Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

¶Of Egges and their pro∣perties. cap. 79.

THen first in the foresayd beasts, the Semen is shed in small parcelles or drops that be small, softe, & moyst, and whitth, and be softneth, and tourned and chaunged into little bodyes, and are cal∣led Oua, Egges in English, for because that they be moyst, and full of humour within, as Isido. saith libr. 1. G. Same moyst thing hath moyst humour with∣in, and some without, as he saith. Some men meane, that this Now••Cuum, commeth of a nowne of Gréeke, for they call as Egge Oluan, and put therto this letter L.

Some Egges be conceiued in anye winde, but they be barren, except they be conceiued of treading or by working of the male, and thirled with seminall spirit, as he saith. And some men meane, that egges haue such a vertue, that a trée that is anoynted with them, shall not bure, nor cloth that is anoynted with them, as he sayth, and if they bée medled with lyue, they glew the parts together of broken glasse Then Egges are fift gendered, and take them a shape, and lyue by heate of the Mother, as Isidore sayth lib. 3. And 5. Aristotle sai∣eth, That foules, and fish, and serpents laye egges, but the egges be full diuerse in goodnesse and malice, in quantity, sub∣staunce and qualitie in figure and in shape.

Foules and birdes laye egges gene∣rally in the ende of springing time, and Page  [unnumbered] in the beginning of Summer, as Ari∣stotle sayth. libro 5. except a Sea foule that is called Aleon,* for that Fowle layeth egges in the beginning of Win∣ter, and sitteth on breed fourteene dayes ere the birds be complete, and vii. dayes before the beginning of winter, and vii. dayes therafter, as Simonides saith. And Isidore libro 12. speaketh of this fowle, and saith, that in the chest of a ponde of Occean, Alceon in Winter maketh hir neast, and layeth egges in seauen dayes, and fitteth on broode, and while she sit∣teth seauen dayes, the seate is easie and softe and the weather still. seauen dayes the sea is easie and milde: for kind hel∣peth in that wise to bring forth fowles of kinde. And Pliny, Basill, & Amb••se in Exameron, meaneth the same. But other foules lay egges twice or offer in a yeare, as Swallowes, but the first egs be corrupt because of the winter, and the latter be complete: and as Aristo. saith there, tame foules laye egges all in sum∣mer, as Coluers and Hens, and namely if they be well sed, and in an hot place. Also Aristotle saith libro 6. that some fowles laye egges all the yeare, except two moneths, Iuly and December, as hens, some of them lay twice euery day, and that that layeth much dyeth soone: and sometime the Culuer layeth tenne times a yere, and layeth but few at one breeding. And some lay many egges, as the Hen: and some fowles with crooked clawes laye fewe egges, and some laye in the neasts, and some in hollow trees, & some in holes and dens of the earth, & some in fields, and some in roches and rockes, and some in grauell or in sande as the Estridge, that fitteth not on brood in neasts made of bouchs of trées, and some in stones, and some in crags, and some in marteys, and among reede, as water foules. Aristotle saith lib. 6. that egges of foules breedeth hard without: and some be of 2. colors, citrine within, and white without. And egges of riuer foules be diuers, and other then egs be of foules that be fed in drye land: For citrine therein is more than double to citrine of egs of foules that be fed nigh the bri••e and brims of waters.

