Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

¶INCIPIT LIBER DECIMVS NO∣NVS.

DE COLORIBVS.

FOrasmuch, as the properties be expressed of spiritual thīgs and bodelye, both of simple and compow∣ned, as is sayd before, now at ye last of some accidents that followe the substaunce of bodely things, by the help & grace of our Lord, héere we shal treate of, and first of Colour,* secondly of Odour,* and thirdlye of Sauour,* and lastly of Licour.*

Colour is called in Latine Color, & hath that name, as Isi. saith in li. 18. for it is made perfect by heate of the fire, or by cléernes of ye Sun: or els it hath that name Color of Colendo, drieng & clean∣sing, for colours be dried and cleansed to make them full subtil and cléere, and al∣so cleane: and colours commeth of kind, or are made by crafte, but héereof looke héereafter De coloribus. Aristotle in li. Meth. saith, that colour is the vttermost part of a cléere thing in a bodye that is determined, for the vtter part of a bode∣ly thing, that sight sheweth is the diuer∣sitie of colours, that it taketh by kinde of medling and mastrie of Elements in a bodye that is compouned: For when a cléere thing and bright, medled by ac∣tuall ioyning of light, shineth vpon the vtter part of a cléere bodye and bright, then colour sheweth and presenteth that vtter part to the sight. And therfore Se∣cundo de Anima, Arist. saith, that cou∣lour chaungeth in sight, and giueth ther∣to a likenesse by working of lyght: for light is the perfection of cléere things & bright, for it bringeth the kinde of cou∣lour that is medled in a body kindly by mastrie of some elements, to chaunging and déede of perfection of the sight: For though colour be essentially and kindly a medled body, yet hath colour no might to shew himselfe, but by light that shi∣neth actually therevpon, and so alway to shew himselfe colour néedeth light, but light to shew it selfe néedeth no colour, as colour néedeth light that shineth in déede, to print thereby the qualytie of the coulour, in the line of the sight.

Therefore some men meane, that the reason of thinges séene, is rooted and shapen in lyght, that is, expresseth their beautie by the lyght: for if light lacketh and faulteth, the qualytie of coulour is not séene.

Page  387But in déede colour is in darknesse, as the Commentour saith De Anima.

There he treateth and sheweth of chan∣ging and likenesse of colour and of the sight. And light maketh not the coulour, for the coulour is indéede by masterie of some element in a body that is medled:* but light shineth without open colour, & in the same space and the place that the colour is in, and disposeth the place, and giueth his shape, by the which it maye receiue the likenesse of colour: and so light disposeth likenesse in the space, by the which diuersitie of colour commeth to the eye, where the iudgement is of co∣lour. Therefore in déede colours abide in darknesse,* as the Commentour sayeth openly. Therefore the Author Perspec∣tiue saith li. 1. ca. vltimo. That light née∣deth not to sight of coulours, but in one of two causes: for without lyght the shape and likenesse of coulour spreadeth not in the aire, or though it be in dark∣nesse spredde in the aire, yet it work∣eth not in the sight: and so light néed∣eth not to the being of colour, but onely to the shewing thereof. And though cou∣lour be not séene nor perceiued in dark∣nesses, yet neuerthelesse coulour is not idle in darknes, for continually the mat∣ter is perfect, which he is within: and though colour be not séene nor perceiued in darknesse, ye shall vnderstande, that that is not for the default of colour: but the default is in that thing, that should receiue and take it: for disposition lack∣eth, that néedeth in such receiuing and taking. Then if Authors tell, that in any place coulour is not in déede without light, it shal be vnderstood and knowen, of the deede of sight, and not of being: then light arayeth colours and maketh them first seene and knowen in theyr own kinde, and maketh them not first in being, & thou I vnderstand of light that shineth without vpon things: for ye ver∣tue of the lyght of heauen commeth vn∣seene into the inner parts of things, and gendreth colors by help of foure quali∣ties of elements. When they be gendred & be in kind, then commeth light that we for, & maketh them cleere & noble, & she∣weth them to the sight and to the eyes.

De Materia coloris. cap. 2.

A Cléere thing well termined, is the matter of colour, and that onelye or namely thing that is moyst: for drye & earthie is not cléere, insomuch as it is drye: and fierie drought commeth not downe from his sphere and place of the fire, nor is found héere beneath among vs: for onely forme of fire, is gendered of might of some element, of the which a medled body shall be made, as it it sayd in li. de generatione. Then such a cléere∣nesse hath thrée materiall diuersities, for the matter is thin, or thicke, or meane: If it be meane, then there is much more moisture of water than drines of earth, & passing ye moisture of aire failing from ye airie moysture. Or els it is airy much chaunged by the thing that is dry & ear∣thie, yet so that it passeth grosenes. And if it be thin and small, then it is moyst & changeth to the matter of aire, or els it is moyst & airie, & changeth to thicknesse and drines of earth, so that it passeth not & goeth not beyond meannesse of earth.

De generatione coloris. chap. 3.

THen in the matter of cléere coulour, drinesse hath the masterie, or moy∣sture hath the masterie, or the matter is meanly drye and moyst: and if drinesse hath masterie in the matter, then ye wor∣king of heate hath the mastrie, then is white colour gendered, for heate maketh the matter thin, and spredeth and depar∣teth the parts thereof, and maketh them subtill, and gendreth cléernesse & bright∣nesse. And in this wise Arist. speaketh in li. de Animalibus 19. and saith, That white coulour is gendred of scarsitie of humour in drie matter by mastrie of heat that worketh and maketh the mat∣ter subtill or small, as it fareth in mem∣bers & in bones burnt; and in other such. And if colde hath masterie, & worketh in dry matter, then is blacke colour gende∣red, for cold gathereth & constraineth the parts of dry matter and fasteneth them togethers, & maketh them sad & dimme. And dimnesse is not onely priuation of Page  [unnumbered] light, but also of colour: for cléernesse is diuersitie both of light and of colour: for cléerenesse, is a certaine condition of things that are séene, and then the mat∣ter is determined drye, that néedeth to the generation of white colour, & right so blacke colour is gendred. Then if the matter be moyst, then the heate which hath mastrie gendreth blacke coulour: for heate burneth and also wasteth the moyst partes, and altereth and tourneth the moysture, which passeth out, into blacke smoke, as it fareth in wood, which is gréene and moyst: for out of the ends thereof, commeth blacke humour when it is burned. Héerof Aristo. speaketh in libro. Meth. and saith, that in poores of things that burneth, is féeble humour that may not withstand the heate of the fire, nor is sodainly stuffed, but it rather nourisheth and féedeth the fire: and so it is sooth, that fire worketh principally in moyst things, & that moyst things is cause of black coulour. By working of heate, it maketh subtil humour, and moi∣sture of water and of aire passe out of the matter, and then thus leaueth earthy matter and thicke, therefore it néedeth that blacke colour be gendered. Quarto li. Metheo. Arist. saith, that subtill kinde of earth and cléernesse of water, & kinde of aire maketh whitenesse in quicke sil∣uer, the contrary héereof gendreth black∣nesse in the drye matter that leaueth by working of heate in moist matter. And so lib. 19. Arist. saith, that blacknes gen∣dreth in the eye because of multitude of moysture, for heate worketh kindlye in moyst matter, and maketh therein dige∣stion, and fastneth and drieth it, and le∣ueth there blacke at last.

De generatione coloris albi. ca. 4.

ANd if cold hath the mastry in moist matter, then is white colour gende∣red, as it fareth in snowe, in hoare frost, and in hoarnes of the hairs, and of other things, and also in fleumaticke humors: for though colde gathereth moist matter togethers, yet it is not as drinesse gathe∣reth moyst matter togethers, for moyst matter when it is cléere, is ye more able to take noble colour. Therefore moyst matter pressed, is arayed and made to spreading and separation of parts: and drye matter fareth not so, therfore moist matter is more ready and prest to take cléerenesse than drye matter, although it be by wringing and pressing & openings therfore cold may better ingender white colour in moyst matter, than drie. And so Aristotle is to be vnderstood in libro 19. there he sayth, that white coulour is gendered of aire, in the which is some watrie moysture, & that because of wor∣king of colde. But the Commentour sayth, that whitenes is gendred of cléere fire, meddeled with a full cleere element, and sightie, that is to vnderstande, of cléerenes, that Aristotle calleth white∣nes, by a passing manner of speach, and in that manner speach it is sayde. That whitenes is gendered in the clowdes, by shining of beames in them, if the clowds be cléere & thin, and so the flame of the fire séemeth white somtime, when the aire is cléere & subtill, in the which the burning of the fire shineth: & such whitenes, is not properly whitenes, but it is so called in a passing manner of spéech. But we may amplifie of ye Com∣mentors worde yt saith, yt of fire, because of cléere matter, that is proper matter of whitenes, and not because of working thereof, and the word that he sayth, shal be vnderstood of fire, that is the matter of coulour and not of working. And in that wise it is to vnderstande, as the matter, and not the working, nor the making thereof, nor the ende wherefore it is made.

De colore mediorum gene∣ratione. cap. 5.

BEtwéene whitenes and blacknes are many meane degrées following the mastrie of qualyties that be actiue and passiue, working and suffering, as they be more strong or féeble, and that in ma∣ny degrées: for the more mastrie drines hath, with the more difficultie it is made subtill, thin and bright, and the harder it is to make it clere, and to take white co∣lour: for a dry thing is sadde and thicke. Page  388 The lesse mastrye drynesse hath, and the more mastry ye heat hath, ye better it ta∣keth white colour and the sooner. Also the more drinesse there is, and the stronger heat, ye more blacke colour is bred. And cōmeth of fatnesse of the parts, & of great dimnesse, and of priuation of cléernesse, & of superfluitie of fatnesse of ye cléere mat∣ter, & so it fareth of moist matter: for the more mastry of moist matter yt is pro∣portionall to burning, so that heate hath the mastry, the more smoake there is & dimnesse and blacknesse: and the more the mastry of moisture is, so yt the ma∣stry of colde increase proportionallye, so whitenesse increaseth: and if moysture hath great mastrye, and heate but lyttle mastry, then blacke coulour shall abate. Also if moisture hath great mastry, and drynesse and heate lyttle mastrye then whitenesse shall abate. And if moysture hath some mastry, & heat hath more ma∣stry, then may great blacknesse be gende∣red. But sometime heat gendreth white∣nesse in moist matter, as it fareth in the white of an egge, yt is sod: and sometime heat worketh in gréene wood & moyst, & leaueth white ashes after all ye burning, but ye colour is not very whitenesse: For alway there is a token of euill termined matter, as it wer the ouermost of a cléere christall, & that is knowen, if the ashes be separate & departed, though this cléer∣nesse stretch not into all ye body in actual cléernesse & compleat, & so it is not verie whitenesse. And so ye whitenesse leaueth therfore féeblenesse of heat yt doth work, so that kinde colde hath mastry within. Also some white egge is sod, and is not touched with fire, but a shell or a vessell is betwéene, for if no vessel be betwéene, then shoulde blacknes be gendered in the matter. Also heat working in moist matter, gendereth first blacknesse, and smoake. Also mastry of moisture gende∣reth drinesse in matter yt it worketh in. And so drines that it gendreth therein, maketh a new chaunging, and gendreth a new coulour in making the dry matter subtill and thin. And heate gathereth to∣gether things of one name & one kinde, and maketh therfore thicke and sad, and dimme: yet drie matter hath some pro∣pertye, by the which hée may make some matter stretch and spread, though it ga∣ther & drawe togethers in the beginning because of mastry, yet after ye gathering it maketh the matter yt is gendered sub∣till and thin, if the matter be dry or sta∣ble pight, & that is séene: For sometime drynesse worketh in moist matter, & put∣teth or draweth out the moisture. But cold is not ordeined to make matter that is subtill and thinne, for colde standeth in déede of making thicke, as in princi∣pall working and déede, for colde gathe∣reth both thinges of one name and kinde, and also things of diuerse names and kinde.

Of hot and colde. cap. 6.

IF heate worketh meanelye with other qualyties in drye matter, then is néedely meane coulour gendered, for heate maketh subtill and thinne to gen∣der whitenesse: and colde doth the con∣trary, and gathereth the matter, and ma∣keth it fast and thicke to gender black∣nesse. Then when they worke both like in euerye place and pointe, is gendered both whitenes and blacknes. Then of them two, néedes must one coulour bee compouned, that is neither white nor blacke, and this coulour hath more of blacke then of white, for drye matter is lesse disposed to white coulour then to blacke, and that for priuation of cléere∣nes, and for kinde dimnes, and is more disposed to thicknes then to thinnes, and more to abide and to bée thicke then thinne. Also if they worke, namelye to∣gether in moyst matter, then they gen∣der coulour yt hath more of white then of black, for matter in yt which moisture hath mastrye, is more disposed to white colour then blacke, and yt because of cléer∣nes: & is more disposed to receiue ye wor∣king of cold then of heat: For his work∣ing in moyst matter putteth out & wa∣steth ye moysture, but cold working ther∣in keepeth onelye and saueth it in his owne kind, by way of fastning of partes together. And alwaye if ye matter bée meane, ye coulour is alway meane: and if ye working in heat in such matter hath Page  [unnumbered] the mastry, then is gendered a coulour that hath more of blacke then of white: For moist matter chaungeth sooner into blacke, then dry matter into white: as it fareth by moist matter and drye, that is departed a sunder, then heate gendereth sooner blacke coulour in wet woode and gréene, then whitenesse in lime stones: and so of other such. And if colde work∣eth by mastry in meane matter, then the colour must be mene compounded more of white then of blacke: For moyst mat∣ter is more disposed to whitenesse then dry to blacknesse, or to anye other cou∣lour, for in moysture is the matter of cléerenesse, that is proper matter of cou∣lour, and not in drye matter, insomuch as it is drye. And in some working, namely in one wise moist matter is more obedient to the qualitie yt worketh. For it may wel be for priuation, if kind fast∣neth & hardneth that is in drye matter. And though drye matter be disposed of it selfe to be fast and hard, yet it is not so well disposed to be fastned & hardned, as matter yt is moist, as it fareth in stones, though the matter be fast and hard, yet they take not anone more fastnesse and hardnesse of cause that worketh in them. We see in many things yt cold bréedeth soone white coulour, as in Snowe, and that is not so well seene in ensample when colde worketh in dry matter, and if he worketh meanly together in meane matter, then must the coulour néedlesse∣ly be meane, and euen the middle colour betwéene the vttermost colours that bée white and blacke, and if the mastrie bée onely in one qualitie, that worketh one∣ly in the matter, then the colour is com∣pounded, and hath more of the one, and lesse of the other. And if the qualytyes that worketh, be euen, and the qualyties that suffereth also, then the coulour hath the aire like much, as it is knowen by the foresayd meaning. And so there bée two vttermost coulours, which be white and black, and fiue meane coulours: & it séemeth that the colours may not be di∣stinguished in more diuers kindes, as it is declared by this difinition, yt is made of contrary members without defaulte, and without superfluitie. And also Ari∣stotle beareth witnesse, that there be on∣ly fiue meane coulours, and the mem∣ber thereof and suffisaunce may be taken in the foresayd matter, and also by com∣bination of white and blacke in theyr generations of coulours. For if white and blacke bée euen lyke much in the composition of a meane colour, then the coulour is euen the middle coulour be∣twéene white and blacke, and euen lyke farre from the extremityes, as is redde coulour. And betwéene white and redde may not be but two coulours, one neere the redde, and the other néere to the white. Also betwéene redde and black be two coulours, one according with the redde, and the other with blacke. And so no meane coulours maye be betwéene white and blacke. For betweene white and red may be no firme coulour, but a chaungeable, as a Carnation coulour, a flesh coulour, and a shadow to either of these, for euen farnesse hath alwaye re∣spect to the vttermost parts: but if there were such a colour, it should haue thrée quarters of white, and one of black. For halfe the red coulour is of the one quar∣ter of white, & of one quarter of black. In the same wise betwéene blacke and red, may none be of euē quantitie, for it must haue thrée quarters of black, & one of white, and so were the equall onelye by somwhat and by séeming, and not ve∣ry euen farnesse.

(*He meaneth, that euery simple co∣lour mixed, doth in the more, or the lesse, make light or darken, his proper ground.)

Of coulours in generall, what they be. chap. 7.

ARistotle rehearseth these fiue meane coulours by name,* & calleth the first Yeolow, and the second Citrine, and the third Redde, the fourth Purple, and the fift Gréene, so that betwéene white and red, the yeolow is towarde the white, and the citrine toward the red, betwéene blacke and redde, purple is toward the red, and the gréene towarde the blacke. These names bée otherwise called in Greeke, for Purple is called Kyanos in Page  389 Gréeke, and yeolowe is called Karapos, but of names of Gréeke is no charge, but we take héed to Latine names. And the cause of the foresayde coulours may be knowen, for yeolowe hath more of white then of blacke and redde. And such coulours is in leaues when they fall in Winter or in haruest. Citrine and Pur∣ple compasseth the redde coulour, for ey∣ther of them hath more of redde then of white or of blacke, but Citrine is far∣ther from blacke then is Purple, as A∣ristotle meneth, in secundo de Sompno & Vigilia, wher he speketh of corrupti∣on of these coulours, and turning into blacke. And he sayeth, that Citrine pas∣seth by Purple into blacke. And there∣fore Purple must be betwéene redde and blacke, and Citrine betwéene white and blacke, & of all this it followeth, ye gréene must be set toward the black, and so the cause is knowen of the ordinaunce of these fiue meane coulours, as Aristotle meaneth.

Of the opinion of them which would haue light, to be of the substance of coulour. cap. 8.

*SOme men déeme or suppose, that light is of the substaunce of colour, and they saye, that coulour is in cleane and cléere matter, and cléerenesse hath these diuersityes, for cléere matter is cleane and pure, and not earthie, or vn∣pure and earthie. And lyght is diuided in foure manners: for light is cléere, or dimme, lyttle, or much: but I call not lyght great nor much, though it shine in a greate place and much, but vertuall light gathered in a lyttle place, or in a point, is called much lyght, and greate light, as when an hollow mirrour is set in the Sun beame, and the light falleth on all the mirrour, and reboundeth into the middle thereof, and gathering and rebounding of ye lyght in ye mirrour be∣twixt cleerenesse of Glasse, and bright∣nesse of the Sunne, a fire is kindeled, and burneth full soone, or spéedely. And so if Flaxe or drie matter be put therein, it burneth sodeinly, & is set on fire then, if there be much light and cleane in pure matter and cléere, as Albumasar sayeth. And if the light be little & dim in cléere matter, and not full cléere, but somedeale and dim, then blacknesse must néedes bée gendered, and this expoundeth the word of Aristotle, and of Auetrois, that mea∣neth, that blacknesse is priuation of cléer∣nesse, and for to speake in this wise, hée followeth, that there be seauen coulours that stretch from white, toward blacke.* And this is knowne, and thrée thinges maketh whitenesse, brightnesse of light, and plentye thereof, & purenesse of cléere matter. And while meane coulour maye abate then in this wise is generation of thrée coulours, if one abideth alone, the other two abate: and so of white com∣meth 7. colours, & stretch from the white toward blacke: also from black to white stretcheth 7. And by this consideratiō co∣lours be 16. two principall,* blacke and white, and 14. meane, for 7. stretch from white toward blacke, & 7. from black to∣ward white, & in the stretching, the first 7. abate in whitnes, & the other 7. abate in blacknes, & méeteth in the middle. In euery meane colour, be as it were endles meane degrées of déep colour & of lyght, as they be farre from white or blacke or nigh thereto. Then know thou héere∣of, that coulour is a propertye or a qua∣litye lefte in the vttermost parte of a cléere body, & commeth of kinde of med∣ling of qualities of elements medled to∣gether in a meddeled bodie, the which is by light presented to the eye and to the sight. For without meane light, cou∣lour chaungeth not the eye, nor maketh therin likensse nor shape, but yet colour may be séene by it selfe, as Aristot. saith 2. de Anima, for the default is not in the coulour, but the default and vnmight is in the eie, which coulour is not séene in déede without light. Therefore Pithago∣rici, that helde Pythagoras teaching, cal∣led coulour Ephiphania, that is ouersée∣ming, or imagined. For it is the vtter parte of a cleere bodye that is teemy∣ned. Or else coulour is in the vtter part therof, & is there most properly a sighty bodye, that taketh coulour and hiewe, Page  [unnumbered] and letteth passage there through of lyght, and of sight is héere called a cléere body termined, Perspicuum termina∣tum, but some such letteth all passage of sight, so that nothing is séene there through: as boystrousnesse, stones, trées, and mettall, and thicke leather, and other such, and some letteth some deale passage of sight, and not fully all, as Wine and other lycour of diuerse coulour that is séene within and without. But the same kinde of colour in some things is with∣in, that is without, as it fareth in the white of an Egge, and in the broken Glasse that is couloured, as it is sayd in libro de Sensu & Sensato. cap. 7. But many things bée of one coulour with∣out, and of another coulour within, as it fareth in blacke Pepper, and in Apple graines. And many thinges dyeth and coloureth things without, and not with∣in, as it fareth in painting. Also redde cloath dyeth the vtter part of water, if it bée layed therevnder: And so it is knowen, that coulour is the vttermost parte of sight where cléere things bee, as it is sayde in libro de Sensu & Sensa∣to. Also as in a cléere body, not termined, as in ayre, the presence of lyght maketh white coulour, and his absence maketh blacke coulour and dimme, so that some∣what of lyght shineth therein, so that it bée not as lyghtlesse, as it is sayde, libro de Sensu & Sensato. capit. 8. And so in a cléere body that is termined is very co∣lour, and in a bodye that is not termi∣ned, is not verye colour, but as it were coulour, as it is sayde in the same booke. Also meane coulours bée gendered in theyr owne diuersitie, and by diuers pro∣portions. Also if one is in proportion that conteyneth all, and the third parte or all, and the halfe deale, or by other proportions: And if they bée by porpor∣tion, then they bee againe proportionall by steadfastnesse of abiding in the mat∣ter, and also by cléerenesse of the matter, as it fareth in Consonancijs, as it is sayde there, capitulo octauo. B. Also they bée gendered by proportion and conso∣nancie, and accorde of coulour, when the coulours be fayre and lyking. And the more proportionall they bée, the more li∣king they bée, as it is sayd there. And o∣ther men meane, that meane coulours be gendered by vnder setting and laieng of the vttermost coulours, that be white and blacke, when the more sightlye cou∣lour is laide aboue the lesse sightlye, or the lesse sightly aboue the more sightlye, as it fareth in painting: as the Sunne séemeth white whē it is séene by himself, and of another coulour when he is seene through a Clowde, as it is sayde there, cap. 8. Also coulours bee not seene by passing out of beames that come out of eyen, but by continuall multiplication of coulour, in the space and place be∣tweene the thing that is seene and the eye, and by spreading thereof to the ey∣en: For feeling is made by touch, as it is sayde there, capitulo octauo. Also cou∣lours that be lyke farre a sunder, maye seeme meane coulours to them that be farre therefrom, though they bee not meane coulours: For no parte of a thing may be seene vnder the vttermost cou∣lour, as it fareth in cloath of diuers cou∣lours, as it is sayde there, capitulo. 8. D. Also meane coulours be gendered by lykenesse of gendering of meddeled bo∣dyes, meddeled with simple bodyes: that for meddeling of couloues, followeth the meddeling of Elementes by chaun∣ging and tourning into the forme and shape of a meddeled bodye: as a meane bodye is gendered of the vttermost bo∣dyes, so is meane coulour gendred of the vttermost coulours, as it is sayde there capitulo octauo: Also euery meane co∣lour is gendered by white and blacke, that seemeth more priuation of white then coulour, as darknesse is priuation of lyght, as it sayde, libro. 10. Methe. cap. 3. B. Also it needeth not that vnity of kinde followeth vnity of likenesse of colour, as Albumasar sayth in Differentia. G.

Also furthermore, the deede of cou∣lour is to print lykenesse in the sight by working in deede of light. For by light might of coulour is brought to worke in deede, and to print lykenesse in the eye, that the eye may take that lykenesse and deeme of that thing that is seene. Also meane colour well proportioned pleseth and comforteth the sight: but the vtter∣most Page  390 coulour féebleth and grieueth the sight, as Aristotle sayth. For greate whitenesse ofte sheddeth the spirite of sight, and dissolueth the eye, and maketh it water: And to great blacknesse ga∣thering the spirite, and making thicke, and rebounding the sight, maketh it dim, as it fareth in them that bée long closed in darke places, that sée little or right naught, when they be sodeinely brought into the light.

Also the coulour of that thing that is coloured, sheweth the complection therof and kind: For whitenesse and white co∣lours in bodies that be frore, bée not but in cold substance, & black colours againe∣ward: For colde maketh moyst thinges white, and dry blacke, and heate maketh wet things blacke, and drye white,* as Aristotle and Auicen meane. And ther∣fore whitenesse, that is the daughter of colde, is token of mastry of fleame and of colde, and of moisting and fléeting hu∣mour: and blacknesse is token of melan∣cholike disposition & of dry humour, that hath mastry in the body: and is somtime token of great burning of humours, and of chaunging & turning to kinde melan∣choly, as it shall be sayde héereafter. Also by the vtter coulour the inner qualities of things bée knowen. For as Auicen saith, colour is qualitie that is made per∣fect by lyght, for coulour is in might in a darke body, and passeth into working & déed by light that commeth therevpon from without, & that is knowne in this wise: for euery medled body hath some∣what of fire and might, and hath of fire somewhat of light, for the fire hath light by kinde, but that lyght is hid in darke parts, and is so onely in might, as heate of Brimstone & of Pepper: and the po∣tenciall heate of them passeth not into working & actuall heat in déed: But in vtter qualitie yt is like to the inner qua∣litie. Potentiall lyght that is in a medled bodye and darke, passeth not to woorke in deede by the comming of outwarde light.

Also coulour séene within, declareth the might and feeblenesse of the fire that is hidde in might in a meddeled bodye, and thereby the vertue and working thereof is knowne proporcionally. Di∣uersity of coulour exciteth kindlye the sight of the lookers, to looke and wonder thereon, as Plinius sayth, libro octauo, and Auicen also. And so he sayeth, that euery beast, be he neuer so fierce, wonde∣reth of the duersitie & fairenesse of cou∣lour in the Panther. Also euery mans face is made most beautiful or vnbeauti∣full with coulour. For ordinate colour & fayre, is complection of fairenesse, when it miswexeth duely to the making & com∣position of members and limmes, as A∣uicen sayth. And Austen saith, that faire∣nesse is séemly shape of body, wt pleasing colour, and againward. For vile coulour and vnséemely is right foule in a bodye. Also colour is token of Accidents and of passions of ye soule, for sodeine palenesse and discoulour is a token of dread: for ye heat being drawen inward to the parts of the bodye, in the face is scarcitie of bloud, & so the face is discouloured. Also sodeine rednesse in the face, is token of shame or of wrath. And that is because heate commeth outwarde, and bloude maketh the skinne redde without: and busieth to put off shame and wronge. Also coulour termineth and arayeth the bodye that it is in, for excepte couloure bée in the bodye, the substance thereof is not knowne to the sight. Also couloure maketh fayre the matter without, and hideth defaultes that bée there within, and so compounded coulour, meane be∣twéene white and blacke, layed in or∣der by kinde, as Auicen sayeth, with∣out vppon a bodye, hideth and couereth infirmitie that is in the matter acciden∣tally, eyther by kinde, as Auicen sayth.

Also coulour accordeth or agréeth to the lyght, as the Daughter to the Mo∣ther, and followeth lyghte in deede: For with greate lyght coulour increa∣seth, and with lyttle lyght coulour aba∣teth.

Addition.

Lightnesse or brightnesse is the cause of cleerenesse, which is a separation from darknes or blacknes, wherof procéedeth ye original action, established by Iehoua, in ye first diuiding of the day and night. Page  [unnumbered] The cause of brightnesse is fire, (an in∣comprehensible substaunce) yet because it taketh part, with Earth, Water, and flowres, stones, shells, hornes, flyes, met∣talls, and whatsoeuer (so miraculouslye spread;) to expresse such a varietie of co∣lour, as mans reason had bene farre to seeke, had not the onelye benefite of the grace giuer bestowed the same: in the vitall bodyes, by bloud, in flowres, séeds, rootes, and beryes, by ioyce, as by this diuision of foure times thrée which ma∣keth twelue, appeareth, Fire, yeolowe: Aire, bliewe: Water, gréene: Earth, blacke. To the first Or, which is golde, Orcment, which is Earth: Masticot, which is ashes .2. Laake, Uarmilion, red Lead, 3. purple, Uiolet, Murry, 4. Smalt, Bise and Indian, all colours increasing, from blacknesse to brightnesse, is the spi∣rit of fire: the rest that decrease from brightnesse to blacknesse, in the spirit of the earth, wherein also consisteth a mira∣culous ordinance, teaching earthly Phi∣losophers to discerne the Animall, Uegi∣tall, and Minerall, the lyfe, the flesh, the death, of euery substaunce gendered: sim∣ply growing, and multiplied by vapour, as aire, dew, or waters: flesh to death: trées to withering: stones, to wearing, dissoluing, or consuming: To grow from the spirit of death, singular, and plurall, from the Adiectiue to the Substantiue: Few Philosophers haue studyed howe, beeing contented by the singular parte, to speake plurall things, but not by the plurall part to speake singular thinges, which is the cause that men be so pru∣dent in earthie matters, that there is lit∣tle left for spirituall vnderstandings, in studieng for coulours to please the eye, they forget those coulours that beautifie the soule, which are, for fire, loue: for aire, faith: for water, hope: for earth, cha∣ritie: for voyce, truth: for person, cha∣stitie.

De Colorum mutatione. Cap. 10.

COulours doe chaunge in bodyes for many manner causes, as it doth in fruite, grasse, hearbes, and other things that growe in earth: For first fruite is gréene when it groweth, as it fareth in beryes and grapes, then they waxe red, & pale, or blacke at last: & this changing of coulour commeth of diuersitie of kinde heate, or of heat of the Sunne, that doth seeth the substaunce of fruite in diuerse manner of wise. For first the working of heat is féeble & soft, & vnsufficient to dis∣solue & depart ye earthie matter to make it spread, & therefore in the fruite with∣out, is gréene colour, & vndigest, & earthy, but kinde heat waxeth stronger by heat of the Sun, and worketh therefore the more strongly, & so the heat for strength thereof leaueth red coulour in the fruite without, and at the last when the fruite is compleat & ripe, & the sowre humour & earthy defied, then of burning commeth blacke colour in the fruit without. For the heat hath mastry, and dissolueth and doth séeth, & defieth the earthynesse, & ta∣keth as much as néedeth, and turneth it into substance of fruit, and wasteth the other deale, or putteth & bringeth it to the vtter part of the fruite, and such fu∣mositie cast out, for it is earthy, infecteth and maketh the fruit blacke or yeolow without, as it is said super li. Vegitabi∣lium commento. For such coulour beto∣keneth of themselues working & kind of cold, & be oft gendered in things that bée full hot, & commeth of the same cause, that is heat, that hath mastry within, and doth put out earthy and watry fu∣mosities, as Alphredus sayth super A∣ristot. de Vegitabilis & Plantis. Also in beasts is chaunging of coulour, now in the skinne, now in the eyen, now in the eare, and now in the nailes. For coulour of ye skin is gendred in two manners, as it is sayde in Ioannico, for it is gendred and commeth sometime of humours in∣warde, and sometime of passions of the soule. Also chaunging of coulour in the skin commeth of inner things: sometime by hot humours, and sometime by cold, for it happeneth, that hot humours both compowned and simple, cooleth and bée colde, and also colde humours or cooled heateth, and according therevnto the co∣lour in the skinne is wont to varie, for when the colde humoures waxe hotte, Page  391 white colour turneth into citrine or into red. And when hot humours doth coole, then red coulour doth chaunge to white or pale, and so of other it is to be vnder∣stoode. Also chaunging in the skin com∣meth of passions of the soule. The red waxeth pale for anguish or for dreade, for in dreade the heart closeth, and heate that is in the vtter partes draweth in∣ward, & therefore the vtter partes waxe pale. Also the pale waxeth red for wrath, for in wrath the heart openeth and desi∣reth wreake, & the heat passeth sodeinly from the inner parts to the vtter parts, and so the bloud heateth, and is be∣twéene the skin and the flesh, and so red colour is sodeinly gendered. Also in men of the nation of Maures, the blacke cou∣lour commeth of the inner parts, & whi∣tish colour in Almains and Dutchmen. For ye countrye Mauritania is the most hottest country in Aethiopia, in ye which Country for greate heate the bloud is burnt betwéene the skinne and the flesh, and maketh all the members black. And so hée that first dwelled in Aethiopia, was made black. But afterward by con∣tinuall heat of the Sunne such blacknes sprang into all his ofspring. And of blacke father and blacke mother com∣meth blacke children. But in that place onely the father and mother be continu∣ally burnt with heate of the Sunne, and therefore in temperate countries & lands yt be somwhat cold, swart coloured men getteth children temperate in coulour, as Macrobius, Aristotle, & Auicen meane. And contrarywise the Almaynes and Scots, that dwell in colde countries, for in them colde stoppeth the hoales and poores without, and the heate is drawne inward, and therefore the skin is white without. The Cōmentour telleth al this super Ioh. & Aristot. toucheth the same. Also coulour of skinne chaungeth, and namely of the mans skin, by many occa∣sions, somtime for euill complection, as it fareth in melancholike men,* & for too great passing heat, as it fareth in chola∣rike men that be citrine of coulour, and for heat of the Sun & drinesse of aire, as it fareth in wayfaring men & in shipmē, & for spreading of corrupt humours be∣twéen ye skin & flesh, as it fareth in Mor∣phea & in Lepr, and for stopping of the liuer, or for distemperate qualitie of the gall, as it fareth in the Ianders, that is chaunged of kind colour into foule cou∣lour and vnséemly, as Constantine saith. And for continuaunce of solution of the skin, as if fareth of the Mesells, Pocks, wounds, botches, and burning. Also in haire is diuers colour, for by quality of fumositie, that is resolued of the bodye, colour of haire is diuers, for of fleame commeth white haire, of bloud red, & of kind melancholy yeolowe, & of Cholera adusta, black, & of the defalt of kind heat commeth hoare haire, as it fareth in old men. And when horenesse beginneth in the root of the haire, then it commeth of much fleme, & when it beginneth in the vtter end, then it is a token that it com∣meth of default of kind heat. Looke be∣fore in Tractatu de Capillis.

Of coulour in the eies. ca. 10.

HEereafter take héed of colour in the eyen, for as Iohannicius sayth, cou∣lours of eien be (foure) Black, Whitish, changeable & yeolow. The diuersitie of these cōmeth of cléernesse of the spirit of the sight, or of dimnes therof, or of scar∣site of ye christalline humour, or of deep∣nesse therof, or of superfluity of whitish humour, or disturbance therof, or of scar∣sity, or of superfluitye of humour of the Curtell yt is called Vua. For if the hu∣mour christaline be scarce in quātitie, or hid within, & the whitish humour that is called Albugines falleth, or is distur∣bed, or if there be much blacke humour in the skinne and Curtell that is called Vua. If all these or some of them come together, then is blacke colour gendered in the eie. And whitenes cōmeth of con∣trary cause, but yeolow colour & diuers colour commeth of thinges that maketh white & blacke, but in yeolowe is some∣what more blacke then white, and in diuerse is somewhat more white then black. But héereof séeke before in Trac∣tatu oculorum. In the nailes coulour is knowen, for the colour thereof shall bée white and cléere, as a mirror, when this Page  [unnumbered] colour changeth into wan or pale colour, then it is a token of diuers passions, as it is said in Tractatu de Vnguibus.

Of coulours perticular. chap. 14.

