Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.



FOrasmuch as the foresaid treatise is ended and fini∣shed, as touching those things that beautifieth & maketh faire ye earth, touch∣ing their vertues & pro∣perties, as of are, mettall, stones, and things that grow vnder the ground, & of trées, hearbes, & grasse, and wéeds, which groweth & springeth out of the earth, of whom mention is made in holy writ: now followeth to our purpose to shewe and intreate of the vertues & properties of those things that haue life & feeling. And first in generall, and after in speci∣all, of all beastes tame and wilde, and of all Wormes that créepe on the grounde, that he named in Text and Glose.

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Page  [unnumbered]Page  333 And all that is comprehended of flesh and of spirite of lyfe, and so of bodye and soule, is called Animallia beast whether hée be airse, as soules that flye: or watry, as fish that swim or earthy, as beasts: that goe on the grounde and in fieldes, as men and beastes, wilde and tame, or other that créepe and glide on the ground.

And Moses assigneth thrée manner of beasts in kinde, tame beasts & wilde, and other that créepe on the grounde, as it is written Gen. 1. Héereof Basilius speaketh in Exameron,* and calleth tame beastes Iumenta, and sayth, that they be beastes graunted and ordeyned to vse and to helpe of mankinde. And some be ordey∣ned to trauaile, as horses. Oxen, and Ca∣mells, and other such: and some to beare wooll for clothing of men, as shéepe and other such, & some to be eaten, as swine and pigges. Those bée créeping beastes and worms that passe from place to place by stretching of the bodye, and drawing againe togethers, and moue and passe vp∣ward by such drawing and stretching of the body, as the Wormes, Adders, and Serpents, And thrée manner kinde is of such, for some draweth by the mouth, as small Wormes that drawe themselues by the mouth, and some drawe so for∣warde by strength of the sides and ply∣auntnesse of the body, as Serpents, Ad∣ders, and Snakes: and some creepe on feete, as Eweuetes, and Botractes, that be venimous Frogs, and other such beasts, and be called Bestie, as it were Vastie, wasting.

For they haue kindly kinde of cruel∣nesse, & réeseth and sheweth their strength now with clawes, nowe with strength of hornes, now with téeth, as Bores, Li∣ons, Tigres, and wolues. But common∣ly some be called Bestie, that be not tame but wilde, and bée kindly more stirring then tame beasts, and more milde then cruell beasts, as Harts, and other such. And in all beastes is vertue of moouing and of féeling, but in some more, and in some lesse, for as the bloud is more pure and cléere, some féels better and haue bet∣ter estimation and knowing, & bee more wittye and wilye.

Therefore it is that the Oxe is slow and stable, and the Asse dull of wit, and horse seruent in desire, and covetous of females, the Woulfe wilde, and not ta∣med, the Lyon bolde and hardy, the Foxe wilye, the hound with minde of friend∣ship, & so of other beasts. And some good∣nesse of males of manners in beasts fol∣loweth goodnesse either mallice of com∣plection, as Basilius sayth. And Aristotle sayth the same in libro de Animalibus, and sayth, that beasts be diuers in man∣ners, for some bée right milde, as the Cow and the Shéepe, and some be right wilde and not tame, as the Tygres & the wilde Boare, and some be right hardye, bolde, and proud, as the Lyon. And some beasted be strong, wilde, and guilefull, as the woulfe & the Foxe, and other such. And this diuersity commeth of diuersitye of vertue, that worketh diuerslye in di∣uers beasts. For as he sayeth, libro. 1. Some beasts haue bloud, and some haue none, as Bées and other beasts with ri∣ueled bodyes.* But such beastes haue other humour in steade of bloud.

And beasts that haue bloud, be more then other in body and in vertue. Therefore it is, that some beasts loue fellowshippe, and goe in company, and are wilde, as Hartes, wilde Asses, and Camells: And some flye and voyde company, and maye not dwel together in company, as foules, and birds with crooked cleas, and beasts that liue by pray. Héereto Auicen sayth, that some beasts be tame, and some bée wilde, and some liue in towns, and some in fieldes. And among all beastes, man yt may not liue alone, as Cranes, Bérs, and Ampts, that accordeth with man in that. And also he saith, that beasts be diuers in nourishing and in feeding, for onely some eate flesh, as the Lion or the tiger, & the Woulfe, & other such: and some eat flesh, and other meat, as Hounds, and Cats, & other such: and some eate grasse, corne, & other fruit, as horses & hartes, and other such. And Arist. saith, libr. 1. some beastes haue their owne sauour and tast, that them liketh, as Bées haue liking in tast of hony, & few other swéet things, as the Spider hath liking & tast in flies, & liueth by hunting of flies; and some beasts hūt Page  [unnumbered] other beasts, as the Lion & the Woulfe, & other such: & some gather store of meat & féeding, as the Irchin & the Ampt. And why euery beast néedeth meat & nourish∣ing it is, as Auicen saith, Moisture of substance, and heat that dissolueth & wa∣steth moisture, & hot aire that is about the heart. And so alwaye by working of heat, is wasting and losse of humour: & that that is lost, is néedfull to be restored, and that by goodnesse of meat and nouri∣shing. And some beasts séeke their meate by night, as soules that hate light, and some by day. And Aristotle and Auicen saye, that some beasts be alwaye wilde, and some alwaye tame, as Man, Mule, & the Goate: and some be soone made tame, as the Elephant. Of all kinde of tamè beasts, some be found wilde, as a wilde man, a wilde Fore, wilde Horses, wilde Hounds, & wild Swine. And some beasts be full cruell, readye to réese and to fight, and namely in time of loue, & in all ser∣uice of Venus. In all beasts is appetite of loue liking, and then the males woo∣eth and pleaseth the females, and fight for them. And some beasts do slily & wa∣rily, that their hornes and tuskes be hard and sharpe in that time, as wild Swine frote themselues against trées, and their tusks whet, as Arist. saith. And some re∣fraineth them much, and some be right wrathfull and angry & of great memory, as the hound, the Camell, & the Asse: and some haue but feeble memory, as the E∣stridge & Culuer. And onely man calleth to mind that that was forgotten, as Aui. saith. But many beastes holde in minde things yt they see & learne, as Arist. saith li. 1. And onely in man is mindfulnes, as the minde is obedient to reason. There∣fore li. 11. de Ciuitate Dei, Austen saith, yt in vnreasonable beastes is wonderfull redinesse & wit, but in them is no science properly to speake of science: but in them likenesse of science is found, for they haue readinesse of wit, in bréeding & rearing of their brood, and in building and making of bowers and dens, in seeking and get∣ting of meat and nourishing: In medi∣cine and healing of woundes, in flight and voiding of harme in boding or chan∣ging of time and weathers, of knowing of loue of their makes. For the Hart lo∣ueth the Hind, & the Lyon the Lionesse, and the male beare the female, and so of other.

