea∣sures of lime: and this lime is made at the costes of the richest citizens in Fez. Westward without the wals of Fez by the riuers side stande about an hun∣dred Page  158 cottages, which are onely inhabited by them that white linnen cloth. Hither in the spring and in summer vse the citizens to bring their linnen cloth, spreading it vpon the medowes, and as often as they see it drie in the sunne, casting water thereupon, which water they fetch either out of the ri∣uer or out of some cesterne in certaine lether tankards made for the same purpose: but at night each one carrieth his cloth into the foresaid cottages. Neither are the medowes wherein they bleach their cloth euer destitute of grasse. A most gallant prospect it is to beholde a farre off the white clothes dispersed ouer the greene medow, and the christall streames of the riuer, which seeme to be of an azure hue, running along: all which the Poets haue celebrated in their verses.

A description of the common place of buriall without the citie.

MAny fieldes there are without the citie, which haue been giuen by cer∣taine noblemen for the buriall of the dead. Vpon their sepulchers for the most part they lay a long three-square stone. When any noble man or any principall citizen deceaseth, they lay one stone ouer his head and ano∣ther ouer his feete, whereon vseth to bee engrauen some epitaph, with the day and yeere when the partie deceased. I my selfe bestowed much labour in gathering of epitaphes, which I sawe both about Fez and in other places of Barbary; all which being set downe in a booke I gaue vnto the kings brother. The matter of their epitaphes is diuers, some tending to consolation, and others to sorrow.

Of the sepulchres of the kings of Fez.

NOrthward of the citie vpon a certaine high hill stands a palace, where∣in are the monuments of diuers Marin kings, being most artificially hewen out of marble with epitaphes vpon them, so that I cannot condignely expresse the maiestie and beautie thereof.

A description of their gardens.

WIthout the north, east, and south parts of the citie are great store of gardens, replenished with all kinde of fruite and with stately trees. Through the midst of these garden̄s, they deriue some small vaine of the riuer, some whereof are so full of trees, that you woulde take them for groues rather then for gardens. These gardens they manure not at all, but only water them continually in the moneth of May, whereupon they haue great abun∣dance of fruit. All their fruits, saue their peaches onely, are of a most deli∣cate taste, whereof, so soone as they are ripe, aboue fiue hundreth cart-loades are daily carried into the market, besides grapes, which here I do not men∣tion. Page  159 But the saide fruits are carried vnto a certaine place in Fez, where tri∣bute being paide for them, they are solde by criers vnto the fruiterers there present. In the same place likewise after paying of tribute, they sell certaine Negro-slaues. Towards the east of Fez lieth a plaine fifteene miles broad, and thirtie miles long: this plaine is full of fountaines and freshets, and is reserued for the vse of the great temple. It is farmed out vnto gardiners, who sowe thereupon such abundance of hemp, melons, turneps or nauewes, radish, and other such like rootes and herbes, that euery summer there are saide to be gathered thereof aboue fifteene thousand cart-loads, and as many in winter. Howbeit the aire is verie vnholsome thereabout, for the inhabi∣tants are continually vexed with feuers, and are of a yellowish colour.

Of that part of Fez which is called new Fez.

NEW Fez beeing enuironed with an high and impregnable wall, and situate on a most beautifull plaine not farre from the riuers side, is al∣most a mile distant from old Fez, and that vpon the east and south side there∣of. Betweene the wals of either towne, to the northward, entereth a certaine arme of the riuer, where the foresaid milles do stande, and the other part of the riuer is seuered into two branches, one whereof runneth betweene new Fez and old Fez, not farre from the edge of the rocke, and the other passing through certaine vallies and gardens, trendeth at length southward. The other part of the riuer holdeth on his course by the rocke, and so by the col∣lege of king *Abutiman. This citie of new Fez Iacob the sonne of Abdul∣tach caused to 〈◊〉 built, who was the first king of the Marin family, and expelled the kings of Maroco, and vsurped the kingdome vnto himselfe: but* the king of Telensin, to the end he might make the people of Maroco be∣holding vnto him, and might subuert the prosperous successe of the Marin family, went about to hinder the king of Fez his attempts against Maroco: wherefore king Iacob hauing finished the wars of Maroco, determined to re∣uenge himselfe to the vttermost for the iniuries offered by them of Telensin. But considering with himselfe, that the strong townes of his owne king∣dome were farre distant from Telensin, he thought it a better course to builde this citie, whereunto the seate roiall of all Maroco might be transla∣ted: which being erected, he called The white citie, but it was afterward na∣med by the inhabitants new Fez. This citie king Iacob the founder diui∣ded into three parts, whereof the first contained his roiall pallace, and di∣uers noble mens houses, vnto euery one of which he allotted a most plea∣sant garden. Not farre from his pallace he built a most stately and sumptu∣ous temple. In another part of this citie he built a large and faire stable for the kings horses to stande in. Then also he caused other palaces to be erec∣ted for his captaines and principall courtiers. From the west gate to the east he appointed the market place, the distance betweene which gates is a mile and an halfe, and on both sides he placed artificers and merchants shops. At Page  160 the west gate he caused a faire portall to be set vp, to harbour the watchmen and warders of the citie. Not far from thence he erected two stables suffici∣ent to containe three hundreth horses, which he might vse for the protection of his owne palace. The third part of the citie was appointed for the kinges guarde and attendants, which were most of them borne eastwarde of Fez, neither had they any other weapons but hand-bowes (for crosse-bowes were not then vsed in that kingdome) vnto which attendants the king al∣lowed a large stipend: but now the same place is full of beautifull temples and stoues. Neere vnto the kings palace standes the mint, hauing in the midst a fower-square court with certaine portals or cels rounde about it, wherein the money-minters dwell. Likewise there is another lodging in the midst of the same court, where the gouernor of the mint with his scribes and notaries haue their aboad. Here, as well as in any other places, whatsoeuer commoditie is raised, redoundeth wholy to the king. Neere vnto the mint stande the gold-smiths shops, whose Consul or gouernour keepes the seale and stamps of the coine. In Fez neither ring nor any other Iewell or com∣moditie can bee made of siluer or golde, before the metall bee sealed, for the offenders are most seuerely punished. And, the metall being sealed, whatsoeuer is made thereof is weighed as if it were money. The greatest part of goldsmiths dwelling in new Fez are Iewes, who carrie their vessels of gold and siluer vnto a certaine place of old Fez, neere vnto the grocers shops, and there sell them. For in old Fez neither gold nor siluer is coined, nor any Mahumetans are suffered to be goldsmiths, bicause they haue vsurers among them, which will sell any peece of wrought siluer or golde deerer then the weight requireth; albeit the same priuilege is by the gouernours of the citie granted vnto the Iewes. Some there are also that onely make plate for the citizens, who are paied hire onely for their worke. That part of the citie which the kings attendants or guard once possessed, is now inhabited by Iewes: for now a daies the kings vse no such guard. The Iewes indeed first dwelt in old Fez, but vpon the death of a certaine king they were all robbed by the Moores: whereupon king Abusabid caused them to remooue into new Fez, and by that meanes doubled their yeerely tribute. They therefore euen till this day doe occupie a long street in the said new citie, wherin they haue their shops and synagogues, and their number is maruellously encrea∣sed euer since they were driuen out of Spaine. These Iewes are had in great contempt by all men, neither are any of them permitted to weare shooes, but they make them certaine socks of sea-rushes. On their heads they weare a blacke * dulipan, and if any will goe in a cap, he must fasten a red cloth thereunto. They pay vnto the king of Fez monethly fower hundred duckats. At length within the space of an hundred and forty yeeres this new citie was enuironed with most impregnable walles, and adorned with temples, colle∣ges, palaces, and other such buildings as serue to beautifie a citie, so that I* thinke there was more bestowed in garnishing of the citie, then in building of the walles. Without the citie-walles are built many huge wheeles or en∣gins, Page  161 for the conueying of riuer-water ouer the said walles into cesternes, from whence it is conueied in certaine chanels and pipes vnto the temples, gardens, & palaces. The said wheeles were built not fully an hundred yeeres past, before which time water was brought vnto the citie by a certaine con∣duct, from a fountaine ten miles distant. Of which artificiall conduct a cer∣taine Genouese, beeing then in great fauour with the king, is reported to haue been the author: but the wheeles (they say) were inuented by a Spani∣ard: and in them there is maruellous cunning workmanship: for to the conueiance of so huge a quantitie of water, each wheele is turned about but fower and twentie times onely in a day and a night. To conclude, here are but few gentlemen in this citie, except such as attend vpon the court, for the residue are base and mechanicall people: but such as carie any shew of ho∣nestie, doe so hate and disdaine the kings courtiers and gentlemen, that they will by no meanes vouchsafe to marie their daughters vnto them.

Of the fashions and customes vsed in the kings court.

AMongst all the princes of Africa, I neuer red of any that was created by the common suffrages and consent of the people vnto his king∣dome or princedome, or that was called from any strange prouince or citie to beare rule. Also by the law of Mahumet no man may beare any secular authoritie, which may be called lawfull, saue onely the Mahumetan patri∣arkes and prelates: howbeit the saide patriarkes authoritie decreasing daily more and more, the ringleaders of such people as ranged vp and downe the deserts began to inuade places inhabited & ciuilized, and by force of armes, against Mahumets lawe, and maugre his prelates, to ordaine sundrie prin∣ces: As for example in the East, whereas the Turkes, Cordians, and Tar∣tars, haue vsurped dominion ouer such as were not able to repell them. So likewise in the west parts first the families of Zeneta and Luntuna, then the seditious Mahumetan preachers, and afterward the family of Marin got the vpper hand. Howbeit the family of Luntuna is reported to haue aided the western regions, & to haue released them from the furie of the seditious heretiques, wherein they shewed themselues friends and not enimies: but afterward their tyrannie began to shew it selfe. And this is the reason why they do not now a daies attaine vnto gouernment by hereditarie sućcession or by election of the people, or of the nobilitie. But the prince himselfe when he feeles death seazing vpon him, calleth about him all his peeres and nobles, and bindeth them by oath, to establish his sonne, brother, or anie other whom he most fauoureth, in his kingdome. But they after the prin∣ces decease neglecting their oath, will chuse any other whom they list. And this is ordinarily the election of the king of Fez, who, so soone as he is pro∣claimed king, chuseth foorthwith some one of his nobles to be his chiefe counsellour, and on him he bestoweth the thirde part of all his kingly reue∣nues.* Then chuseth another to be his secretarie, treasurer, and high steward of his houshold. Then is created the captaine of the horsemen appointed Page  162 for the kings guard, and these horsemen with their horses liue most com∣monly in the fieldes. Lastly he appointeth a new gouernour ouer euery ci∣tie, vnto whom all the tributes and reuenues of the same place redound, with condition, that as often as any warres betide, he shall maintaine a certaine companie of horses to the kings seruice. After a while also he placeth cer∣taine deputies and commissioners ouer his people inhabiting the moun∣taines, and ouer the Arabians subiect vnto him. The gouernours of cities diuersly administer iustice, according to the custome of the place. Some there are also appointed by the king to collect all the tributes and reuenues of his kingdome, and duly to paie the same vnto him. Likewise there are others chosen, whom they call in their language keepers or guardians, and vnto euery one of these the king giueth some castle or village, whereby he may procure his owne maintenance, and be able to serue the king in time of warre. Moreouer the king of Fez maintaineth a troupe of light horse∣men, who so long as they serue the king in his campe, haue their diet allo∣wed them out of the kings prouision: but in time of peace, he findeth them corne, butter, and pouldered flesh for the whole yeere, but money they haue very seldome. Once a yeere they are apparelled at the kings cost; neither do they prouide for their horses either within the citie or without, for the king furnisheth them with all necessaries. Those that giue attendance to their horses are Christian captiues, which go shackled in great chaines and fetters. But when the armie remooueth any whither, the saide Christians are carried vpon camels backes. Another officer there is that giueth atten∣dance onely to the camels, assigning certaine pastures vnto the heards-men, and diuiding fields among them, and making such prouision for the kings camels, as himselfe shall thinke expedient. Each camel-driuer hath two ca∣mels, which are laden with the kings furniture, according to the appoint∣ment of the gouernour. Likewise the king hath a certaine purueiour or ste∣ward, whose office is to prouide, keepe, and distribute corne both to the kings houshold and to his armie. This man in time of warre hath tenne or twelue tents to lay vp corne in, and euery day with change of camels he sen∣deth for newe corne, least the armie shoulde be vnprouided of victuals: he hath also cooks at his command. Moreouer there is a gouernour or master∣groome of the stables, who prouideth for the kings horses, mules, and ca∣mels, and is furnished with all necessaries by the steward. There is another also appointed ouerseer of the corne, whose dutie it is to prouide barly and other prouender for the beasts: and this man hath his scribes and notaries about him, who diligently set downe all particular expenses, for they must giue vp a perfect account vnto the chiefe steward. They haue also a certaine captaine ouer fiftie horsemen, which horsemen may well be called purse∣uants, for they are sent by the secretarie in the kings name to do his busines. Likewise the Fezzan king hath another captaine of great name, being as it were gouernour of his guard, who in the kings name, may compell the iudges to do iustice, and to put their sentences in execution. This mans Page  163 authoritie is so great, that sometimes he may commit principal noblemen to ward, & may seuerely punish them, according to the kings commandement. Moreouer the said king hath a most trusty chancelor, who keepeth the great seale, and writeth and signeth the kings letters. He hath also a great number of footemen, the gouernour of whom accepteth and dismisseth whom he thinkes good, and giueth to euery one wages according to his agilitie and desert. And whensoeuer the king commeth in place of iudgement, the saide gouernour alwaies attendeth vpon him, and is in a manner his high cham∣berlain. Also there is another that taketh charge of the carriages and bag∣gage of the armie, and causeth the tents of the light horsemen to be carried vp and downe on mules, and the tents of the other soldiers on camels. There are likewise a company of ensigne-bearers, who in marching on a iourney carrie their colours wrapped vp: but he that goeth before the armie hath his banner displaied, and of a great height. And euery one of the saide standard∣bearers knoweth most exactly alwaies, fords of riuers, and passages through woods, wherefore they are for the most part appointed to guide the armie. The drummers (of whom there are great store in the kings host) plaie vpon certaine drums of brasse as bigge as a great kettle, the lower part whereof is narrow, & the vpper broad, being couered with a skin. These drummers ride on horsebacke, hauing alwaies on the one side of their horses a great waight hanging downe, to counterpoize the heauines of their drums on the other side. They are allowed most swift horses, bicause the Moores account it a great disgrace to loose a drum. The said drums make such a loude and horri∣ble noise, that they are not onely heard a farre off, but also strike exceeding terrour both vpon men and horses, and they are beaten onely with a buls pizzle. The musitions are not maintained at the kings charge, for the cities are bounde at their costs to send a certaine number of them to the warres, who, according to their demeanour in the warres, are admitted or not ad∣mitted vnto the kings table. This king hath also a certaine master of cere∣monies, who sitteth at his feete in the senate-house, and commandeth each man to sit downe, and to speake according to his dignitie. All the maide∣seruants in the kings familie are Negro-slaues, which are partly chamber∣lains, and partly waiting-maids. And yet his Queene is alwaies of a white skin. Likewise in the king of Fez his court are certaine Christian captiues, being partly Spanish, and partly Portugale women, who are most circum∣spectly kept by certaine Eunuchs, that are Negro-slaues. The king of Fez hath very large dominions, but his reuenues are small, to wit, scare three hundreth thousand ducats, the fift part whereof redoundeth not to the king: for the remainder is diuided into sundrie portions, as we haue before signi∣fied. Yea, the greater part of the said reuenues is paide in corne, cattle, oile, and butter, all which yeeld but small store of money. In some place they pay a ducate and one fourth part, tribute for euery acre, but in other places a whole family paieth but so much. In some other regions each man aboue fifteene yeeres of age paieth as much tribute also. Neither are the people Page  164 of this great citie more vexed with any thing then with paying of their tri∣butes and impositions. Heere also is to be noted, that the Mahumetan go∣uernours (the priests onely excepted) may not exact greater reuenues then those that Mahumet hath allotted vnto them, namely of euery of their sub∣iects which possesseth 100. ducates in ready money, they are to haue two du∣cates & an halfe for yeerely tribute. Euery husbandman likewise is bound to pay for tribute the tenth part of all his corne. And all the saide tributes he appointed to be paied vnto the patriarke, who should bestow that which was superfluous for the Prince to haue, vpon common vses; namely for the re∣leeuing of poore impotent people and widowes, and for maintaining of wars against the enimie. But since the Patriarches began to decay, the Prin∣ces (as we haue beforesaide) exercised tyrannie. For it was not sufficient for them to exact all the forenamed tributes, and riotously to consume the same, but also to vrge people vnto greater contributions; so that all the inhabitants of Africa are so oppressed with daily exactions, that they haue scarcely wherewithall to feed and apparell themselues: for which cause there is almost no man of learning or honesty, that will seeke any acquaintance with courtiers, or will inuite them to his table, or accept any gifts (bee they neuer so pretious) at their hands: thinking that whatsoeuer goods they haue, are gotten by theft and briberie. The King of Fez continually main∣taineth* sixe thousand horsemen, fiue hundreth crossebowes, and as manie Harquebusiers, being at all assayes prepared for the warres, who in time of peace, when the king goeth on progresse, lye within a mile of his person: for being at home in Fez, he needeth not so strong a guard. When he wa∣geth* warre against the Arabians that be his enemies, because the forenamed garison is not sufficient, he requireth ayde of the Arabians his subiects, who at their owne costs finde him a great armie of men better trained to the warres, then his owne souldiers before-mentioned. The pompe and cere∣monies of this king are but meane, neither doth he willingly vse them, but onely vpon festiuall daies, and when meere necessitie requireth. When the king is to ride foorth, the master of ceremonies signifieth so much vnto cer∣taine herbengers or postes, whereupon the herbengers giue notice there∣of vnto the kings *parents, vnto his nobilitie, his senatours, captaines, guardians, and gentlemen, who presently arrange themselues before the palace gate. At the kings comming foorth of the palace, the herbengers appoint vnto each man his place and order of riding. First and foremost go the standard-bearers, next the drummers, then followeth the chiefe groome of the stable with his seruants and family; after him comes the kings pensio∣ners, his guard, his master of ceremonies, his secretaries, his treasurer, and last of all his chiefe Iudge and his captaine generall, at length comes the king accompanied with his principall counseller, or with some other great peere. Before the king also ride certaine officers belonging to his person, whereof one carries his sword-royall, another his shield, and the third his crosse-bowe. On each side of him march his footemen, one carrying a payer Page  165 of stirrups, another the kings partizan, the third a couering for his saddle, and the fourth a halter for his horse. And so soone as the king is dismoun∣ted, they foorthwith couer his saddle, and put the foresaide halter vpon his horse-head. Likewise there is another footeman that carrieth the kings pan∣tofles most artificially wrought. After the king followeth the captaine of the footemen, then the eunuches, the kings family, the light horsemen, and last of all the crosse-bowes and Harquebusiers. The apparell of the king is then verie moderate and plaine: insomuch that if a man knew him not, he would thinke him to be absent: for the attendants be far more sumptuously attired. Moreouer no Mahumetan king or prince may weare a crowne, dia∣deme,* or any such like ornament vpon his head, for that is forbidden by the law of Mahumet. When the king lyeth with his armie in the fields, first his owne great tent is pitched in a fower square forme like vnto a castle, each side of the saide square being fiftie elles in length. At euerie of the fower corners standeth a little sharpe turret made of cloth, with a gallant spheare on the top which glistereth like gold. This royall pauilion hath fower gates, euerie one of which is kept by eunuches. Within the said pauilion are con∣tained diuers other tents, among which is the kings lodging, being framed in such wise, that it may easily be remooued from place to place. Next vnto it stand the tents of the noblemen, and of such as are most in the kings fa∣uour; then the lodgings of the principall guard beeing made of goates∣skinnes, after the Arabian fashion; and in the middest of all stands the kings kitchin and his pantrie. Not farre from hence the light horsemen haue their aboade, who all of them are victualled out of the kings storehouse, notwith∣standing their attire be verie base. Next of all are the stables, wherein their horses are maruellous well tended. Without this circuit keepe such as car∣rie the tents and the kings furniture from place to place. Here are also but∣chers, victuallers, and such like. All merchants & artificers that resort hither, take vp their aboad next vnto the tent-carriers: so that the kings pauilion is pitched like a strong citie, for it is so enuironed with the lodgings of the guarde, and with other tents adioining, that there is very difficult passage to the king. Round about the saide roiall pauilion, there are certaine appointed to watch and ward all night long, howbeit they are base and vnarmed people. In like sort there is a watch kept about the stables, but sometimes so negli∣gently, that not onely some horses haue beene stolne, but there haue beene founde enimies in the kings owne pauilion, that came to murther him. The king liueth the greatest part of the yeere in the fieldes, both for the safegard of his kingdome, and also that he may keepe his Arabian subiects in obedi∣ence, and sometimes he recreateth himselfe with hunting, and sometime with playing at chesse. I know right well how tedious I haue beene in the de∣scription of this citie: but bicause it is the metropolitan not onely of Bar∣bary, but of all Africa, I thought good most particularly to decypher euerie parcell and member thereof.

Page  166

Of the towne of Macarmeda.

THis towne standeth almost twentie miles eastward of Fez, and was built by the familie of Zeneta, vpon the banke of a most beautifull riuer. It had in times past a large territorie, and great store of inhabitants. On both sides of the saide riuer are many gardens and vineyards. The kings of Fez were woont to assigne this towne vnto the gouernour of their camels; but in the warre of Sahid it was so destroied and wasted, that at this day scarce is there any mention of wals to be found. But the fields thereof are now in the possession of certaine gentlemen of Fez, and of the pesants.

Of the castle of Hubbed.

THis castle standeth vpon the side of an hill, about sixe miles from Fez, and from hence you may beholde the citie of Fez, and all the ter∣ritorie adiacent. It was founded by a certaine hermite of Fez, being reputed for a man of singular holines. The fields thereto belonging are not verie large, bicause the houses being demolished, it is vtterly destitute of inhabi∣tants, the wals onely and the temple as yet remaining. In this castle I liued fower summers, bicause it standeth in a most pleasant aire, being separate from concurse of people, and a solitarie place fitte for a man to studie in: for my father had got a lease of the ground adioining to this castle from the gouernour of the temple, for many yeeres.

Of the towne of Zauia.

THe towne of Zauia was founded by Ioseph the second king of the Ma∣rin-family, and is distant from Fez about fowerteene miles. Heere king Ioseph built a stately hospitall, and commanded that his corps shoulde be in∣terred in this towne. But it was not his fortune heere to be buried, for he was slaine in the warres against Tremizen. From thencefoorth Zauia fell to de∣cay and grew destitute of inhabitants, wherein at this present the hospitall onely remaineth. The reuenues of this place were giuen vnto the great temple of Fez, but the fielde thereof was tilled by certaine Arabians dwel∣ling in the region of Fez.

Of the castle of Chaulan.

THe ancient castle of Chaulan is built vpon the riuer Sebu, eight miles* southward of Fez. Not farre from this castle there is a certaine hot bath, whereunto Abulhezen the fourth king of the Marin-family added a faire building, vnto this bath once a yeere in the moneth of Aprill the gen∣tlemen of Fez vsually resort, remaining there fower or fiue daies together. Page  167 There is no ciuilitie to be found in this castle: for the inhabitants are base people, and exceeding couetous.

Of the mountaine of Zelag.