Also egges be diuers in colour for Cul∣ners egges be white as hen egges. And egges of marreys foules be yeolow, and some be as they were paynted, as a Sperhaukes egge: and egges be diuersly shapen, for some be sharpe, and some are broad, and the broad doth come out first, and then the sharpe. Of the long egges with sharpe endes doth come males, and so of egges with roundnesse in steede of sharpnesse, commeth females. And in hot countries and lands egges be layde in dounge in heate of the Sunne, and of them commeth Chickens and birds, as in Aegypt, and in certaine places in hot feathers, as in a certaine Citie, a good drinker laid egges vnder his pillow, and sayd, that he continued drinking, vntill the time that Chickens were taken out of the egges. Also somtime egges be put in hot vessells, and chickens are hatchte therein, no he sayth there, but the semen of the male is receiued in the Fother, & medled with the semen of the female. First, the egges seemeth white, and af∣terward red as bloud, and then yeolow, and then by working of kinde, the yeo∣low abideth in the middle, and the white is thereabout, and commeth out when it is complete, and turneth then out of the soft into hardnes: for in ye out going it is fastned & made perfectly hard, for egs be yeolow while they are in the womb, and wrapped in a little skinne that is white, and be hard when they be com∣plete and shapen, and that hardnes is the shell. In fastnesse of an egge, ye shel hath the same office, that the bag that ye child is conceiued in, hath in the body of the childe, but for great heate he hath ma∣stery in the body of the foule: the shell then hath such a bag and that is neede∣full for sauing of the softe matter and moyst that is therewithin. And manye foules lay winde egges, as Hens & Curse as Ari. saith ther li. 2. and that commeth of superfluitie of seminall humors, that are passing in the body of a female: and winds egs be little & vnsauerie, & more moyst than other, & without hard shell, & chaunge not though it be layed vnder a Hen, but the yolke & the white abideth and chaungeth not, & such egs be foonde Page  [unnumbered] in Hens, and in Geese, in Pohens, and in Culuers. The chicken in the egge is sooner complete and shapen in Summer than in Winter. In summer, hens egs openeth in 18. dayes, and in Winter in 25. dayes: and if it thundereth as ye hen doth sit on brood, the egges be corrupt, & so they be, if they be ofte handeled with folkes hands. Also olde hens laye in the beginning of springing time, and young hens egges be smaller, and lesse then o∣ther olde hens egges: and the Hens egge is full sharpe the xi. daye after the trea∣ding: and some foules in treading, keepe not sexes of male and female, but the fe∣male treadeth the female, and the male treadeth the male, as Partridges & Cul∣uers, and of such treading commeth stin∣king odour, and the egges become bar∣ren, as winde egs, and no chickens shall come of them nor birdes, as Aristotle sayth. And in the hens egge after three dayes of sitting on brood, be tokens seene of the Chicken, and then commeth vp the yeolow, toward the small ende to the place in the which the egge beginneth to cleaue, & there is seene, as it wer a drop of bloud in the white of the egge, and is the beginning and matter of toe heart, as it is sayd before in the treatise de ge∣neratione publi, looke there. Also of an egge with two yolkes commeth 2. chic∣kens, & these yolkes be departed aswain by a lyttle web, as Aristotle saith ther. And foules that eate flesh laye but once a yeare, except the swallow, that layeth egges twice a yeare: and the Eagle lai∣eth three egges, and throweth away the third out of the neast. Huc. vsq. Aristo. li. 6. A. and sitteth on brood vpon ye egs, thirtie dayes, Lib. 17. he saith that foules lay egs with hard shels, but if there fall occasion of sicknesse. Also foules yt gender much, lay oft winde egges, & so doth not foules wt crooked claws, nor foules wt good flight: for in foules wt many egs, is much superfluitie, & the superfluitie of foules with crooked clawes, passeth, into claws, feathers, and wings, and therefore their owne bodies be some deale hard, sharp, and leane, and layeth therefore not ma∣ny egges, nor treadeth much: and for fatnesse and heate of the wombe, the fowles 〈◊〉 ofte. Also birds lay manye egges, and tread much, as it fareth of some hens, the lesse they be, ye more egs they lay, for the meate of them passeth into the matter and generation of egges. Also winde egges be not in Fowles of good flight, for in them is but lyttle su∣perfluitie and scarce, and therefore they laye but fewe egges: and winde egges be more than egs according to generation of Birdes and chickens, and be lesse in quantitie, for they be vncomplete, either for they be so many, and be not full ly∣king to eate, for in all thing what is di∣gest, is more swéete and farre more ly∣king then what is vndigest. And some foules be made full of egges when they smell the males or beare theyr voy∣ces, for they eate much, and haue much superfluitie and heate, and haue therfore the more stronger appetite, and sheddeth sooner the semen of generation, and lay∣eth egges fal soone, for by vertue of heat, that superfluitie passeth soone into the kinde of egges. Also foules be gendered and come of egges, when the female sit∣teth long on breede, and heateth the egs, and for the chicken in the egge may not be complete and perfectly shapen with∣out meate and ourishing, therfore kind setteth meate in the egge within: & for their feeblenesse, egges need heating and comfort of heate, therfore egges be soone complete in hot time, for hot time help∣eth digestion & generation. The white is the matter of the chickin, & the yolke is his foode and meate, and therefore the white and the yolke be ioyned by a litle web for diuersitie of kind of the white, as it were contrarye to the kinde of the yolke, and therefore the yolke is fastned in colde wether, and is moist afterward when it is made hot, and the white free∣seth not in colde, but it is more moyst, and is hardened when it is roasted, and wereth in generation thicke of ye Chic∣ken, for it is the master thereof. And the Chicken taketh meate of the yolke, and that by the nauell: and then is much yolke, for it is moyst by heate, and shall bee moyst, and iourneth soone into nou∣rishing. Huc vsque Aristoteles libro. 16.