Also Aristotle sayeth, that in euerye beast is a radicall member, that is well & head of all the vertues natural and spiri∣tuall, and of feeling, and that member is the heart, or somewhat els in stéed of the heart, of the which roote or heart, as A∣uicen sayth, beginneth creation, making and shape of all beasts. When an unrea∣sonable beast is perfectly made & shapen, the face therof boweth toward the earth, that is the originall & materiall matter, whereof it commeth, and onely to man, kind ordeyneth & dseth vpright stature, wherein mankinde is wonderfully made noble, and passing all other beasts, as the Poet sayth.

Os homini sublime dedit coelum{que} videre.

Kind hath giuen to man an high mouth & vertue to looke on heaven. Therefore Basilius sayeth, that if a man be defiled with lust & liking of flesh in obeieng to lechery of the wombe, he is made pere to vnwise and vnreasonable beastes, and is made like to them. Also Basilius saith, that all beasts of the earth be comforted and hearted to gender & to get broods of their owne kind, to multiply after them, by gendring heat that tickleth and prick∣eth, & that falleth most in springing time, when the vertue of the heate of heauen beginneth to haue mastrye of bodyes of beasts. And in such forme meaneth Ari∣stotle. And also Auicen sayth, that euery beast that hath Semen, gendereth ano∣ther beast, which is lyke to it selfe. And therefore to euerye beast, which may not kéepe and saue alwaye kinde in it selfe, kind giueth it a member, by which it puteth out Semen, & another mēber, wherin it may be receiued, as the mother in the female taketh Semen: and this is general in all kinde of beastes, in the which is male and female. For the male is at it were a manner worker & shaper, and the female as it were matter to worke in. Therefore euery female beast hath such a member, called the mother, or els som∣what els in stéede of the mother, wherin Page  334 she may receiue semen and broode. And that falleth diuersly in diuers maner of beastes: for otherwise in such beastes, which lay egges, than in other maner of beasts, which containeth perfect beastes within themselues, as Auicen setteth ensample of many, following Aristotle. And he setteth all beasts with bloud, a∣fore beasts which haue no bloud. & saith, that they be alwayes more noble and more huge and great in quantitie and in vertue, except a fewe beasts of the wa∣ter and sea. And he saith, yt euery beast hauing noble bloud, moueth with foure instruments, as vnreasonable beastes, with foure féete: or els it moueth and stirreth with two handes and with two féete, as it fareth in mankinde: and some mooueth and stirreth with winges, and with two féete, as it fareth in birds and in fowles with feathers.

But diuers and manye manner of beasts be found, hauing moe féete than foure, as it fareth in fishes that be cal∣led Crabs, and small shragges, and other such. And also some haue moe winges thē twayn, as it fareth in butterflyes, & in Bées, and in some long flyes, and in such is but little bloud, which is trea∣sure of kinde. And therfore the sore lims worke more effectually in the first ma∣ner, then many lims doe in the seconde manner, as in beasts the sore lyms are more able and worke more effectuallye than the hinder: for they haue more heat, and more part of heate of bloud of the heart, and be néere thereto. And Auicen toucheth ye generall properties of beasts and sayth.

In some manner, some beastes communeth and accordeth in members, as man and horse in flesh & in sinewes, and are diuers in many things: First in qualitie and in manner of setting and mouing of members, both of the simple members and of the compouned, as it fa∣reth of the Snaile, that hath shelles, and of the Irchin, that hath pricks, and man hath none: and the horse hath a tayle, and man hath none.

And beastes be also diuers in quan∣titie, as many in mouth, and in opening of eyen. The opening of the Owles eye is much: and the opening of Ea∣gles eyen is lyttle.

Also the members be diuers in num∣ber and tale, for in some beasts are two feete, and in some foure feete: & in some be more fóete than foure, as it fareth in Spiders: for some Spider hath eyght fáete, and some other Spider hath tenne féete. Also in qualitie, colour, figure and shape, or in softnesse and hardnesse: as and Oxe foote is full harde, and a mans foote is full softe. And are also diuerslye set, as it fareth in the teates of a Mare, and an Elephant: for an Elephant hath teates vnder the breast, and the Mare in the flanke, betwéene the thighes be∣hinde.