NOw it followeth to speake of per∣ticular colours, and first of white, that is the chiefe fundament and ground of meane colours. Whitenes is a colour gendered of much cléere light, and pure matter & cléere, as Algasel saith. And so the more pure the cléere matter is, & the more cléere ye light is, the more white the colour is, & the lesse medled with black, then ye materiall cause of white colour is cléere & pure, without medling of earthy drafts, now dry & now moist. The cause of working & making white coulour is cold or heat, for if drinesse hath the ma∣stry in working therin, thē white colour is gendered, for thinning and subtilling of partes of the matter, and for cléering by vertue of might and heat, as it fareth in Lime and in burnt bones. And if the matter be moyst in substance, and colde hath mastrye in working therein, then white colour is gendered, as it fareth in snow & in dew. Therfore white is gen∣dred of aire that is some deale watry, as Aristotle sayth, lib. 19. de Animalibus, and that by working of colde, for colde maketh moyst matter white, and drye matter blacke. Also white matter is gen∣dered of chinning and spreading of ayre, as it fareth in skumme: and therfore hot water gendereth white haire, and a hot braine is cause of baldnesse, for white commeth not but of vapourable aire and watry that is in the members. And for white commeth of hot ayre and vapou∣rable, therfore beasts be white vnder the wombe, as Ari. saith, li. 19. de Animali∣bus. White hath vertue to shed the sight, & to shed ye visible spirit if it be too white, and maketh the eie watry and to drop, and is the ground of all coulours, & the meane colours bée grounded in no other coulour better then in white. And the more white the ground is, the faster the coulour cleaueth and abideth, that is lai∣ed therevppon, whether it bée white or black and to whitenesse belongeth & ap∣perteineth Candor, Albor, Palior, Li∣uor, or Flauor. In one meaning Flauum & Liuidum is all one, as Aristotle sayth in cap. de. Sapore. And he sayth, ye Liui∣dum is Flauum, for hée followeth the kinde of white. Phisitions doe assigne many other maner colours about white, as watrie colour, and milkie colour, and Karapos, that is whitish or palish, and be diuers as the matter is diuerse, in which they be rotted, thick or thinne, as it is sayd in libro de Isaac, Theophile, Constantine, Egid. de vrinis, Candor, is passing whitenesse, and hath in it selfe much light in forme, and much pure∣nesse & cléerenesse in matter, for blasing of brightnesse, ye dresseth matter that is without, that is cléere & pure & printeth likenesse in the sight, without gréening of the eye, & comforteth the sight to be∣hold theron with a manner liking: such whitenes is called Candor, yt is first séene of whitnesse, by doing of lyght, with∣out corruption of the sight, and is called Candor, for the vttermost whitenesse is not séene with eie, for it voideth ye dome of sight, for nothing may be séene vnder the vttermost coulour: For the vtter∣most colours be vnseene by themselues, for cleerenesse thereof, as it is said in li. de Sensu & Sensato. cap. octauo. Then that that is first séene of whitenesse is tearmed Candor.

De colore glauco siue flauo. cap. 12.

S̄Alowe is gendred of whitenes,* draw∣ing some deale toward red, & is gende∣red, as Aui. meneth, in matter yt is som∣deale temperate in comparison to gréene colour. For (as he saith) gréene colour in trées chaungeth into yeolow in haruest time, when in leaues is much matter more moisted then the matter yeolow, & the thicke parts wasted some and some by working of heat, & not all destroyed, though cold hath the mastry. And cold yt hath mastry in meane matter, gendreth néedely meane colour: And because colde may better chaunge moysture then dri∣nesse, it gendereth meane coulour, that hath much of white, as yeolow coulour, Page  392 as the Commentour saith super Arist. de Plantis in fine. Therefore he sayth, yt some trees be gréene in Summer, & pale in winter, as Boxe, for Boxe hath glea∣ming humour, and much thin moisture in the root, and the leaues therof fall not, but when heat commeth, the humour is drawen outward, and heat worketh and maketh gréene colour, & when colde com∣meth, the humour is smitten inwarde, & leaueth much drinesse of earth, and then the colour is yeolow, & so in comparison to gréen colour, in yt which is more moist matter, he saith, that yeolow hath more temperate matter.

De Pallido colore. cap. 13.

*PAle coulour is gendered of the same causes, but the cold is lesse strong, and the whitenesse draweth more towarde blacknesse, and is gendred in more thick matter. Then polence is a mene colour: & beginneth from white, & passeth out of kind toward blacke. Also pale coulour is happely gendred, & commeth of dread of right great businesse, & of great trauaile, and of other causes, by the which bloud is drawen inwarde, and then the bodye is pale & discouloured without, for scar∣sitie and lacking of bloud, as it fareth in: them which doe sléepe too much, and in slumberous men, and in men which do trauell for loue, which burne in great loue, and the heart is therevpon, and the spirits passe and thereof and for to féede and restore them, kind bringeth in heate of the vtter partes, & so by withdrawing hot bloud, the skin is discoloured with∣out, as he saith.

Palleat omnis amans, hic est color aptus amanti.

This vearse meaneth, that euery lo∣uer is pale, and pale coulour is couena∣ble to the louer. For the same cause, they that be pained with hunger, or with great businesse and trauaile, bée pale, for spending and wasting of hotte bloud.

(*And Also that in gilding of Plate, through the force of quick siluer, the va∣pour whereof cooleth the bloud, & dryeth the body.)

De Rubeo colore. cap. 14.

RED coulour is euen the middle cou¦lour betweene white and blacke euen lyke farre from other, and is in the part of a cleere body by incorporation of cleere firye light and pure to the generation of this colour. Colours do come togethers of cléernesse of matter, & firy light, & ac∣cording meanes betweene white & black, but firy light dui keth the cleane parts yt be medled, & maketh then thin & subtill. The coulour accordeth more in blasing with white then black & therfore déep red sheddeth the sight, as cleere light doth, & gathereth not the sight as blacke doth. Therefore Drapers yt sell cloth hang red cloth before the light,* for ye rednesse shuld dazell the spirit of sight, and that men that see other clothes of other coulours, shuld know the worse the very colours. Red colour is a general token of mastry of heat in a medled body, though hee bee somtime found without in a bodye that is kindly cold, as it fareth in the red rose that is kindly colde and drie: but for the rose is full of subtill substance, the kind colour that he hath of composition slaieth the mastry of cold, & commeth outward, and findeth the vtter partes subtill and moist to receiue chaunging, & chaungeth them without into red colour, and that doing is namelye lykened to working of fire.

De Colore croceo. cap. 15.

BEtwéene Saffron colour and Punice and Citrine, is little diuersitie, as by abating of whitenesse, & some deale med∣ling of increasing of blacknesse, and by some what of strength of heat, & feeblenes of cold. And the more such a coulour in subtill matter and cléere is radicate, the more it shineth & appeareth, & the more grose and earthy the matter is, the lesse bright it is. And such a colour betokeneth might and temperate heat, and not pas∣sing, insomuch yt it belongeth to the beto∣kening of colour: but by diuers disposi∣tions of substance, it betokeneth diuerse dispositions of sicknesse or of health, and Page  [unnumbered] diuers complections and states of the bo∣dy, as it is said in li. Isa. de Vrinis. For Citrine coulour in thin substance in the vrine of a child of cholarike complection, betokeneth yt he is whole & in good point. In a stematike body or melancholike, it may token diuers sicknesses & euills, as Egidius saith in his vearses, in Tracta∣tu de Vrinis. cap. 13. in this wise.

Est multis tenuis citrina referta fi∣guris.

Flumaticum iuuenem vel quem ni∣ger afficit humor.

Condempnat tricham duplici, &c.

And such coulour betokeneth diuerse things and contrary by diuersitie of the substance that it is in.

De Colore croceo. ca. 16.

SAffron colour dieth and coloureth hu∣mours and licours more then citrine, and betokeneth passing heate & distempe∣raunce of bloud in the licour by medling of cholera, as it fareth in them that haue the Iaunders, their vrine hath yeolowe spume, & they haue yeolow eyen, & their skinne is foule and citrine. Most hottest birds of complection and cholarike, as birds of pray haue their vtter parts yeo∣low of colour, as their feet and bills. And that commeth of right much cholarike & hot fumositie which kinde calleth into the vtter parts, and they haue therefore such colour. Looke before de morbis. cap. de Ictaricia, there it is treated more largely.

De Colore minio. ca. 17.

YEolow colour that is called Minios, is called also Coecinus & Vermiou∣lus, and draweth much toward red, & be∣longeth therto, & shinesh blasing as fire, and hath in himselfe much brightnesse of fire, and much cléernesse of matter, ther∣fore the coulour is right bright and bla∣sing. The matter of this coulour is ear∣thy, & he digged in the cliffes of ye red sea, yt dieth and couloureth, & maketh red all the sea, that it floweth into, so that the sea of yt ouer Aegipt taketh rednes ther∣of, & is called the red sea. In these veines of ye earth be red precious stones found. This earth is first dried & pured at the best, & then ground smal betwéen stones, & tempered with the white of an egge: & by this painters & writers do get & win much good, for therewith they limne, a∣dorne, araye, and make, beginning and ending of sentences, & of vearses and ca∣pitall letters. And is somtime sharped wt a certaine herab yt is called Coccus, and then ye coulour is bright and blaseth as fire, & hath the name of that iuyce, and is called Coccus. And diers of cloath vse this colour much more then writers do.* Also in olde time men vsed to sharp this colour with ye bloud of a certein worme, as purple is sharped with bloud of a shel fish. And for such sharping with the bloud of a worme, ye coulour was called Vermiculus in olde time, as Isid. sayth, in Tractatu de coloribus. And is a cou∣lour that cleueth fast and abideth, when he is layde to the matter, so that if a man purpose to shaue or to wash it out of the Parchment, vnneth shall he shaue or wash so fast, but some what thereof a∣bideth after all the shauing and wash∣ing.

De Colore Puniceo. cap. 18.

CItrine colour is next to the redde in the one tree, as purple is next therto in the other side. And citrine hath more of the redde then of the white, or of the black, and is néerer to the white then to the blacke, and the purple againe warde, that is next to the red, and néerer to the blacke then to the white, as Aristotle saith, Secundo de sompuo et Vigiliars. There he sayth, that citrine passeth by Purpole into blacke, and Purple is née∣rer then red to the blacke, and in the sea is citrine shell fish founde, that is small and little, and is cut at the end, and then commeth thereof redde droppes, which be kept, and with these droppers is Pur∣ple dyed and redde coulours mastred, and so bloud is gathered in great quan∣titie, and kept in vessells of Dyers; and done with coulours, and therewith is purple 〈…〉e dyed, of the whihwath is, wouen, & therby is shewed wealth & ioy Page  393 of Kings, as Gregory saith super Cant. cap. 7.

De Colore viridi. cap. 19.

GRéene coulour is gendered and bred by working of heate in meane mat∣ter, in the which moisture hath somwhat the mastrie, as it fareth in leaues and in hearbes, and in fruit, & also in grasse, therefore the coulour is gendered, & hath much of blacke, and is not fully blacke of medling of light white, as yeolow is; and of much blacke in a moyst bodye without, gréene colour is gendered, when the heate which worketh in the matter, may not burne the moysture, neyther séeth it at the full, to turne all and fully into blacke. And so gréene coulours, in grasse, hearbes, and fruit, is a signe and token of rawe humour and vndigested, which is knowen, for the gréene colour in hearbs and trées turneth into yeolow in haruest time. For in leaues & hearbs is much moyst matter and thicke, which is wasted some and some by the work∣ing of heate: and is not all without heat in the matter borne vp, though that cold hath the mastry. Therefore some trées bée gréene in springing time & in Sum∣mer, and be pale in haruest, and in Win∣ter. For heate of springing time com∣meth, and beareth the humours out∣ward, and then the humour taketh heat and is made gréene, but when colde com∣meth, it smiteth the humour inwarde, and there is much drynesse, and the co∣lour is yeolow, as the commentor sayth super li. de Plantis, in fine. Also gréene is a meane coulour gendered betweene red & blacke, & that is knowen by passing of red Cholera into vnkinde melancholy, yt is black, by meane of vnkinde Cholera yt is rusty & gréenish, and is found gréene: Gréene colour is most liking to ye sight, for comming togethers of firy parts & of earth. For brightnes of fire yt is in gréene is temperate, & pleaseth ye sight, & dimnes of earth & blacknesse, for it is nigh most black, gathereth meanly the sight, & com∣forteth ye visible spirit. Therefore no co∣lour is so liking to ye sight as gréene co∣lour as it is knowne in the Smaragdus, a stone that most comforteth their eyen ye graue in mettall & in precious stones, as Isidore sayth in Lapidibus preciosis. Leaues, trées, grasse, & hearbs, and other that grow and spring of the grounde, bée gréene by mastry of earthy parts in the which they be grounded, as in matter, & by firy vertue, as by cause yt worketh & dissolueth earthy matter, and maketh it subtill and thin, and draweth outwarde the fumositie thereof, & dyeth the hearbs with such colour without, and not with blacke or with red, but with gréene. For blacke tempereth the shedding blasenesse of red, and cléerenesse incorporated in ye black maketh it meane & temperate. The gréene is gendered by mastry of earthye parts & firy. And though fruit, hearbes, & grasse be gréene, yet gréene blossomes or flowres, be seld or neuer found, and that is for subtiltie of ye matter of flowres, in the which if the mastrye partes bée watry & airie, the colour shall be white, & if the watrye and firie partes hath the mastry, ye colour is red, & if watry parts & earthy haue the mastry, the coulour is bliew or bliewish & if firie partes & ai∣rie haue euen much mastrye, then might the colour be gréene or black, but ye mat∣ter of flowres is so thin & subtill, that it taketh no such meddeling, and therefore flowrs be not gréen generally nor black. Then gréene coulour is meane betwéene red and blacke, and comforteth the cien to looke thereon, and restoreth and com∣forteth the sight. Therefore Hartes and other wilde beastes loue gréene places, not onelye for meate, but for liking of sight: therefore hunters cloth themselues in gréene, for the beast loneth kindlye gréene coulours, and dreadeth the lesse perills of hunters, when they looke vpon gréene, as Gregory saith.

De Colore liuido. cap.20.

WAnne colour is gendered in watrie and earthy parts, that haue mastry, for such coulour is gendered in thinges that haue colde humour and thicke, as it fareth in Lead and in certaine stones, but Lead is white by kind, though it be wan without, & of lead is white coulour Page  [unnumbered] made that is called Cerusa, as the Com∣mentor saith. 4. Meth. Wan coulour is token of mastry of cold, & therefore wan colour in vrine is token of quenching of kind heat & of death of beasts, as Egidi∣us saith & sayth, that wan vrine betoke∣neth dead members & humour, & many other euills, & it followeth the euill Par∣uusenutitheus & Medns, & the falling euill also Ashites, Sinochus, breaking of veines, the pose, euill of ye ribs, of lungs, & Tisicke, that quencheth heate because of wan coulours.

De Colore liuido malo. cap. 21.

WAn coulour is euill in men and in beasts,* for it betokeneth mastrie of cold, which quencheth kindly heat, & be∣ginneth for to slay kindly beat: or els it betokeneth superfluitye of melancholye bloud, which defileth all the skin with∣out: or els it betokeneth anguish & passi∣on of the heart, which draweth inwarde the heate of bloud, as it fareth in those persons, that bée enuious or wrathfull: Or else it betokeneth sore falling or smi∣ting, which corrupteth and increaseth the bloud betwéene the skinne and the flesh,* as it appeareth by thē yt be all to bobbed & beaten, in whom the humour betwéene the skin and the flesh is corrupt by ma∣lice, & corrupteth and infecteth the skin, as the Expositor saith before, super. 1. ca. li. de. Isa. Vulnus liuore, &c. It betoke∣neth failing of spirits & of kind heat, and scarsitie therof, as it fareth in those per∣sons, which haue the dropsie & Etike, & in those which doe consume and wast, as Egidius sayth. And betokeneth also Gowtes in the ioyntes: For the Gowte is full sore for tendernesse of sinewes, in the which it is in. For spirits & humore doe gather to that place, and be the lesse hot, and the place is the worse coloured. It is not expedient and néedfull in this worke to rehearse all the causes of wan colour, but only to make mētion of those things that our fore fathers haue treated at full, & most largely. And seld I remem∣ber, that wan coulour betokeneth good: but gréene or blacke tourneth into wan by working of kind, & then out of wan∣nesse into red or citrine, then it betoke∣neth that kinde hath the mastrye of the infirmitie and euil, as Egidius meaneth. If it be first wan, and afterward red, the kind of the braine riseth, & the strength is recouered.

De Colore Indica. ca. 22.

THE coulour Indicus & Venenus is bliew colour,* and passeth wan cou∣lour in fairenesse and brightnesse, & hath more of water & of aire medled & ioyned with earthy parts, then hath wan cou∣lour, and such is the colour of heauen, for mastry of aire in a cléere body without, as it fareth in Sapphires of ye East lands & in Iacincts: also such coulour is in A∣zure, but héereof looks before in ye treatise of gemmes & precious stones, and of the stone Lasurus.

(*The Indiae, if it bée not too much counterfeit, is the especiall grounde of greenes.)

De nigro colore. ca. 23.

BLacke is priuation of white in cléere matter,* as bitter is priuation of swéet in moyst matter, and so it séemeth that white is the first well of colours, as swéet is the first well of sauours, as Aristotle saith in li. de Sensu & Sensato. Blacke coulour is not but priuation of cléernes. Blacknesse is gendered of scarce light, & incorporate in cléere matter that is dim and darkish and vnpure: therefore black∣nesse gendereth ye spirit visible, & smiteth it againe, and gréeueth therfore the sight and maketh it dim, when the blacke is too blacke, as it fareth in them yt be long in prison, which sée litle or naught when they come out of prison. Black is some∣time grounded in moist substance & hot, for heat yt hath mastry bloweth a moist body, as it fareth in wet wood that bur∣neth somtime in dry substance and cold. For cold hath the mastry, and blacketh dry substaunce, and whiteth the moyst substaunce, as Aui. saith. Also sometime blacke commeth of colde, & that is a to∣ken of death, and sometime of heate, and that is a token of burning. And therfore blacke vrine may be taken of diuers dis∣positions Page  394 and contrary, as Egidius saith: and betokeneth somtime solution of the quartane, and betokeneth health, & beto∣keneth somtime burning and death, as it fareth in the Feuer Acot. And Egidi∣us saith, that blacke vrine betokeneth e∣uill and solution of the quartane, death and burning: and scarse humour black and fat, and stinking betokeneth death and some colours accordeth to ye worke of painters: and some thereof bréedeth in veynes of the earth as Sinopis Ru∣brica, Melium, Auripigmentum, and o∣ther such, and some be made by crafte.

De Sinopi. cap. 24.

*SInopis is a red coulour, and was first founde in the Ilande Pontus, besides the Citie Sinopis, and hath therfore that name, as Isid. saith lib. 44. Héereof is thrée manner of kindes, red, lesse red, & meane betwéene them twaine, as hée saith, and is called Rubrica, for it is next to red sanguine, as he sayth, & brée∣deth in many places, but the best com∣meth ut of Pontus, and is therefore cal∣led Pontica.

De Sirico Pigmento. cap. 25.

*SIricum is Pigmentum, and thereof is made the colour that is called Pheni∣ceus, therewith the chiefe and principall letters of bookes be written, & is founde in the cliffes of the red sea in ye countrie called Phenicus: and this colour is ac∣counted among fained colours, for it is somtime made of Cinopis and of San∣dix,* medled and wrought craftely toge∣thers, as Isidore saith.

De Minio colore. cap. 26.

*MInium is a redde coulour; and the Gréekes found the matter thereof in Ephesim: in Spaine is more suche Pigment than in other landes, as Isi∣dore saieth.

De Cinobrio. cap. 27.

CInobrium is called Cinabarin a∣mong the Gréekes,* and hath that name of Draco and Barro, the Dragon, and the Elephant. Auicen sayth, that it in a Dragons bloud, for Dragons win∣deth and wrappeth their tayles among and about the legs of Elephants, and the un densts falleth to the ground, & the Dragons dye and be slaine in that wise, and the bloud that the Dragon bléedeth, dyeth and coloureth the earth, and all that is dyed is Pigmentum, and red pou∣der, as Isidore saith.

(*Canereus is also an ash colour; af∣ter a blacke.)

De Prassino. cap. 28.

PRassin in Gréeke is gréene, and ther∣of is a colour made gréene as a léeke,* the best groweth in Libia Cerenence, as Isidore saith. Crisocania is the veyne of Prassm, of gréene colour, & hath that name Crisocania, for gold is found ther∣with, as it is sayde, gréene groweth in Armenia, but better groweth in Mace∣donia, and is digged and mined among mettall of brasse, and the defending ther¦of is token of siluer and golde, for the veyne thereof, hath companye of kinde with such mettall.

De Sandaracha. cap. 29.

SAndarach groweth in Topasion, an Ile of the red sea, and is of red cou∣lour, and smelleth as brimstone, and is found among mettall of gold and of sil∣uer, and the better it is, the more redde it is, and smelleth more of brimstone. Though Cerusa is toasted in an Ouen, to tourne into Sandarache, the coulour thereof is red, and if it be euen toasted and medled with Rubrica, it tourneth into Sandix.

(*A bright redde coulour dsed of Painters, and found in Mynes of golde and siluer: some call it redde Arsenick, there is another kinde of it, made of Ceruse burned.)

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De Arcenico. cap. 30.

AResticum, is called Auripigmen∣〈…〉 for the colour of golde, and is gathe〈…〉Portus among golden mas∣ter and is most pure, and passeth into golden colour, and those that haue small veyne the most pale, & accounted worst. Heereof 〈…〉 before to tractatu de ve∣ns, & Auripigmento.

De Occa. cap. 31.

O••••••deth in the Ilands Topai••, there 〈…〉

〈…〉

〈…〉

〈…〉

〈…〉

〈…〉

De Melino. cap. 34.

MElinus is a white coulour, and the matter thereof is sounde in the I∣land Melos, that is one of the Ciclades, and therefore the colour is called Meli∣nus, as Isid. saith and for great fatnesse ofte the Painter doth not vse this cou∣lour, as Isidore saith.

De Stibio, cap. 35.

STibiuiu is a fained colour made of Cerus, and of other things medde∣led therewith. Women paint then fa∣ces there∣with.

(*〈…〉

〈…〉

〈…〉

〈…〉

〈…〉

〈…〉

〈…〉f all these 〈…〉∣teth Page  395libro. 25. cap. 14. vsque ad 33.

¶The order of colours to limne with, after the accustomed skill of this latter time, not vnprofitable for Painters and stainers. Being newly added.

*Whereas of late yeares, two bookes concerning the reuiuing of ye Arte of Lymning, hath ben set forth: and as I iudge, more of good wish from the Au∣thour then of approued experience. I 〈…〉 therefore take vpon me, so farre 〈…〉

〈…〉

〈…〉

Secondly, you must haue a perseue∣rance of the fire grounds, which are cal∣led the coulours of ye twelue Signes, as thus.

The first and the seauenth, is of co∣lour white: the eleauenth and twelfth, gréene: the third and second, yeolow: the fourth and tenth, redde: the fifty and ninth, towney declyning: the first and eyght, blacks declined.

Next followeth varieties, forthe of effectes, called the routours of the seu∣uen Plannets, and these shewe how to knowe the Compoundes from the Simples.

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〈…〉 without bodies.

Which are all sorts of sape, yelow, greene, blew and red, of Saffron, of Be∣rien, of flowers, and of Tornesaine, Lu∣mouse, and Flurey, which three coloures very few hawe skill to keepe theyr first heautie, as also the beautie of Rosset. These three are priuate coulours, which to make holde vpon metall, is the olde arte of lymning, prouided that the Ros∣set which is of late vsed in England, is not to be vsed in •••uing. Also in ftat∣ting of costure, and sweetening of shed∣dowes these must be a persenarance be∣tweene the colours of elements, of met∣talls of earth, of flowers airie, earthy, fierle and watrie. Also, that no prepareth coulours sande long vnoccupied, for 〈…〉too much moysture beads the colours.

A shure ground to lay on gold, 〈…〉 on paper or parishment.

Kinde white bowe with egge 〈…〉 first in water, and being setteled, one day 〈…〉 the same with euen water, not too 〈…〉, to the proportion for the place: then with pour pencill dipped in olde 〈…〉 sorten ouer your ground, and 〈…〉 on the golde, which beeing rle, you may burnish.

Another 〈…〉.

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Mettalls

Golde leaues or leafe Golde, siluer •• the same preparing. ••ell gold & 〈…〉, or lyquid gold to be lay be with the pen∣cill. A〈…〉 in for a 〈…〉 is his shadow, or loose with pre∣pared. Christall ground with Bo••• ar∣moniake is the strongest grounde for a∣ny golde vpon parchment: vse no glew nor iuyce of arlyke, nor spre in 〈…〉 wise.

Mixtures.

Blacke and white maketh a russet, white and blew an ashe colour, red and white a Carnation, Leake and ple a purple. Tornesalue and Leake maketh a deepe scarlet, blew and gréene maketh a violet, Uermaion and white, 〈…〉 a flesh coulour. Mixed blacke and white, red and white, blew and white, where∣of are three principall variables 〈…〉 of these three, proceed nine mixtures, pro∣per to the Art of Limning.

The manner to keepe your colours faire.

THey must be refined from their waste if they be scule, by letting them of∣ten settle in fayre water, after they bee grownd, pouring away the sayle, and re∣freshing the colour, which being done put there to uns water of one monethe restning. All sorts of Byse, if they bee not countersait with sand or glasse, may not be growd, but blaunched in water vntill the Byse settle lyke a pasts 〈…〉 and smooth together, then 〈…〉 gaue water, ane other than of 〈…〉 Ara∣becks.

Also euery seuerall colour, especially Byle, must be first layde 〈…〉, and after 〈…〉 as 〈…〉 of the counter∣〈…〉.

For enter mising of colours, that the 〈…〉 of 〈…〉 after the lyfe. 〈…〉 the cou∣lours are 〈…〉 day 〈…〉.

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Inkes to write with.

VErmillion onely grownds with mat∣ter, & after setteled with 〈…〉 vnder 〈…〉 so, of 〈…〉 cot, yeld 〈…〉 of & louers de lute, gr••ns: of 〈…〉is we, of 〈…〉∣all, rudde. 〈…〉 Brasill and oucha∣new, you must adde Allome water, well prepared, but not to any of ye rest of the coulours, because ••〈…〉 sayd and 〈…〉.

I 〈…〉 to make particular colours that serue to common painting. 〈…〉 the difference is great bet wirte the well. bearing of them Anderein is neither Oyle nor 〈…〉. Duely this is 〈…〉 is 〈…〉 the shell, if it be well considered, which telleth what must be 〈…〉, and 〈…〉 it most be de. re••ie must teach the ignorant the variety of of colours, and thy por••e the price, then had 〈…〉 diligence 〈…〉, which once attamed 〈…〉 fayre books, and good export, which is the best end of the cople in this present lyfe.

The end of the Addition.

THey that dye woll and cloth be cal∣led Dyars, as Isid. sayeth: & he that pictureth Images and likenes of things is called a Paynter. A picture is called Pictura, as it were Pictura, seyning.

The Image is sayued, and is not sooth∣ness, and to called Focata, and hath that meane of a certaine 〈…〉 colour that is layde thereon. And some pictures passe in colour, an quantitie and in shape, very doores: and sometime 〈…〉 to 〈…〉 hey bring forth lea∣sings as he doth that painteth C••mera with three 〈…〉, such a 〈…〉

The 〈…〉 found first Paynting ans •••dow was purtrayad and •••ed, and dra••on with braughes & with lines & often painted with simple colours, and after 〈…〉 with diuers cou∣lours, so that ra•• increased and found ••ght, and 〈…〉 colours: and labour••• the manner of paynting of shadowes of men

And now Payof as a draw ••• lyke∣nesse and lynes of the Image that shall colours, and holdeth the order of 〈…〉, as Isi•••• sayth lib. ••. cap. 〈…〉

*st many be painted, as 〈…〉 on ••tted 〈…〉 is set is gaye cou∣lours: so lyke 〈…〉 vpon 〈…〉 gorgeous cloathing. But if mann eye first saw un•••• be seeth others, he would be ashamed of that so 〈…〉 which he reproneth in others.)

¶De Odoribus. cap. ••.

AFter Colours, it followeth in treats of odours and of Smells. Odour is a 〈…〉 vapour resolued of the sub∣stance of a thing: and is drawen and passeth by the aire to the brame, & chang∣eth the sence of smelling: For 〈…〉 chaungeth the sence of 〈…〉, and printeth the lykenesse therin, as coulour chaungeth the fight, and sound the hea∣ring, and sauour the taste. For it is pro∣per to the wit and feeling to receiue prin∣ting of things that they feele, & to ••mo tyking therein, and comfort if they bee meane. and is be despised thereby are destroyed if they be the vttermost, as if is sayd in libro de senss〈…〉 & lensato

Then Doour is the propertie of a thing that is perceiued and felt by sum•••• To make odour perfect and knowen in the liu of smelling, foure things rea∣deth at the least. rate resoluing and departing subtill matter obedine to the heat that dissolueth and departeth: and the qualitie of the sumotis that is re∣solued. Printeth his lykenesse in avi that beareth it forth: and the ayre with the lyghtnesse and qualytie of fumo•••• commeth sodainly is the knew of smel∣lyng and presenteth thereto the lykenesse of the vapour of the sumositie, that is printed in that ayre and if it be lyke to the complution, it pleaseth and com∣forteth the 〈…〉 wonderfully, and in∣forteth and displeaseth it, if it be not a••oing.

Page  [unnumbered]Therefore smelling things that be pro∣portionate is kinde, helpeth it and com∣forteth, and for the contrary cause stin∣ing things anoyeth and grieued it. Also heate ther resteesh, maketh odour 〈…〉 that constraineth and bindeth and setteth odour and fordoeth t•• for cold moueth toward the middle, and •••ieth not 〈…〉•• vapours to passe and spread in the ayre, and therefore the oungs hull stinketh not in Winter as in couin∣tuer. Also subtill matter and obedient to the made that resolueth is cause of o∣dour, and the contrary is of thicke mat∣ter. Nor thicke matter withstandeth and letteth shedding and spreading of o∣dour, as it foreth in a stone; for cold is cause of uner falsnesse and hardnesse thereof, for the stone smelleth ••ot 〈…〉 nor stinking, as A•••n saith. . be there disposition of mee, urspeth most to 〈…〉ll and odour, for if aire be subtill and thin, it receiueth some the matter of 〈…〉, that passeth forth in vapour: but for it is subtill and thinne, that sumositie may not lan time abide therein. The contrary is of thicke aire, that receiueth not to some such fumosity and vapours, god and euill; but when they be recyued, they 〈…〉 not so sone passe 〈…〉 of thicke ••re, as they may out of 〈…〉 nice and thin, as he saith.

(*The cause of infection is, when the subtill aire peneceth and cannot e speedely acke againe, because of a grater airs which stoppeth)

The fourth disposition of the lun of smelling worketh principally to daeine of odour, for if the sinewe of feeling in the which the smelling is, be •••ll desposed or of euill completion or harte in anye wise, or stopped with corrupt humours, then the sense of smelling is amisle, or all lost. The first is seene in Melancho∣like. like man, and in other euill complection that loueth slinking places, and voideth them that smell sweete and pleasaunt. The second is shewed in them that are marmed, that bout the sinewes hurt of smellyng, and smell nut therefore. The third is shewed in them that haue super∣fluite of flesh growing in the ole, and in leprous men, that haue the nose stop∣ped with euill humours and smell not well, nor know vneth betweene sweete & thinking. Then fumositie that commeth of the substaunce of a thing is the mat∣ter of odour, and so by diuersitie of lu∣mo••• odour is be diturs.

〈…〉 One manner su∣mo••• is still in the 〈…〉, and 〈…〉 of a stone, that declareth not the comple•• on of positiue, and by poesence of odour: but primitiue nearby absence of odour if sheweth, that a stone hath thicke substaunce and 〈…〉

Another fumostitie modest needeth sweetelye at the aire, & that commeth of heats that tempereth the substaunce and ooweth and if the substance be put and cleere, the odour is still good and 〈…〉, as it safeth a Myrre, in Muske, and in Am∣ber: and if the subst〈…〉 about is euill and horetle so kinde, and this odour is 〈…〉 and departed in twaine, 〈…〉 and stinking. 〈…〉 o∣dour commeth of head that is 〈…〉 in a thing, that beginneth to appear and in take corruption, as it fareth in fish that is long kept witou salt.

The thirde furmositye is nature, any resolueth and trespareth him by mean, and that of the one substaunce and part, or of vncleene or vnpure: If it com∣meth of cleane substance and pure, then the odour is meanly good, as it fareth in Apples, Uraieis, and 〈…〉: and if it romaneth of vncleene substaunce and vn∣pure, then the odour is some deale stin∣ing, as it fareth of Al••s, Wormwood, and Brimstone.

Also good odour commeth by working, and resolueth the more subtill parts and pure, & ayre beareth the 〈…〉 ther∣of to the braee, and stinking odour and raee commeth by working & heat that dissolueth therke parts and corruptions, and for this default that commeth of working of heate, all thing with small & odour is accounted but 〈…〉 Authors. For many things be soide in substaunce, as it fareth of vineger, Camhore and Rosa, and that is for purenesse of sub∣stance Page  [unnumbered]〈…〉

Page  [unnumbered]And thereby the thing that is toasted, may be perfectly knowe, but is the line of smelling one braueth commeth alone, and thereby commeth but little spirite, that may so perfectly know the kinde of a thing. Also for the thing yt is smelled commeth not but a certaine subtill fu∣mositie medled with aire, that is draw∣en therewith to the lim of smelling, and so by that fumositie the spirite knoweth not so well the kinde of things, but all the thing that is tasted within and with out is layd to the lim of tasting: there∣fore a thing is more verelyer knowen, by sauour than by odour. Then consider heereby, that odour is the propertie or qualitie of a thing, the which qualitie is perceiued and known by smelling, as I∣saac saith: for of the thing that is smel∣led by working of heale commeth a cer∣taine fumositie, and is medled with the aire, as it were a certaine spiritual med∣ling, and chaungeth the aire, and printeth his likenesse therein betweene the nose∣thrills in small peeces of flesh, hanging as heads of breasts, as the spirite of fe∣lyng, and taketh the print and likenesse of the fumositie, and commeth to the braine, and presenteth the print and like∣nesse to the soule. Also odour maketh the body knowen, in the which it is in, and the aire with the which it is meddeled, and printeth his lykened in the spirit of feeling, and sheddeth it selfe abroade in the aire, and pearceth inward, and com∣meth to the braine by blast or by drow∣ing of aire, and wasteth humors by heat thereof, and stancheth noyfull running, & releeueth the spirites by purenes there∣of, and comforteth by vertue the fable∣nes of the heart, and chaungeth the ayre into his owne lykenesse, and putteth off stench and roised things, and maketh it vnknowen, and comforteth the wit of smellyng as well in beasts as in men: for fish loueth good odour, and hate those things that stinke, and so doe Bees.

Aristotle saith, that Ants flye and voyd odour of brimstone, and only venemous wormes and beasts haseth good odour, & those things that smell well. And so the odour of rewe, is noyous to serpents.

And Botraces suffereth not the odour of uines when they 〈…〉 nemous frogges.

De Fetore cap. 4.