THis mountaine beginneth eastward from the riuer of Sebu, extending thence almost fowerteene miles westward, and the highest part thereof to the north, is seuen miles distant from Fez. The south part of this mountaine is vtterly destitute of inhabitants; but the north side is excee∣ding fertile, and planted with great store of castles and townes. Most of their fields are imployed about vineyards, the grapes whereof are the sweetest that euer I tasted, and so likewise are their oliues, and other fruits. The inhabi∣tants being verie rich, haue most of them houses in the citie of Fez. And so likewise most part of the gentlemen of Fez haue vineyards vpon the saide mountaine. At the north foote of this mountaine the fields are replenished with all kinde of graine and fruits. For all that plaine is watered southward with the riuer Sebu: and here the gardiners with certaine artificiall wheeles and engines draw water out of the riuer to moisten their gardens. In this plaine are wel-nigh two hundreth acres of ground, the reuenues whereof are giuen vnto the kings master of ceremonies, howbeit he maketh thereof not aboue fiue hundreth ducates a yeere: the tenth part of all which reuenues, amounting to three thousand bushels of corne, belongeth to the kings prouision.

Of mount Zarhon.

THis mountaine beginneth from the plaine of Esais lying ten miles distant from the citie of Fez; westward it extendeth thirtie miles, and is almost ten miles broad. This mountaine is all couered with waste and desert woods, being otherwise well stored with oliues. In this moun∣taine there are of sheepe-foldes and castles to the number of fiftie, and the inhabitants are very wealthy, for it standeth betweene two flourishing cities, that is to say, Fez on the east, and Mecnase on the west. The women weaue woollen cloth, according to the custome of that place, and are adorned with many siluer rings and bracelets. The men of this mountaine are most vali∣ant, and are much giuen to pursue and take lions, whereof they send great* store vnto the king of Fez. And the king hunteth the said lions in manner following: in a large field there are certaine little cels made, being so high, that a man may stand vpright in them: each one of these cels is shut fast with a little doore; and containe within euery of them an armed man, who opening the doore presents himselfe to the view of the lion: then the lion 〈◊〉 the doores open, comes running toward them with great furie, but the doores being shut againe, he waxeth more furious then before: then bring they foorth a bull to combate with the lion, who enter a fierce and Page  168 bloudie conflict, wherein if the bull kill the lion, that daies sport is at an end; but if the lion get the victorie, then all the armed men, being ordinarily twelue, leape foorth of their cels, and inuade the lion: each one of them ha∣uing a iauelin with a pike of a cubite and an halfe long. And if these armed men seeme to bee too hard for the lion, the king causeth their number to be diminished: but perceiuing them too weake, the king with his companie from a certaine high place, where he standeth to behold the sport, kill the lion with their crossebowes. And oftentimes it falleth out, that before the lion be slaine, some one of the men dies for it, the residue being sore woun∣ded. The reward of those that encounter the lion is ten duckats apeece, and a new garment: neither are any admitted vnto this combat but men of re∣doubted valour, and such as come from mount Zelagi: but those that take the lions first are inhabitants of mount Zarhon.

Of Gualili a towne of mount Zarhon.

THis towne was built by the Romanes vpon the top of the foresaide mountaine, what time they were lordes of Granada in south Spaine. It is enuironed around with mighty thicke walles made of smoothe and hewen stones. The gates are large and high, and the fields are manured for the space of sixe miles about: howbeit this towne was long sithence de∣stroied by the Africans. But afterward when the schismatike Idris came into this region, he began to repaire this desolate towne, and to replant it so with inhabitants, that within short time it grew very populous: howbeit after his decease it was neglected by his sonne, being wholy addicted (as is before∣said) vnto the building of Fez. And yet Idris lieth buried in this towne, whose sepulchre is visited with great reuerence almost by all the people of Barba∣rie, for he is as highly esteemed as if he had been some patriarke, because he was of the linage of Mahumet. At this present there are but two or three houses in all the towne, which were there built for the honour and mainte∣nance of the sepulchre. The fields adiacent are exceedingly well husbanded: and their gardens are most pleasant by reason of two sweet freshets running through them, the which diuersly winding themselues about the little hils and vallies, doe water all that plaine.

Of a certaine towne called the palace of Pharao.

THis towne was founded by the Romans vpon the top of an hill, about eight miles distant from Gualili. The people of this said mountaine, together with some historiographers are most certainly perswaded, that this towne was built by Pharao king of Egypt in the time of Moses, and tooke the name from the first founder, which notwithstanding I thinke to be otherwise: for I can read in no approoued author that either Pharao or any other Egyptians euer inhabited these regions. But I suppose that this fond Page  169 opinion was taken out of that booke which one Elcabi wrote concerning the words of Mahumet. For the said booke affirmeth from the authoritie of Ma∣humet, that there were fower kings onely that gouerned the whole world, two whereof were faithfull, and the other two ethnikes: the faithfull he 〈◊〉 were Alexander the great, and Salomon the sonne of Dauid: and the ethnikes were Nimrod and Pharao. But I am rather of opinion, by the Latine letters which are there engrauen in the walles, that the Romanes built this towne. About this towne run two small riuers on either side thereof. The little hils and vallies adiacent doe greatly abound with oliues. Not far from hence are certaine wilde deserts frequented with lions and leopards.

Of the towne called Pietra Rossa or The red rocke.

PIetra Rossa is a small towne built by the Romans vpon the side of the foresaid mountaine, being so neere the forrest, that the lions will come* daily into the towne and gather vp bones in the streets, yea, they are so tame and familiar, that neither women nor children are afeard of them. The wals of this towne are built very high and of great stones, but now they are ruined in many places, and the whole towne is diminished into one streete. Their fields being ioyned vnto the plaines of Azgara, abound with oliues and all kinde of pulse.

Of the towne of Maghilla.

MAghilla is a little towne founded of old by the Romans vpon that side of the foresaid hill which looketh toward Fez. About this towne are most fertill fields, and greatly enriched with oliues: there is a plaine likewise containing many fresh fountaines, and well stored with hempe and flaxe.

Of the castle of Shame.

THis ancient castle is built at the foote of the said mountaine neer vnto the high way from Fez to Mecnase: and it was called by this name, be∣cause the inhabitants are most shamefully addicted to couetise, like vnto all the people thereabouts. In old time it is reported that a certaine king passed by, whom the inhabitants of the castle inuited to dinner, requesting him to change the ignominious name of the place: which when the king had con∣descended vnto, they caused, according to their custome, a companie of rams to be slaine, and certaine bladders and vessels to be filled with milke, to serue for the kings breakfast the morrow after. But because the said vessels were very large, 〈◊〉 consulted together to put in halfe milke and halfe wa∣ter, hoping that 〈◊〉 king should neuer perceiue it. The day following albeit the king was not very hastie of his breakfast, yet, his seruants vrging him thereunto, he perceiued the milke to be halfe water; whereat smiling he said: Friends, that which nature hath giuen, no man can 〈◊〉 away. And with that Page  170 saying he departed. Now this castle is razed to the ground & vtterly destroi∣ed, but the territorie thereof is occupied by certaine miserable Arabians.

Of the region of Beni Guariten.

THe region of Beni Guariten lieth eastward of 〈◊〉 about eighteene miles. It is altogether hillie and mountainous, abounding with all kind of pulse, and with store of good pasture and medow-ground, and containing almost two hundred villages. Their houses are in all places rudely built, and the inhabitants are base people, neither haue they any vineyards or gardens, nor any tree that beareth fruit. This region the king of Fez vsually diuideth among his youngest brothers and sisters. The inhabitants haue great store of corne and wooll: and albeit they are passing rich, yet go they very mean∣ly attired: they ride onely vpon asses, for which cause they are had in great derision by their neighbours.

Of the region called Aseis.

THis region is distant to the west of Fez almost twentie miles, and is by the inhabitants called Aseis; it consisteth of a perpetuall plaine, wher∣upon some coniecture, that it hath had in olde time many villages and ca∣stles, whereof now there is no mention at all, nor so much as a signe of any building, onely the names of places yet remaine. This region extendeth westward eighteene, and southward almost twenty miles. The soile is most fertile, and bringeth foorth blacke and small graines. Wels and fountaines are here very rare. It was woont to be subiect vnto certaine Arabian hus∣bandmen, but now it is assigned by the king vnto the gouernor of that citie.

Of mount Togat.

THis mountaine standeth almost seuen miles westward of Fez, being very high, and but of small bredth. Eastward it extendeth to the riuer Bunafe being about fiue miles distant. All that side which looketh towards Fez, and the top thereof, and that part which lieth ouer against Essich are woonderfully replenished with vines, and with all kinde of graine. Vpon the top of this mountaine are diuers caues and hollow places, where the sear∣chers of treasure suppose that the Romans hid vp their wealth, as we haue before signified. The said treasure-searchers, so soone as the vintage is past, vse to take great paines in digging of the rocke, and albeit they finde no∣thing, yet will they not giue ouer. All the fruits of this mountaine are most vnpleasant both to the 〈◊〉 and to the taste, and yet they are sooner ripe, then the fruits of other places thereabout.

Page  171

Of mount Guraigura.

THis mountaine being neer vnto Atlas is almost fortie miles distant from Fez. From hence springeth a certaine riuer, which running west∣ward falleth into the riuer Bath. This mountaine standeth betweene two most large and spatious plaines, whereof the one to Fez ward is (as we haue before said) called Aseis: and the other lying southward is named Adecsen. Which Adecsen is most fertile both for corne and pasture. And they are possessed by certaine Arabians called Zuhair being vassals vnto the king of Fez: but the king assigneth for the most part this plaine vnto his brother or some other of his kinsfolkes, out of which they yeerely gather ten thousand duckats. The foresaid Arabians are continually molested by certaine other Arabians called Elhusein, which liue in the deserts: for in summer-time they vsually inuade the plaines: wherefore the king of Fez for the defence of this region maintaineth a certaine number of horsemen and of crosse∣bowes. This plaine is watered with christall-fountaines and pleasant riuers. Neere vnto the said plaine are diuers woods and forrests, where lions keepe* which are so gentle and tame, that any man may driue them away with a staffe, neither doe they any harme at all. Now let vs proceede vnto the de∣scription of Azgara.

A description of Azgara, one of the seuen principall regions belonging to the kingdome of Fez.

THis region bordereth northward vpon the Ocean-sea; west∣ward vpon the riuer of Buragrag; eastward vpon the moun∣taines partly of Gumera, partly of Zarhon, and partly of Za∣lag; and southward it is inclosed with the riuer of Bunasar. This region consisteth altogether of plaine ground being a most fertile soile, and in olde time very populous, and adorned with many townes and castles, which are now so defaced and ruined by reason of wars, that small villages onely are left for the inhabitants to hide their heads in. The length of this region is about fowerscore, and the bredth almost three score miles. Through the midst thereof runneth the riuer of Subu. The Ara∣bian inhabitants are called Elculoth, being descended from the familie of Muntafic; they are subiect to the king of Fez, and pay vnto him large tri∣butes: howbeit they are rich, and curious in their apparell, and are such va∣liant soldiers, that the king of Fez leuieth his whole armie of them onely, when he hath any warres of great moment to atchieue. This region abun∣dantly furnisheth not onely Fez, but all the mountaines of Gumera with victuals, horses, and other cattell; and here the king of Fez vsually remai∣neth all winter and the spring, by reason of the temperature and holesomnes of the aire. Here is great plentie of roes and hares, and yet very few woods.

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Of Giumha a towne in Azgara.

THis towne the Africans built in our time by a riuers side vpon that plaine ouer which the way lieth from Fez to the citie of Harais, and it is distant from Fez about thirtie miles. It was in times past very popu∣lous, but now it lieth so desolate by reason of the war of Sahid, that it serueth onely for caues and receptacles for the Arabians to lay vp their corne in, for the sauegard whereof they pitch certaine tents neere vnto the place.

Of the towne of Harais.

THis towne was founded by the ancient Africans vpon the Ocean sea shore, neere vnto the mouth of the riuer Luccus, one side thereof ad∣ioining vpon the said riuer, and the other side vpon the maine Ocean. When the Moores were lords of Arzilla and Tangia, this towne was well inhabited: but those two townes being woon by the Christians, Harais re∣mained destitute of inhabitants, almost twentie yeeres together: howbeit afterward the king of Fez his sonne, fearing the Portugals inuasion, caused it strongly to bee fortified and kept with a perpetuall garrison. The passage vnto this towne by the riuers mouth is very dangerous and difficult. Like∣wise the kings sonne caused a castle to be built, wherein is maintained a gar∣rison of two hundred crosse-bowes, an hundred Harquebusiers, & three hun∣dred light horsemen. Neere vnto the towne are diuers medowes and fennes where the townesmen take great store of eeles and of water-fowles. Vpon this riuers side are huge and solitarie woods haunted with lions and other wilde beastes. The inhabitants of this towne vse to transport coales by sea to Arzilla and Tangia, whereupon the Moores vse for a common prouerbe, A ship of Harais, which they alleage when a man after great brags and pro∣mises performeth trifles; for these ships hauing sailes of cotton, which make a gallant shew, are laden with nought but base coales: for the territorie of this citie aboundeth greatly with cotton.

Of the towne called Casar Elcabir, that is, The great palace.

THis large towne was built in the time of Mansor the king and patri∣arke of Maroco; of whom this notable historie is reported, namely, that the said king, as he rode on hunting, being separated from his companie by tempestuous weather, came vnto a certaine vnknowen place, where if he continued all night, fearing least he should die in the fens, he loo∣ked round about him, and at length espied a fisher getting of eeles: can you,*〈◊〉 friend (quoth the king) conduct me to the court? The court (saith the fisher) is ten miles distant. Howbeit, the king intreating hard to be conduc∣ted; Page  173 if king Mansor himselfe were present (quoth the fisher) I could not at this present conduct him, for feare least he should be drowned in the fennes. Then answered Mansor: what hast thou to doe with the kings life or safetie? Marie (quoth the fisher) I am bound to loue the king as well as mine owne life. Then haue you obtained some singular benefite at his hands, said the king. What greater benefit (quoth the fisher) can be expected at the kings hand, then iustice, loue, and clemencie, which he vouchsafeth vnto his sub∣iects; by whose fauour and wisedome I sillie fisher with my poore wife and children liue a most quiet and contented life, so that I can euen at midnight haue free egresse and regresse vnto this my cottage amidst these vallies and desert fennes, no man lying in wait to doe me iniurie? But (gentle Sir) what∣soeuer you be, if you please to be my guest for this night, you shall be right welcome, and to morrow morning betimes I will attend vpon you at your pleasure. Then the king went vnto the fishers cottage, where after his horse was prouided for, the fisher caused some eeles to be rosted for his supper, while he sate drying of his garments by the fire: but the king not being con∣tented with this fare, demanded if his host had any flesh in the house: Sir (quoth he) I haue a shee-goate and a kid, and they are all my substance of cattell: but because by your countenance you seeme to be some honourable personage, I will aduenture my kid for your sake; and so without any more words he caused his wife to kill it & roste it. Thus the king remained the fish∣ers guest all night: and the next morning about sun-rise, being scarcely gone out of the doores with his liberall host, he espied a great companie of his gentlemen and hunters whooping and hallowing for their king amidst the fennes, but when they saw him, they all greatly reioiced. Then Mansor turning him to the fisher, told him what he was, promising that his libera∣litie should not be vnrewarded. Neere vnto the place were certaine faire ca∣stles and palaces, which the king at his departure gaue vnto the fisher in to∣ken of thankfulnes; and being by the fisher requested, for declaration of his farther loue, to enuiron the said buildings with wals, he condescended there∣unto. From thencefoorth the fisher 〈◊〉 lord and gouernour of that new citie, which in processe of time grew so large, that within these fewe yeeres it contained fower hundred families. And because the soile 〈◊〉 vnto it is so fertile, the king vsed to make his aboad thereabout all summer time, which was a great benefit to the towne. By the walles of this towne runneth* the riuer Luccus, which sometimes encreaseth so, that it floweth to the citie∣gates. In this towne are practised diuers manuarie artes and trades of mer∣chandize: also it hath many temples, one college of students, and a stately hospitall. They haue neither springs nor wels, but onely cesternes in stead thereof. The inhabitants are liberall honest people, though not so 〈◊〉 as some others. Their apparell is but meane, being made of cotton-cloth, and wrapped often about their bodies. In the suburbes are great store of gardens replenished with all kinde of fruits. Their grapes are vnsauourie, because the soile is fitter for medow-ground. Euery munday they haue a market vpon Page  174 the next plaine, whither their neighbours the Arabians vsually resort. In the moneth of May they goe foorth of their towne a fowling, and take great store of turtles. Their ground is exceeding fruitfull, and yeeldeth thirtie fold increase: but it cannot be tilled for sixe miles about, bicause the Portugals garrison at Arzilla which is but eighteene miles distant, doth so molest and endomage them: whom likewise the gouernour of this towne with three hundred horsemen continually encountereth, and sometime proceedeth euen to the gates of Arzilla.

Of the region of Habat.

THis region beginneth southward from the riuer of Guarga, and bor∣dereth northward vpon the Ocean, westward it adioineth vnto the fennes of Argar, and eastward it abutteth vpon those mountaines which are next vnto the streites of Gibraltar. In bredth it stretcheth fower score, and in length almost an hundreth miles. The fruitefulnes of the soile, and the abundance of corne cannot easily be described: it is almost a perpetuall plaine, watered with many riuers: howbeit heretofore it hath beene more noble and famous, by reason of the ancient cities built partly by the Romans & partly by the Goths: and I thinke it to be the same region which Ptolemey calleth Mauritania; but since Fez was first built, it hath fallen into woonder∣full decay. Moreouer Idris the founder of Fez leauing ten sonnes behinde him, bestowed this region vpon the eldest: afterward ensued a rebellion of diuers Mahumetan heretiques and lords, one faction of whom suing for aide at the gouernour of Granada, and others seeking aide from certaine gouernours of Cairaoan, they were all vanquished and put to flight by the Mahumetan patriark of Cairaoan: who hauing thus subdued the region, left it vnder garrison and returned home. Afterward the great chancelour of Cordoua leuying an huge armie, conquered all this countrey euen to the borders of the region of Zab. Fiftie yeeres after king Ioseph of the Luntune family, chasing out the people of Granada, obtained the saide prouince by force: and last of all the king of Fez enioied it.

Of Ezaggen a towne of Habat.

THis towne was built by the ancient Africans vpon the side of a moun∣taine, almost ten miles distant from Guarga: all which distance be∣ing plaine ground, serueth for corn-fields and gardens: howbeit the hilles are farre more fruitfull. This towne is distant from Fez almost three∣score and ten miles, and containeth to the number of fiue hundred families, out of the territorie whereof there is the summe of tenne thousand ducates yeerely gathered for tribute, with which tribute the gouernour of the same towne is bound to maintaine on the kings behalfe fower hundred horsemen, for the defence of the whole region. For they are often molested with inua∣sions Page  175 of the Portugals, who proceed wasting and spoiling the countrey, sometimes fortie, and sometimes fiftie miles. Here is but little ciuility to be found, neither are the people but homely apparelled, though they be verie rich. They haue a priuilege granted them by the ancient kings of Fez to drinke wine, which is otherwise forbidden by the law of Mahumet, and yet none of them all will abstaine from drinking it.

Of the towne called Bani Teude.

THis ancient towne was built also by the Africans on a large plaine by the riuer of Guarga, fiue and fortie miles from the citie of Fez. In the prosperitie thereof it contained to the number of eight thousand fa∣milies, but afterward it was so destroied by the wars of the 〈◊〉 of Cai∣raoan, that now the towne wall is only remaining. At my being there I sawe diuers monuments and sepulchres of noblemen, and certaine conducts cu∣riously built of excellent marble. From this towne mount Gumera is al∣most fowerteene miles distant: the fieldes adiacent being good arable, and very fruitfull.

Of the towne of Mergo.

MErgo standing vpon the toppe of a mountaine is from Bani Teude about ten miles distant. Some thinke that the Romans were foun∣ders of this towne, bicause there are found vpon the ancient ruines certaine Latine letters ingrauen. But now it is quite destitute of inhabitants, howbeit vpon the side of the same mountaine standeth another small towne inhabi∣ted with weauers of course cloth; from whence you may behold the riuer Subu to the south, and the riuer Guarga to the north, from which riuers the saide towne is fiue miles distant. The inhabitants loue to bee accounted gentlemen, albeit they are couetous, ignorant, and destitute of all goodnes.

Of the towne of Tansor.

TAnsor standeth vpon a little hill, almost ten miles from Mergo, and containeth three hundreth families, but very fewe artificers. The in∣habitants are rude and barbarous people, hauing neither vineyardes nor gardens, but onely exercising husbandry, and possessing abundance of cattle. This towne standeth in the midde way between Fez and mount Gu∣mera, which (I thinke) is the occasion, that the inhabitants are so couetous and void of humanitie.

Of the towne of Agla.

THis ancient towne was built by the Africans vpon the banke of the riuer Guarga. The fruitfull fields thereof are manured by the Arabi∣ans: but the towne it selfe hath beene so wasted with warre, that nowe Page  176 there is nothing to be seene but in a few places the ruines of houses & wals, & certaine pits. In the suburbes there is euery weeke a great market, wherun∣to the next Arabians vsually resort; and so do some merchants of Fez like∣wise, to buie oxe-hides, wooll, and waxe, which are the principall commo∣dities of that place. Hereabouts keepe great store of lions, but they are by nature so fearefull, that they will flee at the voice of a childe: hence com meth the prouerbe so rife in Fez; A lion of Agla; which they applie vnto* such a one as maketh great brags, and is but a meere dastard.

Of the castle of Narangia.

THe castle of Narangia built by the Africans vpon a little hill not farre from the riuer Luccus, is almost ten miles distant from Ezaggen. It hath most fruitfull corn-fields, but no plaines belonging vnto it. Along the riuers side are huge deserts, wherein grow great store of wilde fruits, especial∣ly cherries, such as the Italians call Ciriegie marine. This castle was surprised and sacked by the Portugals in the yeere of the Hegeira 895. which was in the yeere of our Lord, 1486.

Of the Isle of Gesira.

THe Isle of Gesira lying not farre from the mouth of the riuer Luccus, is distant from the sea about ten, and from Fez about an hundreth miles. There was in times past a little ancient towne vpon this Island, which was abandoned when the Portugals first made warres vpon Barbarie. About the saide riuer are many deserts, but* very fewe corn-fields. In the yeere of the Hegeira 894. the king of Portugall sent hither a great armie, which being landed on the Isle, the generall of the field built a strong fort thereupon, by meanes whereof he hoped to be free from the enimies inuasion, and to enioy the fields adiacent. But the king of Fez, namely his father that* nowe reigneth, foreseeing the damage that he shoulde sustaine, if he permitted the saide fort to be finished, leuied a migh∣tie armie to withstand the Portugals proceedings. Howbeit, so great was the force of their ordinance, that the Moores durst not approch within two miles of the Portugal campe. Wherefore the Fessan king being almost out of hope, was perswaded by some that were about him to stoppe vp the riuer with postes and raftes two miles from the Island: by which meanes the Moores being defended, and hauing cut downe all the woodes adioining, the Portugals perceiued the passage of the riuer in short time to be choaked and stopped vp with great trees, and that there was no possibilitie for them to depart. Then the king hoping easily to ouercome the Portugales, deter∣mined to assaile their fort: but considering he could not do it without great slaughter of his people, he couenanted with the Portugall generall, that be∣sides a great summe of money paide vnto him, the saide generall shoulde Page  177 obtaine of the Portugall king to haue certaine daughters of the king of Fez his gouernour (which were at that time prisoners in Portugall) to be resto∣red, and that then he would freely dismisse him and his companie: which be∣ing done, the Portugall armie returned home.