And are also diners in working, as it fareth in the nosethrills of ye Elephant, with the which he fighteth. And are also diuers in suffering, as it fareth in the eyen of the Reremouse, which be full féeble and in the eyen of the Swallow, which contrariwise are right strong, as Auicen saith. And be diuers in appetite, for some haue a great appetite and de∣sire to serue Venus, and some féeble, as the Elephant and the Turtle: and some haue appetite to serue Venus with all manner kinde of beasts, and some onely with beasts of their owne kinde: & some are continent & chast alwayes, as Bées. And some be great gluttons, and great deuourers of meate, and therefore they hunt by night, as Wolues which be cal∣led Hahala.

*(Hahala, is no proper word; For Lupus in Hebrue, is called Zeeb in Chaldiacke, Deba in Arabicke. Deba and Alsebha, is the name if all foure footed beastes that haue clawes, that do scrape teare and rent, as with téeth and biting. In the Siriacke, Dabha, Al∣dabha and Dahab, of his furious raue∣ning. Gesner in folio. 717. in his booke of heasts.)

And some of those rauenous beasts séeke foode by daye, as the Goshawke, and the Eagle: and some other both by daye and by night, as Cattes.

Also in euery beast néedeth diuers mem∣bers to serue each other for diuers wor∣kings. Page  [unnumbered] And so the bones be needfull to sustaine all the bodie: the gristles be needfull to defend the flesh from the hurting of the bones: and sinewes be needfull to binde and to ioyne members togethers, and to beare and to lead, and to bring fóeling into al the members, and be hard to cut∣ting, and plyant to stretch and to binde flesh, and be right néedefull to the Well of lyfe, and for gendering of spirites.

The lungs be right needfull for breath∣ing, and for gathering and drawing of colde aire, that it may coole the seruent heate of the heart. The stomack is need∣full for the first digestion of meats. The lyuer is needfull to gendering of bloud: veynes be néedefull to beare bloud into all the members of the body. The guts be néedfull to heare the drastes and dirte to voyde it out of the body. The raynes be néedfull, and the gendring stones, to sauing of kinde: the gall is néedfull to comfort digestion: the splene is néedfull to gathering superfluitie of the humour melancholicke: the head is needfull to wits that be therein, to giue feeling and ruling to all the body: the neck is néed∣full for ioyning of the head and the bo∣dy together, and to bring meate & drink to the stomacke: the breast is néedfull to defend the heart and spirituall mem∣bers: the armes and handes be néedfull to workes and deedes: the sides & ribs to keepe and to saue the kinde members: féete and legs to vnderset and to moue swiftlye from place to place: the skin is néedfull to keepe and defende all that is within from outwarde griefes and hurts: vaires be néedefull to saue the skinne: nayles be needfull to keepe the vttermost parts, and also for defence in many maner beasts, & kinde hath wise∣ly ordeined in all beasts som what where∣with ther may defend them against noi∣aunces and griefes and hurtings. And therefore Harts haue hornes, and Bores haue tuskes, and Lyons vse clawes in stéede of swords, and so in beasts is no default nor superfluitie. And small beasts that lacke sharpe téeth, and clawes, and hornes, are defended with ablenesse of members, and swiftnesse of fligh, as it faceth in Hares, in Fawnes, and other such. Also euery beast ye gendreth another beast, hath eyen except the Mole, yt hath eyen closed within a web, and that web is giuen to the Moale, for féeblenesse of sight: and euery beast that hath eares, moueth the eares except man: and eue∣rye beast breatheth, but some by wayes which are knowen, as by the mouth, or els by the nose: and some by preuye wayes, as by preuy holes and poores, as Bées, and Flyes, and beasts which glide on the ground. And euerye foure footed beast which hath bloud hath marrow, & namely man hath much marrow in cō∣parison to his body, and that is needfull to man, for many and diuers workes, & dooings. And euery beast yt hath horns, is cloue footed with hornes without, ex∣cept one beast, that is, an Unicorne, that hath but one horne in the fore∣head, and one hoofe in the foote, as an horse.

(*The Unicorne is cloue footed, as the Stagge, called in Gesner Monoce∣rote, Folio. 781.)

And euery horned beast hath hollow hornes, except the Harte and the Uni∣corne: and euery horned beast is foure footed, with material and hard horne, ex∣cept a manner Serpent, which is in the region of Aegypt, which is found hor∣ned, and many call that serpent Serastes. And héere I speak of beasts which haue hornes of kinde of bone: for Snayles haue certaine hornes softe and gleymie, but they are not properly hornes, but things giuen to Snayles for helpe and succour. For Snailes be féeble of sight, and grope and séeke their wayes, with those horns. And if the Snayle méeteth with any hard thing, anone he draweth in his hornes: (*At the ende of which hornes, there appeareth a blacke like the sight of an eye, wherewithall it séemeth they haue some sight,) and then he closeth himselfe within his shelles: For hée vseth his shelles in stéede of houses and Castles.

Also some beasts haue téeth in either iaw, and some haue onely in the nether iaw, & those which haue no téeth in the ouer iaw, be horned, for that matter pas∣seth and turneth into hornes.