STinking is vapour resolued, and commeth of corrupt things, and in∣fecteth the aire, and displeaseth and cor∣rupteth the spirites of smelling: for as good odour feedeth and comforteth the spirite of smellyng, is clenche displeaseth the spirite: for as Isaac saith, fumositie that commeth of a thing of man com∣plection, is not according to the spirit of feeling, for in a body with euill odour be corrupted humours, for the kinde quali∣tie thereof be out passed: Therefore, such odour is contrary to the complecti∣on of mans body. And so horrible odour ••tnesseth corruption of the substance, and commeth either of vnkinde heate, or of corrupt moysture, for when vnkinde heate maketh the humours boyle then it is cause of rotting and stench: and the nourishing of them, breedeth in the sto∣macke corruption, and full euill rotten∣nesse, of the which commeth most euill fumositie that grieueth the head. When onely corrupt moysture to the cause, then is not gendered stench but heauie odor, and for heauie odour, all such hot things is vnwholesome foode: but it grieueth lests then stinking things and rotted, as Galen saith. And this is seene in fresh fish, and smelleth heauely white kinde heate is therin, and stinketh when kind heate is away, and when fish is sodden, by wasting the superfluite of corrupt moysture, heauye odour is taken awaye by heat: & so by sorthing, flesh is commend∣ed, not onely in odour, but in sauour. And so then stench witnesseth corrupti∣on, and sheweth default of kinde heate, and infecteth the aire, & corrupteth the spirite of féeling, and exciteth spewing & wambling, and breedeth head ache, and distempereth all the complection, and is horrible and displeasing is the wit of feelyng. Therefore fish flyeth and voyd∣eth olde stinking wits and wells, & com∣meth into fresh and new, as Aristotle sayeth: also stinke is grieuous to Bees, as be sayth.

Page  [unnumbered]And the Foxes durt stinketh foule, for be commeth into the Brockes den, and defileth it with dirte, and driueth the Broke out of his denne in that wise, as Plinius sayth, and ouercommeth him so with stench, which he may not ouercome with might and strength. Also stenche infected the spirites and sinewes, and chaungeth them out of kinde disposition into vnkinde disposition, as it fareth in Liprous men: their stinking breath, both infecteth and corrupteth whole men. Also stench slayeth the broode of beastes in the dams wombe: therefore Aristo. saith, that a Mare shall cast hir colts, if she smell the snuffe of a Canols. Also, stench may be so strong, that it may be∣cause of sodaine death, for some serpents stinke so foule, that they stay sodainlye with stench, those that doe smell them, as the Cockatrice slayeth with the sight both men and beasts that he seeth, as A∣uicen saith. But sometime it happeneth, that stench helpeth: for some stinking things be put in medicine, as Aloe, Gallianum, Brimstone, All lo•••ds, and other such, which accord to medicines in many causes, for because of lykenes by heauie odour, they draw together rotted humours, that be disposed to stinke, and putteth them out of the bodye. By lyke∣nes stench is horrible to kinde, therefore in presence of stinking medicine, they gather themselues whollye there against, to ouercome their enemie. Also stink∣ing medicine is occasion of out putting of stinking things, for when one stink∣ing thing is taken, another stinking thing to put out therewith. Also stench of well burnt, or felte burnt, or of a Goates horne went, is wholsomly done to the nosethrills to awake him yt hath the Litargie, the sléeping euill, as Const. sayth, for the spirites hate stench, & fléeth therefrom into the inner partes of the braine, and by gathering and comming of them, kinde is help against the euill, & defieth therefore the sooner the matter of the postume, that is cause of ye false sléep, as be saieth. And in the same wise, in causes of the mother, when it is areared too high, and presseth the spirituall mem∣bers, then be stinking things wholsom∣ly done to the nosethrils, & well smelling to the neather partes: for kinde flyeth stench, and commeth to the Mother, and feeleth good odour beneath, and draweth thetherward, and bringeth so with him the Mother downward in due place. And though no good odour be contrary to the other, yet some stench is contrary to an∣other stench, for stench of garlike is con∣trary to the stench of a dounge hill. Also where they doe all stinke, the stenche of one is not felt, for one stench swallow∣eth another. Of things with good smell and odour looke before in Tract. 17. De herbarum speciebus & plantis.

De Sapore. cap. 4.

SAuour is perceiued and knowen by taste, for as coulour is knowen by sight, so sauour is knowen by taste: and is the propertie of a thing, and pro∣fereth it selfe to the name of the soule, by the way of taste, for it is a propertie that is perceiued onely by the tast. This I toll at the beginning, ye Philosophers deeme otherwise of the principles of sa∣uours, then Phisitions doe: but of that strife I force not at this time: for wee search onely Diuersitie, Cause & Wor∣king of sauour, as it belongeth to Holy Writ to seeke some dark meaning of pro∣perties of sauours, and therefore of the other, we force not at this time.

De Saporibus cap. 42.

THen sauour is properly perceiued by the tast, and by the presence thereof in the line of tast, the w•• of tast is pleased or displeased. And Isa. saith in Die. of sa∣uours be eight 〈…〉: sweet, vn••ous firste, bitter, sharpe, sower, lesse sower, & yet lesse sower, & foure recken 〈…〉 with, worish sauour, and to account in thee wise, sauours be ••ne: but werish is vn∣properly called sauour, for it is sauorles I we héereof pertaine to heate & do hot complection, sweete, ••tnous, utts, bit∣ter, & sharpe. The other belong to colde, and to colde complection: sower, & lesse sower, and meane sower and werishnes. Two things make sower complection, & Page  [unnumbered] substaunce,and substaunce is treble, thick, thin and meane. Also hot complec∣tion: moyst to the second degree, with thicke substaunce, maketh sweete sauour, and hot complection, and moyst in the end of the second degree, with subtil sub∣staunce, maketh vnctuous sauour, and is accounted subtill in passing, for it passeth soone this fumositie, and hath thicknesse in deede, and stoppeth therefore, and hath potentiall subtiltie in substaunce, & pas∣seth swiftly therefore. And hot and drye complection in the ende of the second de∣gree, with meane substaunce, maketh salt Sauour: and hot and drye in the third degree, with thicke su•••ance maketh bit∣ter: but complection hot and drye in the fourth degree, with thus substauner, ma∣keth sharpe Sauour, and so fiue Sauors be grounded in heate. But colde com∣plection and drye in the seconde degree, with meane substaunce, maketh biting Sauour, such as is in roses. And colde & drye in the second degree with subtill substaunce, maketh sweete Sauour: and complection colde and moyst in the first degrees, with meane substaunce, maketh werish Sauor, such as is in the white of an egge: and so three Sauours be whi∣tish of subtill substaunce, sharpe, vnctu∣ous and Sower: and three be of thicke substaunce, Sourish, Bitter & Sweete: & three he whitish of meane substance, bi∣ting Sauor, Salt and Wearish.

De dulcedine & eius effectu. ca. 43.

SWeete, Sauour is gendred and com∣meth of temparate heate, and of thick substance & sweetnesse laid to ye tongue,* opened moderately, and beareth mode∣rately and moysteth moderately, and the thicke substaunce entreth moderately & openeth the poores, and abideth in long seene. The soule both liking in tempe∣ratenes, and so kinde vnto more liking in sweetnes than in other Sauors. Al∣so nothing is so temperate and so such according to the euen complection of mā¦kinde, as swéetnesse of Sauor, and ther∣fore the complection of mankind, that is nigh to the euen temperatenes, hath ly∣king in Sweetnes that is like thereto.

De Sapore dulci. ca. 44.

TO make swéete Sauour, soure Ele∣ments come together, but not all a∣lyke much, for the fire and ayre posseh the other, and so of fire commeth heat, & of aire commeth moysture. The which two, heat & moysture be needfull to all ge∣neration of things: for temperate heat working in moysture, heateth and tem∣pereth the moysture and humour, and clenseth the earthy humour, and maketh the substaunce softe: and so the firie and earthie parts increase, & the moyst wet∣eth thicke, and so thicke substaunce is gendered, in the which sweete Sauor to grounded, and so sweete Sauor without wem of biting and sharpnes, passeth all other Sauours as Isaac sayth. For the kinde thereof is nigh to blood, and glad∣deth therefore and cleanseth and moyst∣eth the lion of last temperately, without trauell of kinde. Sweetnes is sometims cleane and pure, and containeth meanly soure qualyties, as it fareth in Sugar: & is somtime medled with gleimie things and thicke, as it fareth in Daies: and is somtime medled with biting Sauour, as it fareth in Honie. The first Sweet∣nes is most according to kinde: but it happeneth somtime that it noyeth kind, when kinde taken more then it may de∣fie, for ofte in ye wise Sweetnes is cause of some stopping, for superfluitie of sweet things is gleimed in the poores, fille sweete things softeneth the members, & washeth, dryeth and cleanseth and nou∣risheth lyttle by kinde, but happelye it softeneth, for moysture maketh matter softe, and heate dissolueth and tempreth, for the matter that was thicke, is now made softe, and draweth out and clean∣seth sweete things, and nourisheth lyttle by kinde, for they be thicke in substance and may not for thicknes come into the poores: and also it stoppeth the mouthe of the veynes, and saileth appetite full s••e: but it happeneth that they nou∣rish much, for they be lyke to the com∣plection of mankinde, and ••endo there∣to, and be therfore taken in great quan∣tity: & for that they be thick in substance, Page  [unnumbered] heate working therein, gendereth much bloud. And sweetnesse medled with gle∣mie matter, nourisheth much: but it happeneth that it breedeth manye gre∣uings in the body, as Isaac saieth. For sweetnesse breedeth and dra〈…〉 to rotting, and breedeth swellyng, and hur∣lyng and ••••ling in the wombe, and 〈◊〉 soone and moueth discontinual fe∣uer, or els increaseth cholaricke swel∣ling. Then cleane sweetnesse and pure, and not infected by medlyng of another thing, is among all sauoure, most plea∣sing to the taste, and freend to kinde, and most lyke therto, and restoreth in the bo∣dy the thinge that is lost, and most com∣forteth f••ble vertues and spirits, & nou∣risheth specially all the members: For Isaac sayeth, that sweetnesse is the pro∣per sauour of nourishing, if it be stedfast and abiding in the members, and passeth not soone out of the members: and no∣thing norisheth, that is not medled with sweetnesse, and so sauoures, that be con∣trarie to sweetnesse, be contrary to the complection of mankinde, and norisheth therefore little or right nought. Of med∣lyng of contrarye sauoures, commeth a meane sauour, in the which is some sweetnesse hid, and because thereof, that meane sauour is according to kind, and nouriseth the bodye, as it fareth in dy∣uers sauces, and also in Pigmentes, in 〈◊◊〉 be contrarie things: and so sweet∣nesse is head and well of all lyking sa∣uours, as wite is head and well of all 〈◊〉, as it is sayd in lib. de sensu &〈◊〉. And thereto is sayd, that black∣••••• is priuation of white & cleere 〈◊〉 as bitternesse is priuation of sweet∣nesse 〈◊〉 sweetnesse is friende to the 〈◊〉 members, for it easeth them, & 〈◊◊〉 all roughnesse thereof, & clee∣•••• the voice, and cleanseth the wosen 〈◊◊〉 and openeth the pipes & 〈◊〉 of the lunges and of the breast, & 〈◊◊〉 all 〈…〉esse of ye wo∣•• and of the throte, and destroyeth the 〈◊◊〉 souperfluitie of humors about 〈…〉uall members and bringeth all 〈◊〉 of the spirite and of life in due 〈◊◊◊〉 and abateth all the 〈◊◊◊〉 and wasteth stuffing moysture in the members. By occasion, some sweete things was ma∣ny euills in the body, for they be vnctu∣ous, and breede swellyng: for when the sweete resolution, by heat is more than to the 〈…〉 of the moysture re∣solued, or at the beast the w••sing, of re〈…〉 there must be much 〈…〉 & vapour gendereth, and so the place most 〈…〉 stretch by the vapour, and there∣of commeth swellyng, ache, and •••r∣iyng: and for the seeme c•••se, sworde things 〈…〉 appetite, for 〈…〉 of thicke substaunce they stil meane the eyde stomacke, and stop the wa••s, and also they increase red Cholera: for be∣cause, they be hot, they 〈…〉 hu∣mors, & gree therefore them that euils that come of shall 〈…〉. Also, it breedeth 〈…〉

Page  [unnumbered]

De Sapore vnctuoso. 45.

*VNctuous sauour is gendered & com∣meth of heate and of moysture in subtill substance, & therefore vnctuo••ie ••y do so the tongue, openeth & dissolueth, and subtill substaunce entereth full some, and for the 〈…〉 thereof is but little vn∣temperate, the soule maye take ye sweet∣nes thereof, and hath most lyking therto. In the gendering of vnctuous sauo••, is more of fire then of other elements, and after rs is most of aire. Then the more working of heat of moyst matter dissol∣teth the more, and cleanseth & putteth: and so the watrie partes and earthes a∣bate, andstrie parts and m••• increase, & so the reall commeth betweene sauour.

Uctuou•• gets 〈…〉 appetite, & brée∣deth 〈…〉, for when this taken in the stomacke it is ••••ture and departed into fumositie, and commeth vpward, for it is all 〈…〉 substaunces, and filleth and stoppeth the mouth of the stomacke, and abateth appetite and bredeth wombling. Also vnctuous meete 〈…〉 aboue, for the lightnesse thereof warreth vpwarde, for it is full of fumositie, and letteth al∣so dipretion, and it stoppeth the roughnes of the stomacke, & 〈…〉teth with 〈…〉 and so the ••dde that is taken, passeth narrowe without digestion, for it maye and be felt: such meate with vnctuous•• as sweete, smooth, and slidder, and passeth out therefore without dige∣stion. Also such 〈…〉 nourisheth but li∣tle. for it stoppeth soone ye mouthe of the 〈…〉 and litle is taken therof, & what is taken thereof, is soone wasted, for his subtil 〈…〉 also of heat, for 〈…〉 nourisheth not, but by meanes of aire, & vnctuous things passe soone into sub∣stance of aire: & so vnctuous things that haue more water, pertain lesse to ye mat∣ter of aire, and if appeareth by Swies greace, that féedeth lesse & fire, than doth shéepe greace of allow, for the Swies greace hath lesse of aire, & more of wa∣ter, then shéepes greace. Also vnctuous meete norisheth •••er heat, and therefore flesh is forbidden in feuer Ac. for dred of fatnes yt is medled therwith, yt feedeth and exciteth ye seuerous heat. It stoppeth also ye splene & the liuer for actuall thick∣nes thereof, for such meat in soone drawen because of swéetnes therof, and thicknes therof stoppeth soone the pores. Also such meate is cause of head ach, for much fu∣mosutie siteth of head, and stretcheth the tender 〈…〉 of ye braine. Also vnc∣tuous meate easeth the spirituall mem∣bers, as it fareth of butter, but soone vnc∣tuous things grieue ye brest for drines & is therein, as it fareth of oyle of note, for such haue not pere 〈…〉. All such things lesseth & easeth sor•• without the body, & 〈…〉, and ripeth Po∣stumes and hetches, and gendreth mat∣ter by moysture thereof, for it dissolueth and tempreth more then it wasteth.

De Sapore salso. cap. 46.

SAlt sauour commeth of heat & drines in meane substance, for passing heat & drines openeth many pores & holes: for drines with heat laxeth 〈…〉 & vnsend∣eth & constraineth & bendeth wt colde, & therfore much substaunce therof entreth vnto ye pores, & for ye parts be greatly de∣parted, & much substance entreth & com∣meth therin: therfore ye soule hath not li∣king in ye presence of it, hath disly∣king therof. In Salt sauor •• 4. elemēts in certaine proportion, & not euen like much of all, for fire & earth haue ye ma∣ste but moderately, & of moderate fire commeth moderate heate, & of moderate driues & moderate heat, commeth mode∣rate boyling & seething of moysture and so ye watry places and 〈…〉 be dissolued, & turned into meane firie parts and by moderate 〈…〉 ye substance moderately drieth, & so therfore liueth hot substaunce by heate. Salt things cleanseth and tem∣pereth and departeth moysture, if they be taken into the body, and biteth ye sto∣macke: and the gate being so bitten, be moued to put out moysture yt is dissol∣ued. And salt things, cleanseth and softe∣neth hardnes of flesh: for by heat & dri∣nes thereof, they depart the fast super∣fluitie of moysture, and so they mo••fie. Also 〈…〉 things harden substaunce For with heate and drynesse thereof, Page  [unnumbered]〈…〉

De Sapore amaro. ca. 47.

BItter sauour commeth of heat in the third degree, and drynesse in the se∣cond and thicke substance, & so heat with drinesse maketh great departing, & so the instrument of tast is greeued, & the sauor is bitter, greeuous, and contrary to tast In the 〈…〉 of this Sauour, but foure elements in a certaine proportion 〈…〉 fire & earth haue ye mastry 〈…〉 earth 〈…〉 of great mastry of heat commeth 〈…〉, and so the mastry partes 〈…〉 be the more dissolued & made 〈…〉 earthy thicke, but for the dry∣nesse doth 〈…〉 mastry, the substaunce •••deth thicke & not made then. And by working of drynesse and of heat, bitter∣nesse is grounded therein, and all bitter thinges 〈…〉 to the tast more then any other things with simple sauour, for it maketh more the parting are dea∣ling, & though other things haue lesse heate then sharpe things of sauour yet it maketh more dissolution and depar∣ting in the tongue, and groweth more by pressing & throsing. Also bitter thinges purgeth Cholera, for they be like therto in complection: or for in Cholera be ma∣ny pores that take the bitter things that maketh the Cholera fléeting and things and w••ing, and bringeth it out in that wise. Also bitter things exciteth appetite, for it putteth out Cholera, that is also gathered, as a thing that is light aboue the mouth of the stomacke, & feedleth the appetite. And also thicknes of bitter things helpeth therto, for they hold down the meat in the gr〈…〉 of the stomack, & to the ouer partes bee hold, and of k••h meat. Also better things vnstoppeth the 〈…〉 and the sauor, for with heat it ope∣neth the p••res, and dissolueth and bea∣reth downe the 〈…〉 that be dissol∣ued with thicknes, & putteth them out Also bitter things be cōtrary to worms, and slaieth long wormes in the wombe and no wonder: for such wormes come of corrupt fleume, and liue also by fleame. And it greeueth ye spirituall members, & neuertheles both by sharp substance, & by great drynes they be made made 〈…〉ting & f〈…〉ting. Also bitter thinges saueth the vtter things, for if they bee tempered with some licour, they haue those three, that needeth to conseruations and sauing, they 〈◊〉 as much as dessolue, and en∣ter deepe in the thing, and lieth in thicke substance, and hardeneth the thing, & ma∣keth Page  [unnumbered] it the lesse passible. Also it helpeth colde ouls and the palsie, dissoluing & wasting the matter, and dryeth colde scabbes, and openeth also the wayes of the bledder and of the reines, and brea∣keth the stone, and comforteth the mo∣ther, and exciteth and bringeth out men∣struall superfluitie. And though it greene the tast, yet it is more needfull to many other things then is sw••• things.

De Sapore acuto. ca. 48.

SHarpe sauour commeth of heat and of drinesse, that is in the fourth degree in subtill substaunce, and thereof commeth right great opening of poores and depar∣ting of parts, & entreth for the substance thereof is subtil, & commeth and heateth the lim of tast with sharpnesse thereof: In this sauour bee foure Elements, but not all alike, for there is more of fire & of earth then of other Elementes, and is therefore sharp & hot because of mastry of fire, and full drye because of earth, of great mastrye of heate commeth greate boyling, and turneth these parts of earth and of water into firye partes: And the dry parts be sharped, and great drinesse maketh the substance dry, subtill, & thin, & so sharp sauour commeth of great ma∣stry of heat & of drinesse in subtill mat∣ter. And thinne things with sharpe sa∣uour biteth, and be full hot and dry, and maketh dissolution & departing, for sub∣till substaunce commeth into the partes and departeth them a sunder, and there∣fore there is biting and fretting. Al such things fret and dissolue, for by qualitye and by substance it dissolueth and depar∣teth parts from parts, and entreth deepe within, and it comforteth the vertue of appetite, for it wasteth superfluity in the members: And so when the poores bee voide and cleansed, because of the voy∣dance the appetite is the stronger. Also with sharpnesse it pricketh and biteth the sinewes of feeling, and exciteth appetite in that wise. Also such biting things no∣rish but little, for of great heat and dry∣nesse commeth sooner burning then dige∣stion, and therefore it nourisheth lyttle. And be also by their complection contra∣ry to kinde, & be therfore abhominnable. And so kinde desireth them not, but put∣teth them of.

De Sapore •••so. cap. 49.

〈…〉 be foure Elements in certaine proporti∣on, but not all alike 〈…〉: There is meane 〈…〉, and of meane mastrye: Of earth commeth meane 〈…〉: Cow beareth downe the heate, therefore the heate maketh but little boyling, and re∣solueth s•••, and wasteth the partes of fire and ayre, as the more 〈…〉 parts, and dissolueth the parts of earth and of water, and maye not wast and consume them at full, for the fire is lyttle. And so thicke parts bee made subtill and not wasted and consumed. And so colde and drynesse haue the mastry in subtill sub∣staunce, and thereof commeth sowre sa∣uour. Sowre things make good appetite, for because of colde and drynesse it mo∣ueth towarde the middle, and so it bea∣reth downe the meate to the grounde of the stomacke. And so the mouth of the stomacke is voide, and feeleth the voyd∣nesse, and desireth meate. For desire is working compowned of vertue of kinde appetite, and the vertue of feeling. Also sowre things laeth the full 〈…〉, But if the stomacke •• voide, it findeth but lyttle moysture. And sowre things dryeth it with drynesse, and bin∣deth it with colde. All such things ope∣neth stoppings of the splene, and of the liuer, for it openeth and carueth and de∣parteth humours in the poores, not by qualitie, but by subtill substance. Also such things greeueth the spirituall mem∣bers, & maketh them stretch with cold∣nesse, and roughe with drinesse. And if Page  [unnumbered] they be put in the body without, they smite againe hot humours, & so it doth in legges swollen, for with holding of men∣strual bloud or Emoroides, swageth and abateth soone, if they be washed in hot vineger. Looke of this matter before in Tractatu de Aceto. li. 17. in the treatise of vines and of wine.

De Sapore Pontico. cap. 50.

Sapor Ponticus is sowrish sauour, and is ingendered and commeth of colde & drynesse in the third degree in the sub∣staunce that is thicke, and such thinges layd vnto the tongue, constraineth & bin∣deth, and the substance entreth and fast∣neth the parts, and that sauour is called Ponticus. In this sauour that is called Ponticus be foure Elements in greate vneuennesse, for water and earth haue the mastry, and fire and aire be ther vn∣der of great mastry. Of water commeth strong cold, and of earth commeth great drynesse. Therefore there may not bee transmutation and chaunging, for there to default of heate and of humour: And so for colde and drynesse haue there the mastrye, the substaunce must needes hir boystous and thicke, of mastrye of colde and of drynesse: this sauour Ponticus hath this property, as Isa. saith: for souri∣nes wt liking sauour is the more liking, & with vnliking sauour the more vnly∣king: and the cause is, for if sowrenesse wath sweete things and vnctuous cōmeth into ye pores, it maketh the sweetnesse a∣bide there the longer time, & the lyking to the faster therein, & abideth there long time: and so it faceth of vnliking sauour, and therefore it is, yt euer the neerer the bone, ye sweeter is the flesh, for the bones be melancholike colde and dry, and flesh in his kinde is sanguine and sweete, and so there is sowrenes & sweetnes medled, and that for the more liking. Also there∣fore Harts flesh is liking, and Rothers also, for sowrenesse of complection of the beast medled with sweetnes of the flesh. And the contrary is of wormewoode & of Fumitori, for of bitternes be medled with them, as 〈…〉 & other then they bee, the more bitter they be, & greeueth the tast ye more, and sowrish things exciteth appe∣tite, and lareth after meat, and the cause is, for they beare downe the meat, as it were a presser or a wrencher, and stop∣peth & bindeth before, for they constraine & kinde the sinewes, and stop the wayes with thicke substance, & with colde and drynesse, & so meat that is taken is held & maye not passe with their thicknesse, and stoppeth the splene and the liuer, and bredeth passions, Colica passio, & Illiaca passio, and stoppeth the guts with their thicknesse, & letteth out passing of durt and of fumositie, & gréeueth also the spi∣rituall members, for they make them rough and dry, and stauncheth tasting & sp••ng, if they be layd to duely without, and abateth hot swelling, and staunch∣eth bleeding, and smiteth the sinews, and maketh the teeth on edge.

De Sapore Stiptico. cap. 51.

SApor stipticus is also a sowrish sa∣uour, & commeth of cold and of drines in meane substaunce. In this sauour bee 4 elements in a certaine proportion, but not all like: for water & earth haue ma∣strye therin, but not so much as in other sowrish sauour that is called Ponticus. Of water commeth cold, & of earth com∣meth drinesse, & colde abateth the heate, & therfore the heat maketh but litle boi∣ling, and the substance is some deals re∣solued, but not wasted, but some deale fastned by drynesse, and for drynes may not all forbi it, nor wast all, ther leueth meane substaunce, and is diuers, and other sauour then Ponticus yt commeth of the same causes, though it be more strong in thicke matter. Therefore this sourishnes that is called Ponticus, as I∣si. saith, yt setteth onely seuen diuers sa∣uors, accounted Stipticus, vnder Ponti∣cus. And he meaneth, that Ponticus is more sowre then Stipticus, and so they be not diuers of diuers kind, but onely that one is more sowre, & the other lesse sowre, and therfore either acordeth with other in working, but the one worketh lesse, and the other more.

Page  [unnumbered]

De Sapore insipido. ca. 52.

THe ninth sauour is called wearish∣nesse or vnsauourinesse, and that may be sayde in two wayes. Priuatiue and Positiue: Priuatiue is called vnsa∣uourie, if the sauour therof may not bee knowen by the tast of the sauour, as the sauour of water is not knowen by the tast, for great vnlykenesse thereof to the lim of tast, for water is simple in com∣parison to the tongue, and taketh foure things in his composition: Positiue sa∣uour is called vnsauourie, that is not knowen by the wit of tast, passing the first-degree toward a stronger sauour, as the white of an Egge, of the which the substaunce is meane, and heat and cold∣nesse passeth not distemperately the first degree: Such wearish things be Courds, Citrone, Meldnes, and other such, that be more vsed in medicine thē in other meat, and nourisheth but little, for they haue no lyking sauour, but their substaunce is fleeting, and abateth thirst with moy∣sture & colde, & quencheth Cholera, and heat, and increaseth Fluma, and bréedeth Feauers Colidiane, & festureth or exci∣teth all other fleamatike cold and moyst passions. Wearish sauour commeth of colde and moysture in meane substance. Therin as in other be foure Elements, but not in euen proportion, for water & aire haue the principal mastry, and earth the secondary mastrye: Then for strong colde and meane drynesse, the dry parts and ayry be chaunged into watry parts and earthy, but for mastrye of moisture withstandeth, that the substaunce maye not come to the drynesse of earth, ye sub∣staunce leaueth meane with mastrye of colde and of moysture, that is because of this sauour, that is by a misse vse called vnsauourie. Of simple sauour and of di∣uersitie and kinde thereof, this shall suf∣fice for this time. All this is taken of Isaac, of Galen, and of Constantine, au∣thours of medicine. And some sauours be compounded, as colours be meddeled & odours also. And these sauours worke diuersitie by diuers composition, for it worketh one wise in standing thinges, & other wise in fleeting things: other wise in hearbes and trees, and other wise in men & in other beasts. Heereof it is trea∣ted before in bookes of kindes & proper∣ties of thinges, and of bodies with soule and without soule: but of licours, in the which sauours be grounded. I holde it good to fulfil that that lacketh in the other bookes.

De Liquore. cap. 53.

LIcour is fleeting and is gendered by digestion in hearbs, trees, and grasse, & also in bodies of beasts, and is wrong & thrusted out of medled bodyes by vio∣lence and also by strength, and not that euery humour is called licour, but onely ye humour, yt which commeth by craft or els by kinde out of hearbs, out of trees, and out of bodyes of men, and of other beasts. In lykewise as milke and vrine issueth and commeth out of beastes, and wine and Oyle commeth of trees, and honnie commeth of flowres, and Sider of fruit, Ale of Corne, and some woose commeth of woode, Crabs, and of Car∣rudes. And among these licours, some be simple, and some compowned: Com∣powned be those that be confect & made of diuerse things medled together. And those be simple that liue and abide with∣out anye meddeling, right as they come first out of the substance. But no lycour is so simple as water, for it abideth in purenesse of Element. All other licours and humours be made of the foure Ele∣ments, but those that be not meddeled with other be called simple, in the which simple qualities of Elementes haue the mastry by the first composition and ma∣king, and be first purged and cleansed of drafts of earth, by kinde or by crafte. And by diuerse meddeling of licours and of qualities of Elements, that haue the mastry, licours haue diuers complec∣tions, odours, and sauours. For licours, in the which heate & moysture haue the mastry, be most swéete: And these, in the which heat & drynesse haue the mastrie, be most sweete: in which is heate with drynesse, and most sharpe: in the which colde and drynesse, be most sowre and Page  [unnumbered] sowrish: but in the which cold and moi∣sture haue the mastry, be werish and vn∣sauoury, as it fareth of Ptisane, & other such. And same licours by drawing of heat of the Sun, commeth when ye rinde be slit,* as Balsamus and Terebintina, & Lacrimis, that is first cleansed by heat of the Sunne, and fastned and turned in∣to the substaunce of Mirre And some li∣cour is pressed and wrong out of fruit of trees, as wine, oile, and other such: and some by great craft and burning in cer∣tain moysture, yt cōmeth at endes of cer∣taine woode, while it burneth, as doeth Colophonia, and Nash, Pitch, and some Oyle of the tree Iuniperus, & other such. And some commeth of iuyce of hearbes, as Apium & Aloe, and other such that be dried with heat of the Sun or of fire. And some commeth of the dewe of hea∣uen, and falleth on floures, and bee fast∣ned there aboute, and made by crafte of Bees, as honnie. And some commeth of veines of the earth, as water of Salte wells, and water Nitrum and Allome, & other such. These differences, properties, and causes of licours be sufficiently trea∣ted and shewed before, lib. 17. de herbis & Arboribus, & earum Succis. And lib. 16. de Venis terre, & li. 8. de passioni∣bus aeris, where it is treated of the kind of Manna and of honnie, that be accoun∣ted and gendered of the ayre: neuerthe∣lesse of honnie somewhat shall be sayde, and also of Milke and of Whey and of Butter, that be bulked of voders and scales of beastes, of the which it is not much spoken of before.

De Melle cap. 54.

HOnnie is called Melle, and hath that name (as Isidore sayeth, lib. 20. of Mellisle in Greeke, as much to saye in English, as Bees. For the Greekes call Mellisle, Bees, for by wonderfull craft of kinde, Bees arayeth bunnye, that is first made of dew of the ayre, & is found in leaues of Reede. Therefore Virgil sayth.

Prutinus aer mellis coelestia dona.

The heauen giueth Honnie to the aire. And so yet in Inde and in Arabia honnie is founde in boughes and in leaues hanging as it were Salt, as hee sayeth. And generallye all honnye is sweete. But in Sardini, honny is bitter, for therein is full much Woormewoode, and Bees liueth thereby. Phisitions tel, that treate of kind of things, and name∣ly Galen, ye horne is vnprofitable meat, and greeuous to children and to young men, in the which to much heate, and ac∣cording to full olde men and cold, with wine and with hot meates. Huc vsque Isidorus, libro. 20. capitulo. 1.

Also honnie is most sweete lycour, by medicinall craft gendred of most pure matter, but by heate of the Bees that gendereth the honie, by medling of some hot thing with honnie, therein is sharp∣nesse meddeled with sweetnesse. The sweetnesse of honnie is more hotte and lesse moyst then other sweetnesse, as I∣saac sayeth. Then honnie hath much heate and ayre, and lesse of earth, and of water, and much drynesse both of fire and sharpnes also, and lesse cold humor. Therefore honnie is deemed hot and drye in the end of the second degree: But for the substance therof is nigh meane & temperate, honny cleanseth much, & wa∣sheth, and maketh subtill and thin, and carueth with heat thereof, and departeth thick humours in the body. And for hon∣ny is hot, it is nigh sharpe, and pricketh therefore the guts, and moueth them to put out drafts and dirt. Also such sweet∣nesse is the sweetnes of hony, with much sharpnesse and heat, and stoppeth not the waye of the splene and of the lyuer so much, as doth sweetenesse that is cleane & pure, and without medling of other sa∣uour, as Isaac saith in cap. of foure di∣uersities of sweetnesse and sauour. Also for honny is euen and temperate, honny is much according and friend to kinde, and likeneth it selfe much to the members & stancheth with thicknesse grieuous run∣nings, and straineth pores & holes that be too wide, and kepeth and laueth well temperate kind, & letteth humours that be ready & disposed to ye flure. Neuerthe∣lesse, yet hony laxeth grieuous humore. For honny hath contrary dispositions of matter in the which it worketh, for it hardneth matter that is soft, & losineth and departeth matter that is harde. Page  [unnumbered] As Isaac sayeth, Honnie keepeth and sa∣ueth and clenseth and tempereth bitter∣nesse, and is therefore put in conserua∣tiues, and clenseth medicines to temper bitternesse of Spicery, as it is sayde in Antido. N. But rawe honnie not well clarified, is right venteous, and breedeth curling and swelling in the wombe, and turneth soone into euill humours, and stoppeth by his gleaming the liuer and the splene, and kindleth Cholera, & bree∣deth the Feauer that is called Diuina, and stretcheth and haleth the body vnder the small ribbes. And greeueth them yt haue the euills Collica passio, and Illi∣aca passio. Then as Constantine sayth and Isaac in Dietis, honnie hath diuers working, for some honnie is wholesome and keepeth and saueth health, and lax∣eth in some disposition, and breedeth euil humours and venime. And the more red it is, the more hot it is and sharpe, and departeth the more, and thirleth & clean∣seth. And the more white it is, the lesse hot it is and sharpe, and the more sweet it is, and more pure, and with good smel, the better it is.

(*Plinie, although in his 11. booke of his naturall historie. Chap. 8. hee writeth yt honnie is gathered of the flowres of all Trees, and Sets or Plants, except Sor∣rell, and the hearbe called Chenepode, (which some call Goosefoote) yet hee affir∣meth that it descendeth from the aire: for in ye 12. chap. of the same booke he wri∣teth thus: This commeth from ye ayre at ye rising of certeine starres, and especi∣ally at ye rising of Sirius, and not before the rising of Vergiliar, which are ye sea∣uen starres, called Pleades, in ye Spring of ye day, for then on ye leaues are found a fat dew yt tasteth sweete, and is clam∣mie, which after is become corrupt, &c. This is ye mill dewe, which Bees take least of, and is gone by ye heat of ye Sun, or euer the Bees flie abroad, Plinie heere∣in knew much but not all thinges, and they are not wise yt will leane so much vpon Plinie, as it there were no better knowledge found sithence his time.

Of the Elementall ayre proceedeth the originall of honnie, and is gathered by ye Bees from flowres and hearbes, & from the Trunke of ye Bees is distilled ye moist and then licour (and not vomited) ye cla∣mie substance gathered vpon ye smallest legges, and so brought to ye hiue, & there wrought by such arte, as passeth euerye dreaming skill to surmise.)

Of Hunnie.