Of the towne of Basra.

THis towne containing almost two thousand families, was built by Mahumet the sonne of Idris, which was the founder of Fez, vpon a certaine plaine betweene two mountaines, being di∣stant from Fez about fowerscore, and from Casar southward almost twentie miles. And it was named Basra for the memo∣rie of a citie in Arabia Foelix called by that name, where Hali the fourth Mahumetan patriarke after Mahumet, and great grandfather vnto Idris was slaine. It was in times past enuironed with most high and impregnable wals: and so long as it was gouerned by the posteritie of Idris, the people were verie ciuill; for Idris his successours vsed alwaies to remaine there in som∣mer time, by reason of the pleasant situation of the place, the hils and valleies being beautified with sweete gardens, and yeelding corne in abundance: and that both by reason of the vicinitie of the towne, and of the neighbour-hood of the riuer Luccus. Moreouer, in old time this towne was verie populous, being adorned with many faire temples, and inhabited with most ciuill people: but the family of Idris decaying, it became a pray vnto the enemie. At this present the ruines of the wals are onely to be seene, and certaine for∣lorne gardens, which, because the ground is not manured, bring foorth naught, but wilde fruits.

Of the towne called Homar.

THis towne was built by one Hali a disciple of the foresaid Mahumet vpon a little hill, and by a riuers side, being situate about fourteene miles to the north of Casar, and sixteen miles to the south of Arzilla: which although it be but a small towne, yet is it well fortified and fairely built, and enuironed with fruitfull fieldes, vineyardes, and gardens reple∣nished with woonderfull varietie of fruits. The inhabitants being most of them linnen-weauers, gather and prouide great store of flaxe. But euer since the Portugals woon Arzilla, this towne hath remained desolate.

A description of the 〈◊〉 of 〈◊〉.

THe great citie of Arzilla called by the Africans Azella, was built by the Romans vpon the Ocean sea shore, about seuentie miles from the streits of Gibraltar, and an hundred and fortie miles from Fez. It was in times past subiect vnto the prince of Septa or Ceuta, who was tributarie to the Romans, and was afterward taken by the Goths, who established the Page  178 said prince in his former gouernment: but the Mahumetans wan it in the yeere of the Hegeira 94. and helde the same for two hundred and twenty yeeres, till such time as the English at the persuasion of the Goths besieged it with an huge armie; and albeit the Goths were enemies to the English, because themselues were Christians, and the English worshippers of idols, yet the Goths 〈◊〉 them to this attempt, hoping by that meanes to* draw the Mahumetans out of Europe. The English hauing good successe tooke the citie, and so wasted it with fire and sword, that scarce one citizen escaped, so that it remained almost thirtie yeeres voide of inhabitants. But afterward when the Mahumetan patriarks of Cordoua were lords of Mauri∣tania, it was againe reedified, and by all meanes augmented, enriched and fortified. The inhabitants were rich, learned, and valiant. The fields adiacent yeeld graine and pulse of all sorts in great abundance, but because the towne standeth almost ten miles from the mountaines, it sustaineth great want of wood; howbeit they haue coales brought them from Harais, as is aforesaid. In the yeere of the Hegeira 882. this citie was suddenly surprised and taken by the Portugalles, and all the inhabitants carried prisoners into* Portugall, amongst whom was Mahumet the king of Fez that now is, who together with his sister being both children of seuen yeeres old, were taken and led captiue. For the father of this Mahumet seeing the prouince of Habatreuolt from him, went and dwelt at Arzilla, the very same time,* when Esserif a great citizen of Fez, hauing slaine Habdulac the last king of the Marin-familie, was by the fauour of the people aduanced vnto the Fes∣san kingdome. Afterward one Saic Abra being pricked forward with ambi∣tion, went about to conquer the citie of Fez, and to make himselfe king; howbeit Esserif by the aduise of a certaine counsellour of his, being couzin vnto Saic, vanquished and put to flight the saide Saic to his great disgrace. Moreouer while Esserif had sent his said counsellour to Temesna, to pacifie the people of that prouince being about to rebell, Saic returned, and hauing for one whole yeere besieged new Fez with eight thousand men, at length by treason of the townesmen he easily wan it, and compelled Esserif with all his familie, to flee vnto the kingdome of Tunis. The same time therefore that Saic besieged Fez, the king of Portugall (as is aforesaid) sending a fleete into Africa, tooke Arzilla, and then was the king of Fez that now is with his yoong sister caried captiue into Portugall, where he remained seuen yeeres, in which space he learned the Portugall-language most exactly. At length with a great summe of money his father ransomed him out of Portugall, who afterward being aduanced to the kingdome, was by reason of his long continuance in Portugall called king Mahumet the Portugall. This king afterward attempted very often to be auenged of the Portugals, and to reco∣uer Arzilla. Wherefore suddenly encountring the said citie he beat down a* great part of the wall, and entring the breach, set all the captiue-Moores at libertie. The Christians retired into the castle, promising within two daies to yeeld vnto the king. But Pedro Nauarro comming in the meane season with Page  179 a great fleet, they compelled the king with continuall discharging of their ordinance, not onely to relinquish the citie, but also to depart quite away with his whole armie: afterward it was so fortified on all sides by the Portu∣gals,* that the said king attempting often the recouerie thereof, had alwaies the repulse. I my selfe seruing the king in the foresaid expedition could find but fiue hundred of our companie slaine. But the warre against Arzilla con∣tinued from the yeere of the Hegeira 914. to the yeere 921.

Of the citie of Tangia.

THe great and ancient citie of Tangia called by the Portugals Tangiara, according to the fond opinion of some historiogra∣phers, was founded by one Sedded the sonne of Had, who (as they say) was emperour ouer the whole world. This man (say they) de∣termined to build a citie, which for beautie might match the earthly para∣dise. Wherefore he compassed the same with walles of brasse, and the roofes of the houses he couered with gold and siluer, for the building whereof he exacted great tributes of all the cities in the world. But the classicall and ap∣prooued authors affirme that it was built by the Romanes vpon the Ocean sea shore, at the same time when they subdued the kingdome of* Granada. From the streites of Gibraltar it is distant almost thirtie, and from Fez an hundred and fiftie miles. And from the time that the Goths were first lordes of Granada, this citie was subiect vnto Septa or Ceuta, vntill it and Arzilla were woon by the Mahumetans. It hath alwaies beene a ciuill, famous, and well-peopled towne, and very stately and sumptuously built. The field there∣to belonging is not very fertill, nor apt for tilth: howbeit not far off are cer∣taine vallies continually watred with fountaines, which furnish the said citie with all kinde of fruits in abundance. Without the citie also growe certaine vines, albeit vpon a sandie soile. It was well stored with inhabitants, till such time as Arzilla was surprized by the Portugals: for then the inhabitants be∣ing dismaied with rumours of warres, tooke vp their bag and baggage and fled vnto Fez. Whereupon the king of Portugall his deputie at Arzilla sent one of his captaines thither, who kept it so long vnder the obedience of the king, till the king of Fez sent one of his kinsmen also to defend a region of great importance neere vnto the mountaines of Gumera, being enemie to the Christians. Twentie fiue yeeres before the Portugall king wan this ci∣tie, he sent foorth an armada against it, hoping that the citie being destitute of aide, 〈◊◊〉 king of Fez was in warres against the rebels of Mecnase, would soone yeeld it selfe. But contrarie to the Portugals expectation the Fessan king concluding a sudden truce with them of Mecnase, sent his coun∣sellour with an armie, who encountring the Portugals, made a great slaugh∣ter of them, and amongst the rest slue their generall, whom he caused to be caried in a case or sacke vnto new Fez, and there to be set vpon an high place where all men might behold him. Afterward the king of Portugall sent a Page  180 new supply, who suddenly assailing the citie in the night, were most of them slaine, and the residue enforced to flee. But that which the Portugall-king could not bring to passe with those two Armadas, he atchieued at length (as is aforesaid) with small forces and little disaduantage. In my time 〈◊〉 king of Fez left no meanes vnattempted for the recouerie of this citie, but so great alwaies was the valour of the Portugals, that he had euer ill successe. These things were done in the yeere of the Hegeira 917, which was in the yeere of our Lord 1508.

Of the towne called Casar Ezzaghir, that is, the little palace.

THis towne was built by Mansor the king and Patriarke of Ma∣roco vpon the Ocean sea shore, about twelue miles from Tan∣gia, and from Septa eighteene miles. It was built (they say) by Mansor, because euerie yeere when he passed into the Prouince of Granada, hee was constrained with his whole armie to march ouer the rough and ragged mountaines of Septa, before he could come vnto the sea shore. It standeth in an open and pleasant place ouer against the coast of Granada. It was well peopled in times past, part of the inhabitants beeing weauers and merchants, and the rest mariners, that vsed to transport the* wares of 〈◊〉 into Europe. This towne the king of Portugall tooke by a sudden surprise. And the Fessan king hath laboured by all meanes to recouer it, but euer with ill successe. These things were done in the yeere of the Hegeira 863.

Of the great citie of Septa.

SEpta, called by the Latines, Ciuitas, and by the Portugals, Seupta, was (according to our most approoued Authors) built by the Romanes vpon the streits of Gibraltar, being in olde time the head citie of all Mauritania; wherefore the Ro∣manes made great account thereof, insomuch that it became verie ciuill, and was throughly inhabited. Afterward it was woone by the Gothes, who appointed a gouernour there; and it continued in their pos∣session, 〈◊〉 the Mahumetans inuading Mauritania surprised it also. The oc∣casion whereof was one Iulian Earle of Septa; who being greatly iniuried by Roderigo king of the Gothes and of Spaine, ioyned with the infidels, condu∣cted* them into Granada, and caused Roderigo to loose both his life and his kingdome. The Mahumetans therefore hauing taken Septa, kept possession thereof on the behalfe of one Elgualid, sonne of Habdulmalic their Patri∣arke, who then was resident at Damasco, in the yeere of the Hegeira 92. From thencefoorth till within these fewe yeeres, this citie grew so ciuill and so well stored with inhabitants, that it prooued the most worthie and famous Page  181 citie of all Mauritania. It contained many temples and colledges of stu∣dents, with great numbers of artizans, and men of learning and of high spi∣rite. Their artizans excelled especially in workes of brasse, as namely in ma∣king of candlesticks, basons, standishes, and such like commodities, which were as pleasant to the eie, as if they had beene made of siluer or gold. The Italians haue great cunning in making of the like, but their workmanship is nothing comparable to theirs of* Septa. Without the citie are diuers faire villages and granges, especially in that place which for the abundance of vines is called The vineyards: howbeit the fields are verie barren and fruitles, for which cause their corne is exceeding deere. Both without and within the citie there is a pleasant and beautifull prospect to the shore of Granada vp∣on the streits of Gibraltar, from whence you may discerne liuing creatures,* the distance being but 12. miles. Howbeit this famous citie not many yeeres since was greatly afflicted by Habdulmumen the king and patriarke: who ha∣uing surprised it, razed the buildings, and banished the principal inhabitants thereof. And not long after it sustained as great damage by the king of Gra∣nada, who (besides the foresaide harmes) carried the nobles and chiefe citi∣zens captiues into Granada. And lastly in the yeere of Mahumet his Hegei∣ra* 818. being taken by a Portugall-armada, all the citizens did abandon it. Abu Sahid being then king of Fez., and a man of no valour, neglected the* recouerie thereof: but in the midst of his dauncing and disport being aduer∣tised that it was lost, he would not so much as interrupt his vaine pastime: wherefore by gods iust iudgement, both himselfe and his sixe sonnes were all slaine in one night by his Secretarie, in whom he reposed singular trust, because hee would haue defloured the said Secretaries wife. These things came to passe in the yeere of the Hegeira 824. Afterward, the kingdome of Fez being eight yeeres destitute of a king, a sonne of the murthered king whom he begot of a Christian woman, and who the same night that his fa∣ther was slaine fled vnto Tunis, succeeded in the gouernment: this was Hab∣dulac the last king of the Marin family, who likewise (as is aforesaide) was slaine by the people.

Of the towne of Tetteguin, now called Tetuan.

THis towne being built by the ancient Africans eighteene miles from the streits of Gibraltar, and sixe miles from the maine Ocean, was taken by the Mahumetans at the same time when they woon Septa from the Gothes. It is reported that the Gothes bestowed the gouernment of this towne vpon a woman with one eie, who weekly repairing thither to receiue tribute, the in∣habitants named the towne 〈◊〉, which signifieth in their language an eie. Afterward being often assayled and encountered by the Portugals, the inhabitants forsooke it, and it remained fowerscore and fifteene yeeres deso∣late: which time being expired, it was reedified and replanted a new with Page  182 inhabitants by a certaine captaine of Granada, who together with his king being expelled thence by Ferdinando king of Castile, departed vnto Fez. This famous captaine that shewed himselfe so valiant in the warres of Gra∣nada was called by the Portugals Almandali. Who hauing obtained the gouernment of this towne, and gotten licence to repaire it, enuironed the same with new wals, and built an impregnable castle therein compassed with a deepe ditch. Afterward making continuall warre against the Portugals, he extremely molested and endamaged their townes of Septa, Casar, and Tangia: for with three hundred valiant horsemen of Granada he made dai∣ly incursions and inroades vpon the Christians, and those that he tooke, he put to continuall labour and toile about the building of his forts. Vpon a time I my selfe trauelling this way saw three thousand Christian captiues, who being clad in course sacke-cloth, were constrained in the night to lye fettered in deepe dungeons. This captaine was exceeding liberall vnto all African and Mahumetan strangers that passed by: howbeit within these few yeeres one of his eies being thrust out with a dagger, and the other waxing dim with age, he deceased; leauing the towne after his death vnto his ne∣phew, who was a most valiant man.

Of the mountaines of Habat.

A Mongst the mountaines of Habat there be eight more famous then the rest, all which are inhabited by the people of Gumera, who vse one generall forme and custome of liuing: for all of them maintaine Ma∣humets religion, albeit they drinke wine contrarie to his precept. They are proper men of personage and much addicted to industrie & labour, but for the wars they are verie vnsit. Subiect they are vnto the king of Fez, who im∣poseth such heauie tribute vpon them, so that besides a few (of whom we will speake hereafter) the residue are scarce able to finde themselues apparell.

Of mount Rahona.

THis mountaine being neere vnto Ezaggen, containeth in length thir∣tie miles, and in breadth twelue miles. It aboundeth with oyle, hony, and vines. The inhabitants are principally imployed about making of sope and trying of waxe. Wines they haue great store both browne and white. They pay vnto the king of Fez for yeerely tribute three thousand du∣cates, which being allowed vnto the gouernour of Ezaggen, he maintaineth fower hundred horsemen in the kings seruice.

Of the mountaine called Beni-Fenescare.

THis mountaine of Fenescare adioyning vnto mount Rahon, is about fiue and twentie miles long, and eight miles broad. It is better peopled Page  183 then Rahon, hauing many leather-dressers, and weauers of course cloth, and yeelding great abundance of waxe. Euery saturday they haue a great market, where you may finde all kinde of chapmen and of wares; insomuch that the Genoueses come hither to buy oxe-hides and waxe, which they conuey in∣to Portugall and Italy. Out of this mountaine is yeerely collected for tri∣bute the summe of sixe thousand ducates, three thousand whereof are allo∣wed vnto the gouernour of Ezaggen, the residue being payd into the kings exchequer.

Of the mountaine called Beni-Haros.

THis mountaine standing neer vnto Casar extendeth northward eight, and westward 20 miles. It containeth but sixe miles only in bredth. It was wont to be well peopled and inhabited with gentlemen, who, when the Portugals woon Arzilla, cruelly vsurping ouer the people, compelled them to flee and leaue the mountaine desolate. There are at this present cer∣taine cottages vpon the mountaine; but all the residue lyeth wast. While this mountaine continued in good estate, it allowed yeerely vnto the gouer∣nor of Casar three thousand ducates.

Of mount Chebib.

VPon this mountaine are sixe or seuen castles inhabited with ciuill and honest people: for when the Portugals wan Tangia, the citizens fled vnto this mountaine beeing but twentie miles distant. The inhabitants are perpetually molested with the Portugals inuasions: the tributes of this mountaine being halfe diminished since the losse of Tangia, waxe euery day woorse and woorse, because the garrison is thirtie miles distant, and cannot come to succour them so often as the Portugals come to waste and spoyle their territories.

Of the mountaine called Beni Chessen.

THis mountaine is of an exceeding height, and very hard to be encoun∣tred: for besides the naturall fortification thereof, it is inhabited with most valiant people. These inhabitants being oppressed with the tyran∣nie of their gouernours, rose vp at length in armes against them, & brought them to great miserie and distresse. Whereupon a yoong gentleman, one of their said gouernours, disdaining to submit himselfe vnto the yoke of his inferiours, went to serue in the king of Granada his warres, where being trai∣ned vp a long time in martiall discipline against the Christians, he prooued an expert warriour: and so at length returning vnto one of his natiue moun∣taines, he gathered a certaine troupe of horsemen, and valiantly defended the said mountaine from the Portugals inuasions: whereof the king of Fez Page  184 being aduertised, sent him an hundred and fiftie crossebowes: which he im∣ploied to the subduing of that mountaine, and to the conquest of the moun∣taines of his enemies. But after he began to vsurpe the kings tribute in the same mountaine, the king waxing wroth sent foorth an huge armie against him. Howbeit vpon his repentant submission, the king pardoned him, and ordained him gouernour of Seusauon, and of all the region adiacent. After him succeeded in the same gouernment one of the linage of Mahumet, and of Idris the founder of Fez. This man became very famous among the Por∣tugals, and by reason of his nobilitie (for he was of the familie called Heli∣benres) he grew vnto great renowme.

Of mount Angera.

IT standeth southward of Casar the lesse almost eight miles, being tenne miles long and three miles broad. The soile thereof is exceeding fruitful, and in times past greatly abounded with woods, which being cut downe by the inhabitants, were sent to Casar for the building of ships: which at that time had a great fleete belonging thereunto. This mountaine likewise yeel∣ded abundance of flaxe; and the inhabitants were partly weauers and partly mariners. Howbeit when the foresaid towne of Casar was woon by the Por∣tugals, this mountaine also was forsaken by the inhabitants: and yet at this day all the houses stand still, as if the inhabitants had not forsaken it at all.

Of mount Quadres.

THis high mountaine standing in the midst betweene Septa and Tette∣guin, is inhabited with most valiant and warlike people, whose valour sufficiently appeered in the warres betweene the king of Granada, and the Spanyards; where the inhabitants onely of this mountaine preuailed more then all the armed Moores beside. Vpon the said mountaine was borne one called by them Hellul: this Hellul atchieued many woorthie exploits against the Spanyards; the historie whereof is set downe partly in verse and partly in prose, and is as rife in Africa and Granada, as is the storie of Orlando in Italie. But at length in the Spanish warre (wherein Ioseph Enesir king and pa∣triarke of Maroco was vanquished) this Hellul was slaine in a castle of Cata∣lonia, called by the Moores, The castle of the eagle. In the same battell were slaine threescore thousand Moores, so that none of them escaped saue the* king and a few of his nobles. This was done in the yeere of the Hegeira 609, which was in the yeere of our Lord 1160. From thenceforth the Spanyards had alwaies good successe in their warres, so that they recouered all those ci∣ties which the Moores had before taken from them. And from that time till the yeere wherein king Ferdinando conquered Granada, there passed (accor∣ding to the Arabians account) 285. yeeres.

Page  185

Of the mountaine called Beni Guedarfeth.

THis mountaine standing not farre from Tetteguin (although it be not very large) is well fraught with inhabitants. The people are very warlike, being in pay vnder the gouernour of Tetteguin, whom they greatly honour and attend vpon him in all his attempts against the Christians: for which cause they pay no tribute vnto the king of Fez, vnlesse it be for their fieldes, which is very little. They reape much commoditie out of those mountaines, for there groweth great abundance of boxe, whereof the Fessan combes are made.

A description of Errif one of the seuen regions of Fez.

WEstward this region beginneth neere vnto the streites of 〈◊〉, and extendeth eastward to the riuer of Nocor, which distance con∣taineth about an hundred and fortie miles. Northward it bordereth vpon the Mediterran sea, and stretcheth fortie miles southward vnto those mountains which lie ouer against the riuer Guarga and the territorie of Fez. This re∣gion is very vneeuen, being full of exceeding colde mountaines and waste deserts, which are replenished with most beautifull and straight trees: Here is no corne growing, they haue great store of vines, figs, oliues, & almonds. The inhabitants of this region are valiant people, but so excessiuely giuen to drinking, that they scarcely reserue wherewithall to apparell themselues. Head-cattell they haue but fewe: howbeit vpon their mountaines they haue great plentie of goates, asses, and apes. Their townes are but few: and their castles and villages are very homely built without any plancher or sto∣ries, much like to the stables of Europe, and are couered with thatch or with the barke of trees. All the inhabitants of this region haue the balles of their throat-pipes very great, and are vnciuill and rude people.

Of the towne of Terga.

THis small towne (as some thinke) built by the Goths vpon the shore of the Mediterran sea, is distant from the streites of Gibraltar about fowerscore miles, and containeth to the number of fiue hundred fa∣milies. The towne wall is of no force. The inhabitants are most part of them fishers; who getting great abundance of fish, salt them, and carrie them to sell almost an hundred miles southward. This towne was in times past well stored with people, but since the Portugals entered the same region, it hath fallen greatly to decay. Not farre from this towne groweth abundance of 〈◊〉 vpon the ragged and cold mountaines. And albeit the inhabitants are valiant, yet are they rusticall and void of all humanitie.

Page  86

Of Bedis, otherwise called Velles de 〈◊〉.