Page  335And no Beast which hath crooked féeth or tuskes, as ye Bore, hath hornes, for that matter passeth and turneth in∣to turkes: for tuskes and hornes accord not in the same beast: Beasts of praye haue téeth departed and sharpe, that they may the better enter and come to the praye, and bite thereof gobbets and pée∣ces, as Wolues and Lyons. And tame beasts, as the Cowe, and beasts that be made tame, as the Elephant & Camell, haue téeth lyke high and nigh togethers, as if were one bone, that they may the better eate grasse and hearbes, and bite them the more euen nigh the ground, and no beast: hath more rowes of téethe in his mouth than twayne, except cer∣taine fish, that haue great teeth in their iawes set farre asunder, as the téeth of of a Sawe, and haue also teeth set with∣in, and with those inner, they gather and holde the meate, least the water shoulde wash it soone out of their mouthes, as it fareth in water Wolues, that are Lu∣ties, and in manye other, as Aristotle sayth:

But it is sayd, that in Inde is a beast wonderfully shapen, and is lyke to the Beare in body & in the haire,* and to a man in face, and hath a right red head, and a full great mouth and an horrible, and in either iawe thrée rowes of téeth di∣stinguished asunder. The vtter limmes thereof, be as it were the vtter syins of a Lyon, and his tayle is lyke to a with scorpion with a sting, and smiteth with hard bristle prickes as a wilde Swine, and hath an horrible voyce, as the voies of a trumpe, and he runneth full swift∣ly and eateth men; & among all beasts of the earth, is none found more cruell nor more wonderfully shapen, as Aui∣cen saith, and this beast is called Bari∣cus in Greeke, as he saith. Also libro. 8. cap. 22. Plinius saith, that 〈…〉 writeth and fareth, that among the Medes is a beast, that is most wicked & euill, which he tasteth 〈…〉, and hath three rowes of teeth set a rowe, and toge∣thers 〈…〉 and is lyke to a 〈…〉 in ares, and in face and hath ye〈…〉 and 〈…〉 like to a Lion, with a Scorpions tayle, and stingeth with bristle prickes, and hath a voyce, lyke to the voyce of a man. And if a marrsingeth to a pipe and to a trumpe, it seemeth that this beasts voyce accor∣deth with the trumpe and tune melodie. And so this is the same beast, that Aui∣cen and Plinius speake of. Also euerye beast that gendreth and getteth a beast, hath two reynes & a bladder, but beasts that lay egges, haue neither bladders, neither reynes: for in birds and soules superfluitie of moysture passeth into fe∣thers and clawes, and in fish, into the shelles and scales; and therefore them néedeth no instrument to receiue super∣fluitie of moysture.

Also euery beast that hath hornes & to téeth aboue, cheweth his cudde, and hath many wombes, and full great, and another lesse, one long & another wide, & many manner digestions be the cause, whereof such a Beast, hath so manye wombes: for his meate is drye, and is not right well chewed in the beginning when the beast féedeth, and that is for hast of eating, and for this cause this meate so swallowed, néedeth to be che∣wed againe, and then the meate is dra∣wen out of ye more wombe to ye mouth, and so the beast doth chewe it againe. And when the meate is chewed, it is sent to the second wombe, that it maye be there digested; & so to chew is called Ruminate, as Auicen saith, and Rumi∣nate is to chew the cud.

Also libro. a. cap. 1. Auicen sayth in this manner, I saye that each Beast with tallowe hath fatte braine, and that the beast that hath no tallowe, hath no vnctuous marrough: and euerye beast that bretheth hath lungs, as fishes haue braunches, whereby they drawe in, and put out water and ayre: and euery beast that hath bloud, hath hart and liuer, and beasts that be without bloud, haue no heart, but haue somewhat els in seede of heart, that is feare and Well of life.

Also all beastes that gender, haue gall, some preuely and hid, as the Hart, Horse, and Mule, and some openly kno∣wen and séene. Onelye the Dolphin wanteth gall, though he gendreth & bre∣theth.

Page  [unnumbered]And other beasts that lay egges, haue gall great or small, as fishes and Ser∣pents. Also he saith, that euerye Beast that hath bloud hath semen: and euerie beast without bloud that gendreth ano∣ther, hath fiue wits, except the mouse with eyen healed and couered, and hath the blacke of the eye vnder a skinne: and in some beasts the wayes of wit and of feelyng, bée preuye and bée hidde, as eares and nosethrills in fish, which heare as it is well knowen: for they flye and voyd flushing and noyse: & they smell well also, els would they not come to the net, for milke, nor for flesh rosted. For flesh rosted, crabs come into willowes and pitches. Therefore Ari∣stotle saith, as Auicen meaneth, that the Dolphin, and other manner of fish, fall to the bottome sodainly, as it were in E∣pilencia, when they heare sodaine thun∣dering, or great mouing and noyse, and be taken as they were dronke. And fish flyeth and voydeth the place of washing and slaughter of other fish, and the bloud of other fish, and flye and voyd also hoa∣rie and uncleane nets, and come glably into new. And beastes with crimping bodies haue sharpe wit & féeling, though it be priuie and hid, as Bées and Antes, that heare and smell a farre, and haue liking in certaine odor and smell, and dye in some odour of Brimstone, and of burnt leather, and of burnt Harfes hornes: and so Bées abide not in pla∣ces of euill smell, but they rest in pla∣ces with good smell and sweetnesse, as he sayth.

Also hée sayth, that beasts are diuers in manner of voyce of crieng: for some haue strong voyce and sharpe, and some féeble and lowe and some with ly∣tle voyce or none, and onely beasts that haue the wosen of voyce, and lungs, and breath, haue voyce. But some breatheth not, and maketh somtime noyse & some∣time an hissing. And beastes that haue voyce make tunes and melodie, & some crye, chitter and sing, namely in time of gendering and of loue, and they knowe each other by their owne voyce, and call and pray each other to loue. Also he sai∣eth, that each beast, that hath bloud and goeth, waketh and sléepeth, and euerye beast that hath eye lyddes, closeth them when he sleepeth: and euery beast that layeth egges, maketh small sléepe.

Also euery beast néedeth meate and no∣rishing according to his complection, and that is right needfull and necessary for sustenaunce and wexing of the beast, or for the restoring of that thing, which is lost by kindly heate.

