Of Weights. cap. 133.
IT is needfull to know the manner of weights, as the manner of mea∣sures, as Isidore sayth, for the might of kinde giueth to all bodely things theyr owne weight, and weight ruleth all.
Therefore waight hath the name Pon∣dus of Ponendo, setting, for weight set∣teth all things in theyr owne place, for weight is not els, but receiuing a thing toward his own place. Two things ma∣keth weight, lightnesse and heauinesse, & so lightnes in subtill matter maketh vp∣ward, and resteth not ere it come to his owne place: therefore fire moueth vp∣ward, and resteth not, ere it come to his owne place and sphere. The contrary is of heauinesse, for heauines that hath the mastrie in corpulent and earthy matter, moueth downward, and resteth not ere it finde the middle, to the which is moo∣ueth towarde the middle by his owne weight, and so all thin matter and sub∣till, hath double cause of lightnesse, for the parts of such matter is shire and sub∣till, and moueth toward the middle to∣ward the roundnesse, and resteth not ere it come therto. Also for shir〈…〉 of parts in such are many parts, in which be ma∣nye poores, and vertue of fire commeth therein, and dissolueth and wasteth the earthy parts, and maketh so all the body light, and beareth it vpward: & so heate is chiefe cause of lightnesse, as cold that moueth from the roundnesse toward the middle, is cause of •ning and fastnesse of parts, and 〈…〉 of heauinesse: and so the more sad a body is, the more heauye it is, and the more shire and thin, the more light it is found. And though both light and heauy is called weight, because of the inclination of either toward his Page [unnumbered] owne place, that is ordained thereto by kind, yet by the common speking, weight and heauinesse is all one: for things that moue down ward be called weighty, for their heauinesse, and things that moue vpward, are called light things: and so light and weight be diuided as contra∣ries. Therefore li. 15. Isidor. sayth, that a weight is called Pensum, hanging: for it hangeth in the ballaunce, when it is commonly weyed, and in this wise for to speake commonly, the thing in ye which a thing as wayed, is called a weight: and somtime the thing that is weyed, & som∣time ma••ie things & heuy, by the which the heuines is assaied, is called a weight.
Also instruments in the which things be weighed, haue diuers names: For Trutina is of double weyght, and Lanx is the hanging for to wey gret weights, as humorous, and talents, & small balan∣ces, for to weye small things and lyttle money.
The ballance is called Statera, & hath that name of Stando, standing, for hee standeth euen weyed by a thing yt bea∣reth it vp in the middle.
Lances be the thin brasen bolles, of the which in the one is the weight, and the thing that is weighed is in the o∣ther, and the weight to rightfull, when both ye bols hang euē with their weights and alyke high.
The tongue that followeth the more heauie boll, is called Momentum state∣re, and the h〈…〉gles by the which ye bal∣lance hangeth, and the heuinesse of bols be •••ayed, is called Filum as he saith: & euery weight hath a certaine maner, and proper name, as Isi. saith.
The least parte of weight is cal∣led Calculus, and the fourth parte of weight Obolus and weieth two greins of Tilles and is called Calculus, for it is so lettil that it maye not be troden and 〈◊〉.
〈…〉 is the twentieth part of Soli∣de, and hath this name of a fruits of a 〈◊〉.
Obolus weieth three Huoles, and was 〈◊〉 of brasse, shapen as an ar∣row, 〈◊◊〉 ye name thereof, for an arrow is called Obolus in Greeke, as he saith.
Scrupulus weyeth sixe Huoles, & is called Dragma in Greek, and this name Scrupus is a diminitiue of 〈◊〉, that is a little stone.
Dragma is the eight part of Vncia and weyeth three pence of siluer.
Scrupulus, that is the eighteenth Hu∣olus, is called Denarius, and is accoun∣ted for ten pence, as he sayth.
(*Drachma the 3. part of an ounce, a dramme: also a coyne signed with a Bullocke, counterpesing and old sterling groase, of eight to the ounce. Drachma au••. 12 siluer drams that is, an ounce & halfe of siluer)
Solide hath that name, for it seemeth that he lacketh nothing: and therefore men in old time called a thing that was whole and vnbroken, Solidum & Totū. Also a shilling containeth 12. pence.
Numisma is a penie, and is called so, and is marked with the print fo ye name of a Prince: for first Numilida was a penie of siluer, as Isid. saith.