THis ancient towne built vpon the Mediterran sea shore, & 〈◊〉 by the Spaniards Velles de Gumera, containeth about sixe hundred families. Some writers there are that affirme it to be built by the Africans, and others by the Gothes; so that it re∣maineth as yet vncertaine who were the true founders therof. It standeth betweene two high mountaines: and not farre from it there is a faire and large valley, from whence commeth a little riuer or streame to the towne, alwaies when it raineth. In the midst of the towne standeth the mar∣ket place, which containeth great store of shops. Here is also a verie stately temple to be seene. Water for drinke is exceeding scarce among them, for they are all constrained to resort vnto one pit or well, being in the sub∣urbes, neere vnto the sepulchre of a certaine man, that was in times past very famous among them. Howbeit in the night it is dangerous to fetch water from thence, because it is so full of blood-suckers or horse-leeches. The townesmen are of two sorts: for some be fishers, and the residue are pirates, which daily doe great harme vnto the Christians. Vpon the mountaines grow great store of wood, verie commodious for the building of ships and of galleies. The inhabitants of which mountaines are almost wholly em∣ployed about carrying of the said wood from place to place. They haue very little corne growing, for which cause most of them eate barley bread. Their principall foode are certaine fishes (which the Italians call Sardelli) toge∣ther with other like fishes. They haue such abundance of fish, that one man alone is not able to draw vp a net; wherefore whosoeuer will assist the fishermen in that busines, are rewarded with good store of fishes for their labour: yea sometimes they will freely bestow fishes vpon such as passe by. They salt the foresaid Sardelli, and send them to the mountaines to be sold. In this towne there is a long street inhabited with Iewes, wherin dwell sundry vintners that sell excellent wines. So that in calme euenings the citi∣zens vse to carrie wine aboord their barkes in the sea, and to spend their time in drinking and singing. In this towne standeth a faire castle, but not strong, wherein the gouernour hath his aboad. And neere vnto this castle the saide gouernour hath a palace, whereunto belongeth a most pleasant garden. Vpon the shore the gouernour buildeth galleies and other ships wherewith they greatly molest the Christians. Whereupon Ferdinando king of Spaine taking a certaine Iland within a mile of the towne, built a fort there∣on, and so planted it with ordinance and souldiers, that neither their temples nor themselues walking in the streets were free therefrom, but were daily slaine. Wherefore the gouernour of the towne was constrained to craue ayde from the king of Fez, who sent out a great 〈◊〉 against the Christi∣ans; but they were partly taken, and partly slaine, so that verie few escaped backe vnto Fez. The Christians kept this isle almost two yeeres: and then Page  187 it was betrayed by a false trecherous Spaniard (who slew the gouernour of the isle, because he had taken his wife from him) into the Moores possession, and all the Christians were slaine: not a man of them escaped, saue onely the Spanish traitour, who in regard of his treason was greatly rewarded, both by the gouernour of Bedis, and also by the king of Fez. Being at Naples I heard the whole relation of this matter from a certaine man that was present at all the former exploits, who said that they were done about the yeere of our Lord 1520. But now the said island is most diligently kept by a garrison of souldiers sent from Fez: for Bedis is the neerest hauen-towne vnto Fez vpon the Mediterran sea shore, although it be an hundred and twenty miles distant. Euerie yeere or euerie second yeere the Venetian galleies vse to resort vnto this isle, and to exchange wares for wares with the inhabitants, or sometimes to buy for readie money: which wares the Venetians transport vnto Tunis, Venice, Alexandria, and sometime to Barutto.

Of the towne of Ielles.

THis towne being built vpon the Mediterran sea shore is almost sixe miles distant from Bedis: the hauen thereof is very commodious and much frequented by ships in fowle and tempestuous weather. Not farre from this towne are diuers mountaines and waste deserts growing full of pine trees. In my time it remained voide of inhabitants, by reason of cer∣taine Spanish pyrates which haunted the same; and now there are but a few poore cottages of fishers, who standing in dayly dread of the Spa∣niards, keepe continuall and circumspect watch to see if they can escrie any ships making towards them, which if they do, they flee foorthwith vnto the next mountaines, bringing from 〈◊〉 a sufficient number of armed men to withstand the attempts of the Spaniards or Portugals.

Of the 〈◊〉 of Tegassa.

THis towne though it be but little is well stored with inhabitants, and standeth vpon a riuers side, about two miles from the Mediterran sea. Families it containeth to the number of fiue hundreth, the buildings thereof being very rude and homely: all the inhabitants are fishers and sea∣faring men, who from thence carrie victuals vnto other cities; for their own towne being 〈◊〉 with mountaines and woods, they haue no corne at all. Howbeit certaine vines there are, and very fruitfull trees, without which the whole region were in a miserable case. Besides barly-bread the inhabi∣tants haue nought to liue on, sauing a fewe little fishes and onions. I my selfe coulde hardly for one day endure the extreme stinking smell of their fishes, which stinch miserablie infecteth the whole prouince.

Page  188

Of the towne of Gebha.

GEbha is a little towne walled round about, and built by the Africans vpon the Mediterran sea shore. From Bedis it is aboue fower and twentie miles distant. Sometimes it hath inhabitants and sometimes none, according to the custome of that region. All the fields adiacent are vnfitte for corne, being full of fountaines and woods. Here also are certaine vines and other fruits, but no buildings of any account.

Of the towne of Mezemme.

IT is a very large sea-towne standing vpon a certaine hill which bordereth vpon the prouince of Garet. Neere vnto this towne lieth a verie large plaine, the length whereof stretching southward is eight and twentie, and the breadth almost ten miles, and through the midst of it runneth the riuer called Nocore, which diuideth the region of Errif from that of Garet. This plaine is occupied by certaine Arabian husbandmen, who reape such plen∣tie of corne there, that they are constrained to pay about fiue thousand bu∣shels a yeere vnto the gouernour of Bedis. This citie was woont in times past to be well peopled, and was the metropolitan of the whole region, al∣though it were continually molested with inconueniences. For first it was almost vtterly destroied by the patriarke of Cairaoan: who, bicause the townesmen refused to pay him his woonted tribute, burnt it downe, and be∣headed the gouernour thereof: whose head was carried to Cairaoan vpon the pike of a iaueline. This was done in the yeere of the Hegeira 318. From thencefoorth for fifteene yeeres after it remained destitute of inhabi∣tants: and then vnder the same patriarke the foresaide towne was by certaine noblemen inhabited a newe. Lastly it was taken by a certaine great man of Cordoua. He seeing this citie stande within fower-score miles of his con∣fines (for so broad is the sea betweene Malaga in Granada, and this part of Barbarie) began to demaund tribute of the citizens: which when they refu∣sed to pay, he tooke their towne with a small number of men: for the patriark coulde not in so short space succour it, by reason that Cairaoan is di∣stant from thence aboue* three and twentie hundreth miles. Wherefore this towne being taken and vtterly razed, the gouernour thereof was sent captiue vnto Cordoua, where he spent the residue of his daies in prison. And now the wals of this towne are onely to be seene. This was done in the yeere of the Hegeira 892. Now let vs speake somewhat of the mountaines of Errif.

Page  189

Of mount Benigarir.

THis mountaine is inhabited by certaine people which came first from the mountaines of Gumera. It standeth neere vnto Terga, and is ten miles long, and almost fower miles broad. Vpon this mountaine are great stóre of woods, as likewise abundance of vines and oliues. The inhabi∣tants are miserable and poore people. Cattell are very scarce among them: they vse to make much wine and sodden must. Neither haue they any store of barly growing vpon this mountaine.

Of mount Beni Mansor.

THis mountaine containeth in length fifteene, and in bredth almost fiue miles. Vpon this mountaine are great store of woods and foun∣taines: All the inhabitants are most valiant, and yet poore and mise∣rable people, for the whole mountaine yeeldeth nothing but vines: they haue indeed some small number of goats. Euery weeke they haue a mar∣ket, whereunto is brought nothing but garlike, onions, raisins, salt fishes called before Sardelli, togither with some 〈◊〉 and panicke, whereof they make bread. This hill is subiect to the gouernour of Bedis.

Of mount Bucchuia.

THis mountaine is fowerteene miles long, and almost eight miles broad. The inhabitants are richer and somewhat better apparelled then they of other mountaines, & possesse great store of horses. Corne it yeeldeth in abundance: neither are the people constrained to pay any great tribute, by reason of a certaine holy man buried at Bedis, and borne vpon this mountaine.

Of mount Beni Chelid.

BY this mountaine lieth the high way from Bedis to Fez. It is a verie cold place, and containeth great store of wood and fountaines. It yeel∣deth no corne, but vines onely. The inhabitants being subiect to the go∣uernour of Bedis, are by reason of continuall exactions so impouerished, that they are faine to rob and steale for their liuing.

Of mount Beni Mansor.

THis mountaine extendeth eight miles, standing an equall distance from the sea with the mountaines 〈◊〉. The inhabitants are vali∣ant and stout people, but too much addicted to drunkennes. Wine they haue great store, and but little corne. Their women keepe goates and Page  190 spinne vpon the distaffe both at one time: the greater part of whom will not refuse the dishonest company of any man.

Of mount Beni Ioseph.

THE length of this mountaine is twelue miles, and the bredth about eight miles. The inhabitants are poore, and basely apparelled: nei∣ther haue they any corne but panicke, whereof they make blacke and most vnsauorie bread. They liue also vpon onions, and garlike. Their foun∣taines are very muddie. They haue great store of goates, the milke whereof they keepe as a most precious thing.

Of mount Beni Zaruol.

VPon this mountaine 〈◊〉 great store of vines, oliues, and other fruites. The inhabitants are poore miserable people, being subiect to the go∣uernour of Seusaoen, who exacteth so great tribute at their handes, that all which they can scrape and get out of the mountaine will hardly maintaine them. Euery weeke they haue a market, wherein nothing is to be solde, but onely dried figs, raisins, and oile. Likewise they vse to kill their hee and shee goats, whose flesh is so vnsauorie, that it cannot be eaten, vnlesse it be fried.

Of mount Beni Razin.

THis mountaine bordereth vpon the Mediterran sea, not farre from Terga. The inhabitants liue a secure and pleasant life; for the moun∣taine is impregnable, and aboundeth with all kinde of graine, neither are they constrained to pay any tribute at all. They haue likewise good plen∣tie of oliues and wine; and their ground is exceeding fruitfull, especially vp∣on the side of the mountaine. Their women partly keepe goates, and partly till the ground.

Of mount Seusaoen.

THere is no mountaine in all Africa for pleasant situation compara∣ble to this: hereon standeth a towne inhabited with all kinde of artifi∣cers and merchants. Vpon this mountaine dwelleth one called Sidi Heli Berrased, being lord ouer many mountaines. This Sidi Heli brought some ciuilitie into this mountaine, rebelled against the king of Fez, and maintained continuall warre against the Portugals. The inhabitants of the villages of this and the foresaid mountaines, are free from all taxation and tribute, bicause 〈◊〉 serue vnder their captaine as well for horsemen as for 〈◊〉. Come heere groweth small store, but great plentie of flaxe. There are 〈◊〉 woods, and many fountaines vpon this hill: and the inhabi∣tants go all 〈◊◊〉.

Page  191

Of mount Beni Gebara.

THis mountaine is very steepe, and of a woonderfull height, out of the foote whereof spring certaine riuers. Vines and figges here are great store, but no corne at all: and the inhabitants weare most base attire. They haue abundance of goats, & oxen of so little a stature, that a man would take them to be calues of halfe a yeere olde. Euery weeke they haue a market, being furnished with very few commodities. Hither doe the merchants of Fez resort, and the muletters or carriers, which conueie fruits out of this mountaine vnto Fez. In times past it was subiect vnto a certaine prince of the king of Fez his kinred: and there were collected out of this mountaine almost two thousand ducates of yeerely tribute.

Of mount Beni Ierso.

THis mountaine in times past was exceedingly well peopled. Heere was likewise a faire colledge built, wherein the Mahumetan lawe was publikely taught, for which cause the inhabitants were freed from all tributes and exactions. Afterward a certaine tirant being assisted by the king of Fez, made this mountaine to become tributarie vnto him; but first he put the in∣habitants to flight, and then destroied the colledge, wherein were founde bookes woorth more then fowre thousand ducates, and the learned and fa∣mous men he cruelly put to the sword. This was done in the 918. yeere of the Hegeira, which was in the yeere of our Lord 1509.

Of mount Tezarin.

THis mountaine called by the inhabitants Tezarin, standeth neer vnto the foresaid Beni Ierso, & aboundeth greatly with fountaines, deserts, & vineyards. Vpon the top thereof stand diuers ancient buildings, which (so farre foorth as I can coniecture) were erected by the Romains. And here (as is before signified) certaine fond people continually search in caues and holes of the earth for the Romains treasure. All the inhabitants of this mountaine are most ignorant people, and greatly oppressed with exactions.

Of mount Beni Busibet.

THis is a most cold mountaine, and therefore it yeeldeth neither corne nor cattell, both by reason of the extreme coldnes, and the barrennes thereof. Moreouer the leaues of the trees are not fit for goates to feede vp∣on. They haue so great plentie of nuts, that they abundantly furnish the citie of Fez, and all other neighbour cities and townes therewith. All their grapes are blacke, whereof they make a certaine pleasant meate called Page  192 Zibibbo. They make likewise great store of must and wine. They are clad* in certaine woollen clokes or mantles, such as are vsed in Italy: these man∣tles haue certaine hoods, which couer their heads and visages so, that you can scarce discerne them to be men: and they are particoloured with blacke and white spots. In winter the merchants that resort vnto this mountaine to carrie away nuts and raisins vnto Fez, can scarce finde any meate to eate, for there is neither corne nor flesh, but onely onions and certaine salt fishes, which are extreme deere. They vse likewise to eate sodden must and beanes dressed after their manner, and this is the daintiest fare that this mountaine can affoord; and their sodden must they eate with much bread.

Of mount Beni Gualid.

IT is an exceeding high and steepe hill, and the inhabitants are very rich, for of their blacke grapes they make the foresaid meate called Zibibbo. Almonds, figges, and oliues they haue in great abundance: neither pay they any tribute vnto the king of Fez, but onely each family one fourth part of a ducate, to the end they may haue free libertie to buie and sell in Fez market. And if any citizen of Fez doth them any wrong, when they take him or anie of his kinred in their mountaine, they will not suffer him to returne home to Fez, till sufficient recompence be made. These people go decently appa∣relled, and they haue a priuilege granted, that whatsoeuer persons are bani∣shed out of Fez, may freely remaine in their mountaine; yea, they will be∣stow their liuing gratìs vpon such banished persons, so long as they con∣tinue amongst them. And doubtles if this mountaine were subiect vnto the king of Fez, it would affoord him yeerely for tribute sixe thousand ducates: for it containeth mo then sixe hundreth rich families.

Of mount Merniza.

THis mountaine standèth iust by the former, the inhabitants being en∣dued with the same nobilitie, libertie, and wealth, that the people of the former are endued with. The women of this mountaine for any light iniurie offered by their husbands, leauing foorthwith their saide husbands and children, will depart vnto some other mountaine, and seeke them newe paramours fit for their humor. For which cause they are at continuall warre one with another: neither will they be reconciled till he that is last pos∣sessed of the woman pay her former husband all such money as he spent in the solemnizing of her marriage: and for this purpose they haue certaine iudges, that make their poore clients spend almost all their whole substance.

Of mount Haugustian.

IT is an exceeding high and a cold mountaine, containing great store of springs, and abundance of vines bearing blacke grapes, togither with Page  193 plentie of figs, of honie, and of quinces: howbeit the sweetest and fairest quinces grow vpon a plaine at the foote of the hill. Likewise they are well stored with oile, and are free from all tribute, and yet there is not one of them, but in token of a thankefull minde will sende great gifts vnto the king of Fez: hence it is that they may freely and securely traffique with the peo∣ple of Fez, of whom they buie great store of corne, wooll, and cloth. They are most ciuilly and decently apparelled, especially such as dwell vpon the principall part of this mountaine, who are most of them either merchants or artificers, and a great many of them gentlemen.

Of Mount Beni Iedir.

THis is a great and well peopled mountaine, but it yeeldeth nought but grapes, whereof they vse to make the foresaid Zibibbo and wines. The inhabitants were in times past free from all tribute; howbeit in regard of their daily robberies and outrages committed against other peo∣ple, the gouernour of Bedis being aided with some souldiers of Fez, subdued them all, and depriued them of their libertie: in this mountaine there are about fiftie farmes or granges, which scarcely pay fower hundred ducates for tribute.

Of Mount Lucai.

THis mountaine is of a wonderfull height, and verie difficult to ascend. The inhabitants are exceeding rich, hauing great abundance of rai∣sins, figs, almonds, oyle, quinces, and pome-citrons: and dwelling but fiue and thirtie miles distant from Fez, they carrie all their fruits and commo∣dities thither. They are almost all gentlemen, and verie proude and high minded, so that they would neuer pay any tribute at all: for they know that their mountaine is so fortified by nature, that it cannot easily be subdued: here likewise all such as are banished out of Fez, except onely adulterers, are friendly entertained: for the inhabitants are so iealous, that they will ad∣mit no adulterers into their societie. The king of Fez granteth them many priuileges and fauours, in regard of the great commodities which he rea∣peth out of their mountaine.

Of mount Beni Guazeuall.

THis mountaine is almost thirtie miles long, and about fifteen miles broad: it is diuided into three parts, and betweene this and the mountaines aforesaid run certaine little riuers. The inhabitants are most valiant & warlike people, but extreme∣ly oppressed and burthened with exactions by the gouernor of Fez, who euery yeere demaundeth of this mountaine for tribute eighteen Page  194 thousand ducates: the mountaine indeed aboundeth with grapes, oliues, figs, and flaxe, whereby great summes of mony are raised; howbeit whatso∣euer they can gather goeth presently to the gouernour of Fez, who hath his officers and receiuers in the mountaine, which doe miserably oppresse and bribe the inhabitants: in this mountaine are a great number of villages and hamlets, that containe some an hundred, and some two hundred families and aboue: of most expert & trained soldiers they haue aboue fiue & twen∣tie thousand, & are at continuall war with those that border vpon them. But the king of Fez for those that are slaine on both parts requireth great sums of mony, so that he gaineth much by their dissensions. In this mountaine there is a certaine towne indifferently well peopled, and furnished with all kinde of artificers; whereunto the fields belonging maruellously abounde with grapes, quinces, and pome-citrons, all which are sold at Fez: here are likewise great store of linnen weauers, and manie iudges and lawyers. They haue also a good market, whereunto the inhabitants of the neighbour mountaines resort. Vpon the top of this mountaine there is a certaine caue* or hole that perpetually casteth vp fire. Some woondering greatly at the matter, haue cast in wood, which was suddenly consumed to ashes: I my selfe neuer saw the like miracle in any other place, so that a great manie thinke it to be hell-mouth.

Of mount Benigueriaghell.

IT standeth neer vnto the mountaine last mentioned, and yet the inhabitants of these mountaines are at continnall warre and dis∣cord. At the foot of this mountaine there is a large plaine which extendeth to the territorie of Fez, and through the same runneth that riuer which the inhabitants call Guarga. This mountaine greatly a∣boundeth with oyle, corne, and flaxe, for which cause here are great store of linnen-weauers. The greatest part of al their commodities is gathered for the kings vse, so that they which otherwise would prooue exceeding rich, becom by this meanes starke beggers, and that especially by reason of the courti∣ers continuall extortions. They are people of an ingenuous and valiant dis∣position. Souldiers they haue almost twelue thousand, and to the number of threescore villages.

Of mount Beni Achmed.

THis mountaine is eighteene miles long and seuen miles broad. It is verie steepe and containeth many waste deserts, and yeeldeth likewise great store of grapes, oliues, & figs: howbeit the soile is not so apt for corne. All the inhabitants are continually oppressed with the exactions of the Fessan king. At the foote of this mountaine are diuers springs and small streames, the water whereof is muddie and vnpleasant in taste, for in re∣gard Page  195 of the nature of the sande or earth it tasteth of chalke. There are many in this place, the balles of whose throte-pipes are verie great and sticke farre out, like vnto those abouementioned. All of them drinke pure wine, which* being boyled will last fifteene yeeres, howbeit they boyle not all their wine, but some they keepe vnboyled, and they yeerely make great quantity of boi∣led wine, which they vse to put in vessels, that are narrow at the bottome, and broad at the top. They haue euerie weeke a great market, where wine, oyle, and raisins are to bee sold. The people of this mountaine likewise are ex∣treme poore and beggerly, as a man may coniecture by their apparell. They haue had continuall and ancient quarrels among themselues, which make them oftentimes fall together by the eares.

Of mount Beni Ieginesen.

THis mountaine bordereth vpon Beni Achmed, & stretcheth in length almost ten miles. And betweene it and mount Beni Achmed runneth a certaine small riuer. The inhabitants are too much addicted to drun∣kennes, by reason that their wines are so excellent. No fruits grow vpon this mountaine but onely great abundance of grapes. Goates they haue which liue continually in the woods, neither haue they any other flesh to eate but goates-flesh. I my selfe had great acquaintance with the inhabitants, by rea∣son that my father had some possessions vpon the mountaine: but he hardly got any rents or money at their hands: for they are the woorst paymasters that euer I knew.

Of mount Beni Mesgalda.

THis mountaine bordereth vpon the mountaine last mentio∣ned, and vpon the riuer of Guarga. The inhabitants make great store of liquid sope, for they know not how to make hard sope. At the foote of this mountaine there is a large plaine possessed by certaine Arabians, who haue often com∣bates with them of the mountaine. They pay yeerly to the K. of Fez an huge summe of mony, and it is a woonder to see with what new exactions they are daily burthened. In this mountaine are many Doctors of the Mahumetan lawe, and diuers inferior students: who put the inhabitants to great damage. Themselues forsooth will drinke wine, and yet they perswade the people that it is 〈◊〉 for them to drinke it, albeit some do giue them little cre∣dit. The inhabitants of this mountaine pay in respect of others no great tribute, and that perhaps, because they maintaine the foresaid Doctors and students.

Page  196

Of mount Beni Guamud.

THis mountaine standeth so neere vnto the territorie of Fez, that they are diuided onely by a riuer. All the inhabitants make sope, out of which commoditie the king of Fez reapeth sixe thousand ducates of yeerely tribute. The villages of this mountaine are about fiue and twentie in number. All the sides thereof bring foorth corne and cattell in great abundance, sauing that they are sometimes destitute of water. The inhabi∣tants are verie rich and carrie all kinde of wares to Fez, where they gaine ex∣ceedingly by them. This mountaine yeeldeth nothing, but is commo∣dious for mans vse. From Fez it is almost ten miles distant.

Of Garet, one of the seuen Prouinces of the Fessan kingdome.

HAuing described all the chiefe townes and mountaines of the prouince of Errife, it now remaineth that we say somewhat of Garet, which is the sixt Prouince of Fez. This Prouince beginneth westward from the riuer Melulo, and bordereth eastward vpon the riuer Muluia; southward it is enclosed with the mountaines next vnto the Numidian desert, and northward it ex∣tendeth to the Mediterran sea. The bredth of this region along the sea shore stretcheth from the riuer Nocor to the foresaide riuer of Muluia: the sou∣thern bredth is bounded with the riuer Melulo, & westward with the moun∣taines of Chauz. The length of this Prouince is fiftie, and the bredth fortie miles. The soyle is rough, vntilled, and barren, not much vnlike to the de∣serts of Numidia. The greater part hath beene destitute of inhabitants, es∣pecially euer since the Spaniards tooke two of the principall townes in all the Prouince, as we will in due place record.

Of the towne of Melela in Garet.

THis great and ancient towne built by the Africans vpon a cer∣taine bay or hauen of the Mediterran sea, containeth almost two thousand families. It was in times past well stored with inhabi∣tants, as being the head-citie of the whole prouince. It had a great iurisdiction or territorie belonging thereto, and collected great abun∣dance of yron and honie, whereupon the towne it selfe was called Mellela, which word in their language signifieth honie. In the hauen of this towne they fish for pearles, and get great store of oisters wherein pearles doe breed. This towne was once subiect vnto the Goths, but fell afterward into the Ma∣humetans possession. The Goths being chased thence, fled ouer to Granada, which citie is almost an hundred miles distant, to wit, so farre as the bredth Page  197 of the sea is ouer. In my time the king of Spaine sent a great armie against this towne: before the arriuall whereof, the townesmen sent vnto the king of Fez for aide, who making warre as then against the people of Temesna, could send but small forces to succour them. Which the townesmen being aduertised of, and fearing least their small forces would prooue too weake for the Spanyards great armada, they tooke all the bag and baggage that they could carrie, and fled vnto the mountains of Buthoia. Howbeit the captaine of the Fessan soldiers, both to be reuenged vpon the townesmens cowardice, and also to leaue nothing for the Spanyards to inioy, burnt downe all the houses, temples, and 〈◊〉. This was done in the yeere of the Hegeira 896, which was in the yeere of our Lord 1487. But the Spanyards, for all* they found the citie so wasted, would not depart thereupon, but first built a strong castle, and afterward by little and little repaired the towne-walles, and by that meanes haue kept possession thereof euen till this day.