HUnny is of great quantitie in north regions,* as Plinie writeth in ye .11. booke of naturall Historyes, & 13. chap. as in some places of Germanie, honnye is found in such quantitye, yt there haue bene serue honnie combes of eight foote long, and blacke in the hollowe part, &c. Honnie as well in meate as in drunke, is of incomperable efficacie, for it not onely cleanseth, altereth, and 〈…〉, but also it long time preserueth ye vn∣corrupted, which is put into it, insomuch as Plinie sayth: Such is the nature of Honnie, yt if suffereth not the bodyes to puinsie. And he affirmeth, yt he old see an Hippocentaure (which is a beast, halfe man, and halfe horse) brought in honnye to Claudius ye Emperour, out of Aegipt to Rome: and he telleth also of one Pol∣lio Romulus, who was aboue a hundred yeares olde, of whom Augustus ye Em∣perour demaunded, by what meanes hee liued so long, and returned still ye vigour or liuelynesse of body and minde, Pollio annswered, yt hee did it inwarde with Mead, (which is drink made with honie & water) & outward wt Oyle. Democri∣tus was also of ye same opinion, a great Philosopher, and being 100. yeares olde, & .9. prolonged his lyfe certaine dayes wt the euapouration of honie. Arestox∣eneus writeth of this excellent matter, most wonderfully wrought, and gathe∣red by the little Bée, as well of ye pure dew of heauen, as of the most subtil hu∣mour of sweete and vertuous hearbes, and flowres, be made licours commodi∣ous to mankinde, as Mead, Matheglyn, and Oximell, Mead, is made of parte of honnie, and foure times so much of pure water, and boiled vntill no skimme doe remaine, is much commended of Galen, drinke in Summer for preseruing of health. It cleanseth the brest and lungs. Page  [unnumbered] Matheglin, which is most vsed in Wales, by reason of hot hearbe boyled with ho∣ny, is better then Mead, and more com∣forteth a cold stomacke, if it be perfectly made, and neyther too new nor too stale. Oximell, 11 where the one parts of Us∣neges is pu〈…〉ouble so much of honnye, foure times so much of water, and that beeing boyled to a third part, and cleane skimmed, is good to cleanse the stomacke of fleame, or matter vndigested, so that it be not red cholar, &c. Sir Tho. Eliot. chap. 22. to, 15. to his booke, The Castle of •••ith.

De Fauo. cap. 55.

THE honnie combe is called Fatius, and hath that name of Fauendo, nourishing and succouring, for honnye medled with waxe is called Fauus. For in Cells made of Waxe by a wonder∣full craft or skill Bees gather honnye, and keepe and succour the lycour there∣with. And so the honnie combe is called Fauus as it were Fouus or Fouens nou∣rishing, comforting, and succouring, for ye honnie combe comforteth and succou∣reth ye honie therwithin Or else it hath this name Fuus, of Fauus, for it is full sauourable and lyking to the tast, and to eate. Therefore Isidore sayeth, that Fauus commeth of this word of Greeke Fagui, for honnie is more eaten then dronke, Fagiu in Greeke, is to vnder∣stand. 〈…〉: But some men doe cast Fa∣uus, honny wrong out of ye waxe, & pur∣ged at best, in the which the tast ineth much sweetnesse. A certain beast is cal∣led Melota, and hath that name for it lo∣ueth and desireth honnye: and so this name Melus and Melota also, commeth of this name. Mel. honnie, as Huguti∣on sayth. Also the Beare loueth honnie most of anye thing. And he breaketh trees, and climbeth on trées for loue of honnie combes, and not without peryll, as Aristotle sayth, libro. 18. For some∣time among honnie déepe in the hiue. breedeth certeine small Wormes, as it were Spiders, and doe spin and weaue and make webbes, and haue the mastry of all the Hiue, and therefore the hon∣nye rotteth and is corrupte. Also theyr honnye is good when it is taken out of new waxe, for honnie that long abideth in olde waxe, waxeth redde, and the cor∣ruption of honnie is lyke to the corrup∣tion of wine in flakets, & shall therefore be taken in time. And honnye is good when it so lyke golde, as he sayth. Also hée sayth, that Bees doe sit on the hiue and sucke the superfluitie that is in the honnie combes. And if they did not so, the honnye should bée corrupt that is in the combes, and Spiders should be gen∣dered. They sit on the combes, and doe kéepe bustly that sos Spiders haue no mastry, and eate them if they find them, and should els all die.

De Mulso. cap. 56.

MVlsum is drinke made of Water or of Wine, and honnye meddeled together: And the Greekes call that drinke Mellicratum, as Idiomel, that is made of the iuyce of Maces, and of honnye meddeled: And Rodomell, that is made of the iuyce of Roses, and hony medled.

De Medone. cap. 57.

MEth is called Medo or Medus, as it were Melus, and is drinke made of honnie and of water well sowen af∣ter the best manner. And breedeth swel∣ling and curling in the wombe, and hard gnawing, if it be rawe, and the ho∣ny not well puted, and forasmuch as it commeth sée•• into fumositye, it com∣meth vp to the head, and grieueth it with diuerse euills. And if it be well sod and stale, it is liking to the tast, and cler∣reth the voyce, and cleanseth the woden and the throate, and the pipes of the lungs, and gladdeth and comforteth the heart, and nourisheth and fatneth the bo∣dye, but to them that haue sore lyuers and splenes, and the stone, it is lesse ac∣cording,* for it stretcheth and stoppeth the wayes, and it is ordered with Mir∣tus or Ruscum, and with other hearbes of good smell & odour, to bée more whol∣some Page  [unnumbered] some and the better smelling, and to in∣dure and last the longer.

De Clareto. cap. 58.

CLaret is made of wine and of honnie and swéete spicerie: For good spicerye is grounde to small pouder, and put in a linnen bag that is faire and cleane, with honie or with Sugar, and the best wine is put vppon the spicery, as who maketh lye. And the Wine shall be oft put ther∣oft, vntill the vertue of the Spicerye bee incorporate vnto the Wine, and be clari∣fied. And so Claret draweth of Wine might and sharpnesse, and holdeth of the Spicery good smell and odour, and bor∣roweth of the honnye's wirrinesse and sa∣uour.

(*The olde kinde of Apoctasse.)

De Pigmento. cap. 59.

PIe〈…〉, as 〈…〉 sayth, hath shal ••ame as it were Pili ment〈…〉, quod 〈…〉 in pila est 〈…〉ll••. that in beaten in a ••orter of the which Spi∣cery by Pigmentane craft, is made ly∣king or lake and Ela••••pes and so they that sell and grinde Spicerye. And make confectious thereof be called Pig∣menta••.

(*A blauncher of drugges, whereof are made speciall fulle〈…〉 pouder, per∣fumes and Wines.)

De Oximel. cap. 60.

*OXimell is called sowre honny, for the matter thereof is confect of honnye and of vineger: For first vineger is foode with necessarye hearbe and aing roote: and then the Uineger is strained and cleansed, & then is put thereto pure hony & clens clarified at best. And is sod again on easie fire & soft, vntill it be thicke: & is pured with the white of an egge tempe∣red with vineger, & put in the Oximell, when it a little sod,* for the egge draweth to it selfe al the alth of hony, & maketh it fléet aboue: then the Pigmentaries or the Lech skimmeth away the filth waryly with a feather, & then the Oximel is put in a cleane bore. And Oximel is giuen in hot water to de••eng & softning of harde matter, & to open pores, & so temper stop∣ping. In medicine might hightly breede peril, but it were prepared to bring out the drater some, &if digestion be before taking of Oximell. To shed doinges by right shed crafte of water and of Sugar with diners spicery is made a strop. Now frtting and larative, now rosens & stop¦ping, now compouned, and now simple.

De Cera. cap. 61.

WAre is the draste or dregs of hour, & within the substance therof Bees gather the licours of hony spedled with the drast of wae. as Aristotle saith li. 8. Therefore who that will keep hony in dip purenesse, that depen if by time from the substaunce of War. And 〈…〉 hath this propertye, that among •••rustes of 〈…〉, it flasth aboue, and fleiketh not to the bossome when it is ••f, but com∣meth vpward & storeth aboue, and that maketh the parth of fire & of ayre. that hard the ma•••y therin. And to ••lee molten in spae bra••th down ye water & oteth aboue, for that in so much light∣nesse of ayre, and ••••leth vpwarde be∣cause therof, and the more new waxe is ye better it smelleth, & to the more pure & ye better to work, & the more able to take impression & printing of diuerse gened ye shapes: and both figures printed and letters written therein doieth & lesseth the longer time, and such Waxe is called Uirgins waxe. Also Waxe is good and néedfull to many doinges, for it is good in medicinen and in diuers ointmentes and confections: For it heateth & resol∣deth, tempereth, openeth, ripeth, & draw∣eth and wasteth vapours: And is also good to féeding of light, and therefore waxe serueth on temples & on Altars of Gods, and on tables of Lorde or and cer∣teine doings and vsages be called Cere∣monie, & haue ye name of Cera, waxe,* or of Cereis, waxe tapers, for in ye Ceremo∣nies of ye temples, waxe tapers were of∣fered, & yet be, as Hugutlon saith. And so they yt serue in churches of waxe can∣dles be called Ceroserarij, as they yt ser∣ueth Page  404 in halls of kings and of Bishoppes be called Primicerij,* as be sayth. Also letters be sealed with waxe cloased & pa∣tent: And priuitie is hidde vnder Waxe, & priuiledges be confirmed with Waxe. Tables be filled and dressed with waxe, simple or coloured, and therein be letters & diuers figures or shapes written or planed by the office of p••ntlls. And for diuers vse linnen clothes be waxed: And waxe keepeth & saueth bookes frō raine & frō water, for waxe is some eale vnctu∣ous, & sucketh in moisture, & suffereth it not to perish, & fell by the oses of sa∣red chord. Waxe melteth and ayleth in heat, & daies ended in colde yt seemeth not to wet things and tough And therefore seales the wet, for ye waxe shuld not 〈…〉 to the waters and priuies thereof.

De 〈…〉 cap. 62.

A Waxe taper is called Cereus, & hath that name of Cera, for it is made of waxe, as 〈◊〉 sayth li.〈…〉∣of speaketh 〈◊〉and •••th in this maner 〈2 lines〉. As he saith, the meaning followeth, for use of Tapers serueth to see by that light of her things that be in darkness. For in the Taper be three things, the matter, & vse, & desposition and shape, and the mat∣ter is treble, as Isi. saith, the waxe, wike, & fire. The wike is made of hempe thrid, & the ground and fundament of the ••∣per, & the waxe compasseth the wike, and findeth & nourisheth the fire yt is lyght, & is end and complement of either, for it worketh in the waxe & in the wike, and turneth them into his owne likenes: and things of diuers kinde haue with them∣selues wonderfull & most couenable vni∣tye: The shape & disposition thereof is round & long, & great at the end. The vse thereof is to stand on a Chandeler and to be holde and borne before Lords.

(*A Chandeler was long spites of wood wheron ye taper stood, whereof some were made of brasse, hanging on cheins in the hals of magistrates, & some with sockets for lesse Tapers.)

De Lacte. cap. 63.

MIlke is where licour & swéete, gende∣red of bloud by working of heate in teats & paps of beasts. Or as Ari. saith li. 18. Milke is bloud sod & defied, and not corrupt: For when the childe maye not for greatnesse be fed by the nauell, then kinde ordaineth him milke of menstru∣all bloud, that commeth of the paps and teates and is there digested and sod: and 〈◊〉 white colour of the whitenesse of the kenels of ye teats and paps, as Con∣st•••••• saith. lib.••••. For milke and menstrual bloud be all one kind: therfore 〈…〉 so sad the child with∣out ye〈…〉erson shall not milke be 〈…〉 nor 〈…〉 therafter, but it 〈…〉 against kind for in ye time 〈…〉 milk is compleat us beaste. 〈…〉 or 〈…〉 bring forth there 〈…〉 men o diuersity. 〈…〉 must 〈…〉 her good ofte a 〈…〉 milke to 〈…〉 when it so well diuissed, and that is needfull for 〈…〉 of beasts yt is sweet, for all beast 〈…〉 & well digested, as he saith. li••〈…〉liAri saith, that no beast ye lateth egges hath milk, nor 〈…〉 and paps, & in euery milke is a th•• part & watry: and a thick part so called 〈…〉 & the more thick milke is, the wore ch•••• is therin. And milke of beasts yt be tooth∣lesse aboue, reueth, and milke of beasts with teeth in either sawe, reneath not, nor tallow of such beastes: And milke of such beasts is sweete and thin as Ca∣mells milke, and Mares milke, and As∣ses milke. Also hee saith there, yt in some countries the people abode not concepti∣on of Goats, but frote their tears & do∣ders with nettles, & then first commeth out blood, & after as it were matter, and at last commeth good milke,* not much worse then the milke is when they haue yened. No milke is in the tears of men generally, though it seemeth yt it happe∣neth otherwise: some hearbe haue white humors, as Titimallus, & some trees al∣so. The fig tree hath humour white as milke, as Ari. saith ther. Milke of beasts renneth, & among all beasts, the Batch Page  [unnumbered] hath thickest milke, except hares & sows, & is most thicke in farrowing time, and waxeth thin afterward, as Ari. saith, li. 6. in fine. The Cowe hath no milke be∣fore coluing, and hath good milke after. But when it is first tongeuled, it is as it were a stone, and that happeneth when it is medled with water, as he saith. Al∣so li. 9. he saith, that when a child is no∣rished with hot milke, his teeth springeth the sooner: and after cleansing, womans milke multiplieth and increaseth: Some women haue milke onely in the head of the teate, & some in other places of the teate. And when the milke hath not good digestion, then it congealeth, and the breasts hardneth, for all the breasts bee right soft. And if any haire cōmeth ther∣in there falleth a great sicknesse yt is cal∣led Pilosa,* and the ach ceaseth not ere ye haire commeth with ye milke, or rotteth, & commeth out in that wise. And while the milke commeth & renneth, menstru∣all bloud is not generallye found. And some melch woman bleedeth menstrual bloud, when her bloud is right moist, & much when children sucketh, and be fed with much thicke bloud that haue the cramp. If the nurse haue much multitude of milke, oft it noyeth and gréeueth. And a black woman hath much better milke, and more nourishing then a white woman. And Isaac in Dietis rehearseth such properties of milk, and many other, and sayth in this wise.

Milke is generally diuided in thrée man∣ners, for some milke is swéet & new mil∣ked, & other is sowre & olde milked, or meane betwéene both. The sweet is most sauoury, & friend to bloud, & nigh there∣to, and tourneth soone into bloud, and is therefore good nourishing of bloud. And is compowned of thrée substaunces, that be diuers in vertue & in working. One maketh thin and cleanseth, the second is thicke and stoppeth, the thirde maketh soft and thinne. Farthermore the sub∣staunce of whey is watrye, and maketh throne the Cheese, the Chéese is cold and thicke and stoppeth, therefore creame is vertuous and soft: And so milke with watry substance thereof is sharp, & tem∣pereth and softeneth thicke humours, & washeth and biteth the wombe and the guts, and laxeth and putteth out, and thirleth ye veines. And openeth the stop∣pings of the liuer and of the splene, and namely of the milke of Camells. And such milk helpeth them yt haue the drop∣se, as he saith. And there it followeth al∣so: Good milke and temperate in his three substances, cleanseth the members with his watrynes, and withstandeth venim, & moisteth ye mēbers as butter, & beareth meat wt his cheese from the mouth of the stomack to ye ground thereof. Also milke is commended, for it nourisheth well the body, & turneth into likenesse of bloud, if it be taken temperatly & in due time af∣ter cleansing of ye body: and if it be taken into a body yt is not cleansed, or in vn∣due time, is tourned into euill humours that it findeth, and increaseth them, and is resolued and turned into but fumost∣lye, and is so cause of head ach, and if it nd matter of leauer, he kindleth the se∣ners heat, if it finde the kinde heate fee∣ble, then it sowreth sene, & is sowre in that stomacke, for when there is much humour and little heate, then is bredde sowrenesse or rotting of fleme: therefore milke shal not be oft taken, but the body be temperate, and the stomacke void: for if the body be cleane of rotted humore & Cholera, & the milke is well digested, it nourisheth well the body, & maketh good bloud, & much flesh. And moyst••th the body without, & maketh the skin fayre and tender, as he saith. Also hée sayth, it accordeth to them ye drinke milke to bee fasting, and eate the milke hot and new milked, and they should not eate ere the milk be defied. Also it néedeth to beware of too great trauaile & moouing, vntil the milke come downe into the place of di∣gestion, & be defied. For of vnordinate mouing and trauell, commeth too much heate sodeinelye gendered. And by such heat the vnctuositye is resolued and tur∣ned into euill fumositie and gréeuous, & the thicke part leaueth vndigested, and breedeth many manner corruption, as be saith. And chosen milke (as he saith) shall haue foure qualities, colour, odour, smel, and sauour. The colour most be white & cléere, without any yeolow, red, or wan. Page  405 Good odour without heauy smel: The hu∣mour meane betwéene thicke and thin. And a drop thereof put on the naile, abi∣deth continual, and droppeth not away. And such a drop is shapen broad béneath & sharpe aboue. The sauour is good, if it be not medled with bitternesse nor with saltnesse. And among these diuersities of milke, womans milk is accounted kind∣ly most temperate, for all milk followeth kindly the complection and kinde of the beast yt is commeth of. And for the com∣plection of mankinde is most temperate and more nourishing: therefore it easeth most smarting in the corners of the eien. And all that is said before of goodnesse of milke is found in the same discourse.

De Lacte Cameli. cap. 64.

CAmells milke, by hot complection of the beast, is more hot then other milk, and more than & lesse fattie or creamy, & lesse nourishing and is tempering, and openeth stoppings, & helpeth them there∣fore that haue the droysse, that commeth of stopping. The Camell is most hot of kind, therefore heat by wsting of bloud, draweth out the vnctuositie: for milke is not ells but bloud oft sod: And Camells bloud is salt and sharpe, and therefore is departeth humours, and maketh thicke humours thin. Looke before de Camelo, in Tractiru de Ammalibus.

De Lactu vaccino. cap. 65.

COwes milke is contrary to Camells milke, for the Cow hath not so much heate to drawe the fatnesse out of the bloud, & therfore hir milk is ful vncteous & most nourishing. For cold milk nouri∣sheth more then shéepes milke, though sheeps milke be more hot then cow milk. And the cause is (as he sayth) for though the Cowe milke be not so hot as sheeps milke, a lyttle fatnesse suffreeth to Cowe milke, and that fatnesse abideth in the milke, and passeth in the substaunce of Chéese, and the milke nourisheth there∣fore the more, for fat substaunce nourish∣eth more then the substance of the Cheese, for it is more hot & more moist, & neere to the heat of bloud, & turneth soo∣ner vnto bloud. And as men of olde time tell, things ye turneth soonest into bloud, nourisheth soonest, as it is sayd ther. But yet fat milke nourisheth better then fat∣nesse yt is more hot, for milke hath thin watry moisture, that softneth & eatereth into the inner parts of the body, but fat∣nesse by it selfe ••eeteth aboue for ye ayre that to therin, & maketh running, & hard∣neth by thicknesse of his substantiall moisture, and therfore cowes milke per∣ceth & thireth by watrinesse thereof, and commeth into the inner parts, & maketh kind heat by softnesse thereof, & greeueth not much kind by scarsitie of chase, but helpeth and susteineth, as he saith. Milke be vsed in one manner of nourishing, for then it is vsed with his three substances together. And otherwise to cleansing & to abate heat, for the whey is separated frō the creme, & otherwise to moist, and then ye fatnesse of Butter is vsed. And the vse of milke is taken by thinnesse, thicknes, & meane betwéene, as he saith ther. Milk is knowen in substance & in working: in substance, for ye milke is best yt is next to the complection of mankind, as womans milk, and ye néerer it is milked, the better it is, & the more effectual against venim, & against the euille of the bledder and of the reines, and against greeuaunce of the lungs, if aire cōmeth not that to, or chan∣geth ye vertue thereof, after it is milked. Then milk in working is known, when the creme & the Butter is parted therfrō & the Cheese also. Then ye whey is more watrye & sharpe, as it fareth in Camells milke, that is lesse nourishing, and help∣eth them neuertheles yt haue the dropsie, and that by watry heat and thin licour, Cowe milke is most thickest milke, and lesse thinne and watrye then other, and lesse sharpe, and more Buttery, and nou∣risheth well therefore, and best agree∣ing to the stomacke, and comforteth and cooleth the heate of the lyuer and of the stomacke, and maketh the bodye fat and huge, and healeth frettings of the guts and of the mother, and is the better and most wholsome, if the most deale of wa∣trinesse be consumpt & wasted by stodes of the riuers that be heate ••ry hot, and Page  [unnumbered] then quenched therin.

(*The new milke vnscummed of his creame, is wholesomest.)

De Lacte Caprino. ca. 66

AMong the foresayd differences, Goats milke holdeth me••e: For after wo∣mans milke it is accounted most tempe∣rate in three substances, therfore it help∣eth much against wounds & euils of the lungs, & of the bladder & reines, if it bée taken with Sugar. And whey departed from the chéese & from ye Butter, is most drieng & cleansing and abating Cholera: and much Goats milke dronk by it selfe, runneth & curdeth soone in the stomacke: & therfore because it shuld not grieue the stomacke, it is tempered with a litle ho∣nie & salt, & then it curdeth neuer, but vn∣curdeth if it begin to curd in ye stomack. And for Goats liue by dry meat and by ends & crops of boughs & of braunches, their milk is the losse watry, & more bi∣ting, & according to the stomacke: For of diuers pasture commeth diuers milke, for beasts that liue by fresh grasse & ten∣der, haue watry milke & thin, that grie∣ueth the stomacke. And those yt eat laxa∣tiue hearbs, haue biting milke, and pric∣keth sinewes, and noyeth and laxeth.

De Lacte Ouino. cap. 67.

SHéepes milke is more hot and drye then Cowe milke, with lesse Butter, and more Chéese, and nourisheth there∣fore the lesse. And is not so according to the body as Cow milk, & that is known by heauie odour and smel. For as Gal. sayth, Shéepes milke hath more heauye smell then Cowe milke, and is therefore fleamatie, and nourisheth more then Goats milke, and lesse then Cow milke doth, and is also temperate then is Goats milke.

De Lacte Asinino. cap. 68.

ASses milke is temperate and nouri∣shing, and restoreth, but it laxeth the wombe, and softneth and moisteth mem∣bers that be hardned by drynesse & with heat, and helpeth the breast, and abateth the cough and straightnesse of the brest, and helpeth the wounds of the bladder and of the rei••s.

De Lacte Caballino. ca. 69

MAres milke is much like to Ca∣mells milke in thinnesse, in sharp∣nesse, and in colour, and helpeth in Po∣stumes of the mother, and exciteth men∣strual fluxe, if the cause of the menstrual bloud be hot and dry. This milke hath that property, that none other milk hath, as Isaac affirmeth.

De Lacte Porcino. cap. 70.

SOwes milke (as Isaac sayeth) is thin and watry, for by coldnesse thereof it abideth vnsod and vndigested, and help∣eth therefore little or naught, if it be ta∣ken for medicine. And if it be taken for meat & sodde with lupes of Barly, it brée∣deth and gendereth good nourishing and moist, as he saith.

(*In the former yéereo of olde age, for want of better knowledge, manye vsed to féede of the flesh of vncleane beasts, and vsed their milke, which bet∣ter practise since, haue omitted.)

Qualiter se habet lac tempore partus. cap. 71.

MIlke of beasts that be nigh ye birth, is thinne and watrye, for humours be gathered in beasts in time of birth, for the mouth of the mother is closed, & the milke is medled with watry humours, & is therfore gréeuous yt time, & cause of spuing & bolding, & softneth roughnesse, & slippereth ye roughnesse of ye stomacke, & laxeth the wombe, & is herd to defie & so wrish, & runneth & curdeth in the sto∣macke, & breedeth full euill sicknesses & diseases, & smiteth the braine with fumo∣sitie yt commeth therof, & is cause of head ach and of stench of the téeth and of the breadth, & so if milke be too much corrupt, or too much taken thereof, or if it be ta∣ken other wise, or in other seasons thē it should, it bréedeth many sore sicknesses & Page  406 euills: and nourisheth euill humours, and flydreth & corrupteth good humors, and helpeth and rotteth the stone in the bladder and reynes, and kindleth & ligh∣teneth vnkind heate & feuerous. Also it infecteth the téeth and the gums, & bée∣deth full euill pimples and whelkes and scabs in children, and exciteth stop∣ping of the liuer and of the splene, and of the reynes, and grieueth the stomack, and putteth ont meate, by slippernesse, ere it be dosted, and laxeth so the womb. Corrupt milke bréedeth these humours, and manye other euilles: but of good milke and euill, this sufficeth at this time.

(*Milke, is compost of thrée substan∣ces, Creame, whereof is made Butter. Wheye, and Cruddes. The most excel∣lent milke, is of a woman. Cowes milk next, and Goats milke. Whosoeuer hath any appetite to eate or drinke milke, to the intent that it shall not arise in his stomake, let him put into a vessell, a sow leaues of Mints, Sugar, or pure ho∣nie, and thereto poure the new milke, & so drinke it warme from the Cowe. Sir Tho. Eliot. fol. 33. in his Booke cal∣led, The Castle of health. cap. 20.)

De Sero. cap. 72.

WHeye is the watry parte of milke, departed from the other parte by running and curding, for running ioyn∣ese togethers the partes of cheese and of butter, and departeth therefrom ye whey that is thin and watry. The effects and doings thereof is rehearsed before, and hath also vertue to cleanse and to wash away rottings and matter, for it wash∣eth the guts, and clenseth their wounds of matter, and purgeth the breast, and quencheth thirst, and abateth the sharp∣nesse of red Cholora, and doeth awaye wet scabbes and drye, and vnstoppeth the Liuer and the splene. Looke before In primo secundum Isaac, there it is spoken of.

De Butiro. cap. 73.

BUtter is called Butirum, & hath that name of Imbuendo, moysting & ham∣ming, as Hugution saith, for by the fat∣nesse thereof and moysture, butter moy∣steth those bodies which he toucheth, for butter is the flower of milke, and is full hot and moyst, with mastry of aire, and therefore it is right fat: for Butter is kindly hot and moyst, gleyming and fat, and nigh according to the complec∣tion of mankinde as Isaac saith, and so Butter ofte eaten maysteth the stomack, and laxeth the wombe, and namely if it be fresh and new. Therefore men in old time, lykned butter to oyle medled with fatnesse: and sayd, that who yt wold take it, it would helpe him to spet, & cleanse the breast and lungs, and namely if ther be a postume therin, for it ripeth & tem∣pereth and cleanseth the superfluities of the breast, and namely if it be eaten wt Sugar or with honie: but then it ripeth the lesse, and helpeth the more to recoue∣ring, as he sayth. And he saith ther, that Butter is contrarye to venimme, and maketh the members moyste: and washing thereof softneth the rough∣nesse of the eyen, and purgeth and clean∣seth the eyen, and ripeth and breaketh the postumes, and helpeth wonderfully the wounds of the lunges, and in lyke∣wise the throate and of the breast, and abateth fretting of the guts and of the reynes, and softeneth and slaketh sin∣newes that be astonied or shronke, or destroyed with the Crampe, as he saith. And Auicen sayth, that butter taken in∣to the body, is a singular helpe against venime, if he that is poysoned, melteth butter in hot milke, and drinketh there∣of a great quantitie: for the softnes ther stoppeth ye waies, so yt the venims there∣of may not sodainly come to the heart. Also Butter draweth all the venimme to it selfe, and maketh it cleane toge∣thers, and bringeth it out of the body, by perbraking and spewing, as hee sayeth.

Butter is made in this wise, ye creame is gathered in a cleane vessel, & is long beaten with an instrument of tree,* that is made therefore, the which instrument Page  [unnumbered] is round and broad, with an hole there∣in:* and the creame is beaten and stirred therewith, and by that stirring, kinde heate is excited and comforted in ye sub∣staunce of milke, and therby all the fat∣nesse is gathered togethers, and fléeteth aboue, and the whey that is thin & wa∣try, with chsie part staketh downe to the ground, as it were giuing the ouer place to the butter, as to the more noble part and worthye, and then the Butter that fleeteth aboue, and is gathered and kept in a cleane vessell, for diuers vses, and needfull: and the more fresh and new the butter is, the better it is: the more sauery it is, the more lyking it is to the tast. Fresh butter is fléeting and softe, but kinde heate hath more maste∣rie ouer the moyst partes, and wasteth them litle and litle, and maketh the but∣ter some deale harde, and butter féedeth well, and nourisheth well, and maketh potage fattie and sauourie, and is there∣fore ofte put therein in stéede of greace and of oyle, and is some deale salted, that it may the better be kept, and that his potentiall moysturs may be tempe∣red with the drinesse of the salte. For it is more lyking to the taste when it is meanly salt. And when butter is olde, the sauour thereof appaireth, and the O∣dour also, and turneth into heauie sauor and smell, and is grieuous to the taste, and is not then worthy to make fat and sauourye, but it is good to diuers medi∣cines and oyntments: for often it hap∣peneth, that thing which accordeth not to the throate, accordeth to some medi∣cines.

(*Butter is also nourishing, and pro∣fiteth to them, which haue humours su∣perfluous in the breast, or lungs, & lack∣eth riping and cleansing of them, speci∣ally if it be eaten with sugar and honie. If it be well salted, it heateth and clean∣seth the more.)

De Caseo. cap. 74.

CHéese is called Caseus, and hath that name, as Isidore sayth, of Carendo, lacking or being without, for Cheese is wroong and pressed in a chéese fat vntill the wheye be pressed out, and departed from the watrie substaunce of milke.

And so chéese is called Caseus, as it wer Carens, lacking: for sometime cheese is drye and not hauing lycour & moysture as he sayeth. But Hogution saieth, that this nowne Caseus commeth of Caden∣do, falling: for it falleth and passeth a∣waye some, and flydeth out between the fingers of the Drye wife, and cheese is the drastes of milke, for as Isaac sayth, the chéese substaunce of milke is colde & thicke, and hard to defie, and right euill of digestion, and also passeth slowly out of the stomacke, and it accordeth and be∣longeth more to stopping than to laxing, and is heauie to ye stomacke and to the lyuer, to the riyts and also to ye splene, and namely if the thicke places be dis∣posed to be stopped. Furthermore chéese bréedeth and gendreth a stone in ye reine, and so for because of these thrée euill ac∣cidents, Constantine sayeth, that Chéese vniuersally and most commonly is euil, but softe is least grieuous, therefore Isa. maketh distinctiō of chéese, & saith yt some is fresh & new, & some is olde, & some is meane betweene the twaine. New cheese is fresh, and ingendereth not euill hu∣mours, & hath yet therefore some swéet∣nesse and moysture of the milke, and is therefore the more easie to vests, & nou∣risheth the better, and laxeth the more the wombe, and namely if it be not salt, for saltnesse taketh away both sourenes and swéetnesse: for too salt chéese dryeth too soone, and grieueth the stomacke. And saltlesse cheese is most nourishing, and moysteth the bodye, and breedeth much flesh, but it grieueth the stomacke, and turneth some into fumositie, if the sto∣macke be hot: and tourneth into soure∣nesse, if the stomacke be colde. Then if it be meanly salt, it is the better to defie, and grieueth lesse the stomacke, & sow∣reth soone without salt, and kindleth the bloud.

De Caseo veteri. cap. 75.

OLde chéese is sharp and drye, & thick to nourishing, and hard to passe out of the stomacke, for if the moysture of Page  407 the milke be away, sharpnesse and dry∣nesse of the reuning hath mastry there∣in, and so it is not but thicke and fast: and therefore the superfluitie of the bo∣dy is not made, subtill therewith, as it is with other things that are subtill in working, and so grieueth the bodye in two manner wise: for corruption ther∣of, and thicknesse of working, maketh the superfloure thicke, and corrupteth & grieueth the stomacke, for by the sharp∣nesse of the renuing it is contrary to all other things, that helpe in other maner, and tourneth them into worse nourish∣ing, for if it doth •••de thicke humore in the body, it gendereth and bréedeth the stone in the bladder & in the reynes: for it vniteth humours hot and thicke, and maketh them full hard. Therefore old cheese is to be eschewed and forsaken, for it helpeth not, nor féedeth, and is obe∣dient to digestion, neither gendereth nor breedeth good bloud, nor moysteth ye bo∣dy, nor exciteth ••ne: but it sorrys and bindeth moysture, that it doth 〈…〉. Also the olde cheese is harde and drye, with many holes and poores, because of drinesse, and breaketh soone, and hath nei∣ther fatnesse nor moysture, but grieueth the body: but cheese sad and rosted, is not so euill, as cheese with manye eyen and hoales, for soundnesse of substaunce is token of fatnesse and of moysture: & cheese with too many eyen and holes, is ill, both new & olde. But Dio. saith, mil∣kie cheese mo••sheth ye womb, & old bind∣eth & namely if it be sod, or if it be takē out of water and toasted, and namely if it be before meate taken, for it stoppeth with thicknesse the way of the stomack, and suffereth not the meate to passe in∣to the guts: and cheese eaten after meat thrusteth downwards the meate, as it were a persset, and shoueth it to ye place of out passage. Meane cheese eaten after meate, thrusteth downward the meals: as it were betweene new and old, nouri∣sheth much, for good sauour and thicke∣nesse thereof, for it hardeneth swiftelye by kinde heate, and the more masterye kinde heate in it hath, the more strong∣ly it hardneth, and cleaneth the faster to the members. Huc vs{que} Isaac in dietis. Diosc. and Arist. li. 3. Fmane, yt when much cheese is in milke, it is the more meate. And Diosc. sayth, that cheese is contrary to venime, for it stoppeth the woyes of the veynes with thicknesse, & moysture, and suffereth not the mallyce of the venime to come to the heart: and fresh cheese layd hot thereto, draweth out the venimous biting, and in token héer∣of, if cheese be layd to the biting of a mad dog, or of a serpent, all the whitenesse of the cheese tourneth into won colour: and cheese helpeth also against the venemous postume that is called Antrax,* & against other venemous postumes, if it be eatē, or layed too without: and accordeth to medicine in many causes, as he saith.

(*Antrax is also a swelling, which riseth like a byle, & is called of some, an Alder, very king, hot, and corrupt.)

De Coagulo. cap. 76.

REnning milke is made thick in the mawes of certaine beasts,* & by ver∣tue therof, milke of othe4r beasts reemeth and curueth, and the Butter and Cheese gathereth togethers,* and the Wheye is departed therefrom. And li. 3. F. Aristo. sayth, that the more thicke milke is, the more cheese is therein, and runneth the sooner. But milke of a beast yt is looth∣lesse aboue, renneth: and milke of a beast with teeth in either lawe, renneth not, nor his greace. Also he sayth there, that milke renneth by renning & milke of figges:* when the milke of figges is gathered in wooll, and the wooll then is wiped with a little milke, and that milk is put in other milke, and so all ye milke renneth. Also ther, renning is not found but in wombes of beasts that sucketh & cheweth their cuddes: In them which haue teeth aboue and beneath is no ren∣ning found, but in the Hare and in the Con•••. The elder that the Rennings is, the better it is, and helpeth against the flure of the wombe, and namely the renning of the Co•••e and of the Hare, as Arist. sayth. Also lib. 16. he sayth, that milke runneth by renning, for renning is milke in the which is a speciall heat. and helpeth therfore and sustaineth the Page  [unnumbered] milke, as the semen of the male sustei∣neth the menstruall bloud of the female in the mother, for the kinde of milke, & of all bloud is all one, as he sayth there, cap. de Caseo. Isaac speaketh of renning and sayth, that he which renneth by ver∣tue of his sharpnesse, and of heate & dri∣nesse, which hath mastrie therein, & wa∣steth the moysture thereof: and though that renning be in all cheese, yet ye sauor thereof is lesse felt in new chéese & greene, and that is for much last and moisture. And renning is found in the mawe of a sucking beast, which doth chew his cud, and is medled with salte, and afterward dryed and ardned in smoke hanging o∣uer the fire, and a little thereof is tem∣pered with a little milke, made luke warme, & medled with the other milke, and so doth renne, and curdeh together, all that may be renned: and to in the substaunce of renning, is such a vertue hidden, as is hidden in the Semen of the male, as Aristotle, Auicen, Isaac, and other doe meane. And in shewing, and treating of the properties of ••cors, this that is layde, shall suffice, of this time.

