Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

Of the opinion of them which would haue light, to be of the substance of coulour. cap. 8.

*SOme men déeme or suppose, that light is of the substaunce of colour, and they saye, that coulour is in cleane and cléere matter, and cléerenesse hath these diuersityes, for cléere matter is cleane and pure, and not earthie, or vn∣pure and earthie. And lyght is diuided in foure manners: for light is cléere, or dimme, lyttle, or much: but I call not lyght great nor much, though it shine in a greate place and much, but vertuall light gathered in a lyttle place, or in a point, is called much lyght, and greate light, as when an hollow mirrour is set in the Sun beame, and the light falleth on all the mirrour, and reboundeth into the middle thereof, and gathering and rebounding of ye lyght in ye mirrour be∣twixt cleerenesse of Glasse, and bright∣nesse of the Sunne, a fire is kindeled, and burneth full soone, or spéedely. And so if Flaxe or drie matter be put therein, it burneth sodeinly, & is set on fire then, if there be much light and cleane in pure matter and cléere, as Albumasar sayeth. And if the light be little & dim in cléere matter, and not full cléere, but somedeale and dim, then blacknesse must néedes bée gendered, and this expoundeth the word of Aristotle, and of Auetrois, that mea∣neth, that blacknesse is priuation of cléer∣nesse, and for to speake in this wise, hée followeth, that there be seauen coulours that stretch from white, toward blacke.* And this is knowne, and thrée thinges maketh whitenesse, brightnesse of light, and plentye thereof, & purenesse of cléere matter. And while meane coulour maye abate then in this wise is generation of thrée coulours, if one abideth alone, the other two abate: and so of white com∣meth 7. colours, & stretch from the white toward blacke: also from black to white stretcheth 7. And by this consideratiō co∣lours be 16. two principall,* blacke and white, and 14. meane, for 7. stretch from white toward blacke, & 7. from black to∣ward white, & in the stretching, the first 7. abate in whitnes, & the other 7. abate in blacknes, & méeteth in the middle. In euery meane colour, be as it were endles meane degrées of déep colour & of lyght, as they be farre from white or blacke or nigh thereto. Then know thou héere∣of, that coulour is a propertye or a qua∣litye lefte in the vttermost parte of a cléere body, & commeth of kinde of med∣ling of qualities of elements medled to∣gether in a meddeled bodie, the which is by light presented to the eye and to the sight. For without meane light, cou∣lour chaungeth not the eye, nor maketh therin likensse nor shape, but yet colour may be séene by it selfe, as Aristot. saith 2. de Anima, for the default is not in the coulour, but the default and vnmight is in the eie, which coulour is not séene in déede without light. Therefore Pithago∣rici, that helde Pythagoras teaching, cal∣led coulour Ephiphania, that is ouersée∣ming, or imagined. For it is the vtter parte of a cleere bodye that is teemy∣ned. Or else coulour is in the vtter part therof, & is there most properly a sighty bodye, that taketh coulour and hiewe, Page  [unnumbered] and letteth passage there through of lyght, and of sight is héere called a cléere body termined, Perspicuum termina∣tum, but some such letteth all passage of sight, so that nothing is séene there through: as boystrousnesse, stones, trées, and mettall, and thicke leather, and other such, and some letteth some deale passage of sight, and not fully all, as Wine and other lycour of diuerse coulour that is séene within and without. But the same kinde of colour in some things is with∣in, that is without, as it fareth in the white of an Egge, and in the broken Glasse that is couloured, as it is sayd in libro de Sensu & Sensato. cap. 7. But many things bée of one coulour with∣out, and of another coulour within, as it fareth in blacke Pepper, and in Apple graines. And many thinges dyeth and coloureth things without, and not with∣in, as it fareth in painting. Also redde cloath dyeth the vtter part of water, if it bée layed therevnder: And so it is knowen, that coulour is the vttermost parte of sight where cléere things bee, as it is sayde in libro de Sensu & Sensa∣to. Also as in a cléere body, not termined, as in ayre, the presence of lyght maketh white coulour, and his absence maketh blacke coulour and dimme, so that some∣what of lyght shineth therein, so that it bée not as lyghtlesse, as it is sayde, libro de Sensu & Sensato. capit. 8. And so in a cléere body that is termined is very co∣lour, and in a bodye that is not termi∣ned, is not verye colour, but as it were coulour, as it is sayde in the same booke. Also meane coulours bée gendered in theyr owne diuersitie, and by diuers pro∣portions. Also if one is in proportion that conteyneth all, and the third parte or all, and the halfe deale, or by other proportions: And if they bée by porpor∣tion, then they bee againe proportionall by steadfastnesse of abiding in the mat∣ter, and also by cléerenesse of the matter, as it fareth in Consonancijs, as it is sayde there, capitulo octauo. B. Also they bée gendered by proportion and conso∣nancie, and accorde of coulour, when the coulours be fayre and lyking. And the more proportionall they bée, the more li∣king they bée, as it is sayd there. And o∣ther men meane, that meane coulours be gendered by vnder setting and laieng of the vttermost coulours, that be white and blacke, when the more sightlye cou∣lour is laide aboue the lesse sightlye, or the lesse sightly aboue the more sightlye, as it fareth in painting: as the Sunne séemeth white whē it is séene by himself, and of another coulour when he is seene through a Clowde, as it is sayde there, cap. 8. Also coulours bee not seene by passing out of beames that come out of eyen, but by continuall multiplication of coulour, in the space and place be∣tweene the thing that is seene and the eye, and by spreading thereof to the ey∣en: For feeling is made by touch, as it is sayde there, capitulo octauo. Also cou∣lours that be lyke farre a sunder, maye seeme meane coulours to them that be farre therefrom, though they bee not meane coulours: For no parte of a thing may be seene vnder the vttermost cou∣lour, as it fareth in cloath of diuers cou∣lours, as it is sayde there, capitulo. 8. D. Also meane coulours be gendered by lykenesse of gendering of meddeled bo∣dyes, meddeled with simple bodyes: that for meddeling of couloues, followeth the meddeling of Elementes by chaun∣ging and tourning into the forme and shape of a meddeled bodye: as a meane bodye is gendered of the vttermost bo∣dyes, so is meane coulour gendred of the vttermost coulours, as it is sayde there capitulo octauo: Also euery meane co∣lour is gendered by white and blacke, that seemeth more priuation of white then coulour, as darknesse is priuation of lyght, as it sayde, libro. 10. Methe. cap. 3. B. Also it needeth not that vnity of kinde followeth vnity of likenesse of colour, as Albumasar sayth in Differentia. G.