Of the towne of Chasasa.

THis towne is from Mellela aboue twenty miles distant. It hath beene a famous towne and strongly walled, with a royall hauen belonging thereunto, which was yeerely frequented by Venetian ships. The townesmen haue alwaies had great traffique with the people of Fez, to the exceeding commoditie of them both. At length, while the king of Fez was seriously imployed in the warres, Don Ferdinando king of Spaine came with great* forces against it, and wan it very easily; for the inhabitants being aduertised of the Spanyards approch, betooke themselues wholy to flight.

Of the towne of 〈◊〉.

IT standeth vpon an high grauelly hill almost fifteene miles from Cha∣sasa, and hath but a narrow passage to ascend vp vnto it. Within the towne they haue no water but onely out of one cesterne. The founders hereof are reported to haue beene some of the familie of Beni Marin, before they attai∣ned vnto great dominions, and in this towne they laid vp their corne and other of their commodities. At that time were all the deserts of the region adiacent void of danger, for the Arabians were not as yet possessed of Garet: 〈◊〉 after the familie of Beni-Marin began to flourish, they left this towne and all the region of Garet vnto their neighbours, and went to inhabit better prouinces. Howbeit in the meane season Ioseph the sonne of king Iacob of the Marin-familie (I know not vpon what occasion) in a manner vtterly de∣stroied Tezzota: but after the Christians were 〈◊〉 of Chasasa, one of the king of Fez his captaines being a valiant man and borne in Granada, got licence of his prince to reedifie it againe. The inhabitants of this reedified towne are Moores, and are at continuall warre with the Christians of Cha∣sasan.

Page  198

Of the towne of Meggeo.

THis little towne standeth vpon the top of an exceeding high moun∣taine, being westward from Tezzota ten miles, & almost 6. miles south∣ward of the Mediterran sea. Founded it was by the Africans, and is inhabited with people of a noble and liberall disposition. At the foote of this moun∣taine there are most fruitfull corne-fields. Likewise great store of iron is dig∣ged* out of the mountaines adioining. The gouernment of this towne was committed vnto one of the blood-royall, namely of the familie of 〈◊〉, whose father was not very rich, but being a weauer, he taught his sonne the same occupation. Afterward the valiant yoong man being aduertised of the estate and nobilitie of his ancestors, left his loome, and went to serue the king at Bedis, where he continued an horseman for a certaine time: but be∣cause he was an excellent musitian, the king loued him most intirely for his skill in musick. A while after, the gouernour of Tezzota requiring the kings aide against the Christians, this woorthie yoong gentleman with three hun∣dred horsemen was sent to succour him, who as he had valiantly behaued himselfe oftentimes before, so now also he appeered to be a most resolute commander. Howbeit the king regarded not his valour so much as his ex∣cellent skill in musicke: which the yoong gallant disdaining, went at length to Garet vnto certaine gentlemen of his acquaintance there, who ioining fiftie horsemen vnto him, appointed him gouernour of the castle of Meggeo: and afterward he was so wel beloued by all the inhabitants of the next mountaines, that each man according to his abilitie pleasured and gra∣tified him. At length the gouernour of Bedis hauing assembled an armie of three hundred horsemen and a thousand footmen, went about to expell the foresaid yoong gouernour out of Meggeo; who presently with that small troupe which he had, so valiantly encountred his enemies, that he put them to flight, and so growing famous in regarde of his manifolde victories, the king of Fez bestowed very large reuenues vpon him (which he had giuen be∣fore-time vnto the gouernours of Bedis) to the ende he might wholy inde∣uour himselfe to expell the Spanyards out of that region. And of this noble gouernour the Moores learned great skill in warlike affaires. The king of Fez hath now doubled his yeerely allowance, so that at this present he hath two hundred horsemen at command, who are of greater force, then two thousand soldiers of any other captaines there about.

Of mount Echebdeuon.

THis mountaine extendeth from Chasasa eastward as farre as the riuer Muluia; and from the Mediterran sea southward it stretcheth vnto the desert of Garet. The inhabitants are exceeding rich and valiant; and the mountaine it selfe aboundeth with honie, barlie, and all kinde of cattel. Here Page  199 are likewise great store of pleasant and greene pastures. But since that Cha∣sasa was taken by the Spanyards, the people of this mountaine seeing that for want of soldiers they were not able to withstande the violence of their enemies, abandoned their owne mountaine, burnt their houses, and fled vnto the mountaines next adioining.

Of mount Beni Sahid.

WEstward this mountaine extendeth almost to the riuer Nocor, for the space of fower and twentie miles. The inhabitants are rich, vali∣ant, and liberal, and entertaine all strangers with great courtesie and bountie. They haue abundance of iron and of barlie; and their pastures are very commodious, abounding with store of cattell; and yet in those pastures are their iron-mines, where they sometime lacke water; neither pay they any tribute at all. Their houses that dig the iron are not farre distant from the iron-mines. This iron the merchants sell at Fez in rude lumpes, because they vse not to frame it into barres, neither indeede haue they the cunning so to frame it. Also they make culters, spades, and such like tooles of husbandrie, and yet their iron hath no steele at all in it.

Of mount Azgangan.

THis mountaine beginning southward from Chasasa is inhabited with most rich and valiant people: for besides the great plentie of all things in the mountaine it selfe, it hath the desert of Garet adioining vpon it. The inhabitants of which desert haue great familiaritie and traffique with the people of the said mountaine: howbeit this mountaine also hath remained void of inhabitants, euer since the taking of Chasasa.

Of mount Beni Teuzin.

THe south part of this mountaine bordereth vpon the mountaine last mentioned, the length whereof from the desert of Garet to the riuer Nocor is almost ten miles; and on the one side thereof lie most beau∣tifull & pleasant plaines. The inhabitants are all free, paying no tribute at all, and that perhaps, because they haue more soldiers, then Tezzota, Meggeo, and Bedis can affoord. Moreouer they are thought in times past so to haue assisted the gouernour of Meggeo, that by their aide he attained vnto that gouernment. They haue alwaies been great friends with the people of Fez, by reason of that ancient familiaritie which they had, before Fez was gouer∣ned by a king. Afterward a certaine lawyer dwelling at Fez, who was borne in this mountaine, so represented vnto the king the said ancient familiaritie, that he obtained freedome for his countrie-men. At length also they were greatly beloued by the Marin-familie, perhaps bicause the mother of 〈◊〉Page  200 sahid the third king of the saide familie was borne of noble parentage in the foresaide mountaine.

Of mount Guardan.

THe north part of this mountaine ioineth vnto the former; and it stret∣cheth in length toward the Mediterran sea twelue miles, and in bredth to the riuer of Nocor, almost eight miles. The inhabitants are valiant & rich. Euery saturday they haue a great market vpon the banke of a certaine riuer: and hither resort many people from the mountaines of Garet, and diuers merchants of Fez, who exchange iron and bridles for oile, for in these mountaines grow great plentie of oliues. They haue little or no wine at all, notwithstanding they are so neere vnto mount Arif, where the people ca∣rouse wine in abundance. They were for a certaine time tributarie to the go∣uernour of Bedis, but afterward by the meanes of a learned Mahumetan preacher, the king granted them fauour, to pay each man so much tribute as themselues pleased. So that sending yeerely to the king some certaine sum of money, with certaine horses and slaues, they are put to no further charge.

Of the extreme part of the desert of Garet.

THe prouince of Garet is diuided into three parts: the first where∣of containeth the cities and townes, the second the foresaide mountaines, (the inhabitants whereof are called Bottoia) and the thirde comprehendeth the deserts, which beginning northwarde at the Mediterran sea, and extending south to the desert of Chauz, are boun∣ded westward with the foresaide mountaines, and eastward with the riuer of Muluia. The length of these deserts is 60. miles, and the bredth thirty. They are vnpleasant and dry, hauing no water but that of the riuer Muluia. There are many kinds of beasts in this desert, such as are in the Lybian desert next vnto Numidia. In sommer time many Arabians take vp their abode neere vnto the riuer Muluia; and so do another kinde of fierce people called Bata∣lisa, who possesse great abundance of horses, camels, and other cattell, and maintaine continuall warre against the Arabians that border vpon them.

A description of Chauz, the seuenth prouince of the kingdome of Fez.

THis prouince is thought to comprehend the thirde part of the kingdome of Fez. It beginneth at the riuer Zha from the east, & extendeth westward to the riuer Guruigara: so that the length thereof is an hundred fowerscore and tenne, and the bredth an hundred threescore and ten miles: for all that part of mount Atlas which lieth ouer against Mauritania, ioineth vpon the bredth of this region. Likewise it Page  201 containeth a good part of the plaines and mountaines bordering vpon Ly∣bia. At the same time when Habdulach the first king of the Marin-family began to beare rule ouer Mauritania and those other regions, his kinred be∣gan also to inhabite this region. This king left fower sonnes behinde him, whereof the first was called Abubdar, the second Abuichia, the third Abu∣sahid, and the fourth Iacob: this Iacob was afterward chosen king, bicause he had vanquished Muachidin the king of Maroco, & had conquered the city of Maroco it selfe: the other three brethren died in their nonage: howbeit be∣fore Iacob had woon Maroco, the old king assigned vnto each of them three, one region a peece. The other three parts were diuided into seuen, which were distributed among the fower kinreds of the Marin-family, and two other tribes or families that were growen in great league with the same family: insomuch that this region was accounted for three regions. They which possessed the kingdome were ten in number, and the regions onely seuen. The foresaid king Habdulach was author of the saide partition, who left the region of Chauz after his decease in such estate, as we will foorth∣with orderly describe.

Of the towne of Teurerto.

THis ancient towne was built vpon a mountaine by the Africans not farre from the riuer Zha. The fields hereof not being very large, but exceeding fruitfull, adioine vpon a certaine dry and barren desert. The north part of the same bordereth vpon the desert of Garet, and the south vpon the desert of Adurha: eastward thereof lieth the desert of Anghad, which is neere vnto the kingdome of* Telensin, and westward it is enclosed with the desert of Tafrata, which bordereth likewise vpon the towne of Tez∣za. This Teurerto was in times past a most populous and rich towne, and contained about three thousand families: heere also are stately palaces, tem∣ples, and other such buildings to be seene. The towne wall is built of most excellent marble. Euer since the Marin-familie enioied the westerne king∣dome of Fez, this towne was an occasion of great warres: for the Marin∣family woulde haue it belong to the crowne of Fez: but the king of Telen∣sin chalenged it as his owne.

Of the towne of Haddagia.

THis towne was built by the Africans in manner of an Isle, for it is en∣uironed with the riuer Mululo, which not far from hence falleth into the riuer Muluia. It was in times past a most populous & flourishing towne: but after the Arabians became lords of the west, it fell by little and little to decay: for it bordereth vpon the desert of Dahra, which is inhabited with most lewde and mischieuous Arabians. At the same time when Teurerto was sacked, this towne was vtterly destroied also, whereof nothing remai∣neth at this day but the towne wals onely.

Page  202

Of the castle of Garsis.

IT standeth vpon a rocke by the riuer Muluia, fifteene miles distant from Teurerto. Here, as in a most impregnable place, the familie of Beni Ma∣rin laide their prouision of corne; when as they inhabited the deserts. Af∣terward it became subiect vnto Abuhenan the fift king of the Marin-fami∣lie. It hath no great quantitie of arable or pasture ground belonging there∣to: but it hath a most pleasant garden replenished with grapes, peaches, and figges, and enuironed on all sides with most thicke and shadie woods, so that it is a paradise in respect of other places thereabout. The inhabitants are rude and vnciuill people, neither do they ought, but keepe such corne as the Arabians commit vnto their custodie. If a man behold the castle a farre off, he woulde thinke it rather to be a cottage then a castle: for the wall being in many places ruined, maketh shew of great antiquitie, and the roofe is coue∣red with certaine blacke stones or slates.

Of the towne of Dubdu.

THis ancient towne was built by the Africans vpon an exceeding high and impregnable mountaine, and is inhabited by certaine people of the familie of Zeneta. From the top of this mountaine diuers springs come running into the towne. From this towne the next plaines are distant almost fiue miles, and yet they seeme to be but a mile and an halfe off; for the way is very crooked and winding. All the iurisdiction longing to this towne is onely vpon the toppe of the mountaine, for the plaine vnderneath is vnpleasant and barren; except certaine gardens on either side of a little riuer running by the foote of the hill: neither haue the townesmen corne growing vpon the same hill sufficient for their prouision, vnlesse they were supplied with great store of corne from Tezza: so that this towne was built for a fortresse onely by the family of Marin, what time they were disposses∣sed of the westerne kingdome. Afterward it was inhabited by a certaine fa∣mily called Beni Guertaggen, who are lords of the saide towne euen till this day. But when the Marin-family were expelled out of the kingdome of Fez, the next Arabians endeuoured to winne the towne: howbeit by the aide of one Mose Ibnu Chamu, who was one of the saide family, the Arabians were so valiantly resisted, that they concluded a truce with the people of Marin: and so Mose Ibnu remained gouernour of the towne; after whose death his sonne Acmed succeeded him, who treading iust in his fathers vertuous steps, kept the saide towne in great tranquillitie euen till his dying day. After him succeeded one Mahumet, a man highly 〈◊〉 for his noble valour and great skill in martiall affaires. This Mahumet had before time conquered many cities and castles vpon the foote of the mount Atlas, southward whereof bordereth the land of Numidia. But hauing gotten this Page  203 towne in possession, he beautified it exceedingly with store of faire houses and buildings: likewise he greatly altered and reformed the gouernment of* this towne; and shewed such extraordinarie curtesie vnto al strangers, that he grew very famous. Moreouer the saide Mahumet consulted howe to get Tezza from the king of Fez, & offered great matters to the performance of his intent: and that he might the easlier attaine his purpose, he determined to go to the market of Tezza in a simple habite, and so to make an assault vp∣on the captaine of the towne: for he hoped that a great part of the townes∣men, whom he knew to be his friends, woulde assist him in that enterprise. Howbeit this practise was at length discouered vnto the king of Fez (which king was called Saich, and was the first of the family of Quattas, and father vnto the king that* now reigneth) who presently assembled an huge armie, and marched of purpose against Dubdu, vtterly to destroy it: and so com∣ming vnto the foote of the mountaine he there encamped. The people of the mountaine hauing gathered an armie of sixe thousand men, hid them∣selues craftilie behinde the rockes, suffering their enimies to ascende by certaine difficult & streite passages, from whence they were sure they could hardly escape, & so at length they brake foorth on the sodaine & encountred their said enemies being wearie of ascending; and because the way was very troublesome and narrow, the king of Fez his soldiers could not endure their assaults, but being constrained to giue backe, were moe then a thousand of them throwne downe headlong and slaine. In this skirmish were slaine in all to the number of three thousand Fessan soldiers: and yet the king not being dismaied with so great an ouerthrow, prepared foorthwith a band of fiue hundred crossebowes, and three hundred Harquebuziers, and determined to make a newe assault vpon the towne. But Mahumet seeing that he could no longer withstand the king, resolued to goe himselfe vnto him, that he might, if it were possible, obtaine peace, and to release his countrie from the furie of the enemie. Wherefore putting on the habit of an ambassadour, he went and deliuered a letter with his owne hand vnto the king. Which the king ha∣uing perused, asked him what he thought concerning the gouernour of Dubdu? Mary I thinke (quoth Mahumet) he is not well in his wits, in that he goeth about to resist your Maiestie. Then said the king, if I had conquered him (as I hope to doe within these few daies) I would cause him to be dis∣membred and torne in peeces. But what if he should come hither (saith Ma∣humet) to submit himselfe, and to acknowledge his offence; might it then please the king to admit him into fauour? Then the king answered: I sweare vnto thee by this my head, that if he will come and acknowledge his fault in manner as thou hast said, I will not onely receiue him into fauour, but will espouse my daughters vnto his sonnes, and will bestowe most ample and princely dowries vpon them. But I am sure, being distraught of his wits (as thou hast said) that he will by no meanes come and submit himselfe. Then said Mahumet: he would soone come (I assure you) if it pleased the king to protest this for a certaintie vnto his nobles. I thinke (said the king) it hath Page  204 beene sufficiently protested and affirmed, sithence I haue bound it with a solemne oath in the presence of these fower; for heere stande my chiefe se∣cretarie, the generall of my forces, my father in lawe, and the chiefe iudge and patriarke of Fez; the testimonie of which fower may well satisfie you. Whereupon Mahumet humblie falling at the kings feete: 〈◊〉 heere the man (quoth he) that submissely acknowledgeth his fault, and craueth the kings gratious pardon. With that the king himselfe lifted him from the ground, embraced him, and saluted him with friendly speeches. Then caused he both his daughters to be called, which he bestowed vpon Mahumets sonnes: all which being done, he remooued his armie from that mountaine, and retur∣ned conquerour vnto Fez. This was done in the yeere of the Hegeira 904. which was in the yeere of our Lord 1495. And in the yeere of the Hegeira 921. I my selfe was at the citie of Dubdu, where I was most curteously en∣tertained by the foresaid Mahumet, in regard of certaine letters of commen∣dation which I brought from the king of Fez and his brother. Neither would he cease enquiring how all things passed at the king of Fez his court.

Of the citie of Teza or Tezza.

THis great, noble, and rich citie of Tezza was built by the Africans, fiue miles from mount Atlas, being distant from Fez fiftie, from the Oce∣an an hundred and thirtie, and from the Mediterran sea seuen miles, and standing in the way from Garet to Chasasan. It contained in times past about fiue thousand families: the buildings of this towne are not very state∣ly, except noblemens palaces, colleges, and temples, which are somewhat beautifull. Out of Atlas springeth a little riuer which runneth through the chiefe temple of this citie: and sometimes it falleth out, that certaine peo∣ple bordering vpon the citie, vpon some quarrell with the citizens will cut off this riuer from the citie, and turne the course thereof some other way, which breedeth great inconueniences vnto the citizens: for then they can neither builde houses, nor get any water to drinke, but onely corrupt water which they take out of certaine cesterns, for which cause they are often con∣strained to make a league with those borderers. This citie both for wealth, ciuilitie, and abundance of people is the thirde citie of all the kingdome, and hath a greater temple then that at Fez: heere are likewise three colleges, with diuers bath-stoues, and a great number of hospitals. Each trade and occupation hath a seuerall place in this citie, like as they haue in Fez: the in∣habitants are of a more valiant and liberall disposition, then they of Fez: heere are also great store of learned and rich men: and the fieldes adiacent are exceeding fruitfull. Without the citie wals are verie large plaines, and many pleasant streames, that serue to water their gardens which are repleni∣shed with all kinde of fruits: heere are abundance of vines also yeelding ve∣rie sweete grapes, whereof the Iewes (being fiue hundreth families) make excellent wine, such as I thinke all Africa scarce affoordeth better. In this Page  205 towne standeth a faire castle, where the gouernour hath his abode. The king of Fez assigned the gouerment of this towne vnto his second sonne, being rather a meete place for the kings owne residence, in regard of the whole∣fome aire both in sommer and winter: heere were the nobles of the Marin∣family woont to remaine all summer, both in respect of the holesomenes of the place, and also that they might defend those regions from the Arabians dwelling in the deserts: which Arabians resorted yeerely to Tezza, to the end they might there furnish themselues with victuals and other necessa∣ries, and brought dates thither from Segelmese to exchange for come: the citizens also receiued of the Arabians for corne great summes of money, whereupon all of them in a manner grow exceeding rich, neither are they annoied so much with any inconuenience, as with durtie streetes in winter. I my selfe was acquainted in this citie with a certaine aged sire, whom the townesmen adored as if he had beene a god: he was maruelous rich both in fruits, grounds, and other commodities, which the people bestowed vpon him in great abundance. The citizens of Fez vsed to come fiftie miles (for so farre is Fez distant) onely to visite the saide olde man. My selfe concei∣ued some great opinion of this aged sire: but after I had seene him, I could finde no such superexcellencie in him, saue onely that he deluded the fonde people with strange deuises. The iurisdiction of this citie is very large, con∣taining diuers mountaines vnder it, as we will foorthwith declare in order.

Of mount Matgara.

THis mountaine is very high & difficult to ascend, both by reason of the vast deserts & the narrow passages, and it is distant from Teza almost fiue miles: the top of this hill is most fruitefull grounde, and full of cleere fountaines: the inhabitants being burthened with no exactions, ga∣ther yeerely great store of corne, flaxe, and oile: they haue likewise abun∣dance of cattell, and especially of goates: neither doe they any whit regard princes. Hauing vpon a day vanquished the king of Fez in battell, they car∣ried a certaine captaine of Fez taken prisoner vnto the toppe of the hill, where in the kings owne presence they put him to a most cruell, and misera∣ble death: whereupon the saide inhabitants haue beene at continuall di∣scord with the people of Fez: they haue almost a thousand soldiers, and their mountaine containeth about fiftie villages and hamlets.

Of mount Gauata.

THis mountaine being as difficult to ascende as the former, standeth westward of Fez, almost fifteene miles: both the sides and top of this mountaine are very fruitefull for barly and flaxe: it is extended in length from east to west eight miles, and in bredth about fiue miles: manie deserts here are, haunted with apes and leopards. The greater part of the Page  206 inhabitants are linnen-weauers; people they are of a franke disposition, nei∣ther can they till the fields adioining to their mountaine, by reason of their continuall dissension with the king of Fez, vnto whom they will pay no tri∣bute nor custome at all, perhaps because of the strong situation of their mountaine, & for that it aboundeth with all things necessarie for mans suste∣nance: so that albeit this mountaine were besieged ten yeeres together, yet could it by no meanes be woon; neither is it euer destitute of water, for there∣upon are two huge fountaines, which running downe into the plaine, be∣come the heads of two riuers.

Of mount Megesa.

THis mountaine also is somewhat difficult to ascend: it is rough and full of woods, and yeeldeth little corne, but great plentie of oliues. The in∣habitants being most part weauers (for their soile yeeldeth good store of flaxe) are in the warres right valiant both on foote and horsebacke. Their fa∣ces are white, and that perhaps for the coldnes of the mountaine: neither doe these pay any tribute at all. Here also the exiles of Fez and Teza haue safe aboad, and albeit they haue great store of gardens and vineyards, yet are they no wine-drinkers. Soldiers they haue to the number of seuen thousand, and almost fortie villages.

Of mount Baronis.

THis mountaine standeth fifteene miles northward of Teza. The inha∣bitants are rich and mighty, and possesse great store of horses: neither doe they pay any tribute at all. This hill aboundeth with plentie of corne, fruits, and grapes, and yet they make no wine at all. Their women are white and fat, and adorne themselues with much siluer. In this place also they en∣tertaine exiles, but if any of them offer to haue familiaritie with their wiues, they punish him most seuerely; for of all iniuries they cannot indure this.

Of the mountaine called Beni Guertenage.

THis is an exceeding high and impregnable mountaine, both in regard of the ragged rocks, and of the vast desertes, being distant from Teza about thirtie miles. This mountaine affoordeth great store of corne, flaxe, oliues, pome-citrons, and excellent quinces. They haue likewise all sorts of cattell in great abundance, except horses and oxen. The inhabitants are valiant and liberall, and as decently apparelled as any citizens. The villa∣ges and hamlets of this mountaine are about thirtie fiue, and the soldiers al∣most three thousand.

Of mount Gueblen.

