Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

De Colorum mutatione. Cap. 10.

COulours doe chaunge in bodyes for many manner causes, as it doth in fruite, grasse, hearbes, and other things that growe in earth: For first fruite is gréene when it groweth, as it fareth in beryes and grapes, then they waxe red, & pale, or blacke at last: & this changing of coulour commeth of diuersitie of kinde heate, or of heat of the Sunne, that doth seeth the substaunce of fruite in diuerse manner of wise. For first the working of heat is féeble & soft, & vnsufficient to dis∣solue & depart ye earthie matter to make it spread, & therefore in the fruite with∣out, is gréene colour, & vndigest, & earthy, but kinde heat waxeth stronger by heat of the Sun, and worketh therefore the more strongly, & so the heat for strength thereof leaueth red coulour in the fruite without, and at the last when the fruite is compleat & ripe, & the sowre humour & earthy defied, then of burning commeth blacke colour in the fruit without. For the heat hath mastry, and dissolueth and doth séeth, & defieth the earthynesse, & ta∣keth as much as néedeth, and turneth it into substance of fruit, and wasteth the other deale, or putteth & bringeth it to the vtter part of the fruite, and such fu∣mositie cast out, for it is earthy, infecteth and maketh the fruit blacke or yeolow without, as it is said super li. Vegitabi∣lium commento. For such coulour beto∣keneth of themselues working & kind of cold, & be oft gendered in things that bée full hot, & commeth of the same cause, that is heat, that hath mastry within, and doth put out earthy and watry fu∣mosities, as Alphredus sayth super A∣ristot. de Vegitabilis & Plantis. Also in beasts is chaunging of coulour, now in the skinne, now in the eyen, now in the eare, and now in the nailes. For coulour of ye skin is gendred in two manners, as it is sayde in Ioannico, for it is gendred and commeth sometime of humours in∣warde, and sometime of passions of the soule. Also chaunging of coulour in the skin commeth of inner things: sometime by hot humours, and sometime by cold, for it happeneth, that hot humours both compowned and simple, cooleth and bée colde, and also colde humours or cooled heateth, and according therevnto the co∣lour in the skinne is wont to varie, for when the colde humoures waxe hotte, Page  391 white colour turneth into citrine or into red. And when hot humours doth coole, then red coulour doth chaunge to white or pale, and so of other it is to be vnder∣stoode. Also chaunging in the skin com∣meth of passions of the soule. The red waxeth pale for anguish or for dreade, for in dreade the heart closeth, and heate that is in the vtter partes draweth in∣ward, & therefore the vtter partes waxe pale. Also the pale waxeth red for wrath, for in wrath the heart openeth and desi∣reth wreake, & the heat passeth sodeinly from the inner parts to the vtter parts, and so the bloud heateth, and is be∣twéene the skin and the flesh, and so red colour is sodeinly gendered. Also in men of the nation of Maures, the blacke cou∣lour commeth of the inner parts, & whi∣tish colour in Almains and Dutchmen. For ye countrye Mauritania is the most hottest country in Aethiopia, in ye which Country for greate heate the bloud is burnt betwéene the skinne and the flesh, and maketh all the members black. And so hée that first dwelled in Aethiopia, was made black. But afterward by con∣tinuall heat of the Sunne such blacknes sprang into all his ofspring. And of blacke father and blacke mother com∣meth blacke children. But in that place onely the father and mother be continu∣ally burnt with heate of the Sunne, and therefore in temperate countries & lands yt be somwhat cold, swart coloured men getteth children temperate in coulour, as Macrobius, Aristotle, & Auicen meane. And contrarywise the Almaynes and Scots, that dwell in colde countries, for in them colde stoppeth the hoales and poores without, and the heate is drawne inward, and therefore the skin is white without. The Cōmentour telleth al this super Ioh. & Aristot. toucheth the same. Also coulour of skinne chaungeth, and namely of the mans skin, by many occa∣sions, somtime for euill complection, as it fareth in melancholike men,* & for too great passing heat, as it fareth in chola∣rike men that be citrine of coulour, and for heat of the Sun & drinesse of aire, as it fareth in wayfaring men & in shipmē, & for spreading of corrupt humours be∣twéen ye skin & flesh, as it fareth in Mor∣phea & in Lepr, and for stopping of the liuer, or for distemperate qualitie of the gall, as it fareth in the Ianders, that is chaunged of kind colour into foule cou∣lour and vnséemly, as Constantine saith. And for continuaunce of solution of the skin, as if fareth of the Mesells, Pocks, wounds, botches, and burning. Also in haire is diuers colour, for by quality of fumositie, that is resolued of the bodye, colour of haire is diuers, for of fleame commeth white haire, of bloud red, & of kind melancholy yeolowe, & of Cholera adusta, black, & of the defalt of kind heat commeth hoare haire, as it fareth in old men. And when horenesse beginneth in the root of the haire, then it commeth of much fleme, & when it beginneth in the vtter end, then it is a token that it com∣meth of default of kind heat. Looke be∣fore in Tractatu de Capillis.