But in receiving and taking of meat and drinke there is great difference: for some going beastes with complete and euen lyppes, drinketh sucking, as man, horse, cowe and mule, and other such: and beastes with vneuen lyppes, in the which the neather lippe is shorter then that ouer, drinke lapping, as an hound, & cat, and other such: and so by the disposition of eyennesse and vneuennesse of lippes, some beasts in drinking sucke, & some lappe: and therefore kinde ordayneth wisely in hounds, and in other lapping beasts, tender tongue, long and plyaunt, & the tongue is the more able to licke & to holde the water, and bring it to the mouth. But many foure footed beastes, drinke not but seldome, as Lonyes, and Hares and other such: for meate of such beasts is right moyst, and that moisture sufficeth to them in stéede of drinke, & to bring their meate into the members, & to coole kinde heate. And other beasts that be full hot and drye, either of com∣plection, or by accidentall heate and dri∣nesse, and vse drye meate or hotte, néede therefore drinke to the foresaid things & doings: and this is the cause why Cul∣uers and other birds that be not rauen∣ners drink: for they eate corne & graines and other such and their meate is fatte, hot and drye.

And fowles and birds of prane, vse moyst meate indeed, and drinke therefore but seldome, and when they drink, it is token of sicknesse and that vnkind heat hath passing, masterie in them, as Aui∣cen and Aristotle meane. And Auicen meaneth, that beasts with little bodyes, be more slye and hardie, and wittie, than other beastes with great bodyes: is it fareth in Spiders, Bees, & Antes, their workes be so slighe and subtill, Page  336 that mans wit may not comprise to doe such workes, for in them kinde reward∣eth in sleight and in wit, that that sée∣meth to be withdrawen from them in might and in strength, as he saith.

Also in li. de mirabilibus mundi, cir∣ca finem, Solinus saith: that euery beasts with crooked téeth as a sawe, is a Glut∣ton, and fighteth: as it fareth of hounds, Panthers, Lyons, and Beares. And the females of such beasts bring forth yoūg, vnperfect and vncomplete, as the Bitche bringeth forth blinde whelpes, and the female Bears bringeth forth a lumpe of flesh not deuided by shape of members: and she kéepeth that lumpe hot, vnder hir armes pits, as the Den sitteth on hir egges: and the female Beare, licketh that lumpe of flesh, and shapeth it some and some, vntill it receiue perfect fi∣gure and shape of a Beare. Also the Pan∣ther & the Lions bringeth forth whelps, but not complete nor perfectly shapen, and euery beast that bringeth foorth ma∣ny young, loueth best the first, and ac∣counteth it most kindly hir owne, and therefore some beasts eate and deuoure their owne broode, except the first, as some Swine doe oftentimes.

Also he sayth, that in all beasts that bring young foorth, vncomplete and vn∣perfect, the cause is gluttonie, for if kinde would abide vntill they were complete and perfect, the whelpes would slaye the damme with sucking, for immoderate & ouer passing appetite: and therefore in such beasts, kinde is swift to bring them foorth soone, or to make them soone dye, least they shoulde grieue the damme too sore, and such beastes, brought foorth in that manner, fight for meate and food, as Auicen saith, and hate each other. Ther∣fore kinde hath ordayned remedie to sane the kinde of those beasts, and ordai∣neth that such beastes may bring foorthe manye young at once, so that if it hap∣pen that many of them be dead and lost in sighting, the kinde of them maye bee saued in few & not too many. Therefore the female Wolfe, whelpeth manye whelpes, as the Bitche doeth. And the Idder that is called Vipera hath twen∣tie young at once, as he sayth: and so for the increase of this Vipera bet ma∣ny aliue at once in the wombe, for desire of nourishing they sucke much, & drawe of the humour so much, that the damme sufficeth not to sustaine so many in hir wombe: therefore she sayleth and dy∣eth ere she may bring foorth hir kinde at full. Also Aristotle and Auicen say, that beasts with téeth ioyned togethers and blunt, haue few increase, and beasts with téeth departed farre a sunder and sharpe, and set with many chinnes, haue many young, and much semen, & beasts with little bodies, gender more than beasts with great bodyes. And beastes that gender little and haue few of their kinde, haue few teates and diuersly, and set in diuers places. And therefore the Bitch hath many teates, and the Sowe also, & be beasts that haue many young. Also beasts that vse superfluitie and con∣tinuance of the seruice of Venus, haue much shorter life than those beasts that serue Venus temperately and seldem: and therefore gelded men lyue longer than other for in them the sinewes are cut, by the which semen shoulde come downward to effect and working of ge∣neration.

Also in libro de spermate Galen and also Constantine tell the cause and rea∣son thereof. And Auicen libro de Ani∣malibus affirmeth the same and sayeth, that Sperma is gendered and commeth of good bloud and ful digested, the which bloud is readie to turne and to passe in∣to nourishing of membes, and therefore when a man sheddeth that humour se∣minall, the man is greatly discoloured, and the body more féebled than though he bled fortie times so much: for sper∣ma is a thing able and made readye to passe into nourishing of members: and therefore when Sperma passeth out of the bodie, kinde féeding and nouri∣shing of the members, is taken and withdrawen, and thereof is great losse of spirites and of vertue in the bo∣dye of the Beast. And so immoderate and ofte gendering is cause of spoyling and vndoing of the body, and so the lyfe is shortened.

And therefore the Elephant lyueth Page  [unnumbered] longest f:sor hée loueth chastitie, and vseth lecherie but seldome. Huc vsque Aristoteles.