THis high, cold, and large mountaine containeth in length about thirty, and in bredth about fifteene miles. Eastward it bordereth vpon the Page  207〈◊〉 of Dubdu, and westward vpon mount Beni-Iazga, and it is di∣stant from Teza almost fiftie miles southward. At all times of the yeere the top of this mountaine is couered with snowe. The inhabitants in times past were most rich and valiant people, and liued in great libertie: but afterward when they began to play the tyrants, the people of all the mountaines adioy∣ning hauing gathered great forces, inuaded this mountaine, slew them eue∣rie one, and so burned and wasted their townes and villages, that vnto this day it hath remained voide of inhabitants: except onely a few, which dete∣sting the cruell tyrannie of their parents, conueied themselues and all their goods vnto the top of the mountaine, where they liued an abstinent and vertuous life; wherefore these were spared, and their posteritie remaineth in the mountaine till this present: they are all learned and of honest conuersa∣tion, and well esteemed of by the king of Fez: one of them in my time being a very learned and famous old man was vsed by the king of Fez, both about treaties of peace, and in other serious affaires: and in this man the king re∣posed all his confidence, as if he had beene some petie-god: for which cause all the courtiers had him in great detestation.

Of mount Beni Iesseten.

THis mountaine is subiect vnto the gouernour of Dubdu, being inha∣bited with most base and beggerly people. Their houses are made of sea-rushes, and so likewise are their shooes made of such rushes when they trauel any iourney, whereby a man may coniecture the miserable estate of this people. The mountaine yeeldeth nought but panicke, whereof they make bread and other victuals: but at the foote thereof are certaine gardens replenished with grapes, dates, and peaches. Their peaches they cut into fower quarters, and casting away the nuts or stones, they drie them in the sunne, and keepe them an whole yeere, which they esteeme for great dain∣ties. Vpon this mountaine are many iron-mines: and they frame their iron* in manner of horse-shooes, which serueth themsometimes in stead of mo∣ney, whereof they haue great want in this mountaine, vnlesse the smithes by their arte keepe this money in store: who, besides horse-shooes, make cer∣taine daggers with blunt points. Their women weare iron-rings vpon their fingers and eares for a great brauerie, but they are more basely apparelled then the men, and remaine continually in the woods, both to keepe goates, and to gather fewell. They haue neither ciuilitie nor learning, but liue after a brutish manner without all discretion and humanitie.

Of mount Selelgo.

THis woodie mountaine is full of pine-trees and fountaines. Their houses are not made of stone, but of sea-rushes, so that they may easi∣ly be remooued from place to place, which is very commodious to Page  208 the inhabitants, for euery spring they leaue the mountaine and descend into the vallies, from whence about the end of May they are expelled by the Arabians which inhabit the deserts: who by reason of their abundance of goates and other cattell, forsaking the said deserts, seeke vnto the fountaines and moist places: but in winter, because their camels are so impatient of cold, they resort vnto the woods, and warme regions. In this mountaine are great store of lions, leopards, and apes. And from the said mountaine run∣neth* a certaine streame of water with such violence, that I haue seene a stone of an hundred pound waight carried with the force thereof: and here Subu taketh his beginning, which is the greatest riuer of all Mauritania.

Of mount Beni Iasga.

THe inhabitants of this mountaine are rich, and ciuil people: it standeth so neere the mountaine last mentioned, that they are onely separated with the foresaid riuer: and to the end they may the easilier passe from one moūtaine to another, they haue made a certaine strange bridge in the midst,* and that in manner following: on either side stand certaine postes, through the which runneth a rope vpon a truckle or pulley, vnto which rope is faste∣ned a great basket, that will containe ten persons, and that in such sort, that so often as they will passe ouer to the opposite mountaine, they enter into the basket, and drawing the rope whereon it hangeth, they are easily carried aloft in the aire ouer the riuer by the helpe of the foresaid pulleyes, but som∣times with great hazard of their liues, especially if the basket or the rope be worne in any place: yea and the distance of place is often an occasion of great terrour. In this mountaine there is great store of cattel, but little wood. It aboundeth likewise with most excellent fine wooll, whereof their women make cloth comparable vnto silke, which is solde at Fez for a great price. Here also is great plentie of oile. The king of Fez is lord of this mountaine, the yeerely tribute whereof amounting wel nigh to eight thousand duckats, is paid to the gouernour of old Fez.

Of mount Azgan.

THis mountaine bordring eastward vpon Selelgo, westward vpon mount Sofroi, southward vpon the mountaines by the riuer Maluia, and north∣ward vpon the territorie of Fez, containeth in length fortie, and in bredth about fifteene miles. It is of an exceeding height, and so intolerably cold, that onely that side therof is habitable which looketh towards Fez. It aboun∣deth greatly with oliues and other fruites: and from thence also run great store of fountaines into the plaines and fields adiacent, which are most fruit∣full for barlie, flaxe, and hempe. In my time there were abundance of mul∣berie-trees planted vpon this plaine, which beare white berries, and bring foorth silke-wormes. The inhabitants in winter dwell in most base cottages. Page  209 Their water is most extremely cold: insomuch that I my selfe knew one, who with drinking onely a cup thereof, suffered most intolerable gripings and tortures in his bowels for three moneths after.

Of the towne of Sofroi.

THis towne being situate at the foote of mount Atlas, and standing about fifteene miles southward of Fez, almost in the way to Numidia, was built by the Africans betweene two riuers, on either sides whereof grow great abundance of grapes and all kinde of fruites. The towne for fiue miles compasse is enuironed with oliue-trees: but the fieldes are apt onely for hempe and barlie. The inhabitants are very rich, notwithstanding they goe in meane apparell, and greazie with oile, the occasion whereof is in that they carie oile vnto Fez to sell. There is no memorable thing in all their towne, saue onely a certaine temple, through the midst whereof runneth a large riuer; and at the doores standeth a fountaine of most pure water. Howbeit the greatest part of this towne is fallen to decay by the negligence of one of the kings brothers that now raigneth, & is ruined in many places.

Of the towne of Mezdaga.

THis towne being situate likewise at the foote of Atlas; and standing about eight miles westward of Sofroi, is compassed with a faire wall, and albeit the houses thereof are but meane, yet euery one hath a fountaine of cleere water belonging vnto it. Most of the inhabitants are potters, be∣cause* they haue such abundance of porcellan earth, whereof they make great store of earthen vessels, and send them to be sold at Fez, from whence they are but twelue miles distant southward. Their fields are most fruitfull for barlie, flaxe, and hempe: and they gather yeerely great abundance of figs, and of other fruits. In the forrests about this towne, as also about the former, are maruellous store of lions, being not very hurtfull, for any man may driue them away with a little sticke.

Of the towne of Beni Bahlul.

THis 〈◊〉 towne standing vpon the side of Atlas towards Fez, is di∣stant from Fez about twelue miles, not farre from the high way lea∣ding to Numidia. Through the midst of this towne run certaine little riuers from the next mountaine, neither doth it differ much in situation from Mezdaga, sauing that the south frontier thereof is ful of woods, where∣out the inhabitants get timber and fewell, and carrie it vnto Fez to be solde. They are oppressed with continuall exactions of courtiers and others, nei∣ther haue they any ciuilitie at all among them.

Page  210

Of the towne called Ham Lisnan.

THis towne built by the Africans vpon a certaine plaine enuironed with mountaines, in the way from Sofroi to Numidia, borrowed the name thereof from the fountaine of an idoll, vpon the occasion following. At the same time while the Africans were as yet idolaters, they had a temple standing neere vnto this towne, whither at certaine times of the yeere re∣sorted in the night great multitudes of people both men and women: where hauing ended their sacrifices, they vsed to put out their lights, and euerie man to commit adulterie with that woman which hee first touched. But the women which were present at this abominable sport, were forbidden to lie with any man for a yeere after: and the children begotten in the saide adulterie, were kept and brought vp by the priest of the temple, as being de∣dicated to sacred vses. In the same temple there was a fountaine which is to be seene at this day: but neither the temple it selfe, nor any monument or mention of the towne is remaining, because they were vtterly demolished by the Mahumetans.

Of the towne of Mahdia.

THis towne being situate vpon a plaine, betweene mount Atlas, and certaine woods and riuers, is about ten miles distant from the former. The founder thereof was a certaine Mahumetan preacher of that nation, which was borne in the next mountaine: and it began to be built at the same time when the familie of Zeneta were lords of the Fessan kingdome. But when king Ioseph of the Luntune family got possession of the said kingdom, this towne was so wasted and destroyed, that the beautifull temple with some part of the towne wall onely was left standing, and the inhabitants be∣came tributarie to the king of Fez: this was done in the yeere of the He∣geira 515.

Of Sahblel Marga, that is, The plaine of the valiant man.

THis plaine containeth in longth fortie, and in bredth almost thirtie miles, neere vnto it are certaine mountains which border vpon mount Atlas: and in these mountaines are waste deserts ful of goodly timber: here are likewise a great number of cottages inhabited with colliers for the most part, who carrie abundance of coales from the said mountaines to 〈◊〉. The lions that are here doe so haunt the poore colliers, that sometimes they de∣uour them. From hence likewise are carried to Fez store of excellent and great beames of timber. All the plaine is so barren and drie, that it will scarce bring foorth any good thing at all.

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Of the plaine called Azgari Camaren.

THis plaine also is inuironed around with woodie mountaines, being a kinde of medowe-ground, for it is couered all ouer with most plea∣sant herbes and grasse: wherfore in the sommer time they vse to keepe their cattell heere, and to defend them with high and strong hedges from the fury of the lions.

Of mount Centopozzi.

VPon this high mountaine are great store of most ancient buildings, neere vnto the which there is a hole or drie pit of so great a depth, that the bottome thereof can in no wise be seene. Into this pit some mad fellowes will haue themselues let downe by ropes, carrying a candle or torch in their hands: and beneath they say it is diuided into manie roumes, and as it were, chambers; and last of all they come to a most large place hewen out of the rocke with instruments, and compassed about as it were with a wall, in which wall are fower doores which lead to other more narrow places, where they say that fountaines of springing water are. And sometimes it falleth out that some miserably ende their liues here: for if their lights chaunce to be blowen out with anie sudden blast of wind, they can by no meanes finde the place where the rope hangeth, but are there constrained to die for ex∣treme famine. It was told me by a certaine nobleman of Fez, that there were ten persons, who being desirous to see the woonders of this pit, and being prepared for the same purpose, went first three of them downe, who when they were come to the foresaid fower doores, two of them went one way, and the third went alone another way. And being thus diuided, after they had proceeded almost a quarter of a mile, there came great swarmes, of bats fly∣ing about their lights, insomuch that one light was put out; at length being come to the springing fountaines, they found there certaine white bones of men, and fiue or sixe candles, whereof some were new, and others were olde and worne with long lying there: but hauing found nothing but water in the said fountaines, they returned backe againe the same way that they came: and they had scarce gone halfe way, but their other light also was blowen out with a sudden blast. Afterward seeking earnestly vp and downe, and be∣ing wearie of manie falles that they caught among the rockes, they found that there was no hope of returne: wherefore in this desperate case com∣mitting themselues with teares into the hands of God, they vowed, if they 〈◊◊〉 this danger, neuer to aduenture any more. They that stood at the 〈◊〉 mouth being ignorant of their companions mishappe expected their 〈◊〉, and hauing staide ouer long, at length they let downe them∣selues by the rope, and began with lights to seeke their fellowes, making a Page  112 great noise, and at length found them heauie and sad. But the third who was wandring vp and downe those darke places, they could by no meanes finde, wherefore leauing him, they returned foorth of the caue. And he that was left behinde heard at length a noise like the barking of little dogs, and sha∣ping his course toward them, he found immediately fower strange, and (as it should seeme) new-borne beasts, after which followed the* damme being not much vnlike to a shee-woolfe, sauing that she was bigger: wherefore he began exceedingly to feare; howbeit there was no danger, for being about to flee, the beast came towards him, fawning gently vpon him with her taile. And so at length, after long seeking, he found the holes mouth with great ioy, and escaped the danger. For within a while he saide that he began to see some glimmering of light, as they do which haue long bin in the darke. But after a certaine time this caue was filled with water vp to the top.

Of the mountaine of rauens, called Cunaigel Gherben.

THis mountaine standeth verie neere the former, and is full of woods and lions. Here is no citie, nor any other place of habitation, perhaps by reason of the extreme coldnes of the place. From this moun∣taine runneth a certaine little riuer: and here is a rocke of an exceeding height, whereupon keepe infinit swarmes of crowes and rauens, which some thinke to haue beene the occasion of the name of this mountaine. Some∣time the terrible northerly windes bring such abundance of snow vpon this mountaine, that such as trauell from Numidia towards Fez loose their liues thereby, as hath beene signified in the first booke. Euerie sommer the Ara∣bians next inhabiting, beeing called Beni Essen, vsually resort vnto this mountaine, in regard of the coole water and pleasant shadowes, notwith∣standing they knowe it to be haunted with great store of lions and leopards.

Of the towne of Tezerghe.

THis little towne was by the Africans built in manner of a fort vpon the side of a small riuer which runneth by the foote of the foresaid moun∣taine: both the inhabitants and their houses are most base and destitute of all ciuilitie. Their fields being enuironed with the mountaines adioyning, bring foorth some small quantitie of barley and peaches. The inhabitants are all subiect vnto certaine Arabians called Deuil Chusein.

Of the towne called Vmen Giunaibe.

THis auncient towne beeing destroyed by the Arabians was situate a∣bout twelue miles from Tezerghe vpon the south side of Atlas. It is so dangerous a place by reason of the often inuasions of certaine Arabians, that none almost dare trauell that way. There lyeth a way neere this towne, Page  213 which a man may not passe without dauncing and leaping, vnlesse he will fall into an ague: the certaintie where of I haue heard many auouch.

Of mount Beni Merasen.

THe inhabitants of this exceeding high and colde mountaine haue great plentie of horses and asses: here are store of mules likewise, which carie wares vp and downe without either bridle or saddle. Their houses are built not with walles of stone, but of rushes. The people are very rich, and pay no tribute to the king, perhaps in regard of the strong situation of their mountaine.

Of mount Mesettaza.

THis mountaine extendeth in length from east to west almost thirtie miles, and twelue miles in bredth. The west part thereof adioineth vp∣on the plaine of Edecsen, which bordereth vpon Temesna. It is like vnto the foresaid mountaine, both in regard of the inhabitants, and also for plentie of horses and mules. At Fez there are great store of learned men which were borne in this mountaine: they pay no tribute at all, but onely send the king such gifts as themselues please.

Of the mountaines of Ziz.

THese mountaines are thought to haue borrowed their name from a certaine riuer springing out of them. Eastward they begin at Meset∣taza, and extend westward to the mountaines of Tedla and Dedis, south∣ward they border vpon that part of Numidia which is called Segelmesse, and northward vpon the plaines of 〈◊〉 and Guregra: in length they containe an hundred, and in bredth almost fortie miles: in number they are fifteene, being extremely cold and difficult to ascend, and sending foorth many streames of water. The inhabitants are called Sanaga, and are men most patient of all boisterous and cold weather. They weare but one coate at all seasons of the yeere, ouer which they cast a kinde of cloke or mantle: their legs and 〈◊〉 they wrap in certaine clothes as it were in swathing bands, and they goe at all times bare-headed. In this mountaine are great store of mules, asses, and other cattell, but very few deserts. The inhabitants are a most lewd and villanous generation, being wholy addicted to theft and robberie. They are at continuall dissension with the Arabians, and practise daily mischiefes and inconueniences against them, and to the end they may prouoke them to greater furie, they will sometimes throwe their camels downe headlong from the top of some high mountaine. In these moun∣tains there happeneth a certaine strange and incredible matter, for there are serpents so familiar with men, that at dinner-time they wil come like dogs &*Page  214 cats, and gather vp the crums vnder the table, neither wil they hurt any body, vnlesse they be offered some iniurie. The walles of their houses are made of chalke, and the roofes are couered with thatch. There are also another kinde of inhabitants in these mountaines, who possesse more droues of cattell then the former, and dwell for the most part in cottages made of rushes. And these carrie vnto Segelmese butter and wool to be sold, but at that time only when the Arabians inhabite the deserts, for it often falleth out that they are encoūtred by them, & spoiled of their goods. These people are most va∣liant warriours, for they will fight euen to the last gaspe, rather then be taken of their enemies: they carrie fower or fiue iauelins about with them, where∣with they know right well how to defend themselues from the enemie. They fight alwaies on foote, neither can they be vanquished but with a great num∣ber of horsemen, and they vse to carrie swords and daggers with them also. In my time they obtained safe conduct of the Arabians, and the Arabians of them likewise, which was a cause, that the merchants of both partes tra∣uelled more securely.

Of the towne of Gerseluin.

THis ancient towne was built by the Africans at the foote of one of the foresaid mountaines, not farre from the riuer of Ziz. It is enuironed with an impregnable and stately wall, the founder whereof was a certaine king of the Marin-familie. In regard of the walles and bulwarks it is a most beautifull towne. But being once entred thereinto, you shall see most base and beggerly houses, and scarce any inhabitants dwelling in them, and that by the iniurie of certaine Arabians, who when they reuolted from the Ma∣rin-familie, tooke this towne and grieuously oppressed the citizens. Their drie and barren fields lie open to the north. Vpon the riuer are diuers mils, and by the side thereof are many gardens replenished with grapes and pea∣ches, which they vse to drie in the sunne, and to keepe an whole yeere. They haue great scarcitie of cattell, which causeth them to liue a most 〈◊〉 life. This towne was built by the familie of Zeneta in stead of a fort, to the end it might be a place of refuge onely in their iournie to Numidia, but af∣terward it was surprised and vtterly destroied by the familie of Luntuna. Here also are great store of such domesticall serpents, as we reported to be in the mountaines of Ziz.

Here endeth the third booke.
Page  215

IOHN LEO HIS FOVRTH BOOKE OF the Historie of Africa, and of the memorable things contained therein.

A description of the kingdome of* Telensin.

THis kingdome beginneth westward from the ri∣uers of Zha & Muluia, eastward it bordereth vp∣on The great riuer, southward vpon the desert of Numidia, and northward vpon the Mediter∣ran sea. This region was called by the Romanes Caesaria, and was by them inhabited: howbeit after the Romanes were expelled, it was ful∣lie possessed by the ancient gouernours there∣of called Beni Habdulguad, and being a gene∣ration of the familie of Magraua. And it remained vnto them and their suc∣cessors three hundred yeeres, vntill such time as a certaine mightie man cal∣led Ghamrazen the sonne of Zeijen tooke possession thereof. His posteritie changing at length their ancient name were called Beni Zeijen, that is, the sonnes of Zeijen: and they enioied this kingdome for the space almost of 380. yeeres. At length the kings of Fez of the Marin-familie greatly mole∣sted them, so that those ten kings which succeeded Zeijen were some of them vnfortunate in battell, some slaine, some taken captiue, and others ex∣pelled their kingdome, and chased to the next mountaines. Neither were they free from vexation of the kings of Tunis: howbeit the kingdome of Telensin remained still to this familie, and they continued in peace for al∣most an hundred and twentie yeeres, being endammaged by no forren pow∣er; sauing that one Abu Feris king of Tunis, and his sonne Hutmen made them to pay tribute for certaine yeeres vnto Tunis, till the decease of the said Hutmen. This kingdome stretcheth in length from east to west 380. miles, but in bredth from north to south, that is, from the Mediterran sea to the deserts of Numidia not aboue fiue and twentie miles: which is the occa∣sion that it is so often oppressed by the Arabians inhabiting the Numidian deserts. The kings of Telensin haue alwaies endeuoured by great gifts to gaine the good will and friendship of the Numidians, but they could neuer satisfie their insatiable couetice. A man shall seldome trauell safely through this kingdome: howbeit here are great store of merchants, perhaps either because it adioineth to Numidia, or else for that the way to the land of Ne∣gros Page  216 lieth through it. It hath two most famous & frequented hauen-townes, the one called* Horam, and the other* Marsa Elcabir, whither vse to resort great store of Genoueses, and Venetians. But afterward both these townes were taken by Don Ferdinando the Catholike king, to the great inconueni∣ence of all this kingdome: for which cause the king then raigning called Abuchemmeu, was expelled his kingdome and put to flight by his owne sub∣iects: afterward Abuzeijen was restored to the kingdome, who had for cer∣taine yeeres been imprisoned by his nephew Abuchemmeu: howbeit he en∣ioied the kingdome but a very short space. For he was at length miserably slaine by Barbarossa the Turke, who conquered the kingdome of Tremizen* by force of war. Whereof Abuchemmeu, that was expelled by his owne sub∣iects, hauing intelligence, sent to craue aide of the emperour Charles the fift, whereby he hoped to recouer his kingdome. Which request being gran∣ted, he leuied a puissant armie, and made warre against Barbarossa, and ha∣uing driuen him out, he recouered his kingdome, and seuerely punished them that had conspired his banishment. And then he gaue the Spanish soldiers their pay, sent the captaines home with great rewardes, and allowed Charles the emperour a large yeerely reuenue so long as he liued. After his decease succeeded his brother Habdulla, who neglecting the league made before betweene the emperour and his brother, and relying vpon Soliman the great Turke, refused to pay any more tribute vnto the emperour Charles, and hath kept possession of the kingdome, till* this present. The greater part of this region is vntilled, drie, and barren, especially towards the south. How∣beit the sea coast is somewhat more fertill. The territorie adiacent to the ci∣tie of Telensin is full of woods, sauing that the westerne part towardes the sea is mountainous. Likewise the regions of Tenez and Alger containe mountaines abounding with all kinde of commodities. In this part ate but few cities and castles, howbeit it is a most fruitfull and blessed place, as we will hereafter declare in particular.

Of the desert of Angad.

THis barren, drie, and vntilled desert being vtterly destitute of water and wood, is situate vpon the westerne frontire of the kingdome of Telen∣sin; and extendeth in length fowerscore, and in bredth almost fiftie* miles. Here are great store of roes, deere, and ostriches. Such merchants as trauell from Fez to Telensin passe ouer this desert not without great dan∣ger, by reason of certaine Arabians which liue onely vpon theft aud rob∣berie, especially in winter, when as the soldiers appointed to defend the said desert from those lewd vagabonds, doe vsually retire themselues into Numidia. Many shepherds there are in this desert, who are daily vexed with multitudes of fierce lions, which sometime seaze not onely vpon cartell, but also vpon men.

Page  217

Of the castle of Temzegzet.

THis castle standing in the same place, where the foresaid desert adioi∣neth vnto the territorie of Telensin, and built by the Africans vpon a rocke, was in times past very strong, and often annoied by the people ofFez; for it standeth in the high way from Fez to Telensin. Through the fields adiacent runneth a certaine riuer called in their language Tefme. The said fields adiacent sufficiently abound with all things necessarie for the sustenance of the inhabitants. Heretofore being subiect vnto the kings of Telensin it well deserued the name of a citie, but since the Arabians got pos∣session thereof, it hath prooued more like to a stable: for here they keepe their corne onely, and the naturall inhabitants are quite expelled by reason of their bad demeanour.

Of the castle of Izli.

THis ancient castle of Izli built by the Africans vpon a certaine plaine bordering vpon the foresaid desert, hath some fieldes adioining vnto it, apt only for barlie and punicke. It was in times past well stored with inhabitants, and enuironed with stately walles: but afterward by the iniurie of warre it was razed to the ground, and the inhabitants expelled. Howbeit a few yeeres after it began to be inhabited anew by certaine religious per∣sons had in great reuerence both by the kings of Telensin and by all the Arabians. These religious persons with great courtesie and liberalitie giue entertainment for three daies vnto all strangers that passe by, and then dis∣misse them without paying of ought. All their houses are very base and low built, their walles being of claye, and the roofes of straw. Not far from this castle runneth a riuer; out of which they water all their fields: for this region is so hot and dry, that vnlesse the fields were continually watered, they would yeeld no fruit at all.

