Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

De Musica. cap. 134.

AS Acte of numbers and measures, serueth to Diuinitie, so doth the Art of melodie: for Musicke by the which concord & melodie is knowen in sound and in song, it is needfull to know ye se∣cret meaning of holy writ, for it is said, that the world is compounded & made in a certaine proportion of har〈…〉, as Isi. saith li. 3. And it is said, that hea〈…〉 goeth about, with cousonance and accord of melodie: for musicke moueth 〈…〉ti∣ons and 〈…〉teth the wits of diverse dis∣positions. Also in battaile the noyse of the trumpet comforteth warriours: and the more strong and 〈…〉gious that the ounding is, the more strong & wild men bee to fight: and comforteth shipmen to suffer all the diseased and trauayles.

Page  [unnumbered]And comfort of voyce, pleseth and com∣forteth the heart and inwits in all dis∣ease and trauaile of workes and weari∣nesse. And musicke abateth masterie of euill spirites in mankinde: as we read of Dauid, that deliuered S••le of an vn∣cleane spirite by crafte of melody. And musick exciteth and comforteth beasts & serpents, soules and Dolphins to take heede thereto: and so veynes and sinews of the body and pulse thereof, and all the lns of the body be sec••• together, by vertue of harmony, as Isi. saith.

*Of Musicke be three parts, Armoni∣ca, Rithmica, and Metrica, Armonica, diuideth the great and small in sounds, & high and low, & proportional chaunging of voice & sound. And Armonia is sweet accord of song, and commeth of due pro∣portion in diuers voyces or blasts, tou∣ching and s••••ting sounde: for as Isido. saith, Sound commeth of voyce, as of mouth and iawes: or of blast, as of trumpes and pipes: or of touching and smiting of cymbale and harpe, and other such, & soundeth with smiting & strokes. Uoyce commeth to one accord, as Hu∣gution saieth, for in all melodie needeth many voyces or sounds, and that accor∣ding: for whereas is but one voyce on∣ly, it pleaseth not the cares, as the voyce and sound of the Cucko: and if anie discord, the voyce pleaseth not, for of such discord commeth not song, but howling, tarring, or yelling: but in many voyces according in one, is proportion of har∣mony, and melody, or sweet Simphonia. And so Isid. saith, that Simphonia is a temperate modulation and according in sounds high and low,* and by this har∣mony, high voyce accordeth: so that if one discordeth the hearing. And such ac∣cording of voice is called Euphonie, that is sweetnesse of voyce, and is called al∣so Melodia, & hath that name of sweete∣nesse and of Mel, that is honie: and the contrary is Diophobia, soule voyce and discording.

To make melody of harmony, need∣eth Diosclina, Diesis, Tonu, Iperludi∣us, P〈…〉, Arsis, Thesis, and sweete 〈…〉rate sound. Dacesmo is a couena∣〈…〉 of two voyces, or of mo accor∣ding. Diesis is the space of doing me∣lody, and chaunging out of one sound in∣to another. Tonus is the sharpnesse of voyce, and is difference and quantitie of harmonie, and standeth in accent and Tenor of voyce: and Positions make thereof fifteene parts. Iperludius is the last thereof and most sharpest. And To∣dorius is most heauy of all, as Isi. saith Arsis is rearing of voyce, and is the be∣ginning of song. Thesis is setting, and is the ende, as Isid. saith: and so Song is the bending of the voyce, for some pas∣seth straight as he saith, & is before song. And euerye voyce is sounde, and not againward, for sound is the obiect of he∣ring: for all that is perceiued by hea∣ring, is called sound, as breking of trees, smiting together of stones, hurting and rushing of waues and of winde, chitter∣ring of birds, lowing of beasts, voyce & groning of men, and touching of organs. And a voyce is properly the sounde that commeth out of the mouth of a beast and sound commeth of aire smit against an hard body, and the smiting is sooner seene than the sound is heard, & the ligh∣tening is sooner seene, than thunder is heard. A voyce is most thin aire, smitte with the wrest of the tongue: and some voyce signifieth and betokeneth by kind, as chirping of birds, and grning of sick men: and some betokeneth at will, as the voyce of a man that is ordained and shaped by beast of reason to tell out cer∣taine words. The voyce beareth for the the worde, and the worce that is in the thought may not come out but by help of voyce yt bringeth it out: & so first ye in∣wit gendereth a word in the thought, and putteth it afterwarde out at the mooth by the voyce, & so ye word that is gendered & conseined by inwit, com∣meth out by the voice, as it were by an Instrument, and is knowen. The voice that is disposed to song and to melodie, hath these properties, as Isidore sayth. Uoices he sayth be small, subtill, thicke, cleere, sharpe, and thrill. In subtill voyce the spirite is not strong, as in children and in women, and in other that haue not great sinewes, strong and thicke.

For of smal strings commeth smal voice Page  [unnumbered] and subtill. The voyces be fat & thicke, when much spirite commeth out as the voyce of man. The voyce is cleere that soundeth well, and ringeth without any hollownesse: sharpe voyces be full high: shrill voices be loud, and draweth a long and filleth soone all the place, as ye noyse of trumpets. The harde voyce, hoarce, grim and grisly, is when the sound ther∣of is vyolent, as the sound of thunder, & of an anueloc beaten with sledges: the rough voyce is hoarce and sparpled by small and diuers breathing: the blind voyce stinteth soone, and is stuffed, & du∣reth not long, as the sound of an earth∣en vessell. The voyce Vinolenta is soft and plyant: that name Vinolenta, com∣meth of Vino, that is a lytle bell softly bent. The perfect voyce is high, sweete, and strong, and cleere: high to bee well heard, cleere to fill the eares, sweete to please and not to feare the hearing, and to comfort the heart to take heede ther∣to: if ought heerof saileth, the voyce is not perfect, as Isi. saith. The first harmo∣nie is of organs, that commeth of blast, when certain instruments be cunningly made and duely blowen, and giueth by quantitie of the blast, and diuers qualy∣ties, aptly diuers sounds, as it fareth of organs, trumpets and pipes, & other such that giueth diuers sounds, and noyse.

Organum is a generall name of all in∣struments of musicke, and is neuerthe∣lesse specially appropriate to the instru∣ment that is made of many pipes, and blowen with bellowes, and vsed onelye in Churches, in Proses, Sequences, and Himnes.

(*Or is for his loudnesse, néerest a∣gréeing to the voyce of man.)