(*Chéese by the whole sentence of al Writers, letteth digestion, and is enemy vnto the stomacke, also it ingendreth all humours, and breedeth the stone. The chesse which doth least harme to seeke cheese, reasonably filled, which some men doe suppose, nourisheth much. S. Tho∣mas ••o.)

Of the vertues of diuers things, as humour and licour. Chap. 77.

IN humoures, licoures, and other things be certaine vertues, of whom some we shall set heere shortly: for by diuers complections and vertues, yt haue mastry in diuers things, diuers manner of working is found, as the vertue of o∣pening, of ripping, of cleansing, and of o∣ther doing The vertue of opening wor∣keth by heate, and dryeth in subtill sub∣staunce, as it fareth of Outons, or of iuyce of Lickes, of Allomne, and other such confections thereof, openeth the mouthe of the veynes, and exciteth the Emoroides, as Co. sayth. The ver∣tue of spreading, worketh by heate and moysture, for heat thirleth and commeth into the substaunce of a thing, and dissol∣ueth moysture that is 〈…〉ut thereto, and maketh open and spred, as it fareth of Mockes, and of Elderne rindes, and o∣ther such that war stretch and spread, if they be sod in oyle, as he saith. The ver∣tue of stopping, worketh by colde and moysture, with softe substaunce and sad, as it fareth of Dragantes, of the white of an egge, and of Psillium, for these of the poores, with cleaning and fast substance, and straineth and hindeth with colde.

The vertue that maketh thick, worketh by colde and moysture, as it fareth by Mondragora, that maketh ye skin thick, if it be layd thereon, as he sayth: for by color it 〈…〉 the more thin partes of the moystures, and so the moyster com∣meth to the middle, and maketh ye sub∣stance more last, and so the more thick, and worketh by heate and by moysture: for heat wasteth the thin parts, and then be the earthy parts the more thicke.

The vertues that maketh harde work∣e•• by colde and drines, for euery quali∣tee draweth toward the middle, and ma∣keth all the substaunce the more harde, and worketh somtime by cole and moi∣sture, and burdeth the moyst partes by cold, as it fareth in frost and ••• & some∣time by heate and drinesse, and l•••ueth the earthy, arts and maketh them hard in that manner wise, as it fareth in fr or satie earth, and •• borne fyte. The vertue of opening worketh by heat and drinesse with thicke substaunce: for heat •••reth & moneth the more subtill parts outward, and the thicke parts and drye commeth to the middle, and so all ye sub∣staunce is made vneuen, and that same vneuennesse is cause of roughnesse.

Also colde maketh roughnesse in moyst water, binding and drawing the vter partes to the middle, and letteth the thin parts to spread themselues outward, and therefore the other partes, in the ••tich colde hath the domination and mastre, he doth rough and sharpe without, and by diuersitie of matter, which receiueth Page  [unnumbered] impression and working of heate and of colde, be diuers conditions and proper∣ties, and medling of things gendred kind∣ly, either happely, as it is knowen, and as Auicen and Constantine doth mean, and as it is openly such vertue in ye tre∣tise of the qualities of Elements, and the vertue of softnesse norisheth by heat and by moisture also and that by heat that spreadeth the moyst parts, and de∣parteh and deuideth parts from other as Dialtea doth, which Dialtea is moist,* and somewhat hot, and openeth meanly by the heate thereof, and maketh the hu∣mours softe and fleeting by passing moi∣sture of it, and maketh softe in yt wise, other things that be softened by heate that hath mastry ouer the watry part & earthy, and turneth them into earthye parts, as it fareth of the earthy vapours and watry that be drawen by in ye aire, and turneth into softe drope of raine, and now of deaw, now of hayle, and now of snow, as the Commentor saith super 4. Metheor. Also it is knowen, that ver∣tue of heate softneth such things, so that the parts cleaueth scarcely together in great working of heate, as it fareth in waxe & in other things that melteth, for vertue of ••re hath mastrie ouer ye parts of water and ayre that be therein. The vertue of reping and the vertue of ste∣stion worketh by vertue of heate and by moysture, and the vertue of withhol∣ding by colde and by drinesse; and the vertue Expulsius, of our putting, by cold and moysture, the vertue of appetite worketh principallye by heate and by drynesse, and the vertue of drawing, worketh by heate and drinesse, as it sa∣reth in Dipcamo, Serapino, and Stereo∣ry columino, and other such. The ver∣tue laxatiue worketh by the same ver∣tues, but it worketh more strongly, and so some things that draw laxe also and be ordent, as camonia,••. And work∣eth by colde, and thrirsteth downward, & maketh slipper by moysture, as it fareth my Prunes. Slone, and Thamari∣es, &c.

The vertue of riping worketh by heate and drinesse, and so doth the ver∣tue of drawing, as it fareth in Cantha∣ridilius, and in Flammula, and in other such, that he full hotte, and gendereth full soone in the flesh, whelles and blayues.

Of other such vertues it is shewed before, in libro quarto, De proprieta∣tibus Elementarium qualitatum, libro septimo In Trictatu, De Remedijs Mothorum.

De Putredine. cap. 78.

ROttennesse is corruption of substan∣tiall moysture, and commeth of scar∣sitie of kinde heat by abundance of other heate, for vnkinde heate in working of moist matter, that is not ruled by kind, maketh it rot, as it is sayde, super libro Metheororum. For all that is earthye & cold rotteth later then the thing that is hot, as Aristotle sayeth. Also the thing yt is hardned by colde, rotteth slowly, as it fareth in Ile & in ye Christall stone, & that is feruent and hot, rotteth flowlye, as Aristotle sayth, for the heat that ma∣keth it feruent is more strong, then the heate of the ayre, or heat that commeth in the other side, & suffreth not therefore it selfe to bée ouercome nor chaunging made against the thing that is feruent. And all that moueth rotteth more slowly then that thing that moueth not, as A∣rist. ma••eth: For of mouing commeth heate that s•••th & keepeth kinde heate. Also all that rnneth rotteth more slow∣ly then yt shall runneth not, as hee sayth For accidentall heate that commeth of ayre, that contayneth it, is more féebler then the kind heat, that is of mouing or of running, & suffereth not it selfe soone to rot. Also a mightye body rotteth lesse and more slowly then a lyttle bodye, as hee sayth, for if the bodye be hot, there∣in is more kinde heate to withstande the cause of rotting. Also if the body be colde, kinde coldnesse thereof withstan∣deth better the accidentall heate that is cause of rotting in a greate bodye then in a lyttle body, as it fareth is the sea, as Aristotle sayth. For Sea water when it is departed rotteth soone, and it rot∣teth ••uer, wh••es it is whole & not di∣uided.

Page  [unnumbered]And in lyke wise it fareth of other wa∣ters: for water departed from a great riuer rotteth anone, and therfore worms dried therein by rotting. The cause is, for kinde heate maketh departing there∣in, and departeth the thin from the thick, and the earthy parts from the partes of water and of aire, that is departed from the thicke, the same heate gendereth wormes and other beasts, & yt is it that Ariste. saith, for kinde heate departing, maketh them abide departed, and tour∣neth them into k••de of beasts, and that by rotting, by might of strong heate that is therein, as the Commentour sai∣eth 〈…〉 things be grieuous to the tast, and abhominable to the stomacke, and maketh wambling, and be heauy of 〈…〉 and of euill sauour, and of fowle colour and defileth the hands that them onheth, and be contrary to ye complecti∣on of mankinde, and breedeth sodaynlye corruption in whole men: but they bée meate and nourishing to Serpents, and to wormes. And things that be dispo∣sed to rot, they rot ye sonner if they touch a thing that is rotted, and corrupt and rotted members corrupteth whole mem∣bers. And though they take no spirites, they depriue and take away the spirits of members that be nigh thereto: and a member that beginneth to rot, may not be healed, but he be cleansed at full of rotting and of matter, & so rotted mem∣bers be not profitable, but they cut off or burnt, or throwen awaye. There be other vertues, by the which kinde wor∣keth, as the vertue of nourishing in hearbs, and grasse, trées, and beasts, and the vertue of gendering in menne, and in other beasts, hoth two footed and foure footen, and the vertue of gendring of egges in some créeping beasts, and al∣so in birdes and foules. But of the ver∣tues of gendering and nourishing, and of other vertues, that serueth them, it is treated at full before in li. 4. De genera∣tione hominis, and in li. 18. De genera∣tione Animalium in generali, therfore of them we leaue to speake at this time. The vertue of gendring of egges, is to round beasts and in long and plyaunt, as Serpents, Spiders and Scorpions, and in other such: and in Fish, •• in Crabbes, and Lobsters, and in other endlesse many: and in fowles & birds and in other two footed beasts. Libro. 5. Arist he sayeth.* That •• two ooted beastes, gendereth not beasts, but man alone.

(*Béeing two footed, by a wonderful th•• ception, not Egges, but y^ same shape and forme of the male and female except those people, which are called Calineti∣de, which doe trauaile with egges, and hatch foorth children. Read Lucosthe∣nes, de prodigijs.)

¶Of Egges and their pro∣perties. cap. 79.

THen first in the foresayd beasts, the Semen is shed in small parcelles or drops that be small, softe, & moyst, and whitth, and be softneth, and tourned and chaunged into little bodyes, and are cal∣led Oua, Egges in English, for because that they be moyst, and full of humour within, as Isido. saith libr. 1. G. Same moyst thing hath moyst humour with∣in, and some without, as he saith. Some men meane, that this Now••Cuum, commeth of a nowne of Gréeke, for they call as Egge Oluan, and put therto this letter L.

Some Egges be conceiued in anye winde, but they be barren, except they be conceiued of treading or by working of the male, and thirled with seminall spirit, as he saith. And some men meane, that egges haue such a vertue, that a trée that is anoynted with them, shall not bure, nor cloth that is anoynted with them, as he sayth, and if they bée medled with lyue, they glew the parts together of broken glasse Then Egges are fift gendered, and take them a shape, and lyue by heate of the Mother, as Isidore sayth lib. 3. And 5. Aristotle sai∣eth, That foules, and fish, and serpents laye egges, but the egges be full diuerse in goodnesse and malice, in quantity, sub∣staunce and qualitie in figure and in shape.

Foules and birdes laye egges gene∣rally in the ende of springing time, and Page  [unnumbered] in the beginning of Summer, as Ari∣stotle sayth. libro 5. except a Sea foule that is called Aleon,* for that Fowle layeth egges in the beginning of Win∣ter, and sitteth on breed fourteene dayes ere the birds be complete, and vii. dayes before the beginning of winter, and vii. dayes therafter, as Simonides saith. And Isidore libro 12. speaketh of this fowle, and saith, that in the chest of a ponde of Occean, Alceon in Winter maketh hir neast, and layeth egges in seauen dayes, and fitteth on broode, and while she sit∣teth seauen dayes, the seate is easie and softe and the weather still. seauen dayes the sea is easie and milde: for kind hel∣peth in that wise to bring forth fowles of kinde. And Pliny, Basill, & Amb••se in Exameron, meaneth the same. But other foules lay egges twice or offer in a yeare, as Swallowes, but the first egs be corrupt because of the winter, and the latter be complete: and as Aristo. saith there, tame foules laye egges all in sum∣mer, as Coluers and Hens, and namely if they be well sed, and in an hot place. Also Aristotle saith libro 6. that some fowles laye egges all the yeare, except two moneths, Iuly and December, as hens, some of them lay twice euery day, and that that layeth much dyeth soone: and sometime the Culuer layeth tenne times a yere, and layeth but few at one breeding. And some lay many egges, as the Hen: and some fowles with crooked clawes laye fewe egges, and some laye in the neasts, and some in hollow trees, & some in holes and dens of the earth, & some in fields, and some in roches and rockes, and some in grauell or in sande as the Estridge, that fitteth not on brood in neasts made of bouchs of trées, and some in stones, and some in crags, and some in marteys, and among reede, as water foules. Aristotle saith lib. 6. that egges of foules breedeth hard without: and some be of 2. colors, citrine within, and white without. And egges of riuer foules be diuers, and other then egs be of foules that be fed in drye land: For citrine therein is more than double to citrine of egs of foules that be fed nigh the bri••e and brims of waters.

Also egges be diuers in colour for Cul∣ners egges be white as hen egges. And egges of marreys foules be yeolow, and some be as they were paynted, as a Sperhaukes egge: and egges be diuersly shapen, for some be sharpe, and some are broad, and the broad doth come out first, and then the sharpe. Of the long egges with sharpe endes doth come males, and so of egges with roundnesse in steede of sharpnesse, commeth females. And in hot countries and lands egges be layde in dounge in heate of the Sunne, and of them commeth Chickens and birds, as in Aegypt, and in certaine places in hot feathers, as in a certaine Citie, a good drinker laid egges vnder his pillow, and sayd, that he continued drinking, vntill the time that Chickens were taken out of the egges. Also somtime egges be put in hot vessells, and chickens are hatchte therein, no he sayth there, but the semen of the male is receiued in the Fother, & medled with the semen of the female. First, the egges seemeth white, and af∣terward red as bloud, and then yeolow, and then by working of kinde, the yeo∣low abideth in the middle, and the white is thereabout, and commeth out when it is complete, and turneth then out of the soft into hardnes: for in ye out going it is fastned & made perfectly hard, for egs be yeolow while they are in the womb, and wrapped in a little skinne that is white, and be hard when they be com∣plete and shapen, and that hardnes is the shell. In fastnesse of an egge, ye shel hath the same office, that the bag that ye child is conceiued in, hath in the body of the childe, but for great heate he hath ma∣stery in the body of the foule: the shell then hath such a bag and that is neede∣full for sauing of the softe matter and moyst that is therewithin. And manye foules lay winde egges, as Hens & Curse as Ari. saith ther li. 2. and that commeth of superfluitie of seminall humors, that are passing in the body of a female: and winds egs be little & vnsauerie, & more moyst than other, & without hard shell, & chaunge not though it be layed vnder a Hen, but the yolke & the white abideth and chaungeth not, & such egs be foonde Page  [unnumbered] in Hens, and in Geese, in Pohens, and in Culuers. The chicken in the egge is sooner complete and shapen in Summer than in Winter. In summer, hens egs openeth in 18. dayes, and in Winter in 25. dayes: and if it thundereth as ye hen doth sit on brood, the egges be corrupt, & so they be, if they be ofte handeled with folkes hands. Also olde hens laye in the beginning of springing time, and young hens egges be smaller, and lesse then o∣ther olde hens egges: and the Hens egge is full sharpe the xi. daye after the trea∣ding: and some foules in treading, keepe not sexes of male and female, but the fe∣male treadeth the female, and the male treadeth the male, as Partridges & Cul∣uers, and of such treading commeth stin∣king odour, and the egges become bar∣ren, as winde egs, and no chickens shall come of them nor birdes, as Aristotle sayth. And in the hens egge after three dayes of sitting on brood, be tokens seene of the Chicken, and then commeth vp the yeolow, toward the small ende to the place in the which the egge beginneth to cleaue, & there is seene, as it wer a drop of bloud in the white of the egge, and is the beginning and matter of toe heart, as it is sayd before in the treatise de ge∣neratione publi, looke there. Also of an egge with two yolkes commeth 2. chic∣kens, & these yolkes be departed aswain by a lyttle web, as Aristotle saith ther. And foules that eate flesh laye but once a yeare, except the swallow, that layeth egges twice a yeare: and the Eagle lai∣eth three egges, and throweth away the third out of the neast. Huc. vsq. Aristo. li. 6. A. and sitteth on brood vpon ye egs, thirtie dayes, Lib. 17. he saith that foules lay egs with hard shels, but if there fall occasion of sicknesse. Also foules yt gender much, lay oft winde egges, & so doth not foules wt crooked claws, nor foules wt good flight: for in foules wt many egs, is much superfluitie, & the superfluitie of foules with crooked clawes, passeth, into claws, feathers, and wings, and therefore their owne bodies be some deale hard, sharp, and leane, and layeth therefore not ma∣ny egges, nor treadeth much: and for fatnesse and heate of the wombe, the fowles 〈◊〉 ofte. Also birds lay manye egges, and tread much, as it fareth of some hens, the lesse they be, ye more egs they lay, for the meate of them passeth into the matter and generation of egges. Also winde egges be not in Fowles of good flight, for in them is but lyttle su∣perfluitie and scarce, and therefore they laye but fewe egges: and winde egges be more than egs according to generation of Birdes and chickens, and be lesse in quantitie, for they be vncomplete, either for they be so many, and be not full ly∣king to eate, for in all thing what is di∣gest, is more swéete and farre more ly∣king then what is vndigest. And some foules be made full of egges when they smell the males or beare theyr voy∣ces, for they eate much, and haue much superfluitie and heate, and haue therfore the more stronger appetite, and sheddeth sooner the semen of generation, and lay∣eth egges fal soone, for by vertue of heat, that superfluitie passeth soone into the kinde of egges. Also foules be gendered and come of egges, when the female sit∣teth long on breede, and heateth the egs, and for the chicken in the egge may not be complete and perfectly shapen with∣out meate and ourishing, therfore kind setteth meate in the egge within: & for their feeblenesse, egges need heating and comfort of heate, therfore egges be soone complete in hot time, for hot time help∣eth digestion & generation. The white is the matter of the chickin, & the yolke is his foode and meate, and therefore the white and the yolke be ioyned by a litle web for diuersitie of kind of the white, as it were contrarye to the kinde of the yolke, and therefore the yolke is fastned in colde wether, and is moist afterward when it is made hot, and the white free∣seth not in colde, but it is more moyst, and is hardened when it is roasted, and wereth in generation thicke of ye Chic∣ken, for it is the master thereof. And the Chicken taketh meate of the yolke, and that by the nauell: and then is much yolke, for it is moyst by heate, and shall bee moyst, and iourneth soone into nou∣rishing. Huc vsque Aristoteles libro. 16.

Page  410Isaac in Detis speaketh of egs, and saith, that egges of birds that be whole and temperate, be good meate and nodle: and egges of fat birds nourish more, & be more sauoory, and also egges of them that are troden of ye male, for they haue more heate than those that be gendered without treading of male, and also Egs of small hens, for in them is much heat. Generally the kinde of egges is tempe∣rate and meane, and right according to the complection of mankinde, but the white is more colde than the yolke, and worse to defie, and namely of the egges be of old foules, or not troden of males. The yolke is temperate and softe, accor∣ding with heate, and is therefore ye bet∣ter to defie, and comforteth for members and abideth long therein. The nourish∣ing of egges is diuers, for the Egges of some foules be temperate, as egges of the Partridge and of the henne, and are good to digest, but they passe soone out of the members, and be therefore better to ruling of good helth, than to comfort the members: and eggs of great birdes be hard to digest, and not full good norish∣ing, as egges of Ostriches, of Geese, and Pohennes, that be euill nourishing, and hard to defie, and heauie of smell, and namely if the beasts be olde, or not tro∣den with males: but when they be di∣gested, they abide long in ye members, & are therfore better to comfort the mem∣bers, then to rulyng of good health. Egs of small birdes be most light, and of old birds most heauie, and of meane most temperate, for therin is more temperate heate and lesse moysture, and be there∣fore good to rule good health, and also to comfort the members: and the more newer egges be, the better they be, and the more older they bee the lesse worth they bee, and vary and are di∣uers by crafte in foure manner wise: for they be rosted or sod, or burnt in im∣bers or in hot ashes, or they be fryed.

The rosted be more thicke and worse to digest, then those that be sod: for ye fire wasteth their substanciall moysture and maketh them drye and ye rosted & burnt vnder hot ashes, be umise than the roa∣sted. vnh〈…〉 of coles, for heat of fire in ashes compasseth them, & suffe∣reth not ye superfluitie of fumositie passe out thereof: and those that are roasted aboue the coles, sweate out the fumositie, and be made pure, and cleane, and thick: but those that be sod in water are better than those that be rosted, for moi∣sture of the water is contrary to the hot fire that worketh to sordrye ye moysture thereof, and be therefore the lesse drieng and coolyng kinde heate. And those that be sod whole in the shells be worse, for the shells without be hard, & holde there in the superfluitie of fumositie, that it may not passe out in vapour, and there∣fore they breed ventositie and swelling, and heauinesse of the stomacke & of all he wombe: and heate of water com∣meth temperatly into egges yt be broken: and sod in water, & tempereth the thick∣nesse and the fatnes of them, and taketh from them euill smel and odor, and they be therefore better than other, but one∣lye the yolke is more drieng, and faste∣ning: and the hard yolke is drieng and hard to passe out of the stomacke, & thir∣leth slowly the veynes, and comforteth much when it is digested, and grieueth the stomacke and the guts, if it be vndi∣gested, and menge and rere yolkes some deale fastened, be lesse drieng, and better to defie, and commeth soone into the veines, and moysteth the brest, and com∣forteth the members but little, and are means betwéene softe and harde in their working and passions. And fryed egges be worse than other, for if they bide in the stomacke, they turne soone in∣to fumositie and corruption, and corrup∣teth all the meats that they finde there∣in, and breedeth heauiness in the stomack, & worse disliking than other egs, name∣ly if they be fryed in yolkes, and some be meane betweene rosted egs, and egs broken & sod in water. Huc vs{que} Iso. Al∣so egs be good, not only to meat, but they be needfull in many manner medicines: for they moisten & ease & smooth ye brest & the throte, & comfort ye members, & re∣store & help ye vertue of generatiō, & hel∣peth burning & scalding, for of yolkes of egs rosted, is made ye best oyle, for bur∣ning & scalding. Also yolks of egges help Page  [unnumbered] the venemous Postume, that is called Antrax, for a raw yolk of an egge med∣led with salt, healeth that postume, as Const. saith. The white of an egge swa∣geth and abateth heate and swelling, & stauncheth running moysture, and help∣eth •• the hot goute and podagre, and be most greuous, when they be rotted and corrupt, and corrupteth the humoures, and breedeth with them wamblyng and perbraking, and be lightlye cause of death.

(*Egges of Phesants, Hens, & Par∣triches, be of all other meates most agre∣able vnto nature, specialy if they be new laid. If they be reere, they do cleanse the throte and breast: if they be hard, they be slow in digestion, but being once di∣gested, they doe nourish much: meane betweene reere and hard, they digest con∣ueniently, and nourish quickly. Egges well potched are better then roasted.

Egges fried are ill to digest, and corrupt other meates in the stomack. Egges sup∣ped warme before any other meate, they doe heale the griefe of the bladder and reynes (made with grauell) also sorenes of the cheekes and throate, and spetting of bloud: and they be good against Ca∣ars, or stilling out of the head into the stomacke. 〈…〉

De 〈…〉 Aspidum. cap. 〈…〉

THe egges of Adders that are called Alpides, be lyttle and round, verye yeolow, slynne, and stinking within, and most venemous, and clustered togethers with certaine sinewes and strings. The venime thereof is most slayeng, & there∣against is no remedie found, as Plinius sayth. And as he saith, it happeneth som∣time, that a venemous Frogge that is called Rubeta, findeth the egge of such as Adder, and sitteth on brood thereon, and of such bréeding commeth a worme that slayeth with blast and with sight, as doth the Cockatrice. The worm that sitteth so on brood, and bringeth it forth, feeleth first all ye venum of his matter & venime: for when it is first batche, hee beholdeth and seeeth him that bringeth him forth, and slayeth him in that wise, as he sayeth. If seemeth that 〈…〉 toucheth this matter and propertie, wher he sayth, that who that eateth egges of such an Adder shall dye, and what is confect and nourished therewith, shall turne into such an Adder. Ther yt Glose saith, that of the egges of Alpidis com∣meth a Cockatrice, and of the venemous Iewes shall come Antichrist: And of the wicked Papist the Diuell.

De ouis Aranea. cap. 81.

SPiders egges are manye, and they be small and wan, with small speckes and departed asunder, and be venemous, softe and gleymie, and if it happeneth by any cause, yt they be lost, ye spider seeketh them again, & bereth them in her mouth to hir web. And of an egge, commeth endles & many spiders, and so lyttle and small, that vnneth they be seene, and yet anone as they come out of the egge that they were in, they begin to weaue sub∣tilly, that it is wonder that so lyttle a Beast hath so much wit and vertue of kinde. Looke before, de Aranea li. 18.

De ouis Aquil. cap. 82.

THe Eagles egges and the Goshauks egges be few, for they passe but sel∣dome their egges and ofte the Eagle throweth the third out of the neast, for she sitteth not gladly on broode, as A∣ristotle saith libro. 5. And putteth in the neast a precious stone with her egges and Witches dums or suppose, that that stone helpeth against the thunder, and meaneth that the Eagle putteth ye stone in hir neast with hir egges to saue them from the thunder, as Plinius sayth.

De ouis Ancerinis. ca. 83.

GEese egges be great and hard to de∣fie, and are harder to hatch, and later complete then be Hens egges.

De ouis Anatinis. cap. 84.

DUckes egges are more than Hennes egges: but they be not sauourie, nor nourish so well as Hens egges.

Page  411

De ouis Alaude. cap. 85.

LArkes egs be little and small & spec∣uled, and are laid vnder a riot, and be ofte there eaten with wormes and we∣sells.

De ouis Bubonis. cap. 86.

OWles egges be small and speckeled with brotill shells, and be wearish, with much white & lesse yolkes. Choughs hunteth by daye, & eateth Owles egges. and the Owle eateth ye Choughs egges by night, and fighteth therefore alwaye either with other, because of their egges, as Aristotle saith li. 8.

De ouis Corui. cap. 87.

RAuena egges be many as Ari. saith, and onely the female sitteth ther on brood: and the male bringeth meate all the 〈…〉 time, and throweth awaye some of the egges, for they be so many: and the Rauen layeth egges and sitteth on broode in the middle heate of ye sum∣mer against the kinde of other foules & bird. And so Petronius saith, the dia∣r••〈…〉 egges when the fr••t is ripe.

De ouis Cini. cap. 88.

SWans egges be many, great, and euen long, with hard shells, & not with right good sauour and be heauie of smell, and more hard to defie than Geese egges.

De ouis Cocadrilli cap. 89.

*COckadrils egges be more then Geese egges, and the male & female sitteth them on wo••e by certaine times, now the male, and now the female, as Plin. saith li. 18. And these egs be venemous, and as it were matter within, and are grieuous both to small and to taste, and poyson and venim to eate.

De ouis Columbae. cap. 90.

*CUluers egges be lesse then hens egs, white and round, and somdeals euen long, landry and hot, and wet norishing. The Culuer ateth two egges, & of the one commeth a male, & of the other a fe∣male, & the male sitteth on brood on them by night, and the female by day, as Ari. saith li. 6. and the Culuer layeth ofte in a yeare, for she layeth ten times in one yeare, and namely in hot countries and lands, as in Egipt. Looke before li. 12.

De ouis Colubri. cap. 91.

A Doers egges be round and full ma∣ny, pale and warme, softe and full of matter, venemous and slaieng.

De ouis Draconis. cap. 92.

DRagon egges be greatest, and more longer than Crocodills Egges or E∣stridges Egges, as Plinius sayth. The Dragon hath Egs within and not with∣out, for the egges be hatcht within the mother, therefore the Dragon hath not so manye Egges as other Serpentes haue, but Dragons egges be more blou∣dy and great, & full of matter venimous and slaieng.

De Ouis Herodij. cap. 93.

THe Oesanicons egges be smal with diuers colore, and euenlong, as the Doshaukre egges or sperhaukes egges, and they be few, for all fouled with croo∣ked clawes be of strong sight, and of scarse moisture and of superfluitie, and therefore they be of few egges, as Arist. sayth, li. 17.

De Ouis Iornucarum. cap. 94.

ANtes egges be full little and small, whitish and rounde, and tooketh i∣ciesing without the bodie in a hot place, and mouldes, vntil they be full and com¦pleate, and if in any wise they be remo∣ued or shed, the Antes gather them, and beareth them againe to their neasts: and they haue good smel, and be medicinable as Plinius sayth, therefore Beares eat∣eth Ants egges, and healeth and saueth themselues, as Plinius saith.

De Ouis Gruit. cap. 95.

CRanes egges be meanely greate, pale, hard, & vn〈…〉 heauie of smel, with vnkind sauour, & they be hard to defie.

De Ouis Griphis. cap. 96.

GRis〈…〉 egges be greater and harder then Egles egs, & more heuy of smel, and of sauour, & more hot & dry in qua∣litie, and 〈…〉 to number & als, for shee Page  [unnumbered] layeth neuer passing twaine, & is of hard 〈…〉ng oft brood, as Ari. sayth.

De ouis Gallinarum. cap. 97.

HEns egges be more temperate then other egges, and more according to the nourishing of mankinde, as it is said before hand: but winde egs be vn∣sauorie and not full good meate to nou∣rishing. Heerof looke before in this same booke, and also. li. 12.

De ouis Hirundinum. ca. 98.

SWallowes egges be many, for as Ar. saith, small foules lay many egs, & no fowle that eateth flesh, layeth twice in one yere, except the Swalow, which lai∣eth twice and bréedeth twice some yere, and sometime the first egs be corrupt by winter, and the latter egs be complete, & bringeth forth birds, as Ari. saith li. 6.

De ouis Cantrorum. ca. 99.

CRabs be first gendred between ye shel and the wombe within, betweene the Tayle and the back, then they come out and be gathred vnder the taile, and ther they swell and were round, and wereth vntill they be complete, and be lost, but they be besprong with semen of ye male.

(*The round spawne of the Crefish, and on the Prawne, groweth as doth the Crab and Lobster.)

De ouis Locustarum. ca. 100.

FLyes egges be gathered within, & be many, and right small, & when they be shed vpon hearbs, twigs & braunches in corrupt aire, hot and moyst, of them commeth endlesse many flyes.

De ouis Lacertarum. ca. 101.

EWes egs be like to serpents egges: but they be lesse in quantitie, & more gleymie. And be venemous, but they be lesse venemous then serpents egges, as Plinius sayeth.

De ouis Milui. cap. 102.

KItes egges be few and smal, & yelow and speckled, and more earthy & dry then egges of other wilde foules, ful vn∣sauorie, and worse of smell and of odor.

De ouis Merul. cap. 103.

COutes egges be small & many ho, & speckled, and somwhat white, & much lyke to wilde Duckes egges.

De ouis Nsi. cap. 104.

SPerhaukes egges be small, and also speckled, and hot and drie, & somtime the Sperhauke layeth winde egs, when she is too fat.

De ouis Coturnicis. cap. 105.

CUrlewes egs be like to rauens egs, and they be accounted right good a∣gainst the falling euill, as Plin. saith.

De ouis Onocrocali. ca. 106.

MOrethumbles egs be like to Geese egges,* but they be lesse & more vn∣sauorie and worser of smelling, & white, and more harder to be defied.

De ouis Pauonis. cap. 107.

POhens egges be great, with harde shells, & the Pohen sitteth 30. dayes on brood vpon hir egges, & hatcheth then: and she laieth 12. egges or lesse, & hideth hir egs from the male, for he breaketh them, if he may finde them, as Aristot. saith.

De ouis Percidis. cap. 108.

PArtrich egs be lyke to Culuers egs, in temperatnesse, complection, and in greatnesse: and Partridges steale each others egs, but this fraud hath no froot: for when the birds be hatch, & hereth ye voice of hir owne hen, then they forsake hir, that sate on brood vpon ye egges, and commeth to the same hen, that layed the egges, as Isid. saith.

De ouis Passeris. cap. 109.

SParowes egs be full litle & small, and the Sparowes layeth & breed∣eth twice in one part, & namely if ye first egs be corrupted or lost by some chance. They be most hot & maketh the reynes arise, and exciteth the seruice of Venus, & so doth the braine of Sparowes, as Const. saith.

De ouis Quisquile. cap. 110.

QUailes egges be little & round, and lesse than Partrichen Egges, and Page  412 be more then Larkes Egges. And the Quaile is a litle bird, and is called Quis∣quila, and hath that name of the voyce, & is a fleshly bird with many feathers, and is lesse of flight then & Larke, & ly∣eth vnder a clot as the Larke doth, & oft the weesell destroieth her egges, & she lei∣eth in diuers places, the male sitteth on some of the egs, & the female vpon soone, & recketh but little of the birdes, when they be hatcht.

De Ouis Riuatricis. ca. 111.

RIuatrix is a certaine venimous Ser∣pent, that infecteth water, and her egges be lyke to the egges of an Adder, that is called Colubet, and they be lesse & more speckled, and bee worse and more venimous. The serpent Riuatrix sitteth on her egges nigh waters and welles, and infecteth them, and corrupteth with full wicked venim. Of this Serpent Iu∣can speaketh and saith, that Riuatrix de∣fileth waters. Looke more heereof, lib. 17.

De Ouis Strutonis. ca. 112.

EStridge egs bée greatest, round, and full white, with harde shelles and wearish sauour & heauy smell, when the time commeth that she shall lay egs, shée heaueth her 〈…〉 the cluster of the 7. starres: For 〈…〉 laieth not but in the ri∣sing of that constellation: And so when that stares is seene, about the moneth of Iuly, she maketh a pit in the sande, and layeth egges therein, and couereth them with Sand, and leaueth them there, and forgetteth ye anone in what place she layed there, & commeth no more there: But the heat of the Sun in ye sand heateth them, and bringeth forth birds of those egges, and when the shell is broken, the Birds commeth out: the mother knoweth him, & feedeth and nourisheth him, which she forsooke while that he was in the egg. Estridges egs be hanged in churches for the rarenesse. For that they be so greate and seldome seene.

(*Of late vsed to be set in siluer, and curiously guilt and wrought, cops made to dr••ke cut of.)

De Ouis Turturis. ca. 113.

TUrtles egges be lyke to Culuers Egges, but they be some deale lesse, & the Turtle lneth two egs in springing time, & layeth no more that yeare, but if the first egges be corrupt, as Arist. sayth li. 17. and l••eth and breedeth on stickes, as the Culuer doth, and may laye and broode vntil the fifteenth yeere, as Ari∣stotle saith expresly.

De Ouis Vpupe. cap. 114.

LApwings egs be like to Partridges egs, but they be lesse, and more harde and more foule to the sight, and more vn∣sauourie to the tast, with worse odour to the smell. And ye Lapwing layeth and sitteth on brood on durt theron, and vn∣cleane things, and he telleth, that these egges be good for Witches and euill doo∣ers, and helpeth to their euill dedes, as Plinius sayth, li. 30.

De Ouis Vulturis. cap. 115.

VUlturis egges be greate as Eagles egges and few, for it is harde for her to fit an brood on her owne egges. These egges be browns and speckled, with hard shells, and ••ill smell, and heauy sauour, and sometime she casteth out some of her egs, as the Eagle throweth away some of her egges, for she may not castly feede her birdes, as Isidore sayth. Of Egges, and of the manner of egges, and of their qualities and diuersitie, this shall suffice for this time.

¶Of the number of waights and measures, and first of equall paise and sound. cap. 116.