Of the towne of Guagida.

THis ancient towne built by the Africans vpon a large plaine, standeth southward of the Mediterran sea fortie miles, and about the same di∣stance from the citie of Telensin. The southwest part of the said plaine bor∣dereth vpon the desert of Angad, and it containeth most fruitfull fields and pleasant gardens, exceedingly replenished with figs and grapes. Through the midst of this towne runneth a certaine riuer, which affoordeth good water to drinke and to seeth meate withall. In times past the towne-walles and all the buildings were most sumptuous and stately, and the inhabitants exceeding rich, ciuill, and valiant: but afterward by reason of certaine warres waged by the king of Fez against the king of Telensin, this towne was left desolate, and the inhabitants all put to flight: but the said warres being en∣ded, Page  218 new inhabitants reedified it and dwelt therein: howbeit they could not reduce it to the former state, neither doth it now containe aboue fifteene hundred families. The townesmen lead now a miserable life, being constrai∣ned to pay tribute both to the king of Telensin and also to the Arabians of Angad, and wearing most base apparell: asses and mules they haue great store, whereof they make round summes of money. They speake after the ancient manner of the Arabians, neither is their language so corrupt as the language of the people round about them.

Of the citie called Ned Roma.

THis ancient towne built by the Romans, while they were lords of Afri∣ca, standeth vpon a large plaine, almost two miles from a certaine mountaine, and about twelue miles from the Mediterran sea, and neere vnto it runneth a little riuer. The historiographers of those times report, that this towne was in all respects built after the fashion of Rome, whereupon they say it borrowed the name. For Ned in the Arabian toong signifieth like. The wall of this towne is as yet to be seene: but all the ancient buildings of the Romans are so destroied, that now there scarcely remaine any ruines there∣of. It began in some places to be repaired and reedified anew, but nothing comparable to the former buildings. The fieldes adiacent are exceeding fruitfull, and containe many gardens replenished with such trees as beare Carobs (being a fruit like vnto Cassia fistula) which in the suburbes they vse for foode. This towne is indifferently well inhabited, especially with wea∣uers, who make great store of cotton-cloth, and are free from all tribute. The gouernours of the towne are chosen onely at their assignement: and that they may haue more free traffique with the people of Telensin, they sende many gifts vnto the king.

Of the towne of Tebecrit.

THis little towne built by the Africans vpon a certaine rocke neere vnto the Mediterran sea, is almost twelue miles distant from the former. All the next mountaines are exceeding high and barren, and yet well stored with inhabitants. In this towne dwell great store of weauers; and here they haue abundance of Carobs and honie. Being in continuall feare of the Christians, they keepe euery night most diligent watch and ward: for they are not of sufficient abilitie to maintaine a garrison of soldiers. Their fields are no lesse barren then vntilled; and yeelde onely very small quantitie of barlie and panicke. The townesmen are most basely apparelled, and vtterly destitute of humanitie.

Of the towne of Hunain.

THis towne being founded by the Africans, and being famous both for stately building and ciuill inhabitants, hath a little hauen belonging Page  219 thereunto well fortified with two turrets standing one on the one side, and another on the other side. The towne-wall also is very high and beautifull, especially on that side which standeth next vnto the sea. Hither doe the Ve∣netians yeerely bring great store of merchandize, and doe traffique with the merchants of Telensin; for the citie of Telensin is but fourteene miles from hence. Since the time that Oran was surprized by the Christians, the Vene∣tians would no longer frequent Oran, searing least the Spanyards hauing it in possession should worke them some mischiefe: wherfore then they began to repaire vnto this port. The townesmen in times past were most ciuill peo∣ple, the greatest part being weauers of cotton and of linnen. Their houses are most stately built, and haue euery one fountaines belonging vnto them: likewise here are many vines running pleasantly vpon bowers or arbours. Their houses are paued with mats of diuers colours, and their chambers and vaults are curiously painted and carued. Howbeit, so soone as the inhabi∣tants were aduertised of the losse of Oran, they fled from Hunain and left it void of inhabitants: sauing that the king of Telensin maintaineth here a garison of footemen, who giue notice when any merchants ships approch. Their fields abound with cherries, peaches, figs, oliues, and other fruites: howbeit they reape but little commoditie thereby. I my selfe passing this way could not but bewaile the extreme calamitie whereinto the inhabitants of this towne were fallen: at the same time there arriued a certaine ship of* Genoa, which one ship brought commodities sufficient to serue Telensin for fiue yeeres: the tenth part whereof amounting to fifteene thousand duc∣kats, was paid for tribute to the king.

Of the towne of Haresgol.

THe great and ancient towne of Haresgol was built vpon a rocke enui∣roned on all sides with the Mediterran sea, sauing on the south, where lieth a way from the firme land to the towne. It standeth northward of Te∣lensin fourteene miles; and was in times past well stored with inhabitants. The gouernour thereof was one Idris, vncle vnto that Idris that was the foun∣der of Fez; the posteritie of whom enioied the same gouernment for the space of an hundred yeeres. At length there came a certaine king and patri∣arke of Cairaoan who vtterly destroied this towne, so that it remained voide of inhabitants almost an hundred yeers: after which time it was reinhabited by certaine people of Granada, which came thither with Mansor; which Mansor repaired the towne, to the end it might alwaies be a place of refuge for his soldiers. After whose decease, and the death of his sonne Mudaffir, all the soldiers were expelled by the tribes or people of Zanhagia and Ma∣graoa: and this second desolation of that towne happened in the yeere of the Hegeira 410.

Page  220

Of the great citie of Telensin, other wise called Tremizen.

TElensin is a great citie and the royall seate of the king; but who were the first founders thereof it is vncertaine: howbeit most certaine it is, that this citie was very small at the begin∣ning, and began greatly to be augmented at the same time when Haresgol was laid waste. For then, a certaine family cal∣led Abdulguad bearing rule, it increased so exceedingly, that in the raigne of king Abu Tesfin it contained sixteene thousand families. And then it was an honourable and well-gouerned citie: howbeit Ioseph king of Fez conti∣nually molested it, and with an huge armie besieged it for seuen yeeres to∣gether. This Ioseph hauing built a fort vpon the east side of the towne, put the besieged citizens to such distresse, that they could no longer endure the extreme famine: wherefore with one accord they all went vnto their king, beseeching him to haue compassion vpon their want. The king, to make them acquainted with his daintie fare, which he had to supper, shewed them a dish of sodden horse-flesh and barlie. And then they well perceiued how little the kings estate was better then the estate of the meanest citizen of them all. Soone after the king hauing procured an assemblie, perswaded his people that it was much more honourable to die in battel for the defence of their countrie, then to liue so miserable a life. Which words of the king so inflamed all their mindes to the battell, that the day following they resol∣ued to encounter the enemie, and valiantly to fight it out. But it fell out farre better for them then they expected; for the same night king Ioseph was slaine by one of his owne people: which newes being brought vnto the citizens, with 〈◊〉 courage they marched all out of the towne, easily vanquishing and killing the confused multitude of their enemies; after which vnexpected victorie they found victuals sufficient in the enemies campe to relieue their long and tedious famine. About fortie yeeres after, the fourth king of Fez of the Marin-familie called Abulhesen, built a towne within two miles west∣ward of the citie of Telensin. Then he besieged Telensin for thirty moneths together, making daily and fierce assaults against it, and euery night ere∣cting some new fort, so that at length the Fessan forces next vnto Telensin easily entred the citie, and hauing conquered it, caried home the king there∣of* captiue vnto Fez, where he was by the king of Fez beheaded, and his car∣case was cast foorth among the filth of the citie: and this was the second and the greater dammage that Telensin sustained. After the decay of the Marin∣familie 〈◊〉 began in many places to be repaired, and replenished with new inhabitants, insomuch that it increased to twelue thousand families. Here each trade and occupation hath a peculiar place, after the manner of Fez, sauing that the buildings of Fez are somewhat more stately. Here are also many and beautifull temples, hauing their Mahumetan priestes and preachers. Likewise here are fiue colleges most sumptuously built, some by Page  221 the king of Telensin, and some by the king of Fez. Here also are store of goodly bathes and hot-houses, albeit they haue not such plentie of water as is at Fez. Also here are very many innes built after the manner of Africa: vnto two of which innes the merchants of Genoa and Venice doe vsually resort. A great part of this citie is inhabited with Iewes, who were in times past all of them exceeding rich: vpon their heads they weare a* Dulipan to distinguish them from other citizens: but in the yeere of the Hegeira 923, vpon the death of king Abuhabdilla, they were all so robbed and spoiled, that they are now brought almost vnto beggerie. Moreouer in this citie there are many conducts, the fountaines whereof are not farre from the citie-walles, so that they may easily be stopped by any forren enemie. The citie-wall is very high and impregnable, hauing fiue great gates vpon it, at euery one of which there is placed a garde of soldiers, and certaine receiuers of the kings custome. On the south side of the citie standeth the kings palace, enuironed with most high walles, and containing many other palaces within it, which are none of them destitute of their fountaines and pleasant gardens: this royall palace hath two gates, one leading into the fields, and the other into the citie, and at this gate standeth the captaine of the garde. The territorie of Telensin containeth most pleasant habitations, whither the citizens in sum∣mer-time vse to retire themselues: for besides the beautifull pastures and cleere fountaines, there is such abundance of all kinde of fruites to delight both the eies and the taste, that to my remembrance I neuer sawe a more pleasant place: their figs they vse to drie in the sunne and to keepe vntill win∣ter: and as for almonds, peaches, melons, and pome-citrons, they grow here in great plentie. Three miles eastward of this citie are diuers mils vpon the riuer of Sefsif; and some other there are also not far from the citie vpon the mountaine of Elcalha. The south part of the citie is inhabited by Iewes, law∣yers, and notaries: here are also very many students, and professours of di∣uers artes, which haue maintenance allowed them out of the fiue forenamed colleges. The citizens are of fower sorts, to wit, some artificers, some mer∣chants, others schollers and doctors, and all the residue soldiers. The mer∣chants are men most iust, trustie, liberall, and most zealous of the common good; who for the most part exercise traffique with the Negros. The artifi∣cers liue a secure, quiet, and merrie life. The kings soldiers being all of a comely personage and of great valour, receiue very large and liberall pay, for they are monethly allowed three peeces of the gold-coine of Telensin, which are worth three Italian duckats and one second part. All students be∣fore they attaine to the degree of a doctor liue a bare and miserable life, but hauing attained thereunto, they are made either professours or notaries, or priestes. The citizens and merchants of this citie are so neate and curious in their apparell, that sometimes they excell the citizens of Fez in brauerie. The artificers weare short garments carrying seldome a Dulipan vpon their heads, and contenting themselues with plaine caps: their shooes reach vp to their mid-leg. Of all others the soldiers go woorst apparelled, for wearing Page  222 a shirt or iacket with wide sleeues, they cast ouer it a large mantle made of cotton, and thus they are clad both sommer and winter: sauing that in win∣ter they haue certaine iackets of leather with hoods vpon them, such as tra∣uellers vse in Italie, and by this meanes their heads are defended from raine and from snow. The schollers and students are diuersly apparelled, accor∣ding to their abilitie, and according to the fashion of their natiue countrie: the doctors, iudges, and priestes goe in more sumptuous and costly attire.

The customes and rites obserued in the King of Telensin his court.

A Woonder it is to see how stately and magnificently the King of Te∣lensin behaueth himselfe, for no man may see him nor be admitted to parle with him, but onely the principall nobles of his court, each one of whom are assigned to beare offices according to their place and dignitie. In this court are sundry offices and dignities, and the Kings lieutenant beeing principall officer, allotteth vnto each one such places of dignitie, as may be correspondent to their honour: and this lieutenant leuieth the kings armies, and sometime conducteth them against the enemie. The second officer is the Kings chiefe Secretarie, who writeth and recordeth all things pertaining to the King. The third is the high treasurer, who is bound by 〈◊〉 office to receiue tributes and customes. The fourth is the kings dispensator or almoner, who bestoweth such liberalitie as the king vouchsafeth. The fift is the captaine of the kings garde, who so often as any nobles are admitted to the kings presence, conducteth the garde vnto the palace-gate. Then are there other meaner officers, as namely, the master of the kings stable, the ouerseer of his saddles & stirrops, and his chiefe chamberlaine, who giueth attendance onely at such times as any courtiers are admitted vnto the kings audience. For at other times the kings wiues, with certaine Christian cap∣tiues, and eunuches doe performe that dutie. The king sometimes in sump∣tuous and costly apparellrideth vpon a stately stead richly trapped and fur∣nished. In riding he obserueth not much pompe nor many ceremonies; neither indeede doth he carrie so great a traine; for you shall scarcely see a thousand horsemen in his companie, except perhaps in time of warre, when as the Arabians and other people giue attendance. When the king goeth foorth with an armie, there are not many carriages transported there∣in, neither can you then discerne the king by his apparell from any meane captaine: and though he conducteth neuer so great a garde of soldiers, yet a man would not thinke how sparing he is of his coine. Gold-money he coi∣neth of baser golde, then that whereof the Italian money called Bislacchi is coined, but it is of a greater size, for one peece thereof waigheth an Italian* duckat and one fourth part. He stampeth likewise coine of siluer & of brasse. His dominions are but slenderly inhabited: howbeit because the way from Europe to Aethiopia lieth through his kingdome, he reapeth much benefit Page  223 by the wares that passe by, especially since the time that Oran was surprized by the Christians. At the same time Telensin it selfe was made tributarie, which was euer before a free citie: whereupon the king that was the author thereof, was extremely hated of his subiects till his dying day. Afterward his sonne that succeeded him, demanded customes and tributes likewise: for which cause being expelled out of his kingdome by the people, he was en∣forced to craue aide of the emperour Charles the fift, by whose meanes (as is beforesaid) he was restored vnto his said kingdome. When Oran was subiect vnto the king of Telensin, the region therabout paid vnto the king for yeerly tribute sometime three thousand, and sometime fower thousand duckats, the greatest part whereof was allowed vnto the kings garde, and to the Ara∣bian soldiers. I my selfe continuing certaine monethes in this kings court, had good experience of his liberalitie. I haue indeede omitted many parti∣culars in the description of this court of Telensin: but because they agreed for the most part with those things which we reported of Fez, I haue here passed them ouer, least I should seeme too tedious vnto the reader.

Of the towne of Hubbed.

THis towne being built in manner of a castle standeth about a mile and an halfe southward of Telensin. It containeth store of inhabitants, who are for the most part dyers of cloth. In this towne was buried one Sadi Bu Median being reputed a man of singular holines, whom they adore like a god, ascending vp to his monument by certaine steps. Here is likewise a stately college, and a faire hospitall to entertaine strangers in; both which were built by a king of Fez of the Marin-familie, as I finde recorded vpon a certaine marble stone.

Of the towne of Tefesra.

TThis towne standing vpon a plaine fifteene miles from Telensin hath great store of smiths therein, by reason of the iron-mines which are* there. The fields adiacent are exceeding fruitfull for corne: and the inhabi∣tants being for the most part blacke-smithes are destitute of all ciuilitie.

Of the towne of Tessela.

THis ancient towne was built by the Africans vpon a certaine plaine, extending almost twenty miles in length. Here groweth such abun∣dance of excellent corne, as is almost sufficient for the whole kingdome of Telensin. The inhabitants liue in tents, for all the buildings of this towne are destroied, though the name remaineth still. These also in times past paide a great yeerely tribute vnto the king of Telensin.

Page  224

Of the prouince called Beni Rasid.

THis region extendeth in length from east to west fiftie, and in bredth almost fiue and twentie miles. The southerne part thereof is plaine ground, but toward the north it is full of fruitfull mountaines. The inhabi∣tants are of two sorts: for some of them dwell vpon the mountaines in hou∣ses of indifferent good building: and these imploy themselues in husbandry and other necessarie affaires. Others being of a more noble condition liue onely vpon the plaines in tents, and there keepe their camels, horses, and other cattell. They are molested with daily inconueniences, and pay yeerely tribute vnto the king of Telensin. Vpon the foresaid mountaines are sundrie villages, among which there are two principall, whereof the one called Cha∣lath Haoara, and built in manner of a castle vpon the side of a certaine hill, containeth to the number of fortie merchants and artificers houses: the other called Elmo Hascar is the seate of the kings lieutenant ouer those re∣gions; and in this village euery thursday there is a great market, where abun∣dance of cattell, corne, raisins, figs, and honie is to be sold: here are likewise cloth-merchants and diuers other chapmen, which for breuities sake I passe ouer in silence. I my selfe continuing for some time among them, found to my hinderance what cunning theeues they were. The king of Telensin col∣lecteth yeerely out of this prouince the summe of fiue and twenty thousand duckats; and it containeth so many most expert soldiers.

Of the towne of Batha.

THis great, rich, and populous towne was built in my time vpon a most beautifull and large plaine, which yeeldeth great abundance of corne. The tribute which the king of Telensin hath here, amounteth to the summe of twentie thousand duckats. Howbeit this towne was afterward de∣stroied in that warre which happened betweene the king and certaine of his kinsmen. For they growing mightie by the king of Fez his aide, woon many townes in the kingdome of Telensin: and whatsoeuer towne they thought themselues not able to keepe by force of armes, they burnt it quite downe: and thus they serued Batha, whereof now there remaine but very few ruines. Not far from this towne runneth a little riuer, on both sides whereof there are many gardens and fields replenished with all kinde of fruites. Moreouer the foresaid plaine was vtterly destitute of inhabitants, till a certaine here∣mite* with his followers; whom they reuerenced as a man of singular holi∣nes, repaired thither. This heremite in short time grew so rich in oxen, hor∣ses, and other cattell, that no man almost throughout the whole region was comparable vnto him. Neither he nor his followers pay any tribute at all, when as notwithstanding (as I heard of his disciples) he reapeth yeerly eight thousand bushels of corne, and at this time possesseth fiue hundred horses, Page  225 ten thousand small cattell, and two thousand oxen; and besides all the for∣mer hath yeerely sent vnto him from diuers partes of the world fower or fiue thousand duckats: so greatly hath the fame of his false holines spread ouer all Africa and Asia. Disciples he hath to the number of fiue hundred, whom he maintaineth at his owne cost: neither emploieth he them to ought else, but daily to read a few praiers: for which cause many resort vnto him, desi∣ring to be of the number of his disciples, whom after he hath instructed in certaine ceremonies, he sendeth them thither from whence they first came. He hath about an hundred tents pitched, whereof some are for strangers, others for shepherds, and the residue for his owne familie. This holy here∣mite hath fower wiues, and a great many women-slaues wearing most sump∣tuous apparell. His sonnes likewise haue their wiues and families: insomuch that the whole familie of this heremite and of his sonnes containeth fiue hundred persons. He is greatly honoured by all the Arabians, and by the king of Telensin himselfe. My selfe was once desirous to trie what manner of man this heremite was: and for three daies I was entertained by him in the most secrete places of his habitation, where amongst other things he shewed me certaine bookes intreating of art-Magique and of 〈◊〉: and he endeuoured by all meanes to perswade me, that Magique was a most true and vndoubted arte, whereby I perceiued that himselfe was a magician, albeit he neuer vsed nor regarded the arte, except it were in inuocating of God by certaine names.

Of the towne of Oran.

THis great and populous towne containing about sixe thousand fami∣lies, and built many yeeres agoe by the Africans vpon the Mediter∣ran sea shore, is distant from Telensin an hundreth and fortie miles. Heere may you see great store of stately buildings, as namely of temples, colledges, hospitals, bath-stoues, and innes. The towne is compassed with most high and impregnable walles, hauing on the one side a faire plaine, and on the other side diuers mountaines. The greatest part of the inhabi∣tants were weauers, and the residue liued of their yeerely reuenues. The ter∣ritorie of this towne yeeldeth but small store of corne, so that the townes∣men make all their bread of barley: howbeit they are most courteous and friendly to all strangers. This towne was greatly frequented with merchants of Catalonia, and of Genoa: and one street thereof is at this present called the street of the Genoueses. They were at perpetuall enmitie with the king of Telensin, neither would they euer accept of any gouernor, but one which receiued the kings tribute. But the townesmen chose one of their chiefe Burgo-masters to iudge of cases ciuill and criminall. The merchants of this towne maintained at their owne costs certaine foists and brigandines of warre, which committed many piracies vpon the coast of Catalonia, Geui∣sa, Maiorica, and Minorica, insomuch that Oran was full of Christian cap∣tiues. Page  226 Afterward Don Ferdinando king of Spaine encountring Oran with a great Armada, determined to release the said Christians out of captiuitie: but he had verie hard successe. Howbeit within a few moneths after beeing* ayded by the Biscaines and the Cardinall of Spaine, he tooke Oran. For the Moores issuing foorth with great furie vpon the Christians armie, left the towne vtterly destitute of souldiers, which the Spaniards perceiuing, began to assayle the towne on the other side; where being resisted by none but by women, they had easie entrance. Whereupon the Moores seeing the chri∣stians banners aduanced vpon their wals, they returned backe into the town, and were there put to so great a slaughter, that few of them escaped. Thus was Oran taken by the Spaniards in the yeere of Mahomet his Hegei∣ra 916.

Of the towne Mersalcabir.

THis towne was built in my time by the king of Telensin vpon the Me∣diterran sea, not farre from Oran. And Mersalcabir in the Moores language signifieth a great or large hauen: for I thinke there is not the like hauen to be found in the whole world besides: so that here infinite numbers of ships and galleies may finde most safe harbour in any tempe∣stuous* weather. Hither the Venetians ships made often resort, when they perceiued any tempest to approach: and from hence they would cause all their wares to be transported to Oran in other vessels. This towne also was at length taken by the Spaniards as well as Oran.

Of the towne of Mezzagran.

THis towne also was built by the Africans vpon the Mediterran sea, neere vnto the place where the riuer Selef disemboqueth. It is well peopled and much molested by the Arabians. The gouernour there∣of hath little authoritie within the towne, and lesse without.

Of the towne of Mustuganin.

MVstuganin beeing founded by the Africans vpon the Mediterran sea, standeth almost three miles from Mezzagran, on the other side of the riuer Selef. It was in times past verie populous; but since the king∣dome of Telensin began to decay, this towne hath beene so vexed by the Arabians, that at this present the third part thereof scarce remaineth. Families it containeth to the number of fifteene hundred; and it hath a most beautifull and stately temple. In this towne are great store of weauers: and the houses are most sumptuously built, hauing cleere fountaines belonging vnto them. Through the midst of the towne runneth a riuer, on each side whereof stand diuers milles. Not far from the towne there are most plea∣sant Page  227 gardens; but they lie now vntilled and desolate. Their fields are excee∣ding fruitfull. There belongeth au hauen vnto this towne, whereunto many merchants of Europe vse to resort, albeit they finde not much traffick here, because the 〈◊〉 are so destitute of money.

Of the towne of Bresch.