Page  410Isaac in Detis speaketh of egs, and saith, that egges of birds that be whole and temperate, be good meate and nodle: and egges of fat birds nourish more, & be more sauoory, and also egges of them that are troden of ye male, for they haue more heate than those that be gendered without treading of male, and also Egs of small hens, for in them is much heat. Generally the kinde of egges is tempe∣rate and meane, and right according to the complection of mankinde, but the white is more colde than the yolke, and worse to defie, and namely of the egges be of old foules, or not troden of males. The yolke is temperate and softe, accor∣ding with heate, and is therefore ye bet∣ter to defie, and comforteth for members and abideth long therein. The nourish∣ing of egges is diuers, for the Egges of some foules be temperate, as egges of the Partridge and of the henne, and are good to digest, but they passe soone out of the members, and be therefore better to ruling of good helth, than to comfort the members: and eggs of great birdes be hard to digest, and not full good norish∣ing, as egges of Ostriches, of Geese, and Pohennes, that be euill nourishing, and hard to defie, and heauie of smell, and namely if the beasts be olde, or not tro∣den with males: but when they be di∣gested, they abide long in ye members, & are therfore better to comfort the mem∣bers, then to rulyng of good health. Egs of small birdes be most light, and of old birds most heauie, and of meane most temperate, for therin is more temperate heate and lesse moysture, and be there∣fore good to rule good health, and also to comfort the members: and the more newer egges be, the better they be, and the more older they bee the lesse worth they bee, and vary and are di∣uers by crafte in foure manner wise: for they be rosted or sod, or burnt in im∣bers or in hot ashes, or they be fryed.

The rosted be more thicke and worse to digest, then those that be sod: for ye fire wasteth their substanciall moysture and maketh them drye and ye rosted & burnt vnder hot ashes, be umise than the roa∣sted. vnh〈…〉 of coles, for heat of fire in ashes compasseth them, & suffe∣reth not ye superfluitie of fumositie passe out thereof: and those that are roasted aboue the coles, sweate out the fumositie, and be made pure, and cleane, and thick: but those that be sod in water are better than those that be rosted, for moi∣sture of the water is contrary to the hot fire that worketh to sordrye ye moysture thereof, and be therefore the lesse drieng and coolyng kinde heate. And those that be sod whole in the shells be worse, for the shells without be hard, & holde there in the superfluitie of fumositie, that it may not passe out in vapour, and there∣fore they breed ventositie and swelling, and heauinesse of the stomacke & of all he wombe: and heate of water com∣meth temperatly into egges yt be broken: and sod in water, & tempereth the thick∣nesse and the fatnes of them, and taketh from them euill smel and odor, and they be therefore better than other, but one∣lye the yolke is more drieng, and faste∣ning: and the hard yolke is drieng and hard to passe out of the stomacke, & thir∣leth slowly the veynes, and comforteth much when it is digested, and grieueth the stomacke and the guts, if it be vndi∣gested, and menge and rere yolkes some deale fastened, be lesse drieng, and better to defie, and commeth soone into the veines, and moysteth the brest, and com∣forteth the members but little, and are means betwéene softe and harde in their working and passions. And fryed egges be worse than other, for if they bide in the stomacke, they turne soone in∣to fumositie and corruption, and corrup∣teth all the meats that they finde there∣in, and breedeth heauiness in the stomack, & worse disliking than other egs, name∣ly if they be fryed in yolkes, and some be meane betweene rosted egs, and egs broken & sod in water. Huc vs{que} Iso. Al∣so egs be good, not only to meat, but they be needfull in many manner medicines: for they moisten & ease & smooth ye brest & the throte, & comfort ye members, & re∣store & help ye vertue of generatiō, & hel∣peth burning & scalding, for of yolkes of egs rosted, is made ye best oyle, for bur∣ning & scalding. Also yolks of egges help Page  [unnumbered] the venemous Postume, that is called Antrax, for a raw yolk of an egge med∣led with salt, healeth that postume, as Const. saith. The white of an egge swa∣geth and abateth heate and swelling, & stauncheth running moysture, and help∣eth •• the hot goute and podagre, and be most greuous, when they be rotted and corrupt, and corrupteth the humoures, and breedeth with them wamblyng and perbraking, and be lightlye cause of death.

(*Egges of Phesants, Hens, & Par∣triches, be of all other meates most agre∣able vnto nature, specialy if they be new laid. If they be reere, they do cleanse the throte and breast: if they be hard, they be slow in digestion, but being once di∣gested, they doe nourish much: meane betweene reere and hard, they digest con∣ueniently, and nourish quickly. Egges well potched are better then roasted.

Egges fried are ill to digest, and corrupt other meates in the stomack. Egges sup∣ped warme before any other meate, they doe heale the griefe of the bladder and reynes (made with grauell) also sorenes of the cheekes and throate, and spetting of bloud: and they be good against Ca∣ars, or stilling out of the head into the stomacke. 〈…〉