TO the foresaid propertyes of things, it séemeth mée good at last to set somwhat few & light, of the proper∣ties & diuersities of num∣bers, of measures, of weights, & of sound. For as Isi. saith, li. 3. The reon of nūbers is not worthy to be despised, for in many places of holy writ it shineth how much mastry and secresie Page  [unnumbered]•• in reason of numbers, for it is not ••de in idlenesse, thou hast made all in number, weight, & measure Sap. 11. For the nyner of fire that is perfect, and made of his owne partes, betokeneth the perfectnesse of the world. And so it is to vnderstand of other numbers. And no∣thing we may know and learne without perseueraunce or skill of numbers, for thereby we knowe houres and times, when we dispute of the course of mo∣neths. While we knowe the space of yeares that commeth about by number, be taught that we be not harmed in ac∣counts. Take away (as he sayth) num∣ber and tale, and all things be lost. Doe away compot and accountes, and all is suil of lewdnesse and vnrunning. And no diuersitie is betweene other beastes and men, that knoweth not the reason of cal∣culing and of accounts, as Isidore sayth there. Also in the beginning of Arethure∣tike it is said, that it is neuer knowen, what is a Triangle, without the num∣ber of thrée, nor a Quadrangle, without ye number of foure: And so it is knowen that nothing is knowen by the Science Mathematica, without number, as hee sayth there. Also (as be sayeth there) a number is a multitude gathered by oft taking of one, for one in the roote and mother of numbers, and 〈…〉 is not ma∣nye, one commeth not of another num∣ber, but one is the beginning and well of all members, and thereof all numbers come and spring. For one is the roote of multitude, and of multiplication, and is most simple and worthy, and most vec∣tuous of all, which bee conteined there∣vnder, as Aristotle sayth, and Auicen li. 1. cap. 2. For one is more and root and well of multitude. One conteineth all vnder it selfe, and al things be therin, as in the taker, as he sayth Cap. 34. For the property of one is to take multitude and to giue thereto hauing, and to bee in all partes thereof, and conteineth Sim∣plicities, as it is said, libro. 4. cap. . And for asmuch as one is, yt well of al things, the more a thing maketh to one and v∣nitie, the more it nigheth to veri••e and truth, as he be sayth cap. 2. For our 〈…〉 as it were the fo••e, and two the mat∣ter. And therefore the neerer the one to to the other, the more be passeth from doublenesse, and migheth to simplenesse. And the more be nigheth one, the sooner doth multiply the number, For beeing is not before one, as it is said, li. 2 cap. 9. And one is not diuers but by the mat∣ter, for be susteineth and withholdeth al things, as it is sayd li. 5. cap. 31. One and vnitie is so praised among wise men, yt many meane, that one and vnitie is the soule in number, that commeth of one & of vnitie, and meane, that one is the be∣ginning of all things, that is continuall and discreet, as Auicen sayth, lib. 3. ca. 1 Also one is praised, for bee commeth of none other, and all other numbers come thereof, & be brought thereto, as to their proper head and well of them, as hee sayth. Also for simplenesse one is not di∣uided nor departed, as he saith. capit. 3. Most truelye one is that that is not de∣parted in deede nor in vnderstanding, & such one is beginning and well of num∣ber, as he sayth. Also be sayth there, that in one is no multitude, and that is to vnderstande, of the first vnite and sam∣ple, to the which all things be reduct, bee they neuer so diuerse, for one is saide in manye manner of wise, as it shall bee knowen heereafter. Also for perfectnesse, for al particular things, which is perfect each in himselfe, be perfect, when they be reduct into one. For all wholenesse and perfectnesse belongeth to one vnity, as it is sayd 1. de Coelo & Mundo. cap.. Also for singular dignitie, for one by it selfe hath a singular being, as it to sayd in libro Methe. cap. 5. And therfore Alg. foorth super. 3. Meth. cap. 15. That the cause of one and of vnitie to one es∣sentially and first noble & passing wor∣•••. One or 〈…〉 is taken is manye bse, as Alg. sayth. Some one is sim∣ple, and some one is by some what that belongeth thereto. One 〈…〉 is one, that may not be departed in deede, though he may be departed at waine, as a tree and a member, in the which the parts be last togethers, and bee not de∣parted at waine. One by somewhat that belongeth thereto is sayd in many man∣ner wise, as in one gender, as man, and Page  413 Oxe, and Horse. One in speciall kinde, as Sortes and Plato: One in accident and qualitie, as Snowe and Cerusa, and other white things. One in likenesse of doing, as the Carter and the ship men: One is subiect as sw••te and where bee in one substance and body In principio Phi. cap. 5. Aristotle sayeth, that some∣one is one in accident or subiect, as when two accidents be in one substaunce and subiect, as coulour and sauour. And one by it selfe is sayd in many wise, as one in continuance, that ioyneth togethers, and endeth of the middle. And one in speciall kinde and shape, as Suites and Plato. In mankinde one in generall kinde, as man. And Ore in general kind of beasts, and one is difinition. And one that may not be departed, as a pointe: and one in number, as singular, and one in simplicitie, as being, & one in al whol∣nesse and perfection, as is a circle. And one in matter, as all bodyly things. Bar∣nard distinguisheth nine manner wise of one and of vnitie ad Eugen. For vni∣tie is naturall and gratious, & is consti∣tuted vppon eyther. Unitie naturall dif∣fereth foure maner wise One is a vnity by assembling of diuers & distinct things, as many stones maketh one heape. And some vnitye is bnyting and coupling of diuers parts, of the which is one made, as members be in one bodye. Some bee ioyned of male and female in gendering of children, and so wife and husband bee one, when man and woman bee twaine in one flesh. And some by ioyning of di∣uerse kindes in one person of gendering & birth, and in this vnitie the body and soule be one man: So the gratious vnity hath foure diuersities. The first is migh∣tie, by the which vertue man is stable in himselfe: and not departed in his owne soule. The second is assenting, when by charity many haue one soule & one bodie in our Lord The third is liking, when ye soule is all according to God almigh∣tie, and forsaketh not God, but pleaseth him with all his might and power, & is one spirite with him. The 4. doth make vs igne & worthy, for thereby Gods son aeth our earthly kinde, to the vnity of the second person in trinitie, by that vni∣tie God and man is one: The vnity that passeth other vnities, as the vnity of the trim••s in three persons and one God, & this vnitie most be sole & singular with out pere, so that therin may be stinting, state, quiet, and rest of all vnities. Heere∣by it is knowen, that holynesse & perfec∣tion belongeth to one & to vnitie, as Ar. sayth. 5. Phi. And what is not whole & perfect, is not vniuersally called one, as be saith. Those that haue one matter, be one in number: and those that bee one in matter, be one in number. And those that be in one forme in generall kinde, hath one generall name in kinde, as a man is Animall, an horse is Animall, and of other beasts. But one and vnitie that is the well of numbers, is not one in matter but in number, as Aristotle sayeth. and is most simple, and hath the first doing, and all other thereby. In all kinds one is head & wel, that is per∣ticular therein, as white in colours, and in Neumatibus soundes, as it is saide, Meth. 10. cap. 3. And therefore the one v∣nitie of number, of the which commeth, and to the which are resolued all num∣bers, is the figure and likenesse of ye vni∣tie of our Lord God. For as it is said. 4. Meth. ca. 3. the first in generall kinde of substance & vndiuisible is the first ma∣ner euerlasting, that is God, cleane of all matter, which is not onely the first be∣ginning as Mtor, but as the forme and end, and last act, and in him is no might medled that may be chaunged. And so of him yt is one God in substance com∣meth all creatures effectually, as by en∣sample, as all numbers commeth of one vnity, as of ye head & well, & to him all be referred, as to the chiefe ende, as all numbers be dealed by ye first vnity, ye be∣ginning and end of all things maye be one, that is God, that is blessed for euer∣more.

Amen.

De Dualitate. cap. 117.

IF one be put to one, then commeth twaine, & that number is after one first principall, & well of numbers. And holdeth the secondarye place, as Isidore sayeth. And this number is called Page  [unnumbered]Binarius, and is called Infamu among some men, for by the number of twaine we be departed from one. And so this number is taken of diuision and depar∣ting. But Aul. in. 6. Musice saith, that if this number be to blame, for he pas∣seth first from one, then he is praising, for he commeth of one, and migheth or is first before the number of three.

De Temano. cap. 118.

THE number of thrée is called Ter∣narius, and is gendered of one put to twaine, and is most holy among num∣bers, for therein is sound the lykenesse of the holy Trinitie. For as the first v∣nitie of the first principall representeth one, so Ternarius presenteth the Trini∣tie of persons in God. For by generati∣on the Sonne commeth of the Father, and by procession the holye Ghost com∣meth of the Father and of the sonne. Al∣so Aristotle taught to worship the glori∣ous and most high God in the number of thrée, as it is said in li. de Caelo & Mun∣do. cap. 2. For euery creature cryeth and preacheth the holy trinitie, that is three persons, and one God, that made all tre∣asures, in number, weight, & measure, as it is sayd Sap. 11.

De numero Quaternario. ca. 119.

ONe put to three maketh foure, and the number of foure is called Qua∣ternarius, and hath ye name of Quadrate, figure & square, as Isid. saith. Quadrate shape and square is most steadfast and stable, and betokeneth therefore most the stablenesse of all holy Church, and sted∣fastnesse of a christen soule in virtuous science and lore, that he knoweth with all Saints, what is length and breadth, hignesse and deepnesse, &c.

De numero Quinario. cap. 120.

OF one put to foure maketh the se∣cond odde number, that is the num∣ber of fiue, & is called Quinarius, which among odde numbers in Binario distant from Ternario in the second, and oft be∣tokeneth those that put somwhat to the science and sore at the saith of the Trini∣tie. And neuerthelesse though they bee taught by the sayth and by the 〈…〉 they be held with the uc mee maidens and the 〈…〉 pole of Oren going amisse, for they bee yet tangled with the vo∣luytuousnesse and liking of the fleshlye wils.

De Senario. cap. 121.

ONe put to fiue maketh the number of sixe, the which is called Senarius, & is the first perfect number, of the euen partes thereof taken all together, they make the same number & summe, that is not found in a number beneath ten, but in the number of sixe, nor in the number aboue ten beneath eight and twentie. Therefore cap. 18. Boetius sayth, that the number of sixe is a number that follow∣eth vertue, for hee passeth not in super∣fluitie, nor faileth in lack of default, but holdeth the meane betweene euen parts, and hath no superfluitie nor default: For in the number of sixe, halfe deale is three, and the thirde twaine, and the firt is one, and sixe times one maketh sixe, and twice three maketh sixe, and thrice twaine maketh the same number: And therefore in holye writ this number betokeneth perfection of grace and of vertue.

De Septenario. cap. 122,

ONe put to sixe maketh seauen, & this number is called Septenarius, and is the third among odle numbers. And betokeneth increasing of seauen manner graces that alway increaseth and profi∣teth in them, that holde the sayth of the most holy Trinitie.

De Octonario. cap. 123.

ONe put to seuen maketh the number of eight, that is called Octonarius. And commeth of two euen partes, or of two numbers of foure: Or of two vne∣uen parts, or of two euen partes and adde, of fiue and three, and betokeneth the passing ioy and blisse in heauen, that Page  414 they shall haue that haue heere the sea∣uen manner gifts of grace. Their euen∣nesse of minde shall aunswere to the good deedes, and vneuennesse of ioy and perticular comfort, to the euennesse of torments and woe. For ioye of Mar∣tires shall passe the ioye of consectoure, to that they be lyke other things. And the ioy of vnctinnes the ioye of wedded solke, as one arre passeth in cleernesse. 〈…〉li. 15. And for euen and vneuen deeds that herre be done, and for vneuen ioyes it is said, that diuerse manstone & dwel∣lings be in the fathers house of heauen. Ioh. 13.

De Noncario. cap. 124.

ONE added or put to eight maketh the number of nine, & is called Non∣nanus, & is compowned of thrice three, & is next to ten, & but one betweene thē, & betokeneth the blesse of the three Ierat∣chies of Angells, of the which each hath accord and likenesse of the holy trinitie, and be neerer to God then be other cie∣tured.

De Denatio. cap. 125.

THE number of ten passeth hereby one, & is ende, bound, and meare of all simple members, and first of all the compowned. And is worthy of present our Lord Christ God, that is Alpha & Omega, beginning & ending, & not onely beginning and ending of al simple crea∣tures, but the ioy and blisse of Angells & of man. Also the number of ten is the first meate of numbers, & no number passeth ten, but ten be put therto. And ten times ten maketh a perfect number, that is an hundred, & passeth from the left side to ye right, as Bede saith, therof it followeth yt some number is Digitus, & some Arti∣〈…〉lais, and same Cōpositus: each simple number beneath ten, is Digitus, & ten is the first Articulus, & the next is twenty, & then thertie, fortie, & so forth. Composi∣tus is compowned of Digitus, & of Ar∣ticulus, as eleuen, twelue, & thirteene, & so forth vnto twentie, that is the second 〈…〉, & so forth, thirtie, and fortye, vntill an hundred, and ten hundred ma∣keth a thousand, and therein is the dig∣nitie of the number of ten knowen and noted. For without oft taking of tenne cōmeth not a thousand. slumber taketh greatnesse & quantities, & many diuisi∣ons be of numbers, for some number is euen & some odder: the euen number may be departed euen in two, and two, foure, sixe, and eight: Some number is odde, that maye not be departed into euen parts, for the one is more & the other is lesse, as in three, fiue, & seauen, and other such. As Isidore saith, the euen number is diuided in this wise: Some is Par, & some is Impar: That number is Par, yt is departed in euen nubers, alway vnto one, that is vndiuisible. In this wise the halfe part of foure & sixtie, is two and thirty, & the halfe thereof is fifteene, and halfe thereof is eight: and halfe therof is foure: and halfe thereof is two, and the halfe of that is one, and is vndivisible, & singular. Impar to the member yt maye bee diuided euen in twaine. But either halfe doth rename odde, as fiue, tenne, foureteene, eighteene, two & twenty, ther∣tie, fiftie, vntill as such numbers bee di∣uided, euen in two commeth a number, yt may not be diuided euen in two, Im∣par is the number that maye be dealed or diuided euen a sunder, and eyther halfe thereof also may be dealed euen a sunder, but such euen dealing commeth not fully to one, as it fareth of foure & twentie: The halfe thereof is twelue, another halfe thereof is sixe, & the other halfe thereof is three, which may not be diuided euen a sunder, & so ye euen diui∣ding commeth not fully to one. Impar is an odde number, which cōmeth of mul∣tiplication of odde numbers, as fiue and twentie, and nine and fortie, which bee odde numbers, and compowned of euen numbers & odde, and commeth of multi∣plication of the numbers that be odde, or seuen times seuen amounteth to the num∣ber of nine & fortie, and fiue times fiue maketh 25. Also some euen number is superfluous, and some Diminurus. Su∣perfluous is the number, yt hath partes, that make a greater number then it selfe, as it fareth of ye number of twelue Page  [unnumbered] that hath fiue partes, the t•••lish pa•• is one, sixe is twaine, the fourth is three, the third foure, and halfe parte is sixe. And one, two, three, foure, and sixe, ma∣keth sixteene, that passeth by foure, and so of such number.

De Numero diminuto. cap. 126.

THE partes of a number Diminutins being accounted, maketh a lesse num∣ber then it selfe, as it fareth of the num∣ber of ten, yt hath three partes, the tenth part is one, the fifth is twaine, and the halfe is fiue: And one, two, and fiue, ma∣keth eight, that is much lesse than tenne. And the number of eight is such a num∣ber, and so be many other that commeth not fully of their own parts, as the num∣ber of sixe hath three parts: the sixt part thereof is one, the third is two, the halfe is three, and fiue, one, and three, maketh euen sixe: These nūbers be perfect, sixe, eight, and twentie beneath an hundred, foure score and sixteene beneath a thou∣sand, and sixe score, and eight & twentye beneath ten thousand: and those perfect numbers end alway is sixe or in eight, and that alway the one endeth in sixe, & the other in eight, as Boetius sayeth. Thou shalt seld finde perfect numbers, and they are soone accounted, for they bee scarce & compounded in a full stedfast or∣der. And superfluous numbers & dimi∣nutiue be vnordinatly disposed and com∣powned of no certeine end of numbers. Uneuen nūbers be diuided in this wise. Some be simple, and some compowned, and some be meane. The simple haue no euen part, but onely one other vnitie, as ye number of three hath only the third part, and due onely the fifth, and seuen onely the seauenth. Such a number hath but only one part. But héere be speaketh of ye euen mesuring part, which is so of∣ten taken, yt it maketh euen the same nū∣ber Compowned numbers be not onely by one, but they be also compowned of other numbers, & commeth multipli∣cation of other numbers: Nine, fifteene, one and twenty, and fiue & twentie, for we say, thrice three, & seauen times three, and thrice fiue, and fiue times fiue. The meane numbers seemeth some deale both simple and compowned in some wise, as nine, & fiue, & twenty. For in comparison to some number of nine, is the first vncō∣powned, for th•••n is no comon number, but onely one, & •• the second and com∣powned in comparison to fifteene. For in nine & in fifteene is another common nū∣ber then one, as the number of three, for thrice three maketh full nine, and thrice fiue maketh full fifteene.

De secunda, diuisione totius Numeri. cap. 127.

AND numbers be departed and dea∣led in another manner wise: for eue∣ry each number is taken by himselfe, & with comparisō, as one, fiue, three, foure, fiue, sixe, and such other. A number is taken with comparison in this manner wise: the number of foure is double to the number of two, and conteineth oft two, and sixe is double to three, and eight to foure, and ten to fiue: and three to tre∣ble to one, & sixe to two, & nine to three. And yt like great numbers be those that conteins like many, as two to two, and three to three, & ten to ten, an hundred to an hundred Uneuen numbers be ye more and the lesse, as three and two, and foure & three. And generally the more and the lesse in comparison be vneuen either to other, & the more member conteineth the lesse, and somewhat more: as foure con∣teineth three, and somewhat ouer. For in foure is one & three, and so of other. The lesse number is conteined in the more, & is taken in comparison therto, with some part of it, as three to foure, & is conteined in foure with two parts therof. A num∣ber yt is called Multiplex conteineth the lesse number twice or thrice, or foure times, as two conteineth twice one, and is double thereto, & three is treble to one, & foure is quatreble to one, & so of other. The number Submultiplex is oft con∣teined in ye more number, as one is twice conteined in two, and thrice in thrée, and foure times in foure, fiue times in fiue, and so of other. The Superticularis number conteineth in comparison all ye lesse number, & somewhat ouer, as three Page  415 containeth two, and one more that is the halfe part of two. Also foure containeth three, and one ouer, that is the third part of three, and fiue containeth foure & one ouer, that is the fourth part of foure, & so of other. The number that is called Sub∣superparciens, conteineth the lesse num∣ber, & two parts, three, foure, or mo parts of the lesse number, as fiue contayneth three, & two parts ouer, that be two: and seuen containeth foure, & three partes o∣uer thrice one, & nine containeth fiue, & his other partes, foure times one. The number Subsuperparcient is conteined in the more number with some partes thereof, fiue, or three, or moe, as three is conteined in fiue, and two parts therof, & fiue is conteined in nine with foure parts therof, and so of other Subsuper∣particularis number is conteined in the more number with the halfe part, or the third part, or the fourth, or the fifth, as two to thrée, thrée to foure, foure to fiue, & so of other. The number Multiplex Subsuperparticularis conteineth ye lesse number oft, & some part thereof, as fiue conteineth twice two, yt maketh foure, and one part therof, as nine conteineth twice foure and one ouer. The number Multiplex Superparticularis conteineth oft the lesse, and some parts therof. Also foureteene conteineth twice sixe, & some parts thereof, as eight conteineth twice three, & some parts therof, & sixteene con∣teineth twice seuen, & some part of it: & two & twentie conteineth twice nine & some three parts. The number Submul∣tiplex Superparciens is oft conteined in the more number, with some partes thereof, as thrée is twice conteined in eight, with two parts thereof, and foure in twice conteined in eleuen, and three parts therof, as Isidore sayth.

De tertia diuisione totius Nu∣meri. cap. 128.

NUmbers bée diuided in the thirde manner, in this wise. Some discréet and some conteined. A discreet number is conteined in discreete vnities, as three, foure, fiue, sixe, & so of other. A nūber cō∣teining is be, which ioyned with vnities is conteyned, as three is vnderstoode in greatnesse & in quantitie, and this num∣ber is diuided in Lineall, Superficiall, & in Solide The number Lineal begin∣neth at one, & is written lineally vnto endlesse. And to Alpha is written for de∣signation of lines. For among Greekes this letter betokeneth one. The number superficial is writtē not only in length, but also in breadth, and to conteyned in length and in breadth. A three cornered number, and foure cornered, & fiue corne∣red, and round, and other such, be alway written and conteined in length and in wedth: Therfore heere be figures set for ensample. For the cornered nūber is or∣deined in this wise, and the Qua∣drant in this wise

[illustration]
And fiue corne∣red in this wise,
[illustration]
The circle number is made thus,
[illustration]
The number Spheri∣cus and Circularis commeth of a num∣ber that is multiplyed by it selfe, and oft by the number that commeth therof, and turneth into it selfe in a circle wise, and maketh a spere all rounde, as fiue times fiue times. For this circle multiplied by it self all about, maketh a spere al round: for fiue times fiue and twentie maketh generally an hundred & fiue and twen∣tie. The number Solidus, (*Solidus, it was among ye Romanes diuersly taken, sometime for a coine of Brasse contey∣ning 12. smal pieces. A shilling, sometime it was taken for Dragma in siluer, as Pri. Esdrae. 8. & secundi erusdem. 7. So∣lidus aureus, in the time of Alexander, was two drams of gold. After in ye time of Iustinian. 6. of them made an ounce, they being of the weight of our old no∣ble:) is conteined in length & bredth and deepnesse to them that be simple, propo∣sed simple to kinde, and many manner diuisions & numbers to be vnderstood & knowen, as I finde in the worse of Isid. for his words I follow at full. Heereof it followeth, & is openly knowne heere∣by, yt vnder diuersitie of numbers be di∣uerslye his diuers vnderstandings and meanings of holy writ, the which is in∣spired by the holy Ghost. Therefore, as Boetius sayth, libro quinto, capitu. pri∣mo.

Among the science Mathematike, wise Page  [unnumbered] men shall most take héede of the science of numbers. For the lore of Arethmetik passeth all other to helpe to knowe all thinges of kinde, of the which Philoso∣phie must treate: For without number is not a letter ioyned to a letter, nor sila∣ble to silable in right order, neither Sub∣iectum knowne from the Predicatum, nor the conclusion in Silogisinus is di∣stinguished from the premises, nor the first meane and lesse, nor of the third and fourth. Therefore (as Boetius sayeth) the science of numbers passeth all other sci∣ences. For without thrée is no Trian∣gle, nor Quadrangle without foure, and so of other. And so it fareth in Musicke, for accords Musick hath names of num∣bers, as Boetius sayeth. As it fareth in Diatesseron, in Diapente, and in Dia∣pason, and in other Consonants and accords of Musicke, yt haue no name with¦out number yt commeth before. And the course of starres is not knowen, and ri∣sing nor passing, nor diuersitie of time ruled, but by helpe of number. Also all yt is made is shaped by reason of num∣bers, as he sayeth. Also the ensample in the wit and thought of the maker, was reason of number: And by certaine num∣ber thrice three orders of Angell be di∣stinguished. By three & seauen, vertues & might of all reasonable things & of spiri∣tuall wits be distinguished. And the E∣lementes be fastened by vertue and sci∣ence of numbers. And so for to speak, all thing vsed coniunction of numbers both spirituall and corporall, both of heauen & earth. And numbers haue composition among themselues, as Boetius sayeth. For in ye substance of numbers is found euen and odde, that maketh all number by certaine might of God, for they bee diuers & contrary, and commeth neuer∣thelesse of one gendering and well, that is one, and bee ioyned in one compositi∣on without meane, and in lykenesse of proportion. And so it appeareth well that euery number is odde or euen. The euen number may be dealed euen a twaine, and leaueth not one, but the odde num∣ber is it which may not be dealed euen a two, without one odde. Or else by Pi∣thagoras lore, the euen number may be dealed vnder the same dimension, and in least and in most. In least diuision & most greatest number, as if thou dealed n hundred in fiftie, & fiftie is ye most part, and fiftie is the least diuision, for it is di∣uided but once, and there maye bee no lesse diuision then in two parts. For the more an euen number is diuided in ma∣ny parts, so much the greatnesse is dimi∣nished. As it fareth of a tree yt is hewen in many parts: but the number of diuisi∣ons is alway more. And the cause is (as he saith) for a great quantitie may be di∣minished, diuided in••tly. But a num∣ber increaseth & waxeth endlesse. There∣fore ye diuision of an euē number is most in continuall quantity, & lesse in number & discréet quantitie. The odde number is kindly diuided in two partes, more and lesse. The euen number is sometime dea∣led in two euen parts, and sometimes in vneuen more & lesse. And when the num∣ber is dealed euen in two, of the one part bee odde, the other is odde also, and if the one part be euen, the other is euen, as when eight be dealed in foure and foure, & twelue in sixe & sixe, and so of other. And if one of euen diuision bee odde, the other is odde also, as when was dealed in three & three, and ten in fiue and fiue, & foureteene in seauen & seuen. And so in euen diuision is not euennesse meddeled with oddenesse, nor oddenesse with euen∣nesse, but onely in the number of two, that is prince of euennesse, and taketh not euen diuision For it is compow••d of twice one, and of the first euennesse of two. And if ye euē number be dealed in two parts, more and lesse, if the one part be euen, the other is euen, and if ten bee dealed in eight and two or in sixe and foure. Also if sixe be diuided in foure and two, and eight in sixe and two, and so of other. But if the one part be odde, neede the other is odde. And if ten be dealed in seauen and three, and eight in three and fiue, & so of other And it maye neuer be that one part of such a diuision to odde, and the other euen, nor one euen and the other odde.

And alway where the odde number is diuided in two parts, more & lesse. ye one parte is euen, and the other odde, as if Page  416 thou deniest seuen in three and foure, the one parte is euen, and the other is odde, & that is generally found in all odde nū∣bers. And one is mother of pluralitie, and cause of euen & odde, for if thou put one to an odde number, •••de then makest an euen number: And if thou takest one out of an euen number, euen thou makest an odde number. Also of all numbers set in kinde disposition about one, and ioyned togethers, and is the middle: As if thou sayest, one, two, thrée, one put to one ma∣keth two in the middle betwéene one and thrée. Also if thou sayest, two, thrée, foure, one put to twaine maketh thrée, the middle betwéene thrée and foure. Al∣so if thou saiest, three, foure, fiue, one put to thrée maketh foure, the middle between thrée and fiue. And of other passing vp∣ward of partes, and speciall kindes of euen number and odde, it is treated be∣fore. To make processe of all the gende∣ringes and proportions, accorde and di∣uersitie of these numbers, it were right long. Therfore of properties of numbers is 〈…〉 for this time. Onely we shall wit, yt in numbers it is hard to finde the middle, as Isid. saith. For it is most cer∣taine, yt numbers be endlesse 〈…〉, for tel thou neuer so long til thou think to make an end, yet one put to the number ma∣keth the number more, and odde or euen. The reason & property of ye〈…〉 th••〈…〉 know in this wise: First put togethers the lesse number and the more, & depart euen in 〈…〉, and thou shalt finde the middle n this wise: Take sixe for the lesse, & twelue for the more, & put them together, and sixe & twelue ma∣keth eight 〈…〉. Deale them euen in two that is nine, and so it is generall in A∣rethmetike, that by as many as the mid∣dle passeth the least, by so many yt most passeth the middle. 〈…〉 passeth sixe by thrée, and twelue passeth nine by thrée, as Isidore sayth, libro. 2. Heereof excepti∣on is set before.

Of measures and weights. Chap. 12

OFten measures & weights haue place in holy writ. The reason and proper∣ties therof springeth of the skill of Geo∣metry, for as Isi. saith, li. 2. Geometrie to a science of measuring & meating, & con∣teineth in it selfe lines & length, shape & figured, & space in length & bredth & fair∣nesse, & distance, greatnesse & hgnesse, & figures, dimsions, & numbers, as it fareth in circles, triangles, & quadrangles, & in fiue cornered figures, & in other mo••sse many, of whom it perteineth not to this treatise to make 〈…〉tions of all, but to ouh sō what because of ye s••ple, of whō Isi. maketh mention & saith in this wise. Of Geometry is foure minor diuisions, plaine, & greatnesse of 〈…〉, & greatnes of reason, and solidate figures, plaine fi∣gures he contri••d in length & in bredth: and bée fiue in number, as Plato mea∣neth. Greatnesse of nūber may be dealed by numbers yt be knowen in Arithme∣tike, the measure of fraction e, greatnes & hugenesse is not knowen. And 〈…〉 figures be conteined in length, breadth, & déepnesse, & such a figure to ated Cu∣bus, & is all 〈…〉 long, br••d, and déepe: of plaine figures is many special shapes, as he sayth. The first is the circle in plaine 〈…〉, & is also called Circumducta, and in the middle thereof is a point, in whō al the times yt come from the round∣nesse therof meet together: & in Geome∣try that point is called Centrum, and the circle is in plaine set thus

[illustration] [symbol for circle]
. The Qua∣drangle is in plaine, & lieth within foure straight lines in this wise.
[illustration] [symbol for quadrangle]
Diategra∣mon is a plaine figure in this wise. Ortogonium that is recti angulum, is a plaine figure in this wise.
[illustration] [symbol for right triangle]
Hiso∣pleros is a plaine figure and straight, ordeined vnder the Solide in this wise. The sphere is a figure shapen al round, & is pere to Solitude in al parts in this wise.
[illustration] [symbol for sphere]
The Cubus is properly the So∣lide 〈◊〉 long, broade and deepe in this wise.
[illustration] [symbol for cube]
Chilindros is a square figure, with halfe a circle about in this wise.
[illustration] [symbol for cylinder]
Conon is a figure broad in the end, and sharpe at the other, in this wise.
[illustration] [symbol for cone]
Pi∣ramis is a figure shapen in this wise,
[illustration] [symbol for pyramid]
wide beneath and straight aboue. Thus science vseth first the point that hath no parte: For among all that be measu∣red, it is least in quantitye, and most in Page  [unnumbered] might is to beginning of all lines, and therefrom all lines beginneth & stretch∣eth and cudeth thereas. Secondly, this Science vseth the line that is straight length without bredth, & stretcheth from point to point. For hée beginneth at a point and endeth at a point. Superficies is breadth and length. Spiutudo hath thicknesse, bredth, length, & déepnesse. And each body hath these thrée dimensions, length, bredth, & thicknesse: And by those three al corpulent substance hath measure, number, and weight. And by art of tel∣ling and numbers thou maist finde the middle in Geometry. For the least & the most multiplied maketh as much as the mene maketh multiplied, as 6. & twelue multiplyed, maketh two and seuenty, as Isidore sayth, lib. sicundo. The circle is a line drawne all round about frō a cer∣taine point to the same point. And each part of that line is like far from the mid∣dle point. And the circle is a most sim∣ple figure, and most taketh, and is most cleane, without corners & hollow with∣in. And the roundnesse therof is most far from the middle point, and is most per∣fect among all figures, and conteyneth in it selfe, and is conteined of it selfe, and of none that is without it selfe, as it fa∣reth of the circle of eaen, yt compasseth all and is not 〈…〉, and conteineth all, and is conteined of none that is with∣out, as Isid. sayth as within ten is each number, so within the circle is closed all manner shape of figure, in this wise.
[illustration]
And shortly to speake of the perfection & reasons circulae, circles wonderfullye, by a certeine maner kind 〈…〉ulation, fol∣lowing all things. For heauen is round in shape, & 〈…〉 Planets moue all round about, and so doe all the starres, & so we see that the course of yeares, of moneths, and of diuers times beginneth and en∣deth, and alway passeth rounds about. So the Elements suffereth each other, and worketh each in other. And those that seeme disturbed by corruption, com∣meth yet agayne by generation: So con∣tinuall ebbing and slowing of the Sea commeth and goeth, and falleth and cō∣meth yet againe; So hearbes & grasse, trees, and seede, and fruit, commeth each of other, and turneth into themselues a∣gaine. So the spirits of 〈…〉 commeth of God by creation and making, & mo∣ueth to God in and by loue and affection: They come of God by working, & turn to God by deedes of thinking. So Ari∣stotle lykeneth the reasonable soule is a circle because of perfection hereof, and of disposition to receiue. Of all the figure of the same length, the circle is the most, therfore all the whole world hath round shape and is made thereto, because the soule should take it by vnderstanding & in wit. God is creatour and maker of all, and is designed in a circle. For as Trimegistius sayth, one gendereth one, and bendeth his loue unto him. For the Father generated, and hath without be∣ginning ingendered the sonne, and inspi∣reth the holy Ghost by the sonne, and the holy Ghost is the knot and loue of ey∣ther, of the Father and Sonne. For the father vnderstandeth him perfectly 〈…〉 beginning, and loueth vnderstanding per∣fectlye himselfe, which loue stretcheth to none other passing himselfe, but to him∣selfe that vnderstandeth, and is vnder∣stood, to the Father & sonne, of the which proceedeth that loue, and bendeth in him∣selfe in a circle wise. And so the some in God and 〈…〉 the father vnderstan∣ding, and vnderstanding gendereth the sonne, and the sonne gendered of the Fa∣ther and vnderstood, and the loue by the sonne commeth of the father, & berdeth & reboundeth to either, and is the 〈…〉 Ghost. And so it may be knowne yt per∣fection is in the persons of God, & that the pluralitie of them passeth not ye〈…〉 of the 〈…〉. Therfore the Philosopher yt was called Secūdus, answered, 〈…〉 it was apposed what is God, he 〈…〉: God is intellectuall circle, of yt which ye mid∣dle point is euery where, & the roundnes no where, and so the reason of the circle shineth in euery creature.

De Triangulo. cap. 128.

A Triangle is a figure with the cor∣ners that bee euen as much as two euen corners. That is an euē corner, it is determined in another place: the soule Page  [unnumbered] of lyfe yt hath three vertues in it selfe, of gendering, of nourishing, and of waxing is likened to ye Triangle, yt is the first of figures of Geometrie. For ye soule of life is the first of all soules, & hath in it selfe three maner vertues. Among cornered fi∣gures, the triangle is the first for hee is Solidus, long, & broad. Therefore each fi∣gure with corners, as the Quadrangle, & ye fiue cornered figure, conteineth as ma∣ny Triangles, as there be lines drawen frō corner to corner, as it fareth in ye qua∣drangle, yt conteineth two Triangles, if one line be drawen from one corner to the contrary corner in this wise

[illustration]
And conteineth 4 triangles: if another line be drawen from another corner to ye contra∣ry corner in this wise
[illustration]
. And so in all other figures, for he conteineth as many triagles, as they haue corners, as the quadrangle conteyneth foure Triangles, if two lines bee drawne, & stretcheth from two corners to the contrary corners. And by lines drawen, ye fiue cornered figure conteineth the triangles, and the sixt cor∣nered figure are, & the seuen cornered fi∣gure seuen, & so of other as Boetius saith li. 1. Arsmetrice. cap. 6. But the triangle may not be so dealed in other figures thē Triangles in this wise, this figure is so printed
[illustration]
of breadth, yt other figures be resolued & deled in triangles: and for this figure is bosid to no principles, nor taketh thereof figures beginning of breadth: therfore this figure to dealed in it selfe, as he sayth there. And none other figure may be thought, that hath not beginning and principall of the Triangle: For the Triangle is the beginning and Ele∣ment of other figures and shapes, & that is knowen in numbers. For the number of foure is compowned of three, yt is a tri∣angle in numbers, & of one, that maketh foure & out to three: For one hath this dig∣nitie. That he conteineth in it selfe all the vertue of numbers, yt〈…〉 thereof not in deede but in might & vertue, as Boetius sayth, libro.. cap. 14. And so the num∣ber of fiue is compowned of foure and one in sted of a Triangle: And so it may be shewed of all other Numeral figures. For alway each number is meresed of a triangle figure, as Boetius determineth then in termes openly, & leiteth ensāples in figures of foure, of fiue, of sixe, & of se∣uen, & of many other. Also ye triangle fi∣gure hath another singular property: for of such other figure 〈…〉 may be the chiefe side of a triangle: and so vpon each other figure may be rered a triangle: for each other figure Piramidale, yt hath in it selfe ye shape of a triangle, btaineth in it selfe as many triangles, as ye chiefe side containeth corners. And if a quadrangle is set for the chiefe ground & flo, there may arise a figure Piramidales, yt contei∣neth in it selfe as many triangles, as the quadrangle hath corners in it selfe in this wise. Also if ye chiefe side of 〈…〉 be fiue cornered, the Triangle Piramis, yt〈…〉 may present fiue triangles vpon that Ba∣sis, as it fareth in a Piramidale figure yt may be Basis of the figure Piramis, as he saith. And in the Piramidale tri∣angle, 3. manner triangles may be found, as ye corners therof be three, in this wise. And so the disposition of God seemeth wonderfull in all things, and namely in numbers & in figures: Of other figures, both of numbers & of Geometry, it is re∣quisite now to cease for difficultye & di∣uersitie of endlesse many figures, though ye consideration of al be full profitable to ye lore of diuinity, as in the quadrangle, that is much solide and stedfast among figures & numbers, and is square, and presenteth the lore of the Gospell, that hath stedfastnesse in ye foure parts of the worlde, as Beda sayeth super Genesis. A corner is called in Augulus, as touch∣ing of two lines yt toucheth either other, and is the common subiect of many fi∣gures. For all the foresaid figures be de∣termined vnder diuersitie of angles. And of diuers touching of lines cōmeth diuers angles. For some angle is called Rectus angulus & sōe Obl. quus or Re∣flexus, & some Acutus, and some Obu∣sus. And most vertue is in the Angle that is called Rectus, for therein all the vertue is strengthned, yt is in the lynes that come from the Bests to the angle and ye vertue is strengthned by concourse and meeting and touching of lines, as it fareth in the eie that conteyneth all thing vnder an angle: For the highnesse Page  [unnumbered] that commeth from the thing, yt is seene straight to the eye maketh Pirame:* of the which the point is in the blacke of the eye, and the broad ende in the thing that is séene: and those beames be angled in the middle of the black of the eie, and by the angle of that Pirame, the sight is shapen, as the Author of Perspectiue sayth. Looke before li. 3. de natura Visus. lib. 5. de materio oculorum. The partes contrarye set and diuided among them∣selues, come togethers in angles, and bee ioyned there.