Solidus is called Sextula, & hath that name for it weyeth 16. ounces: ye com∣mon people calleth the third deale ther∣of Trimisus, for such three maketh So∣lide, and two Sextules maketh Dulco, & three maketh Stater, as Isid. saith.
Stater is halfe an ounce, and wayeth three golden Solide, yt is called Stater, for it standeth in the Solide, & is called also Semiuncia, for it hath ye half of an oūce, & is called Semisus also, for it weyeth Se∣misus, as it is Semisus, half Assis as he saith also Assis is ye left among weights as one is least among numbers, as the Glose saith there. Nonne duo, &c.
•obta•er a certaine coyne, in value foure dr•m•, or foure groats, 8. to an ounce of these were & old siluer Romans coynes.
Fiue Quadrans; weyeth the fourthe deale of an ounce, & is called Quadrans in Hebrew.
(*Quadrant the fourth part of As, that is three ounces, also the fourth part of a∣ny number, as measure. In coyne it is a brasen parte, called Frienx in value the tenth part of sestertius. The accord in rec••ning where the receipt and allow∣ance be equall. Quadrans vino 〈◊〉, 6. ounces of Wine, after •udey . After Page [unnumbered] Phisitions, foure ounces and a halfe.)
Ciclis in Latin, is called Sicca in He∣brue, and weyeth an ounce among them, and among the Greekes, right as among Latines.
Ciclus is the fourth part of an ounce and halfe a Stater, and weyeth two Dragures. In holy Writ Ciclus is an ounce, and the first parte of an ounce a∣mong Nations.
Vncia hath that name, for it oneth and bindeth all number of weights, and weyeth eight Drams, that is 24. Scru∣pled, that is taken for lawfull weight: for by the number of Scruples thereof, the number of the houres of the daye & night be accounted, for twelue ounces maketh Libra, and is therfore accounted a perfect weight, for therein be as many ounces, as months in the yeare.
(*Siclus, Iosephus: called also Te∣tradrachmen, and Stater argenteus. It is as well a coyne as a wayght, being halfe an ounce in peyse, and in value a∣bout 4. greates, when eight went to an ounce: Some write that it is but two Drachiues.)
(*Sicilicum, a weight of two drams the fourth part of an ounce • also a me∣sure of grounde 20. foote broad, and 30. foote long, that is a plat containing 620. foote.)
Libra is said, as it were Liberé, for it containeth in it selfe, all the foresaide weights, as Isi. saith. A pound weight.
Bilibras, weyeth two Libras, and is double Libra.
••ma weyeth an hundred drams, & is a name of Greeke.
(*In Latine Coina signifieth a bush or haire, the voughs & leaues of trees.)
Talentum is accounted the greatest weyght among the Greekes for nothing is lesse than Calculus or As••: For as One is in numbers, so Calculus is in weights, and no weight is more than Talentum. But this weight is diuers among Nations: for among ye Romans Talentum wayeth threescore pound and twelue, as Plinius saith: and two To∣lents weyeth two houdred pound, foure¦score and fortie.
The Talent is treble, lesse, meane, & most. The lesse is of fiftie pound: the meane of seauentie pound, and twentie: and the most of seauen score pounde and that was Talentum of Seyntwary.
Centenarium is the name of a num∣ber, for it containeth an hundred pound: and for the number of an hundred is perfect: ye Romancs ordayned a weight of that name. Huc vsque Isidor. libro 15. cap. 3. De Ponderibus & Mensutis.
(*Talentum are of two sortes: Ta∣lentum Acticum maius, contayning 80. Minas, euery Mina valewed one hun∣dred Drachmas or Denarios, and euery Drachma being a groat sterling, when eight groates went to an ounce, and by that rate doth rise to one hundred thir∣tie thrée pounds and odde money. Ta∣lentum Acticum minus, which is most spoken of in Authors, containeth sixtye Minas, euery as before is written, bee∣ing in valew an hundred Denarios, and in that rate amounteth to an hundred pounds. But he may seeme as Tonstall writeth 120. pounds, after x. groates to an ounce: for the •••enesse or v•••nesse of English money, maketh Talentum more or lesse, as Talētū Hebraicū Sāctu∣ary containing an 100. Minas Mebrai∣cas, wherof euery one was 60. Sicli, and euery Siclus 4. Donarij of sterling groats of 8. to an ounce, which rate amounteth to 400. pounds. Talentum Hebraecum minus, was halfe so much.)