Also furthermore, the deede of cou∣lour is to print lykenesse in the sight by working in deede of light. For by light might of coulour is brought to worke in deede, and to print lykenesse in the eye, that the eye may take that lykenesse and deeme of that thing that is seene. Also meane colour well proportioned pleseth and comforteth the sight: but the vtter∣most Page  390 coulour féebleth and grieueth the sight, as Aristotle sayth. For greate whitenesse ofte sheddeth the spirite of sight, and dissolueth the eye, and maketh it water: And to great blacknesse ga∣thering the spirite, and making thicke, and rebounding the sight, maketh it dim, as it fareth in them that bée long closed in darke places, that sée little or right naught, when they be sodeinely brought into the light.

Also the coulour of that thing that is coloured, sheweth the complection therof and kind: For whitenesse and white co∣lours in bodies that be frore, bée not but in cold substance, & black colours againe∣ward: For colde maketh moyst thinges white, and dry blacke, and heate maketh wet things blacke, and drye white,* as Aristotle and Auicen meane. And ther∣fore whitenesse, that is the daughter of colde, is token of mastry of fleame and of colde, and of moisting and fléeting hu∣mour: and blacknesse is token of melan∣cholike disposition & of dry humour, that hath mastry in the body: and is somtime token of great burning of humours, and of chaunging & turning to kinde melan∣choly, as it shall be sayde héereafter. Also by the vtter coulour the inner qualities of things bée knowen. For as Auicen saith, colour is qualitie that is made per∣fect by lyght, for coulour is in might in a darke body, and passeth into working & déed by light that commeth therevpon from without, & that is knowne in this wise: for euery medled body hath some∣what of fire and might, and hath of fire somewhat of light, for the fire hath light by kinde, but that lyght is hid in darke parts, and is so onely in might, as heate of Brimstone & of Pepper: and the po∣tenciall heate of them passeth not into working & actuall heat in déed: But in vtter qualitie yt is like to the inner qua∣litie. Potentiall lyght that is in a medled bodye and darke, passeth not to woorke in deede by the comming of outwarde light.

Also coulour séene within, declareth the might and feeblenesse of the fire that is hidde in might in a meddeled bodye, and thereby the vertue and working thereof is knowne proporcionally. Di∣uersity of coulour exciteth kindlye the sight of the lookers, to looke and wonder thereon, as Plinius sayth, libro octauo, and Auicen also. And so he sayeth, that euery beast, be he neuer so fierce, wonde∣reth of the duersitie & fairenesse of cou∣lour in the Panther. Also euery mans face is made most beautiful or vnbeauti∣full with coulour. For ordinate colour & fayre, is complection of fairenesse, when it miswexeth duely to the making & com∣position of members and limmes, as A∣uicen sayth. And Austen saith, that faire∣nesse is séemly shape of body, wt pleasing colour, and againward. For vile coulour and vnséemely is right foule in a bodye. Also colour is token of Accidents and of passions of ye soule, for sodeine palenesse and discoulour is a token of dread: for ye heat being drawen inward to the parts of the bodye, in the face is scarcitie of bloud, & so the face is discouloured. Also sodeine rednesse in the face, is token of shame or of wrath. And that is because heate commeth outwarde, and bloude maketh the skinne redde without: and busieth to put off shame and wronge. Also coulour termineth and arayeth the bodye that it is in, for excepte couloure bée in the bodye, the substance thereof is not knowne to the sight. Also couloure maketh fayre the matter without, and hideth defaultes that bée there within, and so compounded coulour, meane be∣twéene white and blacke, layed in or∣der by kinde, as Auicen sayeth, with∣out vppon a bodye, hideth and couereth infirmitie that is in the matter acciden∣tally, eyther by kinde, as Auicen sayth.

Also coulour accordeth or agréeth to the lyght, as the Daughter to the Mo∣ther, and followeth lyghte in deede: For with greate lyght coulour increa∣seth, and with lyttle lyght coulour aba∣teth.