Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

¶De Odoribus. cap. ••.

AFter Colours, it followeth in treats of odours and of Smells. Odour is a 〈…〉 vapour resolued of the sub∣stance of a thing: and is drawen and passeth by the aire to the brame, & chang∣eth the sence of smelling: For 〈…〉 chaungeth the sence of 〈…〉, and printeth the lykenesse therin, as coulour chaungeth the fight, and sound the hea∣ring, and sauour the taste. For it is pro∣per to the wit and feeling to receiue prin∣ting of things that they feele, & to ••mo tyking therein, and comfort if they bee meane. and is be despised thereby are destroyed if they be the vttermost, as if is sayd in libro de senss〈…〉 & lensato

Then Doour is the propertie of a thing that is perceiued and felt by sum•••• To make odour perfect and knowen in the liu of smelling, foure things rea∣deth at the least. rate resoluing and departing subtill matter obedine to the heat that dissolueth and departeth: and the qualitie of the sumotis that is re∣solued. Printeth his lykenesse in avi that beareth it forth: and the ayre with the lyghtnesse and qualytie of fumo•••• commeth sodainly is the knew of smel∣lyng and presenteth thereto the lykenesse of the vapour of the sumositie, that is printed in that ayre and if it be lyke to the complution, it pleaseth and com∣forteth the 〈…〉 wonderfully, and in∣forteth and displeaseth it, if it be not a••oing.

Page  [unnumbered]Therefore smelling things that be pro∣portionate is kinde, helpeth it and com∣forteth, and for the contrary cause stin∣ing things anoyeth and grieued it. Also heate ther resteesh, maketh odour 〈…〉 that constraineth and bindeth and setteth odour and fordoeth t•• for cold moueth toward the middle, and •••ieth not 〈…〉•• vapours to passe and spread in the ayre, and therefore the oungs hull stinketh not in Winter as in couin∣tuer. Also subtill matter and obedient to the made that resolueth is cause of o∣dour, and the contrary is of thicke mat∣ter. Nor thicke matter withstandeth and letteth shedding and spreading of o∣dour, as it foreth in a stone; for cold is cause of uner falsnesse and hardnesse thereof, for the stone smelleth ••ot 〈…〉 nor stinking, as A•••n saith. . be there disposition of mee, urspeth most to 〈…〉ll and odour, for if aire be subtill and thin, it receiueth some the matter of 〈…〉, that passeth forth in vapour: but for it is subtill and thinne, that sumositie may not lan time abide therein. The contrary is of thicke aire, that receiueth not to some such fumosity and vapours, god and euill; but when they be recyued, they 〈…〉 not so sone passe 〈…〉 of thicke ••re, as they may out of 〈…〉 nice and thin, as he saith.

(*The cause of infection is, when the subtill aire peneceth and cannot e speedely acke againe, because of a grater airs which stoppeth)

The fourth disposition of the lun of smelling worketh principally to daeine of odour, for if the sinewe of feeling in the which the smelling is, be •••ll desposed or of euill completion or harte in anye wise, or stopped with corrupt humours, then the sense of smelling is amisle, or all lost. The first is seene in Melancho∣like. like man, and in other euill complection that loueth slinking places, and voideth them that smell sweete and pleasaunt. The second is shewed in them that are marmed, that bout the sinewes hurt of smellyng, and smell nut therefore. The third is shewed in them that haue super∣fluite of flesh growing in the ole, and in leprous men, that haue the nose stop∣ped with euill humours and smell not well, nor know vneth betweene sweete & thinking. Then fumositie that commeth of the substaunce of a thing is the mat∣ter of odour, and so by diuersitie of lu∣mo••• odour is be diturs.

〈…〉 One manner su∣mo••• is still in the 〈…〉, and 〈…〉 of a stone, that declareth not the comple•• on of positiue, and by poesence of odour: but primitiue nearby absence of odour if sheweth, that a stone hath thicke substaunce and 〈…〉

Another fumostitie modest needeth sweetelye at the aire, & that commeth of heats that tempereth the substaunce and ooweth and if the substance be put and cleere, the odour is still good and 〈…〉, as it safeth a Myrre, in Muske, and in Am∣ber: and if the subst〈…〉 about is euill and horetle so kinde, and this odour is 〈…〉 and departed in twaine, 〈…〉 and stinking. 〈…〉 o∣dour commeth of head that is 〈…〉 in a thing, that beginneth to appear and in take corruption, as it fareth in fish that is long kept witou salt.

The thirde furmositye is nature, any resolueth and trespareth him by mean, and that of the one substaunce and part, or of vncleene or vnpure: If it com∣meth of cleane substance and pure, then the odour is meanly good, as it fareth in Apples, Uraieis, and 〈…〉: and if it romaneth of vncleene substaunce and vn∣pure, then the odour is some deale stin∣ing, as it fareth of Al••s, Wormwood, and Brimstone.

Also good odour commeth by working, and resolueth the more subtill parts and pure, & ayre beareth the 〈…〉 ther∣of to the braee, and stinking odour and raee commeth by working & heat that dissolueth therke parts and corruptions, and for this default that commeth of working of heate, all thing with small & odour is accounted but 〈…〉 Authors. For many things be soide in substaunce, as it fareth of vineger, Camhore and Rosa, and that is for purenesse of sub∣stance Page  [unnumbered]〈…〉

Page  [unnumbered]And thereby the thing that is toasted, may be perfectly knowe, but is the line of smelling one braueth commeth alone, and thereby commeth but little spirite, that may so perfectly know the kinde of a thing. Also for the thing yt is smelled commeth not but a certaine subtill fu∣mositie medled with aire, that is draw∣en therewith to the lim of smelling, and so by that fumositie the spirite knoweth not so well the kinde of things, but all the thing that is tasted within and with out is layd to the lim of tasting: there∣fore a thing is more verelyer knowen, by sauour than by odour. Then consider heereby, that odour is the propertie or qualitie of a thing, the which qualitie is perceiued and known by smelling, as I∣saac saith: for of the thing that is smel∣led by working of heale commeth a cer∣taine fumositie, and is medled with the aire, as it were a certaine spiritual med∣ling, and chaungeth the aire, and printeth his likenesse therein betweene the nose∣thrills in small peeces of flesh, hanging as heads of breasts, as the spirite of fe∣lyng, and taketh the print and likenesse of the fumositie, and commeth to the braine, and presenteth the print and like∣nesse to the soule. Also odour maketh the body knowen, in the which it is in, and the aire with the which it is meddeled, and printeth his lykened in the spirit of feeling, and sheddeth it selfe abroade in the aire, and pearceth inward, and com∣meth to the braine by blast or by drow∣ing of aire, and wasteth humors by heat thereof, and stancheth noyfull running, & releeueth the spirites by purenes there∣of, and comforteth by vertue the fable∣nes of the heart, and chaungeth the ayre into his owne lykenesse, and putteth off stench and roised things, and maketh it vnknowen, and comforteth the wit of smellyng as well in beasts as in men: for fish loueth good odour, and hate those things that stinke, and so doe Bees.

Aristotle saith, that Ants flye and voyd odour of brimstone, and only venemous wormes and beasts haseth good odour, & those things that smell well. And so the odour of rewe, is noyous to serpents.

And Botraces suffereth not the odour of uines when they 〈…〉 nemous frogges.