Auicen, and Solinus, and Isaac in dietis vniuersalibus, treateth of beastes, in that they be féeding and norishing for mans body: for some beastes accorde to mans complection, as Lambe, Kidde, Shéepe and Swine among tame beasts: Hart and Hindes, Backes and Roes a∣mong wilde beastes. And some be all contrary to mans complection, and that for great heate, as the Adder Tyrus, and other Serpents: or els for too great cold, as Spiders and Scorpions. And some are vnlyke to mans kinde, but they be not all contrary, neither poyson: as Ir∣thins, Hares, and Fores, & other beasts with flesh of heauie smell, for of suche beastes, commeth worst nourishing of mans body. And wilde beasts be more hot and drye, & leane, than tame beasts, and that for continuall mouing, and for heate of the ayre that they be in, and al∣so for drinesse of their meate and nouri∣shing, and therefore their flesh is more hard, and harder to digest, and that is knowen, for when they be slaine, theyr flesh rotteth not so soone as the flesh of tame beasts.

Therefore all flesh of wilde beastes, is lesse sauoury and norisheth lesse, than flesh of tame beasts, except the flesh of wilde Roes, that is much more sauorie than other, and better, and more nouri∣shing. Their bodies be made softe by mouing, and humours be made small & thin, and the pores be opened, and hu∣mours that be cause of heauie smell, be dissolued and amended, and so because of mouing and of trauaile, they be acciden∣tally made more sauourie, for by suche running and mouing about, theyr kinde coldnesse is tempered: and therefore in wild beasts that run and trauaile much, the heauie smell and sauour is taken a∣waye, and their flesh is made the more sender, for their pores be opened, and the humours are tempered, that their flesh may be the better and sooner dissolued, & corporate into members, and because of kinde drinesse, their flesh is the later dis∣solued in the members.

Also some beasts are fed and nouri∣shed in moist places and watry, and their flesh nourisheth soone, and is soone dige∣sted, but it is soone dissolued of the mem∣bers. And some are fed in mountaines and in drye places, and their flesh is bet∣ter in kéeping and gouerning of health, and more according in comforting, and more perfect in during in the mem∣bers.

And other beasts that he made tame and fed in houses, haue more gleymie & great flesh, because of great eating, and of corrupt meate, and therefore theyr flesh is hard nourishing, and dissolueth slowly both in the stomacke, and in the liuer: for as Hippocrates saieth, To know goodnesse of kinde of beastes, as touching nourishing and féeding of the body, it helpeth to know place & pasture where they be fed, and aire moyst or drie where they dwell, and quantitie of mouing and of rest, and how they are disposed accidentally or kindlye in idle∣nesse or in trauaile. And beasts that are kindly tame, be lesse hot & more moist than wilde beasts, and therefore ye flesh is more softe, and the sooner digested, for by great rest and ease the pores be clo∣sed, and the thicke humours be tempe∣red by heat that is closed within, and so the flesh softeneth and tendereth. And for they eate and drinke much, their super∣fluitie of humours increaseth soone, and fatnesse is increased, and therefore the bodyes of such beastes, are much nou∣rishing and sauoury, and passeth soone into the members and into the veynes.

And for multitude of gleaminesse and of moysture, such flesh rotteth soone, and gendereth superfluitie of humours. And though it féede kindly and much, yet for passing moysture it is soone dissolued, and passeth out of the members. And so acci∣dentally it nourisheth the body lesse then flesh of wilde beasts. For though ye flesh of wilde beasts nourisheth but little: yet for it is hard to dissolue and slow, it abi∣deth longer in the members, in which it is incorporate. Therefore men in olde time sayd that it norisheth the members accidentally.

Also in all manner kinde of beastes, Page  337 the male is more hot and lesse moist than the female, and therefore flesh of male beasts is more subtill and better féeding than the flesh of females, except Goats flesh, that is better in the female than in the male, for in the female moisture tē∣pereth the drinesse of complection, and in the male, heate kindeleth or tempereth not ye kind drines of the male: & there∣fore in this manner kinde of beasts, the flesh of the female is better than the flesh of the male, for it is more tempe∣rate, and not passing drye, & that though it be fresh or olde, and namely when it passeth not from age of sucking, for then the goodnesse of milke of the female tempereth kinde drinesse therof. And gelded beastes be meane betwéene complection of male and of female: for flesh of gelded beasts heateth lesse, than doth flesh of males, and more than flesh of females: and is digested flower than male flesh, and sooner than female flesh: and are therefore lesse nourishing, and worse than be males, and better than fe∣males. And it is a generall rule, that a∣mong beasts that be kindly moyst, the male is better than the female, and bet∣ter in perfect age, than in vnperfect age: and among beasts that be kindly drye, the female is much better than the male, and more in vnperfect age, than in per∣fect age, as be saith.

Also goodnesse of beastes, varieth by diuersitie of age, for beasts that be nigh the age of seeking, be of great moysture and gleyminesse, and also of sledernesse, and therefore their flesh gendreth super∣fluitie and fleame: but if it be beastes that are kindly drye, as Rotherne, and Goates. And flesh of such beastes, as Calues, is good in such an age, & name∣ly if they be nourished with good milk, and best if they be weaned, for it is lesse moyst and gleymie, and of more tempe∣rate sadnesse. And in young age, when beasts be full-waxen, then theyr flesh is more hard and drye, and namely if the beasts be of drye complection, and there∣fore their flesh is more hard to digest: and is better in comforte of the mem∣bers, and in during more than in ruling of health, as he saith.

