Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

Of measures and weights. Chap. 12

OFten measures & weights haue place in holy writ. The reason and proper∣ties therof springeth of the skill of Geo∣metry, for as Isi. saith, li. 2. Geometrie to a science of measuring & meating, & con∣teineth in it selfe lines & length, shape & figured, & space in length & bredth & fair∣nesse, & distance, greatnesse & hgnesse, & figures, dimsions, & numbers, as it fareth in circles, triangles, & quadrangles, & in fiue cornered figures, & in other mo••sse many, of whom it perteineth not to this treatise to make 〈…〉tions of all, but to ouh sō what because of ye s••ple, of whō Isi. maketh mention & saith in this wise. Of Geometry is foure minor diuisions, plaine, & greatnesse of 〈…〉, & greatnes of reason, and solidate figures, plaine fi∣gures he contri••d in length & in bredth: and bée fiue in number, as Plato mea∣neth. Greatnesse of nūber may be dealed by numbers yt be knowen in Arithme∣tike, the measure of fraction e, greatnes & hugenesse is not knowen. And 〈…〉 figures be conteined in length, breadth, & déepnesse, & such a figure to ated Cu∣bus, & is all 〈…〉 long, br••d, and déepe: of plaine figures is many special shapes, as he sayth. The first is the circle in plaine 〈…〉, & is also called Circumducta, and in the middle thereof is a point, in whō al the times yt come from the round∣nesse therof meet together: & in Geome∣try that point is called Centrum, and the circle is in plaine set thus

[illustration] [symbol for circle]
. The Qua∣drangle is in plaine, & lieth within foure straight lines in this wise.
[illustration] [symbol for quadrangle]
Diategra∣mon is a plaine figure in this wise. Ortogonium that is recti angulum, is a plaine figure in this wise.
[illustration] [symbol for right triangle]
Hiso∣pleros is a plaine figure and straight, ordeined vnder the Solide in this wise. The sphere is a figure shapen al round, & is pere to Solitude in al parts in this wise.
[illustration] [symbol for sphere]
The Cubus is properly the So∣lide 〈◊〉 long, broade and deepe in this wise.
[illustration] [symbol for cube]
Chilindros is a square figure, with halfe a circle about in this wise.
[illustration] [symbol for cylinder]
Conon is a figure broad in the end, and sharpe at the other, in this wise.
[illustration] [symbol for cone]
Pi∣ramis is a figure shapen in this wise,
[illustration] [symbol for pyramid]
wide beneath and straight aboue. Thus science vseth first the point that hath no parte: For among all that be measu∣red, it is least in quantitye, and most in Page  [unnumbered] might is to beginning of all lines, and therefrom all lines beginneth & stretch∣eth and cudeth thereas. Secondly, this Science vseth the line that is straight length without bredth, & stretcheth from point to point. For hée beginneth at a point and endeth at a point. Superficies is breadth and length. Spiutudo hath thicknesse, bredth, length, & déepnesse. And each body hath these thrée dimensions, length, bredth, & thicknesse: And by those three al corpulent substance hath measure, number, and weight. And by art of tel∣ling and numbers thou maist finde the middle in Geometry. For the least & the most multiplied maketh as much as the mene maketh multiplied, as 6. & twelue multiplyed, maketh two and seuenty, as Isidore sayth, lib. sicundo. The circle is a line drawne all round about frō a cer∣taine point to the same point. And each part of that line is like far from the mid∣dle point. And the circle is a most sim∣ple figure, and most taketh, and is most cleane, without corners & hollow with∣in. And the roundnesse therof is most far from the middle point, and is most per∣fect among all figures, and conteyneth in it selfe, and is conteined of it selfe, and of none that is without it selfe, as it fa∣reth of the circle of eaen, yt compasseth all and is not 〈…〉, and conteineth all, and is conteined of none that is with∣out, as Isid. sayth as within ten is each number, so within the circle is closed all manner shape of figure, in this wise.
[illustration]
And shortly to speake of the perfection & reasons circulae, circles wonderfullye, by a certeine maner kind 〈…〉ulation, fol∣lowing all things. For heauen is round in shape, & 〈…〉 Planets moue all round about, and so doe all the starres, & so we see that the course of yeares, of moneths, and of diuers times beginneth and en∣deth, and alway passeth rounds about. So the Elements suffereth each other, and worketh each in other. And those that seeme disturbed by corruption, com∣meth yet agayne by generation: So con∣tinuall ebbing and slowing of the Sea commeth and goeth, and falleth and cō∣meth yet againe; So hearbes & grasse, trees, and seede, and fruit, commeth each of other, and turneth into themselues a∣gaine. So the spirits of 〈…〉 commeth of God by creation and making, & mo∣ueth to God in and by loue and affection: They come of God by working, & turn to God by deedes of thinking. So Ari∣stotle lykeneth the reasonable soule is a circle because of perfection hereof, and of disposition to receiue. Of all the figure of the same length, the circle is the most, therfore all the whole world hath round shape and is made thereto, because the soule should take it by vnderstanding & in wit. God is creatour and maker of all, and is designed in a circle. For as Trimegistius sayth, one gendereth one, and bendeth his loue unto him. For the Father generated, and hath without be∣ginning ingendered the sonne, and inspi∣reth the holy Ghost by the sonne, and the holy Ghost is the knot and loue of ey∣ther, of the Father and Sonne. For the father vnderstandeth him perfectly 〈…〉 beginning, and loueth vnderstanding per∣fectlye himselfe, which loue stretcheth to none other passing himselfe, but to him∣selfe that vnderstandeth, and is vnder∣stood, to the Father & sonne, of the which proceedeth that loue, and bendeth in him∣selfe in a circle wise. And so the some in God and 〈…〉 the father vnderstan∣ding, and vnderstanding gendereth the sonne, and the sonne gendered of the Fa∣ther and vnderstood, and the loue by the sonne commeth of the father, & berdeth & reboundeth to either, and is the 〈…〉 Ghost. And so it may be knowne yt per∣fection is in the persons of God, & that the pluralitie of them passeth not ye〈…〉 of the 〈…〉. Therfore the Philosopher yt was called Secūdus, answered, 〈…〉 it was apposed what is God, he 〈…〉: God is intellectuall circle, of yt which ye mid∣dle point is euery where, & the roundnes no where, and so the reason of the circle shineth in euery creature.