THis ancient towne built by the Romanes vpon the Mediterran sea, standeth many miles distant from Mustuganin. It containeth great store of inhabitants, which are many of them weauers. The people of this towne vse to paint a blacke crosse vpon their cheeke, and two other blacke crosses vpon the palmes of their hands: and the like custome is obser∣ued by all the inhabitants of the mountaines of Alger, and Bugia: the occa∣sion whereof is thought to be this, namely that the Gothes when they first began to inuade these regions, released all those from paying of tribute (as our African historiographers affirme) that would imbrace the Christian re∣ligion. But so often as any tribute was demanded, euery man to eschew the payment thereof, would not sticke to professe himselfe a Christian: where∣fore it was then determined, that such as were Christians indeed should be distinguished from others by the foresaid crosses. At length the Gothes being expelled, they all reuolted vnto the Mahumetan religion; howbeit this custome of painting crosses remained still amongthem, neither doe they know the reason thereof. Likewise the meaner sort of people in Mau∣ritania vse to make such crosses vpon their faces, as we see vsed by some peo∣ple of Europe. This towne aboundeth greatly with figs, and the fields there∣of are exceeding fruitfull for flaxe and barley. The townesmen haue conti∣nued in firme league and friendship with the people of the mountaines ad∣ioyning; by whose fauour they liued an hundred yeeres togither without paying of any tribute at all: but Barbarossa the Turke hauing woon the king∣dome of Telensin put them to great distresse. From hence they vse to tran∣sport by sea great store of figs and flaxe vnto Alger, Tunis, and Bugia, wher∣by they gaine great store of money. Here also you may as yet behold di∣uers monuments of the Romans ancient buildings.

Of the towne of Sersell.

THis great and ancient towne built by the Romanes vpon the Mediter∣ran sea, was afterward taken by the Gothes and lastly by the Mahu∣metans. The wall of this towne is exceeding high, strong, and stately built, and containeth about eight miles in circuit. In that part of the towne next vnto the Mediterran sea standeth a most beautifull and magnificent temple built by the Romans, the inward part whereof consisteth of marble. They had also in times past an impregnable fort standing vpon a rock by the Me∣diterran sea. Their fields are most fruitfull: and albe it this towne was much Page  228 oppressed by the Gothes, yet the Mahumetans enioyed a great part thereof for the space almost of fiue hundred yeeres. And then after the warre of Te∣lensin it remained voide of inhabitants almost three hundred yeeres. At length when Granada was woon by the Christians, diuers Moores of Gra∣nada fled hither, which repaired the houses and a good part of the castle: afterward they began to build ships, wherewith they transported their mer∣chantable commodities into other regions: and they increased so by little and little, that now they are growne to twelue hundred families. They were subiect not long since vnto Barbarossa the Turke, vnto whom they paide but three hundred ducates for yeerely tribute.

Of the citie of Meliana.

THis great and ancient citie, commonly called now by the corrupt name of Magnana, and built by the Romanes vpon the top of a cer∣taine hill, is distant from the Mediterran sea almost fortie miles. Vpon this mountaine are many springs, and woods abounding with walnuts. The citie it selfe is enuironed with most ancient and high wals. One side thereof is fortified with impregnable rockes, and the other side dependeth so vpon the mountaine as Narma doth, which is a citie neere Rome: it containeth verie stately houses, euerie one of which houses hath a fountaine. The inhabi∣tants are almost all weauers: and there are diuers turners also which make fine cups, dishes, and such like vessels. Many of them likewise are husband∣men. They continued many yeeres free from all tribute and exaction, till they were at length made tributarie by Barbarossa.

Of the towne of Tenez.

THis ancient towne built by the Africans vpon the side of an hill not far from the Mediterran sea, is enuironed with faire walles, and inha∣bited with many people. The inhabitants are exceeding rusticall and vnciuill; and haue alwaies beene subiect to the king of Telensin. King Ma∣humet that was grandfather vnto the king which now raigneth, left three sonnes behinde him; the eldest being called Abuabdilla, the second Abu∣zeuen, and the third Iahia. Abuabdilla succeeded his father, whom his bre∣thren being ayded by the citizens went about to murther. But afterward, the treason being discouered, Abuzeuen was apprehended and put in prison. Howbeit, king*Abuchemmeu being after that expelled out of his kingdome by the people, Abuzeuen was not onely restored to his former libertie, but was also chosen king, and enioyed the kingdome so long, till (as is before∣mentioned) he was slaine by Barbarossa. Iahia fled vnto the king of Fez, who being at length proclaimed king by the people of Tenez, raigned for certaine yeeres. And his yoong sonne that he left behinde him being van∣quished by Barbarossa, fled vnto Charles who was then onely king of Spaine. Page  229 But when as the ayde promised by Charles the Emperour stayed long, and the Prince of Tenez was too long absent, a rumour was spread abroad, that hee and his brother were turned Christians: whereupon the gouern∣ment of Tenez fell immedially to the brother of Barbarossa. Their fields in∣deed yeeld abundance of corne; but of other commodities they haue great want.

Of the towne of Mazuna.

THis towne (as some report) was built by the Romanes, and standeth about fortie miles from the Mediterran sea. It hath fruitfull fields, strong walles, but most base and deformed houses. Their temple in∣deed is somewhat beautiful: for it was in times past a most stately towne, but being often sacked, sometime by the king of Telensin, and sometime by his rebels; and at length falling into the hands of the Arabians, it was brought vnto extreme miserie, so that at this present there are but few inhabitants re∣maining, all being either weauers or husbandmen, and most grieuously op∣pressed by the Arabians. Their fields abound plentifully with all kinde of corne. Neere vnto this towne there haue beene in times past many houses, streets, and villages, which may probably be coniectured by the letters en∣grauen vpon marble stones. The names of which villages are not to bee found in any of our histories or Chronicles.

Of Gezeir, otherwise called Alger.

GEzeir in the Moores language signifieth an island, which name is thought to haue beene giuen vnto this citie, because it lieth neere vn∣to the isles of Maiorica, Minorica, and Ieuiza: howbeit the Spanyards call it Alger. It was founded by the Africans of the familie of Mesgana, where∣fore in old time it was called by the name of Mesgana. It is a large towne, containing families to the number of fower thousand, and is enuironed with most stately and impregnable walles. The buildings thereof are very artificiall and sumptuous: and euery trade and occupation hath here a se∣uerall place. Innes, bath-stoues, and temples here are very beautifull; but the stateliest temple of all standeth vpon the sea-shore. Next vnto the sea there is a most pleasant walke vpon that part of the 〈◊〉 wall, which the waues of the sea beat vpon. In the suburbes are many gardēs replenished with all kind of fruits. On the east side of the towne runneth a certaine riuer hauing many mils thereupon: and out of this riuer they draw water fit for drinke, and for the seruices of the kitchin. It hath most beautifull plaines adioining vpon it, and especially one called Metteggia, which extendeth fortie fiue miles in length, and almost thirtie miles in bredth, and aboundeth mightily with all kindes of graine. This towne for many yeeres was subiect vnto the king∣dome of Telensin: but hearing that Bugia was also gouerned by a king, and being neerer thereunto, they submitted themselues vnto the king of Bugia. Page  230 For they saw that the king of Telensin could not sufficiently defend them against their enemies, and also that the king of Bugia might doe them great dammage, wherefore they offered vnto him a yeerely tribute of their owne accord, and yet remained almost free from all exaction. But certaine yeeres after, the inhabitants of this citie building for themselues gallies, began to play the pirates, and greatly to molest the foresaid islands. Whereupon king Ferdinando prouided a mightie armada, hoping thereby to become lorde of the citie. Likewise vpon a certaine high rocke standing opposit against the towne, he caused a strong forte to be built, and that within gun-shot of the* citie, albeit the citie walles could not be endammaged thereby. Wherefore the citizens immediately sent ambassadours into Spaine, to craue a league for ten yeeres, vpon condition that they should pay certaine yeerely tribute; which request was granted by king Ferdinando. And so they remained for certaine moneths free from the danger of warre: but at length Barbarossa hastening to the siege of Bugia, and hauing woon one fort built by the Spa∣niards, determined to encounter another, hoping if he could obtaine that also, that he should soone conquer the whole kingdome of Bugia. Howbeit all matters fell not out according to his expectation: for a great part of his soldiers being husbandmen, when they perceiued the time of sowing corne to approch, without any leaue or licence they forsooke their generall, and returned home to the plough-taile. And many Turks also did the like, so that Barbarossa failing of his purpose, was constrained to breake vp the 〈◊〉. Howbeit before his departure, he set on fire with his owne handes twelue gallies, which lay in a riuer but three miles from Bugia. And then with fortie of his soldiers he retired himselfe to the castle of Gegel being from Bugia about sixtie miles distant, where he remained for certaine daies. In the mean while, king Ferdinando deceasing, the people of Alger released themselues from paying any more tribute: for seeing Barbarossa to be a most valiant warriour, and a deadly enemie vnto Christians, they sent for him, and chose him captaine ouer all their forces; who presently encountred the fort, but to little effect. Afterward this Barbarossa secretly murthered the gouernour of the citie in a certaine bath. The said gouernour was prince of the Arabi∣ans dwelling on the plaines of Mettegia, his name was Selim Etteumi, de∣scended of the familie of Telaliba, and created gouernour of Alger at the same time when Bugia was taken by the Spanyards: this man was slaine by Barbarossa, after he had gouerned many yeeres. And then Barbarossa vsurped the whole gouernment of the citie vnto himselfe, and coined money, and this was the first entrance into his great and princely estate. At all the fore∣said accidents I my selfe was present, as I trauelled from Fez to Tunis, and was entertained by one that was sent ambassadour from the people of Alger into Spaine, from whence he brought three thousand bookes written in the Arabian toong. Then I passed on to Bugia, where I found Barbarossa besie∣ging* the foresaid fort: afterward I proceeded to Constantina, and next to Tunis. In the meane while I heard that Barbarossa was slaine at Tremizen, Page  231 and that his brother called Cairadin succeeded in the gouernment of Alger. Then we heard also that the emperour Charles the fift had sent two armies to surprize Alger; the first whereof was destroied vpon the plaine of Alger, and the second hauing assailed the towne three daies together, was partly slaine and partly taken by Barbarossa, insomuch that very few escaped backe into Spaine. This was done in the yeere of the Hegeira nine hundred twen∣tie two.

Of the towne of Tegdemt.

THis ancient towne was built (as some thinke) by the Romanes; and Tegdemt signifieth in the Arabian language Ancient. The wall of this towne (as a man may coniecture by the foundations thereof) was ten miles in circuite. There are yet remaining two temples of an exceeding height, but they are very ruinous, and in many places fallen to the ground. This towne when it was possessed by the Mahumetans, was maruellous rich, and abounded with men of learning and poets. It is reported that Idris vncle to the same Idris that founded Fez, was once gouernour of this towne, and that the gouernment thereof remained to his posteritie almost an hundred and fiftie yeeres. Afterward it was destroied in the warres betweene the schis∣maticall patriarks of Cairaoan, in the yeere of the Hegeira 365: but now there are a few ruines onely of this towne to be seene.

Of the towne of Medua.

THis towne standing not farre from the borders of Numidia, is distant from the Mediterran sea almost an hundred and fowerscore miles; and it is situate on a most pleasant and fruitfull plaine, and is enuiro∣ned with sweete riuers and beautifull gardens. The inhabitants are excee∣ding rich, exercising traffique most of all with the Numidians; and they are very curious both in their apparell and in the furniture of their houses. They are continually molested with the inuasions of the Arabians; but because they are almost two hundred miles distant from Telensin, they can haue no aide sent them by the king. This towne was once subiect vnto the gouernour of Tenez, afterward vnto Barbarossa, and lastly vnto his brother. Neuer was I so sumptuously entertained as in this place: for the inhabitants being them∣selues 〈◊〉, so often as any learned man comes amongst them, they en∣tertaine him with great honour, and cause him to decide all their contro∣uersies. For the space of two moneths while I remained with them, I gained aboue two hundred duckats, and was so allured with the pleasantnes of the place, that had not my dutie enforced me to depart, I had remained there all the residue of my life.

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Of the towne of Temendfust.

THis towne also was built by the Romans vpon the Mediterran sea, and is about twelue miles distant from Alger. Vnto this towne belongeth a faire hauen, where the ships of Alger are safely harboured, for they haue no other hauen so commodious. This towne was at length destroied by the Goths, and the greatest part of the wall of Alger was built with the stones which came from the wall of this towne.

Of the towne of Teddeles.

THis towne built by the Africans vpon the Mediterran sea, and being thirtie miles distant from Alger, is enuironed with most ancient and strong walles. The greatest part of the inhabitants are dyers of cloth, and that by reason of the many riuers and streames running through the midst of the same. They are of a liberall and ingenuous disposition, and can play most of them vpon the citterne and lute. Their fields are fertill, and abounding with corne. Their apparell is very decent: the greatest part of them are delighted in fishing, and they take such abundance of fishes, that they freely giue them to euery bodie, which is the cause that there is no fish∣market in this towne.

Of the mountaines contained in the king∣dome of Telensin.

Of the mountaine of Beni Iezneten.

THis mountaine standeth westward of Telensin almost fiftie miles, one side thereof bordering vpon the desert of Garet, and the other side vpon the desert of Angad. In length it ex∣tendeth fiue and twentie, and in bredth almost fifteene miles, and it is exceeding high and difficult to ascend. It hath diuers woods growing vpon it, wherein grow great store of Carobs, which the in∣habitants vse for an ordinarie kinde of foode: for they haue great want of barly. Here are diuers cottages inhabited with valiant and stout men. Vpon the top of this mountaine standeth a strong castle, wherein all the principall men of the mountaine dwell, amongst whom there are often dissentions, for there is none of them all but woulde be sole gouernour of the mountaine. I my selfe had conuersation with some of them, whom I knew in the king of Fez his court, for which cause I was honorably intertained by them. The soldiers of this mountaine are almost ten thousand.

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Of mount Matgara.

THis exceeding high and colde mountaine hath great store of inhabi∣tants, and is almost sixe miles distant from Ned Roma. The inhabitants are valiant, but not very rich: for this mountaine yeeldeth nought but barly and Carobs. They speake all one language with the people of Ned Roma, and are ioined in such league with them, that they will often aide one ano∣ther against the king of Telensin.

Of mount Gualhasa.

THis high mountaine standeth nigh vnto the towne of Hunain. The in∣habitants are sauage, rude, and vnciuill people, and are at continuall warre with the people of Hunain, so that oftentimes they haue almost vtter∣ly destroied the towne. This mountaine yeeldeth great store of Carobs, and but little corne.

Of mount Agbal.

THis mountaine is inhabited with people of base condition, and sub∣iect to the towne of Oran. They all exercise husbandrie, and carrie woode vnto Oran. While the Moores enioied Oran, their state was somewhat better: but since the Christians got possession thereof they haue beene driuen to extreame miserie.

Of mount Beni Guerened.

THis mountaine being three miles distant from Tremisen, is well peo∣pled, and aboundeth with all kinde of fruits, especially with figges and cherries. The inhabitants are some of them colliers, some wood-mongers, and the residue husbandmen. And out of this onely mountaine (as I was informed by the king of Telensin his Secretarie) there is yeerely collected for tribute, the summe of twelue thousand ducats.

Of mount Magraua.

THis mountaine extending it selfe fortie miles in length towardes the Mediterran sea is neer vnto the towne of Mustuganin before described. The soile is fertile, and the inhabitants are valiant and warrelike people, and of a liberall and humaine disposition.

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Of mount Beni Abusaid.

THis mountaine standing not farre from Tenez, is inhabited with great multitudes of people, which lead a sauage life, and are notwithstanding most valiant warriors. They haue abundance of honey, barly, and goats. Their waxe and hides they carrie vnto Tenez, and there sell the same to the merchants of Europe. When as the king of Tremizen his kinsemen were lords of this mountaine, the people paied for tribute certaine thou∣sands of ducats.

Of mount Guanseris.

THis exceding high mountaine is inhabited with valiant people, who being aided by the king of Fez, maintained warre against the king∣dome of Telensin, for aboue three-score yeeres. Fruitefull fields they haue, and great store of fountains. Their soldiers are almost twentie thou∣sand in number, whereof 2500. are horsemen. By their aide Iahia attai∣ned to the gouernment of Tenez: but after Tenez began to decay, they gaue themselues wholy to robberie and theft.

Of the mountaines belonging to the state of Alger.

NEre vnto Alger on the east side and on the west are diuers mountains well stored with inhabitants. Free they are from all tribute, and rich, and exceeding valiant. Their corne fields are very fruitefull, and they haue great abundance of cattell. They are oftentimes at deadly warre togither, so that it is dangerous trauailing that way, vnlesse it be in a religious mans com∣pany. Markets they haue and faires vpon these mountaines, where nought is to be solde but cattle, corne, and wooll, vnlesse some of the neighbour ci∣ties supplie them with merchandise now and then.

Here endeth the fourth booke.
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IOHN LEO HIS FIFTH BOOKE OF the Historie of Africa, and of the memorable things contained therein.

A description of the kingdomes of Bugia and Tunis.

WHen as in the former part of this my historie I diuided Barbaria into certaine parts, I determined to write of Bugia as of a kingdome by it selfe: and I found indeed that not many yeeres ago it was a kingdome. For Bu∣gia was subiect to the king of Tunis, and albeit for certaine yeeres the king of Telensin was Lord there∣of, yet was it at length recouered againe by the king of Tunis, who committed the gouernment of the city vnto one of his sons, both for the tranquillitie of Bugia, and also that no discord might happen among his sonnes after his decease. He left behinde him three sonnes, the eldest whereof was called Habdulhaziz, and vnto him he bequeathed the kingdome of Bugia, as is aforesaide: vnto the second, whose name was Hut∣men, he left the kingdome of Tunis: and the third called Hammare, he made gouernour of the region of dates. This Hammare began foorthwith to wage warre against his brother Hutmen, by whom being at length taken in the towne of Asfacos, & depriued of both his eies, he was carried captiue vnto Tunis, where he liued many yeeres blinde: but his brother Hutmen gouer∣ned the kingdome of Tunis full fortie yeeres. The prince of Bugia being most louing and dutifull to his brother, raigned for many yeeres with great tianquilitie, till at length he was by king Ferdinand of Spaine, and by the meanes of one Pedro de Nauarra, cast out of his kingdome.

A description of the great citie of Bugia.

THis auncient citie of Bugia built (as some thinke) by the Ro∣mans, vpon the side of an high mountaine, neere vnto the Me∣diterran sea, is enuironed with walles of great height, and most stately in regard of their antiquitie. The part thereof now peo∣pled containeth aboue eight thousand families: but if it were all replenished with buildings, it were capeable of more then fower and twentie thousand housholds, for it is of a great length. The houses, temples, and colleges of this citie are most sumptuously built. Professors of liberall sciences heere Page  236 are great store, whereof some teach matters pertaining to the lawe, and others professe naturall Philosophie. Neither Monasteries, Innes, nor Ho∣spitals erected after their manner are heere wanting: and their market place is very large and faire: their streetes either descend or ascend, which is verie troublesome to them that haue any busines in the towne. In that part of the citie next vnto the toppe of the mountaine standeth a strong castle, most sumptuously and beautifully walled: and there are such notable letters and pictures most artificially carued vpon the plaister-worke and timber, that they are thought to haue cost much more then the building of the wall it selfe. The citizens were exceeding rich, and vsed with their warlike gallies continually to molest the coasts of Spaine; which was the occasion of the vtter ouerthrowe of their citie. For Pedro de Nauarra was sent against them with a fleete of fowerteene sailes onely. The citizens being addicted whol∣lie* to pleasure and ease, and being terrified with the rumour of warre, bicause they were neuer exercised therein, were no sooner aduertised of Pedro de Nauarra his approch, but al of them togither with their king betooke them∣selues to flight, and left their citie abounding with all kinde of riches and wealth, to bee spoiled by the Spaniards, so that it was easily taken, in the yeere of Mahomet his Hegeira nine hundred and seuenteene. Soone after Pedro de Nauarra hauing sacked the citie, built a strong forte vpon the sea shore, and repaired an other which had lien a long time waste, furnishing them both with soldiers and munition. And sixe yeeres after, Barbarossa the Turke being desirous to winne this citie from the Christians, and hauing leuied onely a thousand soldiers, tooke the old forte, bicause he was fauou∣red by the inhabitants of all the mountaines adiacent: wherein hauing pla∣ced a garrison, he attempted to winne the other fort also: but at his first en∣counter he lost an hundred of his principall Turkes, & fower hundred of the mountainers that came to aide him; insomuch that Barbarossa was enforced to flie vnto the castle of Gegel, as is aforesaid.

Of the castle of Gegel.

THis ancient castle built by the Africans, vpon an high rocke by the Mediterran sea, is distant about threescore miles from Bugia. Fami∣lies it containeth to the number of fiue hundred; and the buildings thereof are very base. The inhabitants are of a trustie and ingenuous dispo∣sition, and do most of them exercise husbandrie: howbeit their fieldes are but barren, and apt onely for barly, flaxe, and hempe. They haue great store of figs and nuts, which they vse to carrie in certaine barkes vnto Tunis. They haue in despight of the kings of Bugia and Tunis continued alwaies free from tribute: for that impregnable mountaine can be surprised by no siege nor encounter of the enimie. At length they yeelded themselues vn∣to Barbarossa, who demaunded none other tribute of them, but onely the 〈◊〉 of certaine fruits and corne.

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Of the towne of Mesila.

MEsila founded by the Romans not far from the Numidian desert, and being distant from Bugia almost an hundred miles, hath stately wals about it, but base houses within. The inhabitants being partly artificers and partly husbandmen, goe very homely apparelled, and are most greeuously oppressed with the continuall exactions of the Arabians, and with the daily molestations of the king of Bugia. My selfe vpon a time trauelling this way, could not finde so much fodder as was sufficient for twelue horses onely.

Of the towne of Stefe.

THis towne also built by the Romans, sixtie miles southward of Bugia, vpon a certaine beautifull plaine, is enuironed with strong and state∣ly walles. It was in times past exceedingly well stored with inhabi∣tants: but since the Mahumetans were Lords thereof, it hath so decaied by the iniuries of the Arabians, who razed to the ground a great part of the wall, that within the whole circuit of this great and ancient towne, there are but an hundred houses at this present remaining.

Of the towne of Necaus.

THis towne built by the Romans neere vnto Numidia, and being di∣stant from the Mediterran sea an hundred and eightie, and from the towne last mentioned eightie miles, is compassed with a strong and ancient wall. By this towne runneth a certaine riuer, on both sides whereof grow the best wal-nuts and figs that are to be found in the whole kingdome of Tunis, being vsually carried to Constantina to be solde, which citie is thence distant an hundred and eightie miles. The fields of this towne are ex∣ceeding fruitfull, and the inhabitants are very rich, liberall, and curious in their apparell. Here is an hospitall maintained at the common charges of the towne, to entertaine strangers that passe by. Here is a college also, the students whereof are allowed their diet and apparell. Neither is this towne destitute of a most stately and well-furnished temple. Their women are white, hauing blacke haires and a most delicate skinne, because they fre∣quent the bath-stoues so often. Most of their houses are but of one storie high, yet are they very decent, and haue each one a garden thereto belong∣ing, replenished with damaske-roses, myrtles, cammomill, and other herbes and flowers, and being watred with most pleasant fountaines. In these gar∣dens likewise there are most stately arbours and bowres, the coole shadow whereof in summer-time is most acceptable. And (to be briefe) all things here are so delightfull to the senses, and so alluring, that any man would be loth to depart from hence.

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Of the towne of Chollo.

THe great towne of Chollo founded by the Romans, vpon the Medi∣terran sea, at the foot of a certaine high mountaine, is enuironed with no walles at all: for the walles were razed to the ground by the Goths: neither did the Mahumetans, when they had got possession, build them vp againe. Howbeit this towne is notably well gouerned, and well stored with inhabitants, which are all men of a liberall and tractable disposition. They haue