And in the fourth age when they be ful olde, their flesh is more vnprofitable to meate, and that for double cause: For than kinde heate is nigh quenched, and substaunciall moysture is full nigh wa∣sted, and therefore their flesh is full hard and not good to digest, and namely if the beasts be of drye complection. And it is generall among all beasts and fowles, that while they grow and wexe: theyr flesh is better to meate, and better fée∣ding, than it is when it passeth into fée∣blenesse for age, as hée sayth.

Also in pasture and féeding is diuer∣sitie, for beasts that be fedde in moun∣taines, haue better bloud, and more sub∣till and sharpe, for scarcitie of meate.

And those that be fed in marreys, haue more great bloud and more fatnesse, and lesse heate, and lesse stopping. And beasts that eate grasse and hearbes, as meate, are more boyde in Winter, than in Springing time or in Summer, for in Winter their meate faileth, and there∣fore they wexe fat, after the middle of Springing time or before, and wexeth much, and their flesh is more sauourye and better because of plentie of couena∣ble meate.

And beasts that eate smal grasse and hearbes, are more fat from the begin∣ning of springing time to the middle of Summer, and their flesh is then best, for then they finde couenable meate and good and tender, for then they haue co∣uenable meate and foode. And other beasts that eate crops, boughs, twigs, & also braunches, are good from the begin∣ning of Summer vnto Winter: For then boughes and braunches, are both full moyst and tender. And so beastes, that eate full small grasse and drye, are better than those that eate moyst grasse and hearbes: and those that eate tender boughes and braunches are much better than those that be fedde at home with fruite. And those that eate and drincke lyttle, are better than those that eate & drinke much: for beasts that are fed in fieldes and in mountaines, haue great trauaile and moouing, and are there∣fore better than those that are fedde at home.

Page  [unnumbered]For those that be in mountaines and in fields, haue and draw more subtill ayre and drye, because of running about.

And so superfluitie of humours is fore∣dried, & their complection is made tem∣perate. And againward, beasts that are fed at home, be found lesse good and pro∣fitable in cōplection, for scarcitie of pure aire, and for default of mouing, and for plentie of meate and of drinke.

Also beasts are diuers, for some are fat, and some are leane, and some are meane: for the flesh of them that are fat, is worst to meate, for it grieueth & letteth digestion, for it fleeteth about the meate, and maketh the meate to swell, and softeneth the roughnesse of the sto∣macke, and causeth the stomacke to bée sudder and gleymie: and therefore too great fatnes dissolueth a moyst stomack by reason of failing of the vertue con∣tentiue, comfortatiue, and expulsiue: and it kindleth and heateth too soone an hot stomacke, as fire is ofte kindeled with∣out by fatnesse: and therefore men in olde time bad and commaunded, that of most fat beasts onely the red flesh shuld be eaten, and the fatnesse done awaye. And most leane beaste are sinewie and tough, and haue lyttle bloud and lyttle moysture, and giueth therefore lyttle no∣rishing to manns bodye. But beastes that are meane betweene sat and leane are most profitable, for they haue not so much fatnesse to kindle the heate of the stomacke, nor to make the roughnesse of the stomacke slider: nor so much leannesse to coole the stomacke, and to spoyle it of bloud.

Also beasts are diuers in chaunging of time, for some beasts haue scarsitie of marrow and of bloud in one time, and are full thereof in the contrary time, as it is openly knowen in shell fish of the sea, and in mans braine, and percase in euery beasts braine, as Aristotle sayth, openly in libro de proprietatibus E∣lementorum. And therefore many wex sicke in one part of the month or of the yeare, ye another time be knowen whole and sound, and cleane of all sicknesse in contrary time, as it fareth in Lunaticke men and in mad men, and in Caduc men that haue the falling euill. Héereof seek more before cap. de Luna. And so Aui∣cen speaketh of the Ape and saieth, that the Ape is glad or sory by chaunging of times, and namely by the course of the Moone: & also in some season, beasts wex leane, though they haue neuer so much meate, and wexe fat in sléeping in the contrary time, as Auicen saith: and he sayth, that Glyres a manner kinde of mice, that moueth not in Winter, but lye as they were dead, and eateth not, wexe fat in sléeping, and wake in Sum∣mer time, and moue themselues against the heate of the Sunne: and he telleth wonderfully of the Swallowes and of other foules, that be found as it were dead in hollow trees in winter time, and quickeneth and waketh after, as it were sleeping they are made strong, and shew themselues strong and swifte in Sum∣mer time: and so the female Beare, af∣ter that she hath conceiued, hideth hir selfe long time in priuie places, and ta∣keth no meate that time, as Auicen say∣eth, and Aristotle and Solinus meaneth. Looke within cap. de Viso. Also fish in one month wexeth fat, and soone after∣ward wexe leane: and some wexeth fat in the Northerne winde, as fish with long bodies, & some in Southern winde, as fish with broad bodies: and some in raine time, as Aristotle sayeth. Rayne water accordeth to all manner shell fish, except the Fish that is called Roytera, that dyeth in the same daye, if he tasts rayne water: and too much rayne wa∣ter grieueth some fish: for it blyndeth them. And some beasts sometime change and renew themselues, and cast of and chaunge their superfluitie, as Crabbes change their shells, and Hartes theyr hornes, and Goshaukes their feathers. And Isaac meaneth and sayeth, flesh of beasts in which drinesse & heat hath ma∣stry, is not full good, as Camell flesh, and is not full good in Summer, but Ca∣mells flesh is according in winter: and flesh of beasts that be hot and moyst, as sheepes flesh, is good in springing time: and competent in haruest. Flesh that is colde and drye, is not full good, as Goats flesh colde and moyst.