Of the kinde of angles and of figures little is héere said, because of ensample, that we may know that the reason ther∣of is needfull to know diuers priuities of holy writ, that bee diuerslye lapped in likenesse of numbers and of figures: For as the circle betokeneth the soule Ratio∣nall, so the triangle betokeneth the soule of féeling. For as the Quadrangle con∣teineth two triangles, if a line be drawn from ye one angle thereof to the contrary angle, so the soule of feeling conteyneth in itselfe two triangles of might and of vertue. For ye soule of feelling hath three vertues of the soule of life, and there o∣uer the vertue of conceiuing, and concu∣piscible and irassible. For the soule of fee∣ling is soule of life, and not again ward. And so of other figures be diuers priuye reasons, & spiritually taken, and spiritual things with corporal be accorded. Under these figures be comprehended reasons of measures and of weights.

Of measures of bodies. ca. 131.

MEasure, as Isid. sayth, li. 16. cap. pe. is some thing in his manner meet, or his during by time. And measure is of body, or of time, or of space & of place. The mesure of body is as of mē, of trees, and of other bodily things in length and in bredth: For each body hath his owne dimension & measure, & that properly is called measure, by whome fruit & corne & licuor, and other things moist and drie be meten, as Modius, Vrna, Amphora, and Sextarius. And the least measure is Coclearium, and is halfe a Dragme, and weigheth nine Huoles, & such: thrée ma∣keth a Concula. For Concul, conteineth a Dragme & an halfe. And the weight Ci∣atus conteineth 10. Dragmes, & fiue put thereto maketh Orifasus. Acetabulus is the fourth part of Emina, and conteineth 12. Dragmes. Cotula is Emina, & contei∣neth 6. Ciatus, & is called therfore Cotu∣la, & hath that name of the Greeke word Cote, that is to say, earuing or dealing, and Emina is a part of Sextarius dealed euen in twaine, & is called Cotula. And Emina weigheth a pound, and such two maketh Sextarius, & is the mesure of two pound, and is called Bilibris euer. And 4. times is Cenix in Gréeke, & fiue such maketh Quinarius, yt is called Gomor. Also put thereto the sixt, and it maketh Congius, for Congies conteineth 6. Sex∣tarius, and thereof Sextarius hath that name. Congius hath ye name of Congre∣gando, gathering, or of Crescendo, wax∣ing. And so it meaneth, it is ye is giuen for some benefit is called Congiarium. And euery Emperour to win fauour of the people, put somewhat to the measure for to be held the more large of giftes. And Congiarium is speciallye a measure of fleeting things, & the Romanes ordeined the name thereof.

Metreta is a measure of fleeting things, & hath that name of this Greeke name, Metron, & is a common name of al mea∣sures, that conteine fleeting things. The measure Modius hath that name, for it is perfect of his manner, & is the mea∣sure of 44. li. that maketh 22. Sextaris, and is therfore figure and token of per∣fect woorkes of sixe dayes. God did make 22. workes within sixe dayes, for in the first day God made seuen manner things, matter & forme, light or fire, the ouer heauens, water, earth, and aire: And the second day he made onely the instru∣ment. And the third day he made foure things, ye seas, séeds, hearbs, & trées. The fourth daye he made three thinges, the Sunne, Moone, and Starres. And ye fifth day thrée, fish, creeping beasts of water, and soules. The sixt day he made foure, tame beastes, wilde beastes, and cree∣ping Wormes of the lande, and man. And so. 21. manner things were made in sixe dayes. And 22. Generations were Page  418 from Adam to Iacob, of whose seede came all the people of Israel. And there be 22. bookes of the olde Testament vn∣to Hester, and 22. letters of A.B.C. by whom all the lore of Gods law is wri∣ten. Then by these ensamples, the mea∣sure Modius containeth 22. Sextarius, by Moses lore: and Modius hath that name of Modus, for it is a moderate me∣sure, as Isid. saith.

Satum is a manner measure vsed in the Prouince of Palesuna, and contain∣eth one Modius and an halfe, and the name thereof is taken of Hebrue: for a∣mōng them Satum is called taking or re∣ring: for he that meateth, shall take and reare by same measure. But some∣time Satum is taken for Modius, mea∣sure of 12. Sextarius, as Isid. saith.

*(Satum, Genus mensurae Palestinae, an Hebreu measure, containing of wine 33. pound .4. ounces, of Oyle 30. pound, of 〈…〉 50. pound. It is of our measure standard, two gallons and a quart. Bee∣ing a measure of drye things, it is our pecke, and the fourth parte of a pecke.)

Bacus is a measure that holdeth 5. Sextarius, & Batus is in fleeting things, as Chorus and Ephi in drye things.

*(Batus, a measure containing 72. Sex∣tarios, which after the Romane Sextari∣us reseth to 13. gallons & a pottle of our measure. Some affirme it to be but 36. pintes of Paris, which is the same mea∣sure that Amphora is. Batus is also, a kinde of fish.)

Amhpora hath that name of Ansis, an handle, by the which he is heaued he∣ther and thether: and holdeth of wheat or wine, three Modius of Italy.

Cadus is an Amphora, that holdeth thrice Vrna, Vrna is a measure, yt some call Quartenum, and properly to speak, Vrna is ordeined to do therin ashes of dead bodies. Thereof the Poet Lucan saith. He is healed with the 〈…〉, yt hath not Vrna.

Artabo is a measure among the Ae∣gyptians, and boldeth 2. Sextatis, & hath that name, of 72. languages of anons that occupied the world.

Gomer is a measure of 4. Modius, as Isi. saith. Or it is a mesure of 4. Mo∣dius, as the Glose saith sup. Exe. ca. 16

*(Gomer, Alter, Budey & Glarian ye x. part of Ephi: & Ephi is the same measure that Amphora is 9. gallons: so yt Go∣mer, is a gallon and almost a pint. After Gregorius Agricula, it holdeth .7. Sexta∣rios and one fifth part.)

Chorus is a measure of 30. Modius, and hath ye name of coaceruation, heaps: for 30. Modius or one heape, seemeth a little hell, and is the charge of a Camel. Huc vs{que} Isid. 1.16. Also there are ma∣ny other mner measures, of whom the names be set in holy writ, & not with∣out great cause of preuie and mysticall meaning : for euerye vessell in which things be kept that be measen, is contai∣ned vnder the name of measure, as it is shewed in diuers ensamples.

Acetabulum was a vessell, in which wine that shuld be offered to God, was assayed and proued, whether it were so∣wer or corrupt, and was called Aceta∣bulum: and the vessell in the which was sower wine and corrupt was called A∣cetabulum, as Isid. saith lib. 10.

Ampuila is a little measure of licor and hath that name, as it were Ampi∣bulla, a large bull, and is like in round∣nesse to a boll that commeth of ye some of water by entring of winde, & be •••:ted, and blowen, and be full subtill.

Alabastrum is a vessell for oyntment & hath that name of the kind of ye stone that it is made of, & saueth without cor∣ruption by his propertie longest, all cent∣ment that is put therein, as it is sayd in Trac. de lapididus.

Archa is a vessell and mesure, onely in the which things be put and kept out of sight, yt they be not seene of all men. Of this name commeth this word Ar∣chanum priuitie, that is warely kept vn∣knowen to multitude of men.

Amphora is a certaine measure, & hath ye name of Ansis, a handle, as it is sure before. Batus is a measure of fleeting things, ordeined by ye law. Bachia is a me∣sure, ordained generaly to ye vse of wine. Calix is a certain porsion & measure of drink, & hath ye name of Calo, yt is a tree, for such vessells were first made of tree & of wickers, as pamer and baskets.

Page  [unnumbered]Cathinum is an earthen vessell or∣dayned for meate and for drinke, and is better sayd in the neuter gender, than in the Masculine, as Salinum, a saler, as I∣sidore saith.

Cacabus a candron, is a vessell of the kitchen, ordained for diuers vses, and to seeth flesh in, and also the same vessell is called Valcotula.

Cadus is a barrell, and contayneth thrée Modius, as it is sayd there.

Calathus is a basket made of splintes to beare fish therein.

Cribrum is a ••oe, round with ma∣ny holes, and hath that name, as it were Curriferum, bering things that runneth, for wheate and other corne runneth ther in, for in a siue corne is clensed of stones and of small chaffe.

Cista is a little hutch, & of that name commeth the diminutiue Cistella, & hath the names of rindes or splints, of canes or of willowes, of whome it is wouen and wrought.

Cophinus is a vessell wouen of rods to beare dirt therin, as it is sayd in Psa. Manus eius in Cophino seruierunt.

Celata be vessells of golde or of sil∣uer marked with euident signes, within or without, and haue that name of Ce∣lum, that is an instrument of yron that is commonly called Cilicon, as Isidore sayeth.

Cimlia be vessells for drinke, & are euenlong and narrow in the endes, and broad in the middle, as it were a boate.

Coclear a spoone, is a little instru∣ment of the measure of the mouth, and proportionate thereto: and therewith the hande serueth the mouth of diuers meates, and namely of fleeting meates. Therefore Martialis saith.

Sum cocleis habilis, & nec minus v∣tilis ouis.
Nunquid scis potius, cur coclearo dicor.

Discus is a Dish broad and rounde, and hath that name of Do and Eseo, & is the same that Scutello is. And Dis∣cus is sayd, as it were Dans Eseas, gi∣uing meate, and men sitting at meate, be called Discumbentes, and haue that name of Discus.

Dolium a Tunne, is an hollow ves∣sell, and hath that name of Dolando, he∣wing or thwtring, for it is made of ma∣ny boordes and Tunne slaues, craftely bound togethers.

Emicadium is another vessell, and containeth halfe a Cadus.

Enoforum is a vessell, and holdeth wine, for Eno is wine, therfore it is said. Vertitur Enolon fundut sententia no∣bis, as Isidore saith.

Emissis is a certayne drinke, or a vessell that is dronke of one drought, as Isidore saith.

Fiola hath the name of Glasse, for glasse is called Filin in Greeke, and is a lyttle vessell with a br••d bottome, and a small necke, and therein wine is know∣en, namely by colour.

Philacterium is a lyttle vessell of glasse or of christall in which holy Re∣lykes be kept. Also the punishment, in which the Iewes wrote the Law for to be helde holy, is called Philacterium, as it is said: Dilatant enim Philacteria sua.

Fiscus is a common sacke or a bag in which the Escheker and rent gathe∣rers put the common debts and Cu∣stome that is payed to Kings, as it is said, Quod non accepit Christus, capit Fiscus.

Fiscella is a little euen long scribbe or a panter woue with small roddes of willow or of wickers, & glewed or pitch∣ed, as was the vessell, that Moses was in, when he was put in the riuer.

Gauata is a great header boll, below and deepe, and is called Gauata, as it were Couata hollow: there G. is set for C. as Isidore sayth.

Gazofilatium is an hutch, in the which is put what is offered in the temple, to helpe and succour of needie men, & hath that name, as it were Archa gazarum, the Cofee of riches, and kéeping thereof, for kéeping is Filax in Gréeke, as Isid. saith, and so Gazofilatium was a hutch or a house kéeping the common offring, as Musac kéepeth the common offering of Kings, and Corban of Priests.

Idria is a water vessell, for water is called Idor in Greeke.

Page  [unnumbered]Canistrum is a basket, or a fraile made of white rushes or of reede, & ser∣ueth to put in fr••te:

Cordilum is a like vessell, craftelye made and wouen of white rods.

Lamp•• is a 〈…〉, thin, and 〈…〉, upon was rounds aboue, narrow and straigth beneath, and 〈…〉 long, and 〈…〉 to 〈…〉 and lyght, and hath the name of Lambo. to 〈…〉 for it 〈…〉h it 〈…〉th the oyle, & is euer 〈…〉 that giueth 〈…〉oorth 〈…〉 may be called Lampas, as Ho〈…〉 sayth. Looke before lib. 15. de metal∣lis cap. de Vitro.

L••rarsa hath that name, for light is reason therein, and to name of glasse, as of 〈…〉 of some ashe•••ce thing, & light is closed therin, for the wind shld not blowe out the light: and it giueth light all about, and is often borne about wth lyght therein, as Isid. sayth.

Lacetus hath the name of Lucino, & to the first 〈…〉Lu, is short: thereof Persius saith.

Disposite pinguem nebulam cuo∣muere lacernae.

If Lucerna had the name of Lux, the 〈…〉 false, as Isid. saith. And the candle of the lanterne is called Licnus, and Luscinus, as he saith.

Also Lagena is a wide vessell, & hath that name of the Gréeke word Lagenis, as Isidor. saith. And commonly we call Lagena a 〈…〉 barrell or a cestrell, and the diminutiue thereof is Lagungula, and by the kind of Lagena or of a barell, the sauor of the wine changeth, and the best Lageres or bar••all be made of the tree that is called Tham••stus, therof ye wine taketh 〈…〉 and vertue to〈…〉 stop∣ping of the spl•••, as Const. saith.

〈…〉 or 〈…〉, is a vessel of 〈…〉 of brsse, that commeth water by a 〈…〉 & pipes, for washing of hands, and as called 〈…〉, not onely for it is made for washing, but hath this name Labrum of Labium the lip, for ofte the wine thereof is broad and bending as a 〈…〉 such vessells be called Luderes, 3. Reg. cap.. in the which priests wash the sat••ce of the temple.

L•••icula is a little oyle vessell of brasse or of siluer, and hath that name of Liniendo,y••ing, for in such a vessell, the oyle was kept, to anoynt Kings and Priests, as Isid. sayth.

Lebis is a vessell of brasse, to séethe flesh in, and taketh blacknesse of oft bur∣ning and vncleannes, and needeth there∣fore oft scouring and wiping. C••i met∣tall of leads and candernes, infecteth oft meate that is long kept therein.

Loculus is a purse in which m••ery is put, as it were in a pre••• place, and is called also Marsupium, as Isi. sayeth.

Marsupium is a bag to put monie in, and that neede commeth of ye Gréeke word, Marsippa.

Mulgariū is a ••lk vessel, as Isid. saith.

Mola is a great bell déepe & round, & was so called, for all rounde things are called Mola among the Gréekes.

Nola is a lyttle bell, and hath that name of a citie of Campania that is cal∣led Nola, where such a bell was first soū∣ded, and is little, and soundeth, & is cal∣led Tinunnabulum, & the bell that is often hanged about the necke of hounde. and feete of foules and birds, as Hugu∣on saith.

A crack is called Olla, for water boy∣leth therin, when fire is ther vnder, and vapor passeth vpward, and the ball that riseth on ye water, & dureth by substance of the winde and aire is called Bulla.

Parupsis is a square vessel with foure sides alike. Patena is made of Dispelis and Patentibus lancis oris, as Isi. saith.

Patera is a manner vyoll, and hath that name, for by drinke out therof, for the 〈…〉 euen and a twaine, as Isid. saith.

Poculam hath that name of Potan∣do, drinking: and euerye vessell yt men vsesh to drinke of, is called Poculum.

Patella is a pan, as it were an open crocke, for a 〈…〉 mouth, is more open than a crecke, for the mouth is as broad as the bottome, and is a vessell of brasse or lead néedfull to diuers vses.

A 〈…〉 is called Peluis, and hath that name of Pellis, the skinne, for in it is ofte washed the skinne of feete and hand.

A boxe is called Pixus, and hath that Page  [unnumbered] name of Buxes, Boxe trée, for of it ofts boxes be made: for the tree that we call Buxus. Gréeks call Pixis, and a boxe is made now of mettall and now of tree, & serueth to many diuers vses, and name∣ly to kéep and saue, and to beare lettere, electuaries, licours, powders, and oynt∣ments.

Quisquiliarium is a vessell or anye thing, in which coddes, huskes, or small chaffe is put and saued.

Sartago, the frieng pan, hath yt name of noyse that is therein, when oyle bur∣neth therein, and is a manner pan, in the which things be fryed with chéese, with butter, or with oyle.

Sphan is vessell that hath yt name, for blowing he casteth out water: for when houses be a fire, men of the East lands runneth with vessells full of wa∣ter, and quencheth and clenseth the same, and throweth vpward the water, as Isi. saith.

Rapatorium is a vessell, in ye which Rapes be kept or sodden, as he saith.

Ciphus is a cup or a vessell of tree, of siluer, of golde, or of glasse, of the which we drinke or wash our handes.

A basket is called Citula, for it ac∣cordeth to those that be a thirst to drink therof, or for it thrusteth water, for now it receiueth water, and now sheddeth, for while one bucket is emptied, matter is filled.

Cithrasia is a bagge or purse, in the which wayfaring men carrie bread, and other things that they need in the way.

A basket is called Sporta, so called, because therein is bread borne and other things, which néedeth to houshold. Or hath yt name, for it is ofte made of rods of a shrub, that is called Spartus.

Scottella is an oyle vessell, and hath that name, for it is made of leather.

Scutella is the diminutiue of Scutū, a shield; for it is lyke to a lyttle round shield, as Isidore sayth.

Scrinium is a lyttle hutch couered with leather and with nayles, in which money is kept and other preuy things. Salinum is a saler, as Isidore saith.

And euery vessell with three féete is called Trisilis, as Isid. sayth: for a ves∣sell with foure feete, is miscalled Tri∣silis.

A censour is called Thurabulam, & is a vessell of brasse, of siluer, or of gold, and is double, close beneath and open a∣boue, with manye hoales, by the which the smoke of the incense passeth out, and vpward into the aire, and serueth for to cense therewith, the two parts of it are cheyned together.

The farme is called Vencilabrum, & is an instrument is fan wish, and hath this propertie, that the light thing & vyle passeth out, and the heauie and cleane a∣bideth therein.

A bottle is called Vter, & is by craft made of leather, and hath therefore this name Vter, of Vterus, the wonder, as Isidore sayth.

Vrna is Amphora, of which it is said before in this same booke.

Vrceolus is a dimunutiue of Vrna, & serueth now for wine & now for water, but properly it is a vessell that serueth to put water in, with the which water wine is alayed at the table and feasts of Lords, & thereof Onon hath that name, for he giueth water to ye〈…〉 of Gods in spousatles of Phiolagia, as tables but faine, as it said in Mac. and in Marc.

Of many other maner measures is men∣tion made in holy writ for ••er misti∣call meaning, but for ensample these be let heere. Thers be also other measures of spare and of place, of the which Isido. speaketh on this wth 〈…〉.

¶Of measures for diuiding of Countreyes and places. Cap. 13.

MEasure he sayeth, is all thing which hath 〈…〉 in wight, capacitie in length, in bredth, in highnes, in 〈…〉 and also in minde, and to our 〈…〉fathers mesured all the world, and 〈…〉 Par∣ties into Prouinces, and Prouinces in∣to Regions, and Regions into Places, and Places into Territories, and Terr∣itories into Fieldes, and Fieldes into Centurias, and Centurias into Dayes earings, and Daies earings vnto Clima∣ta, and Climata into Ans, and Ans into Perches, and Perches, into Paces, Page  [unnumbered] Cubites, and feete, spans, & hand breads, vnces, and inches, and so by their wit & sleight, they lesse nothing vnmeasured, from the most to the least. An inche is the least part of measures of ••cius, and Vncia containeth three inches in mea∣sure, and the hand breadth foure inches, and the foote sixteene. And the pace con∣taineth fiue foots, and the Perch eleauen pace and ten feete. The Perch is called Pertica, and hath that name of Portan∣do, bearing, for all the sayde small mea∣sures be in the body, as the span, feet, and pace, and onely the Perche is borne, & is ten foote long, as Ezechiels cane made & measures mystically the temple: heereof is mention made Ezec. 40. C.D.

Actu is a measure of foure feete in breadth, and sixe score feete in length.

The Clima is a square space, and is sixtie foote long in euerie side. Actus qua∣drate euery way, finisheth with 180. foot, and so two Actus make Iugerum, and hath that name because of ioyning, Iugerum is 140. feete in length, and sixe score feete in breadth. There be many o∣ther manner measures, of the which we doe not speake at this time.

But it is to vnderstand, yt the Sta∣iall field containeth sixe score pace and fiue, that is 615 foote. And eight such ma∣keth a mile, yt containeth 20000. whole feete, as Isi. saith there.

Centuria is a field of two hundered Iugerea, and had that name of an hunde∣res Iugerea, and was so called in olde time, and was afterward doubled, & hol∣deth alway the first name, as Isid. saith, lib. 15. cap. vit. de mensuris.

Measure of wayes haue diuers names among men of diuers tongues: for the Latines call Miliria, the Greekes Sta∣dia, and the Frenchmen Leucas, the Ae∣gyptions Signes, and the Persians, Pera∣sangas. And no wonder, for euery space is contained with his owne bonds and measures, as he saith.

(*Stadium, a mesure of ground, wher of were three sorts: One of Italy, con∣taining 625. feete, that is 125. paces.

The second Olympicum, of 600. feete, that is 120 paces. The third Pithicum containing •••. feete, that is two hun∣dred paces: whereof happely maye rise the difference betweene Plinie and Di∣odorus Siculus, in describing Sicily. Of these Stadia, eight doe make an Italian mile, containing a thousand paces, euery pace being fiue foote. We maye call it 8. furlongs.)

For the mile containeth a thousand paces, that is fiue thousand foote: the Leuca containeth a thousand paces and fiue hundred.

The Stadium is the eight part of a mile, and containeth sixe score paces and fiue. He telleth that Hercules ordained that name Stadtom for such a space, for he ran so farre of 〈…〉 breath, and stint∣ed then, and so gaue that name Staduim as Isid. saith.

A way is a space, in the which carri∣age may goe, and hath that name Vra, of Vehiculum, a thing which beareth, for therein commeth and meeteth caria∣ges, and containeth the breadth of two Actus, for going and comming, and mee∣ting of carriage.

And euery way is common or pri∣uate: The common way is in common ground, and is common to the people, & leadeth to the Sea, and to other diuers townes: and this way is called Strata, as it were troden with the feete of the Comminaltie. Lucanus speaketh there∣of and sayth.

Strataque iam vulgi pedibus detri∣ta viarum.

Strata is a way troden with feete of the people.

This way without obstacle is clean and sad, paued and couched with harde stones euen and peaceable, common to all manner of people, and free without stopping, impediment or grieuing, as hee sayeth.

The Priuate waye, belongeth to some nigh Towne, and is short & nigh, and ofte growen with grasse, for sel∣dome going, and is beset with trees, on either side.

Agger is an heape of stones, or a to∣ken in the high waye. And historyes call such a way, Knights waye. Thereof it is sayd.

Page  [unnumbered]
Qualis sepe vie deprensus in Agge∣re serpens.

Iter, iteneris, is a way, by the which a man may goe whetherwarde that hee will: and Iter is another than Itiner, for Iter is easie to passe, and Itiner is long and hard to passe.

Semita is the middle of the way, and hath that name of Semis, halfe: and Se∣mita is the path of men, and Callis is the path of beasts, wilde and tame: and Callis is the pathe of beastes betwéene mountaines, and is streight and harde, troden with beasts, & hath therefore that name of Callo.

Tramites are by paths in fields, and hath that name, for they lead to ye euen way.

Diuersum is a bending of wayes, and leadeth to diuers places: And Di∣uerticulum is a benching besides the waye.

Bruium is a beginning of 2. wayes, of the which one lyeth on ye right hand, and the other on the lefte hand, & is ofte a perillous place and suspitious: for in such places ofte théeues lye in a wayte, & the Cominaltie be oft robbed in such places: and is a doubtfull place, for men doubt often, which of those wayes they shall take. Therfore in times past, cros∣ses were set in such wayes, that the men passing thereby, might know, which of those wayes they should take.

Compita is a place where manye wayes meete, as three or foure, and is a perillous place and doubtfull, as Brui∣um is.

Ambitus is a space betwéene place & house of neighbours, of two foote broad and an halfe, ordained for a waye about neighbours places, and hath that name of Ambiendo, 1. Circumeundo, going a∣bout.

Orbita is the forrowe of a wheele, that maketh a déepe furrow in the win∣ding, and trendlyng about.

Actus is a place wher beasts are oft driuen, and is slipper and sickle.

Vestigium is the fore that is lefte in the ground, after going and trendling, and hath that name of Inuestigare.

Beasts leaue in their owne sores, some token, by the which they be ofte taken of hounds and of other wilde beasts.

The Lyon knoweth that, and both a∣way therefore his fores, that they be not knowen of them that is followeth him.

Of properties and diuersitie of mea∣sure, this is sufficient for this time. And what is sayd before, is taken forth of Isid. li. 15. cap. vltimo.

Of Weights. cap. 133.

IT is needfull to know the manner of weights, as the manner of mea∣sures, as Isidore sayth, for the might of kinde giueth to all bodely things theyr owne weight, and weight ruleth all.

Therefore waight hath the name Pon∣dus of Ponendo, setting, for weight set∣teth all things in theyr owne place, for weight is not els, but receiuing a thing toward his own place. Two things ma∣keth weight, lightnesse and heauinesse, & so lightnes in subtill matter maketh vp∣ward, and resteth not ere it come to his owne place: therefore fire moueth vp∣ward, and resteth not, ere it come to his owne place and sphere. The contrary is of heauinesse, for heauines that hath the mastrie in corpulent and earthy matter, moueth downward, and resteth not ere it finde the middle, to the which is moo∣ueth towarde the middle by his owne weight, and so all thin matter and sub∣till, hath double cause of lightnesse, for the parts of such matter is shire and sub∣till, and moueth toward the middle to∣ward the roundnesse, and resteth not ere it come therto. Also for shir〈…〉 of parts in such are many parts, in which be ma∣nye poores, and vertue of fire commeth therein, and dissolueth and wasteth the earthy parts, and maketh so all the body light, and beareth it vpward: & so heate is chiefe cause of lightnesse, as cold that moueth from the roundnesse toward the middle, is cause of ning and fastnesse of parts, and 〈…〉 of heauinesse: and so the more sad a body is, the more heauye it is, and the more shire and thin, the more light it is found. And though both light and heauy is called weight, because of the inclination of either toward his Page  [unnumbered] owne place, that is ordained thereto by kind, yet by the common speking, weight and heauinesse is all one: for things that moue down ward be called weighty, for their heauinesse, and things that moue vpward, are called light things: and so light and weight be diuided as contra∣ries. Therefore li. 15. Isidor. sayth, that a weight is called Pensum, hanging: for it hangeth in the ballaunce, when it is commonly weyed, and in this wise for to speake commonly, the thing in ye which a thing as wayed, is called a weight: and somtime the thing that is weyed, & som∣time ma••ie things & heuy, by the which the heuines is assaied, is called a weight.

Also instruments in the which things be weighed, haue diuers names: For Trutina is of double weyght, and Lanx is the hanging for to wey gret weights, as humorous, and talents, & small balan∣ces, for to weye small things and lyttle money.

The ballance is called Statera, & hath that name of Stando, standing, for hee standeth euen weyed by a thing yt bea∣reth it vp in the middle.

Lances be the thin brasen bolles, of the which in the one is the weight, and the thing that is weighed is in the o∣ther, and the weight to rightfull, when both ye bols hang euē with their weights and alyke high.

The tongue that followeth the more heauie boll, is called Momentum state∣re, and the h〈…〉gles by the which ye bal∣lance hangeth, and the heuinesse of bols be •••ayed, is called Filum as he saith: & euery weight hath a certaine maner, and proper name, as Isi. saith.

The least parte of weight is cal∣led Calculus, and the fourth parte of weight Obolus and weieth two greins of Tilles and is called Calculus, for it is so lettil that it maye not be troden and 〈◊〉.

〈…〉 is the twentieth part of Soli∣de, and hath this name of a fruits of a 〈◊〉.

Obolus weieth three Huoles, and was 〈◊〉 of brasse, shapen as an ar∣row, 〈◊◊〉 ye name thereof, for an arrow is called Obolus in Greeke, as he saith.

Scrupulus weyeth sixe Huoles, & is called Dragma in Greek, and this name Scrupus is a diminitiue of 〈◊〉, that is a little stone.

Dragma is the eight part of Vncia and weyeth three pence of siluer.

Scrupulus, that is the eighteenth Hu∣olus, is called Denarius, and is accoun∣ted for ten pence, as he sayth.

(*Drachma the 3. part of an ounce, a dramme: also a coyne signed with a Bullocke, counterpesing and old sterling groase, of eight to the ounce. Drachma au••. 12 siluer drams that is, an ounce & halfe of siluer)

Solide hath that name, for it seemeth that he lacketh nothing: and therefore men in old time called a thing that was whole and vnbroken, Solidum & Totū. Also a shilling containeth 12. pence.

Numisma is a penie, and is called so, and is marked with the print fo ye name of a Prince: for first Numilida was a penie of siluer, as Isid. saith.

Solidus is called Sextula, & hath that name for it weyeth 16. ounces: ye com∣mon people calleth the third deale ther∣of Trimisus, for such three maketh So∣lide, and two Sextules maketh Dulco, & three maketh Stater, as Isid. saith.

Stater is halfe an ounce, and wayeth three golden Solide, yt is called Stater, for it standeth in the Solide, & is called also Semiuncia, for it hath ye half of an oūce, & is called Semisus also, for it weyeth Se∣misus, as it is Semisus, half Assis as he saith also Assis is ye left among weights as one is least among numbers, as the Glose saith there. Nonne duo, &c.

obtaer a certaine coyne, in value foure drm, or foure groats, 8. to an ounce of these were & old siluer Romans coynes.

Fiue Quadrans; weyeth the fourthe deale of an ounce, & is called Quadrans in Hebrew.

(*Quadrant the fourth part of As, that is three ounces, also the fourth part of a∣ny number, as measure. In coyne it is a brasen parte, called Frienx in value the tenth part of sestertius. The accord in rec••ning where the receipt and allow∣ance be equall. Quadrans vino 〈◊〉, 6. ounces of Wine, after udey . After Page  [unnumbered] Phisitions, foure ounces and a halfe.)

Ciclis in Latin, is called Sicca in He∣brue, and weyeth an ounce among them, and among the Greekes, right as among Latines.

Ciclus is the fourth part of an ounce and halfe a Stater, and weyeth two Dragures. In holy Writ Ciclus is an ounce, and the first parte of an ounce a∣mong Nations.

Vncia hath that name, for it oneth and bindeth all number of weights, and weyeth eight Drams, that is 24. Scru∣pled, that is taken for lawfull weight: for by the number of Scruples thereof, the number of the houres of the daye & night be accounted, for twelue ounces maketh Libra, and is therfore accounted a perfect weight, for therein be as many ounces, as months in the yeare.

(*Siclus, Iosephus: called also Te∣tradrachmen, and Stater argenteus. It is as well a coyne as a wayght, being halfe an ounce in peyse, and in value a∣bout 4. greates, when eight went to an ounce: Some write that it is but two Drachiues.)

(*Sicilicum, a weight of two drams the fourth part of an ounce also a me∣sure of grounde 20. foote broad, and 30. foote long, that is a plat containing 620. foote.)

Libra is said, as it were Liberé, for it containeth in it selfe, all the foresaide weights, as Isi. saith. A pound weight.

Bilibras, weyeth two Libras, and is double Libra.

••ma weyeth an hundred drams, & is a name of Greeke.

(*In Latine Coina signifieth a bush or haire, the voughs & leaues of trees.)

Talentum is accounted the greatest weyght among the Greekes for nothing is lesse than Calculus or As••: For as One is in numbers, so Calculus is in weights, and no weight is more than Talentum. But this weight is diuers among Nations: for among ye Romans Talentum wayeth threescore pound and twelue, as Plinius saith: and two To∣lents weyeth two houdred pound, foure¦score and fortie.

The Talent is treble, lesse, meane, & most. The lesse is of fiftie pound: the meane of seauentie pound, and twentie: and the most of seauen score pounde and that was Talentum of Seyntwary.

Centenarium is the name of a num∣ber, for it containeth an hundred pound: and for the number of an hundred is perfect: ye Romancs ordayned a weight of that name. Huc vsque Isidor. libro 15. cap. 3. De Ponderibus & Mensutis.

(*Talentum are of two sortes: Ta∣lentum Acticum maius, contayning 80. Minas, euery Mina valewed one hun∣dred Drachmas or Denarios, and euery Drachma being a groat sterling, when eight groates went to an ounce, and by that rate doth rise to one hundred thir∣tie thrée pounds and odde money. Ta∣lentum Acticum minus, which is most spoken of in Authors, containeth sixtye Minas, euery as before is written, bee∣ing in valew an hundred Denarios, and in that rate amounteth to an hundred pounds. But he may seeme as Tonstall writeth 120. pounds, after x. groates to an ounce: for the •••enesse or v•••nesse of English money, maketh Talentum more or lesse, as Talētū Hebraicū Sāctu∣ary containing an 100. Minas Mebrai∣cas, wherof euery one was 60. Sicli, and euery Siclus 4. Donarij of sterling groats of 8. to an ounce, which rate amounteth to 400. pounds. Talentum Hebraecum minus, was halfe so much.)

De Musica. cap. 134.

AS Acte of numbers and measures, serueth to Diuinitie, so doth the Art of melodie: for Musicke by the which concord & melodie is knowen in sound and in song, it is needfull to know ye se∣cret meaning of holy writ, for it is said, that the world is compounded & made in a certaine proportion of har〈…〉, as Isi. saith li. 3. And it is said, that hea〈…〉 goeth about, with cousonance and accord of melodie: for musicke moueth 〈…〉ti∣ons and 〈…〉teth the wits of diverse dis∣positions. Also in battaile the noyse of the trumpet comforteth warriours: and the more strong and 〈…〉gious that the ounding is, the more strong & wild men bee to fight: and comforteth shipmen to suffer all the diseased and trauayles.

Page  [unnumbered]And comfort of voyce, pleseth and com∣forteth the heart and inwits in all dis∣ease and trauaile of workes and weari∣nesse. And musicke abateth masterie of euill spirites in mankinde: as we read of Dauid, that deliuered S••le of an vn∣cleane spirite by crafte of melody. And musick exciteth and comforteth beasts & serpents, soules and Dolphins to take heede thereto: and so veynes and sinews of the body and pulse thereof, and all the lns of the body be sec••• together, by vertue of harmony, as Isi. saith.

*Of Musicke be three parts, Armoni∣ca, Rithmica, and Metrica, Armonica, diuideth the great and small in sounds, & high and low, & proportional chaunging of voice & sound. And Armonia is sweet accord of song, and commeth of due pro∣portion in diuers voyces or blasts, tou∣ching and s••••ting sounde: for as Isido. saith, Sound commeth of voyce, as of mouth and iawes: or of blast, as of trumpes and pipes: or of touching and smiting of cymbale and harpe, and other such, & soundeth with smiting & strokes. Uoyce commeth to one accord, as Hu∣gution saieth, for in all melodie needeth many voyces or sounds, and that accor∣ding: for whereas is but one voyce on∣ly, it pleaseth not the cares, as the voyce and sound of the Cucko: and if anie discord, the voyce pleaseth not, for of such discord commeth not song, but howling, tarring, or yelling: but in many voyces according in one, is proportion of har∣mony, and melody, or sweet Simphonia. And so Isid. saith, that Simphonia is a temperate modulation and according in sounds high and low,* and by this har∣mony, high voyce accordeth: so that if one discordeth the hearing. And such ac∣cording of voice is called Euphonie, that is sweetnesse of voyce, and is called al∣so Melodia, & hath that name of sweete∣nesse and of Mel, that is honie: and the contrary is Diophobia, soule voyce and discording.

To make melody of harmony, need∣eth Diosclina, Diesis, Tonu, Iperludi∣us, P〈…〉, Arsis, Thesis, and sweete 〈…〉rate sound. Dacesmo is a couena∣〈…〉 of two voyces, or of mo accor∣ding. Diesis is the space of doing me∣lody, and chaunging out of one sound in∣to another. Tonus is the sharpnesse of voyce, and is difference and quantitie of harmonie, and standeth in accent and Tenor of voyce: and Positions make thereof fifteene parts. Iperludius is the last thereof and most sharpest. And To∣dorius is most heauy of all, as Isi. saith Arsis is rearing of voyce, and is the be∣ginning of song. Thesis is setting, and is the ende, as Isid. saith: and so Song is the bending of the voyce, for some pas∣seth straight as he saith, & is before song. And euerye voyce is sounde, and not againward, for sound is the obiect of he∣ring: for all that is perceiued by hea∣ring, is called sound, as breking of trees, smiting together of stones, hurting and rushing of waues and of winde, chitter∣ring of birds, lowing of beasts, voyce & groning of men, and touching of organs. And a voyce is properly the sounde that commeth out of the mouth of a beast and sound commeth of aire smit against an hard body, and the smiting is sooner seene than the sound is heard, & the ligh∣tening is sooner seene, than thunder is heard. A voyce is most thin aire, smitte with the wrest of the tongue: and some voyce signifieth and betokeneth by kind, as chirping of birds, and grning of sick men: and some betokeneth at will, as the voyce of a man that is ordained and shaped by beast of reason to tell out cer∣taine words. The voyce beareth for the the worde, and the worce that is in the thought may not come out but by help of voyce yt bringeth it out: & so first ye in∣wit gendereth a word in the thought, and putteth it afterwarde out at the mooth by the voyce, & so ye word that is gendered & conseined by inwit, com∣meth out by the voice, as it were by an Instrument, and is knowen. The voice that is disposed to song and to melodie, hath these properties, as Isidore sayth. Uoices he sayth be small, subtill, thicke, cleere, sharpe, and thrill. In subtill voyce the spirite is not strong, as in children and in women, and in other that haue not great sinewes, strong and thicke.

For of smal strings commeth smal voice Page  [unnumbered] and subtill. The voyces be fat & thicke, when much spirite commeth out as the voyce of man. The voyce is cleere that soundeth well, and ringeth without any hollownesse: sharpe voyces be full high: shrill voices be loud, and draweth a long and filleth soone all the place, as ye noyse of trumpets. The harde voyce, hoarce, grim and grisly, is when the sound ther∣of is vyolent, as the sound of thunder, & of an anueloc beaten with sledges: the rough voyce is hoarce and sparpled by small and diuers breathing: the blind voyce stinteth soone, and is stuffed, & du∣reth not long, as the sound of an earth∣en vessell. The voyce Vinolenta is soft and plyant: that name Vinolenta, com∣meth of Vino, that is a lytle bell softly bent. The perfect voyce is high, sweete, and strong, and cleere: high to bee well heard, cleere to fill the eares, sweete to please and not to feare the hearing, and to comfort the heart to take heede ther∣to: if ought heerof saileth, the voyce is not perfect, as Isi. saith. The first harmo∣nie is of organs, that commeth of blast, when certain instruments be cunningly made and duely blowen, and giueth by quantitie of the blast, and diuers qualy∣ties, aptly diuers sounds, as it fareth of organs, trumpets and pipes, & other such that giueth diuers sounds, and noyse.

Organum is a generall name of all in∣struments of musicke, and is neuerthe∣lesse specially appropriate to the instru∣ment that is made of many pipes, and blowen with bellowes, and vsed onelye in Churches, in Proses, Sequences, and Himnes.

(*Or is for his loudnesse, néerest a∣gréeing to the voyce of man.)

De Tuba. cap. 135.

THe Turent sound first the trumpet: Virgil speaketh of them and saith.

Turenus{que} tubae mugire per aethe∣ra clangor.

The voyce of the trumpet of Ture∣ne loweth in the aire. Men in olde time vsed trumpets in battaile, to feare and to astray their enemies, and to comforte their owne knights and fighting men, & to comfort horses of warre to fight, and to reese and smite in the battaile: & be∣tokeneth worship with victory in ye figh∣ting, & to call them againe that flye: & vsed also trumpets in feasts, to call the people together: and for businesse in praising, and for crieng of wealth of ioy the Hebrewes wer commanded to blow trumpets in battaile in the beginning of the new Moone,* and to cry and warn the comming of the Iubile the yeare of grace, with noyse of trumpets, & to crye ioy & rest to all men, as Isi. saith. li. 18. A trumpet is property an instrument or∣deined for men that fight in battaile, to crye and to warne of the signes of bat∣taile: and where the cryers voyce may not be heard for noyse, the noyse of the trumpet should be heard & knowen. And Tuba hath that name as it were To∣n, that is holow within, and ful smooth for to take the more breath: & is round without and straight at the trumpettes mouth, and broad and large at the other end, and the trumpeter with his hande, putteth it to his mouth, and the trumpet is ruled vpward and downward,* & held foorth right, and is diuers of noyse, as Isi. sayth: for it is somtime blowen to prepare battayles, and somtime for that battaile should ioine together, & somtime for the chase, and to take men into the hoast.

De Buccina. cap. 136.

BVccina hath that name, as it were, Vocina paua, and is a trumpet of horne, of tree, or of brasse, & was blowen against enimies in old time: for as Isi. saith, li. 18. The wild Panims wer som∣time gathered to all manner doing with the blowing of such a manner trumpet: & so Buccina was properly a toké of wild men. Propertius speaketh heerof,* & seeth.

Buccina cogebat priscos, ad Arma Quirites.

Buccina made the old Quirites aray themselues, namelye in armour. The voyce of such a trumpet, is called Buc∣cinum, as he sayth. And the Hebrewes vsed Trumpes of horne, namely in Ka∣lendis, in remēbrance of the deliuerance of Isaac, what time an horned Wether was offred, and made oblation of in his stéede, as the Glose saith super Gen.

De Tibia. cap. 137.

Page  419TIbia is a pipe, & hath that name, for it was first made of legs of Hartes, young & old as ma•• suppose, & the noise of pipes was called Tibicen. Or els as Hugution saith, this name Tibia com∣meth of Tibin, yt is a rush or a réede, for of certaine reedes, such an instrument was made in old time: & thereof is said hic Tibicē, on, he yt plaieth on such pipes And was somtime an instrument of so∣row & lamentation, which men did vse in office & sepultures of dead men, as the Glose saith super Mat. 9. Cum audislet tibicines,* that is the fingers of dole and of lamentation.

De Calamo. cap. 138.

CAlamus hath yt name of this worde Calando, sounding, & is the generall name of pipes. A pipe is called Fistula, for voyce commeth thereof: for voice is called Fos in Gréeke, & send, is Stolia in Greeke, & so the pipe is called Fistula, as it wer sending out voyce or sound. Hun∣ters vse this instrument, for Harts loue the noyse thereof: But while the Hart taketh hard & liking in the piping of an hunter, another hunter which he hath no knowledge of, commeth & shooteth at the Hart, and ••eieth him. Piping be••y∣leth birds & foules, therefore it is said.

Fistula dulce canit, volucrem dum decipit Auceps.

The pipe singeth swéetly, while the fowler beguyleth the birde. And shéepe loue piping, therefore shepheards vse pipes, when they walk with their sharp. Therefore one which was called Pan, was called God of Heards, for he ioyned diuers réedes, and arayed them to song slily and craftely. Virgil speaketh ther∣of, and saith.

Pan primos calamos cera coniunge∣re plures
Instituit, Pan curat oues, ouium{que} magistros.

*Pan, ordained first to ioyne with war manye Pipes in one, Pan hath cure of sheepe and of shepheards. And the same instrument of pipes is called Pandori∣um, for Pan was 〈…〉 thereof, as Isid. saith. And with pipes, watching men pleaseth such men, as rest in beds, & ma∣keth them sleepe the sooner & more swéet∣ly by melodie of pipes.

(*Pan called the God of shepheards: he is thought to be Demogorgons son, and is thus described: in his for head he hath hornes like the Sun beames, a long beard, his face red, like ye cleere aire, in his brest the starre Nebris, the nea∣ther part of his body rough, his feete like a Goate, & alway is imagined to laugh. He was worshipped especiallye in Ar∣cadia. When there grew betwixt Phoe∣bus & Pan con•••tro, whether of them two should be iudged the best Musition. Midas preferring the •••pipe, not respec∣ting better skill, was giuen for his re∣ward, a paire of Asse eares.)

De Sambuca. ca 139.

SAmbuca is an Elder tree brittle, & the voughs therof be hollow & voyd and so••eth, and of those same voughs be pipes made, and also some manner Sun∣phonie, as Isido. saith.

De Symphonia. ca. 140.

THe Simphonye is an instrument of Musicke, and is made of an hollowe tree closed in leather on either side, and menstralls beateth it with stickes, and by accord of high and low, thereof com∣meth full sweete ots, as Isi. saith: ne∣uertheles ye accord of all soundes be cal∣led Simphonia in like wise, as ye accord of diuers voyces is called Chorus, as the Glose saith sup. Luc. 15.

De Armonia. cap. 141.

ARmonia Rithmica, is a sounding melody, and commeth of smiting of strings, & of ruking or ringing of met∣tall, & diuers instruments serue to this maner harmonie, as Taber & Timbrel, Harpe and Psalterie, and Nakyres, and also Sistr••.

De Timpano. cap. 142.

TImpanum is layde straight to ye trée in the one side: and is halfe a Ta∣ber, or halfe a Simphonie, & shapen as a s••e, and braten with a sticke, right as a Taber, as Isido. saith, and maketh the btter melodie if there be a pipe there∣with.

De Cithera. cap. 143.

THe Harpe is called Cithera, and was first found of Apollo, as the Greek, Page  [unnumbered]〈…〉. And the harpe is like to a mans brest for likwise, as the voyce commeth of the brest, so the notes come of ye harp, & hath therefore that name Cithara, for the breast is called Cithara, in Dorica lingua, & afterward some & some came foorth many maner instrumēts therof, & had yt name Cithara, as ye harp & psalte∣rie, & other such & some be foure corne∣red, and some three cornered: the strings be many, and speciall manner thereof is diuers. Men in olde time called ye harpe Tidicula, and also Fidicen, for ye strings thereof accord, as well as some men ac∣cordeth in saith. And the harpe had sea∣uen strings, and so Virgil saith.

Septem sunt soni septem discrimi∣na vocum.

There be vii. soundes, and vii. diffe∣rences of voyces: and are therefore cal∣led Dsrimina, for one string next to a∣nother, maketh like sound: and strings be seauen, either for they fill all the note, or for because heauen soundeth in vii. mouings. A string is called Corda, and hath that name of Corde, the heart: for as the pulse of the heart, is in the brest, so the pulse of the strings is in the harpe. Mercurius founde out first suche strings: for he strained first strings, & made them to sound, as Isid. saith. The more dry the strings be, & the more strai∣ned, the more they sound: & the wrest is called Plectrum.

De Psalterio. ca. 144.

THe Psalterie is called Psalterium, & hath that name of Psailendo, singing: for the consonant answereth to the note therof in singing. The harp is like to the Psalterie in sound, but this is the diuer∣sitie & discord betwéene ye harpe and the psaltery, in yt psaltery is an holow trée, and of that same tree the sound commeth vpward: and the strings be smit down∣ward, and soundeth vpward: and in the harpe, the hollownesse of the trée is ve∣neath. The Hebrewes calleth the Psal∣terie Decacordes, an instrument hauing ten strings, by number of the ten Com∣maundements. Strings for the Psaltery be best made of latn, or els those are good that be made of siluer.

De Lira. cap. 145.

Lira hath that name for diuersitye of sounde:* for Lira giueth diuers sou••s, as Isid. saith. And some people suppose, that Mercurius first found out this in∣strument Lira in this wise. The riuer Nilus was flowen & arisen, & afterward was auailed and withdrawen againe into his proper chanell, and lefte in the field many diuers beasts, & also a snayle, and when the snaile was rosted, the sin∣newes l••t and were strained in the snailes house, and Mercurius smote the sinewes, and of them came a sound: and Mercurius made a Lira to ye likenesse of the Snailes house, & gaue ye same Lyra to one yt was named Orpheus, which was most buste about such things. And so it was sayd, yt by ye same craft not on∣ly wilde beasts drew to song & melody, but moreouer stones & also woodes. As fables do mean, this foresaid instrument Lyra is set among stars, for loue of stu∣dy, and praising of song, as Isi. saith.

De Cymbalis. ca. 146.

CImbales be instruments of musick, & be smit together, & soūdeth & ringeth.

(*Compassed like a hoope, on the vp∣per composse vnder a certain holownes, hangeth halfe bells, fiue or seauen.)

De Systro. cap. 147.

SIstrum is an instrument of musicke & hath the name of a Ladye that first brought it vp. For it is proued that Isis Queene of Egypt, was the first finder of Systrum, and Iuuenal speaketh thereof, and saith.

Isis & irato feriat mea lumina sistro

And women vse this instrument, for a woman was the first finder thereof.

Therefore among the Amazons, the beast of women is called to battaile with the instrument Systrum.

(*An instrument like a horne, vsed in battaile in steed of a trumpet. Also a bra∣sen Timbrell.)

De Tintinabulo. cap. 148.

TIntinabulum is a ball or a Cmpar∣nole, and hath the name of Tiniendo tinckeling or ringing. Looke before De vasis, in lytera V. A bell hath this pro∣pertie, that while he profiteth to other in sounding, he is wasted ofte by smiting. These instruments and many other ser∣ueth Page  [unnumbered] to musicke, which science treateth of voyce and of sounds: and knoweth neuertheles disposition of kindly things & proportion of numbers, as Boctius say∣eth, & setteth ensample of the number of 1. in comparison to .6. & to other num∣bers yt be betweene, & saith in this wise: Heere we finde all ye accorde of musicke, for to .6. & .9. to •• make the proporti∣on, & make together the consonancy Di∣atesseron. But .6. to .9 & .8. to 1. make ye proportion Sequaltera, and make toge∣ther the consona••e Diapente. And 12. to 6. make double proportion. & singeth the accord Diapason. Then 8. to .9. in cō∣partion be meane, & make Epogdonus which is called Tonus in melody of Mu∣sick, and is a common measure of all the sounds, and so it is to vnderstand,* yt be∣tweene Diatesseron & Diapente, Tonus is diuersitie of accordes, as betweene the proportions, Sesquitertia & Sesquialtera, onely Epogdolis is diuersitie. Huc vs{que} Boctius, in secundo Arimetice ca. vlt. G. And in the Prologue of the first booke Boctius sayth, yt the rather is there ver∣tue of nūbers, thereby it may be proued, that those thinges which doe stande by themselves, be rather in kind, then those things which be in comparison to some other things. And the melody of Musick is taken & called by names of the num∣bers: Diatesseron, Diapente, and Dia∣pason, haue names of ye numbers, which precedeth and goeth before in the begin∣ning of those sayde names. And the pro∣portion of their sounds is found and had in those same numbers, and is not found nor had in any other numbers. For ye shall vnderstand that the sound and the accorde in Diapason, of proportion is of the same double number, and the melody of Diatesserō doth come of Epitrite col∣latione, that is, Sesquitertia proportio. And hee calleth the accorde Diapente. Henolia is ioyned in number Epogdo∣u••,* ther be numbers that bée aboue .8. & is called Tonus in Musicke, as he say∣eth. Sesquitertia proportio in Arime∣trike, is called Diatesseron in Musick, & Hemiolia, yt is, Sesquialtera proportio in Arimetrike, is Diapente in Musick, & Diapente & Diapason is consonante, the more voyce contemeth the lesse, and the halfe deale thereof. The number of •••∣quitertius conteineth the lesse number & the third part thereof, and if he contey∣neth all the fourth parte, then he is Ses¦quiquartus. And Sesquiquintus contei∣neth the lesse, and the fifth part in thus wise. Foure conteineth three, and the third part, that in one and And right contei∣neth sixe and the third part, that is t〈…〉. And twelue conteineth nine & the third parte, that is three, and so eighteene to twelue, and twentie to 〈◊〉: a new 〈…〉 of other alway 〈◊〉 shalt finde.

••merus 〈…〉 cap. 149.

〈…〉 compared to the lesse, conteineth the whole number, the halfe, the halfe part therof, as conteineth. . and the 〈…〉 part of two, that is one: so 9. conteineth 6. and the halfe of 6. that is and so . to 8. and .15. to ••. and so of other. 〈…〉 worde be in themselues day and secret, and verye darke to vnderstanding But to them that bee wise and cunning in Arethmetike and in Musicke, they bee more dare and lyght, and be darke and all vnknowen to them which be vncun∣ning, and haue no usage in Arethme∣tike, Geometrye, and Musicke. There∣fore he that will knowe the foresayde wortes and proportions of numbers, of voyce, and soundes, shall not despise to aske counsell, & to desire to haue know∣ledge by those which be wiser, and that haue more cunning in Arethmetike, in Geometrye, and in Musicke. And li∣bro secundo Isidore sayth, that there is so great vertue in figures and accordes of Musicke, that the selfe man standeth not perfect there without: For perfect Musicke comprehended all things. And so then reuolue and consider heereof in thy minde, that Musicke and harmonye ioyneth and accordeth diuerse thinges that s•••e contrary, and maketh the high sound to accord with the low, & the low with the high, and accordeth contrarye wills and desires, and retrayneth and abateth intentions and thoughts, and a∣mendeth and comforteth feeble wits of feeling. And •••eth namely and werneth vs of the vnity of the exempler of CodiePage  [unnumbered] contrary workings: and diuersly mani∣festeth & sheweth, ye earthly things may be ioyned in accord to heauenly things: & causeth & maketh glad & ioyfull harts more glad and ioyfull, and sorry harts & heauy, more sorrie and disquiet. For as Austen sayth, yt by a priuie & secret like∣nesse of propertie of the soule & of harmo∣ny, melody comforteth it selfe to ye affec∣tions & desires of the soule. And therfore Authors meane, yt Instruments of Mu∣sicke make the glad more glad, & the so∣ry more sory. Looke other properties of harmony before in the same booke, wher as other word of Isidore bee rehearsed and spoken of.

Addition.

*COncerning the straunge opinions in the world of Musicke, and the thrée folde conceits of variable minds, I haue thought good (so farre as the eternall li∣cense shall permit or suffer) somewhat to speake thereof: The occasion is, yt wher∣as many cannot away at all with Mu∣sick, as if it were some odious skill ran∣ged from hell, rather stirred vp by Di∣uells, then reuealed by Angels: some are indifferent, and can abide it better in the chamber of Venus, then in the temple of Minerua, and some do so far dote in mu∣sicke, without the which they think ther is no religion, that betwéene these vnin∣different iudgmentes, I am in doubt to speak, or so to frame a speech that might qualifie so foule a discord, concluding yt if Musick be the ordinance of God, as at other gifts of nature are, then how com∣meth it to passe, that .7. artes, tearmed li∣berall, are allowed, wherof Musick hath ben account of ye number one, except the late 8. art of Adulation, béeing placed in Musicks roome, be allowed for ye seuenth, which if Curiositie, béeing made iudge, haue recorded ye same in self-wils booke. I leaue to these thrée their owne, & yet proceed with those opinions, that maye stande with discreation, concerning the same.

In the first booke of Cronicles, called in Latine Verba Dierum, or after the Greekes Paralipomenon, which the He∣brues cal Dibre Haiamim, historical, ca. 15. when the Prophet Dauid had prepa∣red a house for the Arke of the Lord, he called all Israel together to Ierusalem, to fetch the Arke of ye Lord vnto his place, which hee had ordeined for it, &c. And Dauid spake to the thiefe heade of ye Le∣uites, yt they should appoint certeine of their brethren, to sing with instruments of Musicke, Psalteries, Harps, & Cym∣bales, yt they might make a sound, and to sing on high with ioyfulnes, &c. And Da∣uid & the elders of Israel, & the Captains ouer thousands, went to fetch the Arke of the appointment of the Lord, out of ye house of Obed Edom with gladnesse. The Arke is brought forth of the house of Abinadob, yt was in Gibeon, which was a high place of ye citie of Baale, vn∣to the citie of Dauid, called Zion, lieng on the North side of Ierusalem. Samuel, 2. booke. cap. 6. Cro. 1. boo. ca. 15. 2. Cro. cap. 5. ver. 13. These instruments & other ceremonies which they obserued, were instructions of their infancie, which con∣tinued to ye comming of Christ: (ye note of the later Church) of then there should haue been a finall end of Musicke, why is it not absolutely forbiddē, or if it be tol∣lerable why is not the abuse taken a∣way (& not Musicke it selfe) because of a∣buse, if Musicke be but a sound, no more is the voice, it is better to heare good & godly Musicke, then ••baude and filthye talke, or a christian Psalme then a wre∣ked sonet. Seeing ye Musicke hath so be∣haued her selfe, yt shee is not allowed by the old Testament, as many affirme, be∣cause as they saye, she had her continu∣ance but vntil ye comming of Christ: yet from the time of Samuel, vntill the time of Iesus Christ, it largely appeareth she was in estimation, & although the super∣stitious pagans & Idolatrous Gentiles, hauing the same instruments yt the god∣ly had (with the which they committed their abhominations) this notwithstan∣ding was no el••ng nor disabling of ye Musicke which ye Prophet Dauid vsed, the Prophet Esay, cap. 22. commended. Daniel. 3. 1. Mac. cap. 9. Apo. 18. haue ex∣pressed. Let vs sée farther cōcerning mu∣sicke, what the newe Testament either liketh or alloweth: Wherefore be ye not vnwise, but vnderstand what the wil of Page  425 the Lord is. And be not dronke with wine, wherin is excesse but he filled with the spirite, speaking vnto your selues in Psalmes & Hymnes, & spirituall songs, singing and making melodie to the Lord in your heartes, &c. Eph. 5. verse. 17. 18. 19. Giue thanks alwayes for all things vnto God, euen the Father, in the name of our Lord Iesus Christ. Submitting your selues one to another, in the feare of God. Collossians. 3. verse. 16. Let the woord of Christ dwell in you plenteously in all wisedome, teaching and admoni∣shing your selues in Psalmes and Hymnes and spirituall songs. Singing with grace in your heartes to the Lord. Iames. 5. verse. 13. Is anye among you afflicted (or greeued in minde) let him pray: is any merrie: let him sing. Heer∣by the godly are allowed to sing, whos instruments are their bodyes, and whose toppes or strings are good intents. Un∣to the bodyes belong ye foure Elements, the foure complections, and the fiue sen∣ses, if any of these abound or dimminishe, the concord of the boydes is altered. Al∣so the minde is tourned to discorde, no lesse by a crabbed imagination: But what canne we saye for Instrumentes, that our former discourse maye ap∣peare vniforme, that is to saye, as well the instrument as the voice, and both to∣gether. 1. Epistle. Corinth. cap. 14. verse. 7.8. Moreouer, thinges without lyfe which giue a sounde, whether it bee a Pipe or an Harpe, except they make a distinction in the soundes, howe shall it bee knowen what is piped or harped. And if the Trumpet giue an vncertaine sounde, who shall prepare himselfe to battayle. In the Reuclation, S. Iohn sayth. Chap. 14. verse. 2. And I hearde the voyce of Harpers, harping with theyr Harpes. And they sung as it were a newe song before the Throne, &c. See∣ing then that the holye Scriptures in the newe Testament condempns not Musicke, (but onelye the abusers there∣of,) what reason, or what authoritye is there left why Musicke shoulde not bee vsed with song in anye place conue∣nient, is so bee it bee not hurtfull, in the Kinges presence, Chappell, or Orso∣rye, in Cathedrall Churches some where, or what offence, else where. It maye bee that some will aunswere vn∣to me, and saye, that Musicke in those places is Poperye. But I demaunde agayne, where was the knowledge of Poperye when Dauid praysed the Lorde with it, when the Arstle Paule knowe of it, and when Saint Iohn from heauen hearde it. If it bee so (that Musick, as it hath ben in very deede too much abused in these our later times, shall it therefore for that abuse be vtter∣ly banished and put aside, which wyll stand with as good a reason, as when a man hath stolen a horse, the Lawe shall hang his soule: yet who is so ignorant, the fact beeing committed, but that both bodye and soule is present. Nowe fol∣loweth the opinion of Saint Augu∣stine, of Cornelius Agrippa, of Peter Martir, and of Lodowicke Lioide, Gen∣tleman.

First Saint Augustine in his ninth Booke of Confessions, as Peter Martyr noteth in the fifth Chapter vppon the Booke of Iudges, folio. 103. testifi∣eth, that it happened in ye time of Am∣brose (Bishippe of Milloine, aboute the yeare of Christ .377.) For when that holye man together with the peo∣ple, watched euen in the Church, least hee should haue bene betrayed vnto the Arrians, hee brought in singing to a∣uoyd tediousnesse, and to driue awaye the time: It seemeth that by meanes of sharpe persecutions, the godlye were scattered abroade, so that they hadde no leasure, scarcelye to praye, much lesse to sing, the tyrannye of theyr persecu∣tors was so monstrous, from the time of Nero the sonne of Domitius, beeing about .66. yeare after Christ, vntyll the time of Constantine the greate, which was about ye yere of Christ .333. the sayde godlye Emperour Constan∣tine gaue greate and large giftes, and yeerelye reuenewes to the maintenance of ye Cleargy and Preachers of the Go∣spell. Wherevpon the Bishoppes of Rome fathereth theyr foundation and head of Constantine, (a good pollycye to claime antiquitie, if that verylye Page  [unnumbered] which is eternitie, could not discerne the truth) thus, what with strange opinions, and what with persecutions, the space of 241. yeares, or neere there abouts, musick was laide a side, & although that S. Au∣gustine repented him, and that he was sorrie, because he had sometime fallen, by giuing more attentiue héed vnto ye mea∣sures & cords of musicke, then the words which were vnder them spoken, which thing heereby he proueth to be st••e, be∣cause measure and singing wer brought in for the words sake, and not words for Musicke. All this condempneth no mu∣sicke, but the abuse, for in allowing the Church of Alexandria, wherein was a little singing, &c for this cause I say, hee consented ye Musicke should bee retained in the Church, but yet in such manner, yt he sayd, that he was ready to change his sentence, if a better reason could be assig∣ned, & he added, that those doe sin deadly, as they were wont to speak, which giue greater heede to musicke, then vnto the word of God. It seemeth to me, yt there is none so sencelesse, that wil be, or haue bene, in such sort rauished with ye onely melodie of the instrument, that they haue so excepted of the same, forgetting theyr principall vertue of ye true worshipping of God: those that haue bene such, are in the same dampnation, that the common Drunkards, Adulterers, Idolaters, false speakers, viurers, with all those and such wicked, that thinking to drinke, minde not on God, so according to the desire the soule is poisoned, and the gifts of God abused.

But why Musicke seemeth so to ray men in a manner wholye, the reason is plaine, for there are certeine pleasures, which onely fill the outward sences, and there are others also which perteine on∣ly to the mind or reason. But musicke is a delectation so put in the middest, that both by the swéetnesse of the sounds, it moueth the sences, & by the artificialnesse of the number & proportions, it delight∣eth reason it selfe. And it happeneth then chiefly when such words are added vnto it, whose sence is both excellent and lear∣ned, &c. Peter Martir in that discourse, whether singing may be receiued in the Church, sayth. In the East parts the ho∣ly assemblies euen from the beginning vsed singing. Read in his Commentarie folio. 103. Cornelia Agrippa in his sixt booke of the vanitie of Sciences. cap. 63. setteth forth the abuse of Musicke & the discord (from ye which some supposed the rest condempned) verse curiouslye vnder tearmes or parts of Musicke, as Enhar∣monica, Chromatica, Diatonica, and o∣thers, with a nomination of names, as among the Lacedemonians, the ••itting to armes, and Cretensians, which repeti∣tion of words seeme a great collections, & little matter, as the fable of the Musiti∣on, that by the onely vertue of the Do∣rian tune, the chastitie of Clitemnestia, wife vnto king Agamemnon was pre∣serued, from the assault of Egisus, who to be reuenged slew the Musition. Ho∣race dislyked the common odeiers and stage pipers, calling them wonderers, & Cornelius tearmeth them the seruaunts of Baudery, but wheras he sayth (which no graue man, modest, honest, & valiant, euer professed. eerin he shewed his sole conceil: and forgot that which was done and vsed in holy writ, altogether flouri∣shing among the Poets, giuing an open contempt of that the Poets secretly scor∣ned, declaring onely the abuse, as when he sayth, that the Aegyptians did forbid their young men to learne Musicke, I suppose it was, when Musicke was so common, as it is now in England in e∣uery Alehouse and baudy corner, but not the principall Musicke. Anaxilas sayth, Musicke is euen lyke Affrike, it yéerely bringeth forth some straunge beast. A∣thanasius for the vanitie thereof, did for∣bid it in the Churches, thus be conclu∣deth with the abuse, and not the thing it selfe.

Lo, Lioide, Pilgrimaga of Princes, folio. 133. setteth forth properly Musicke, and sayth, by a Methodical gathering to∣gether of authorities, that there is great controuersie for the antiquitie of Mu∣sicke, beginning with Orpheus, Amphi∣on, and Dionisius of Greece. Polibius sayth, that Musicke was found first in Archadia, Tubal among the Herbrues, and Apollo finding a confused Chas, Page  426 setteth downe learners of Musicke, to be Socrates, Aelianus, Agesilaus, Atchitas, & the mightie Hercules, &c. And though some contemne Musick with Diogenes, and say, that it were more profitable to mend manners, then to learne musicke: what is manners, but a concord of ho∣nest intentes, which onelye, is adorned with nothing but vertue. Alexander the great loued Musicke, so did the tyrannt Nero. Heereby may be perceiued concord and discord, Musicke is not the cause of disorder, but disordered mindes abuseth Musicke. Dircedus Captaine ouer the Spartanes, is sayd first to inuent the trū∣pet, and taught the Lacedemonians to sound against the Messena, in the ••etd, therwithall to terrifie the courage of his enimies: for as Musicke to dolefull and pleasant, full of harmonie and melodie: so is Musicke terrible and fearefull of life and courage, for we read in the old age, both autenticall and prophane, that they vsed Instrumentes of sound of sundrye sortes, as among the Mlesio, pipes a∣mong ye Cretensians instrumentes with strings, a kinde of Gi••ornes: among the Parthians ringing of Bells: among the Aethiopians lowd songs: among the As∣sirians, a kinde of skipping: among the Cambrians little drums made of leather stretched about a whoope, broad, and nar∣row, hauing a kind of hollownesse, All the which they put dry Beanes and Pease, to make ye instrument cattle, with many other vnaccustomed manners. But the absurdest thing of all, which passeth the abuse of Musicke, is, that as the Gentiles and Pagans called vpon Priapus, Pan, Ceres, Iuno, Hercules, Ianus, Bellepho∣ton, Dagon, Rempham, Astaroth, & such like, to be their supporters at armes in the field: so at this day, those which wuld be loth to be called otherwise these chri∣stians, are not ashamed so call Saint George, to borrowe, for the English, Saint Denis for Fraunce, S. Andrew for Scotlande, Saint Iames for Spaine, and so forth in the Christian King∣domes, they tell as first vppon their Saintes, as the Pagan Gentiles called on their tearmed Gods, when in verye deede this foule abuse ought to be refor∣med, which is a discord worse in ye mind then is the dombe instrument, that can sound none otherwise then the Musition either can, or will. To conclude, let all be done to the edifieng one of another, and both in the Lorde, and as for those that cannot awaye with Musicke in the best parte. I leaue them to the a∣forement maker, which is blessed for euer.

¶A conclusion of this worke by the first translator heere∣of out of Latine into English, cap. 149.

THis that we haue shortlye placed heere of accidents of kindly things, as of Coulours, Sauoure, & Odours, of Weights, Licours, & Measures, of Uoice & of Sound, it may be sufficient for this time. For as I suppose, to the bull and so the small or simple, that be like to mee in Christ Those things of properties of kindly things that be fully conceiued in minde, & treated in .19. parcells or books, shall suffies to finde some reason of the likenesse of things, for which holy writ vseth so ready likenesse & figures of kind, not in all things, & of the properties ther∣of. I make protestation in the end of this worke, as I did in beginning: That in all that is in diuers matters conteines in this worke, right little or naught haue I set of mine owne, but I haue followed veritie and truth, and also followed the wordes, meaning, and sences, and com∣ments of holy Saintes, and of Philoso∣phers, that the st••ple that may not for endlesse many bookes seeke and finde all the properties of thinges, of the which holy writ maketh mention and minde, may héere finde soone what that he desi∣reth, and that I haue taken is simple and rude but I thinke them good and profi∣table is to that •• rude in olde Eng∣lish tearmes, and to other such as I am. Therefore I counsayle the simple, that they despise not nor scorne this simple and rude worke, when that they haue perfect vnderstanding and knowledge of this, and plainly at the ful, then to vnder∣stand Page  [unnumbered] and to haue knowledge of greater, higher, and more subtill things. I coun∣sell, that they leaue not to seeke & search ye learning & doctrine of greater authors and Doctors: and that I doe, & leaue on their owne aduisement and wit, if they will correct and amend that that is vn∣sufficiently said, and then expediently to adde and put more therto, that they so in like manner as God giueth them grace and science. That which is by me rude and simple began, may be by their wits and great wisdomes made compleat and perfect, to his magnifieng, laud, honour, praising, worship, and blisse, that is Al∣pha and Omega, beginning and ending of all good. That is the high God, glori∣ously liuing & reigning euermore with∣out end. Amen.

Barthelmew Glantuyle descended of the noble familye of the Earles of Suf∣folke, he was a Franciscan Frier, and wrote this worke in Edward the thirds time, about the yeare of our Lord .1366. In the yeare .1397. 37. yeares after, was this sayd worke translated into English, and so remained by written Coppie, vn∣till Anno Domini. 1471. at which time printing began first in England, the .37. yeare of the reigne of king Henrie the . sithence which time this learned and profitable worke was printed by Tho∣mas Berthelet, the .27. yeare of the reigne of king Henrie the .8. which was the yeare of our Lord God .1535. And last of all augmented & enlarged, as appeareth, for the commoditie of the learned & well disposed Christian, by me Stephen Bat∣man, professour in Diuinitie, and prin∣ted by Thomas East, Anno .1582. the .24 yeare of the reigne of our most happye and prosperous Souereigne, Queene E∣lizabeth, whom God fortifie in the num∣bers of his mercies for euer.