Page  338And Swines flesh is best from ye mid∣dle of Summer to the ende, and worst in Winter, and meane in Springing time and in haruest. And so Hippocra∣tes saieth, that Swines flesh is good in Springing time, and lesse worth in har∣uest, and lesse worth in Winter. And Goates flesh is good in Summer, and Shéepes flesh in Springing time: and in the beginning of Summer, flesh of beasts, as it is ordained to mans meate, is diuersly dressed & ordained to mans meate. For as Isaac saith, flesh of beasts is sometime rosted, and sometime fryed, and sometime sod in water with salt. Flesh rosted and fryed is great and dry in féeding and nourishing, and harde to digest, for the moysture thereof is wa∣sted, and then the flesh taketh drinesse of the fire: and right fat flesh should not be eaten but rosted, so that the moysture thereof may be drawen out of the sub∣staunce thereof. Sodde flesh is more moyst and more easie to digest, for the water tempereth & maketh it moist: and somtime in the water in the which flesh is sodden, is spicerie put, & thereof is made diuers sauce, and kéepeth and sa∣ueth the flesh in his kinde goodnesse, and amendeth it both in smell and in sauor, and maketh it vertuous to destroye and put out diuers sicknesses and euills. And it is necessary to séeth flesh of dry beasts, and to rost flesh of moyst beasts & fat, and to dresse flesh of meane beastes be∣twéene these twaine, with diuers man∣ner of sauce, and this dressing is done in many manner of wise: for some flesh of beasts is wholsome, and accordeth to rosting, and is not ful good sod. And Ro∣then flesh and Goates flesh is better sod than rosted, & Swines flesh & Shéepes flesh is better rosted than sod: for by sée∣thing dry flesh is made moyst, & by ro∣sting moyst flesh is dried, and therefore for the moysture thereof, it is good to rost swines flesh, and for passing drines thereof, it is good to seeth Goates flesh & Oxe flesh.

Also flesh of those beasts varieth and is diuers, by such accident and dressing, for swines flesh rosted, is amended and made better by rosting, and appaired by séething, and Goates flesh is better sodde, and worse rosted: and so it is to know of other. Huc vsque Isaac in Dietis.

Also beasts are ordained, not onelye for meate of the bodye, but also for re∣medie of euills, and also for many man∣ner of medicines. All kinde of beastes, wilde and tame, going and créeping, is made and ordayned for the best vse of mankinde, as Plinius and Iohn Dama∣scenus meaneth. But some beastes are ordained for mans meate, as Shéepe, Harts, and other such: and some serue for the seruice of mankinde, as Horses, Asses, Oxen and Camells, & other such: and some for mans mirshe, as Apes, Marmusets, and Popiniayes: and some be made for exercitation of man, for man should know his owne infirmitie, and the might of God, and therefore are made flyes and lice: and Lyons & Ty∣gers, and Beares be made, that man may by the first know his owne infir∣mitie, and be afeard of the second & haue succour by callyng of Gods name. Also some beasts are made to reléeue & helpe the néede of many maner infirmityes of mankinde, as ye flesh of ye adder Vipera to make Triacle, and the gall of a Bull and of other beasts and fowles, to do a∣waye dimnesse of eyen: and an Adders skin sod in Oyle, abateth ache of the eares, and that in wonderfull manner, as Dioscorides sayth in libro Aescula∣pij, De occultis membrorum virtu∣tibus.

It is sayd, that if he that hath the E∣moroides sitteth on Lyons skinnès, the Emoroydes shall passe away from him, and Wolues flye from him, that is an∣noynted with Lyons dirte: also there he saith, yt if the tayle of an old Woolfe be hanged at the Cowes stall, ye wolues will not come there nigh: also Diosco∣rides saith, that Beares eyen taken out of the head, and bounde together vnder the right arme of a man, abateth his fea∣uer quartains. Also the long téeth of a Woolfe healeth Lunaticke men, as hée saith, and so sayth Pythagoras and Pli∣nius also, and telleth, that tame foure foo∣ted beasts dread and flye, if they sée a Page  [unnumbered] Wolues eye taken out of the head. In libro Viatico Constantine saieth, that the haire of a white hound without any blacke speck, helpeth them that haue the falling euill, and kéepeth them from fal∣ling if that haire be hanged about their necke: and such a thing saith Phytha∣goras in lib. Romanorum, and saith. If a ring be made of the hoofe of a white Asse, that hath no blacke speckes, and he that hath the falling euill beare & weare that ring, that ring kéepeth him from fal∣ling. And also he saith, that the gall of a Bull anoynted vnder the nauell, laxeth and softeneth the wombe.

Also he saith, that the teeth of a Ser∣pent, which ought to be taken out of the head while the Serpent is a lyue, and hanged after about him that hath the fe∣uer quartane, that tooth destroyeth his quartane. And if thou besmoakest the house with the lungs of an Asse, thou cleansest the house of serpents and other créeping wormes. Plin. saith, that these vertues and properties, and many other wonderfull, be hidde in lims and mem∣bers of beasts, as it shall be saide more héereafter in the kinde and properties of perticular beasts: for nothing is in the body of a beast, without medicine, open, or hid: for the skin, haire, horne, naile, clawes, flesh and bloud, be not without remedie, nor the onely dirte.

¶De Animalibus in spci∣ali. cap. 2

FOR because the kindes and proper∣ties of beasts is shewed in generall, now by the helpe and grace that is sent from aboue, following to our purpose, we shall intreate of the vertues and pro∣pertyes of some Beastes and créeping wormes in singular and in speciall, and that by the order of A B C.

¶Of Ariete. chap. 3.

THe Ramme is a Beast that beareth wooll, pleasing in heart, and mild by kinde, as Isidore saith lib. 12. cap. 1.* And is Duke, leader, and Prince of shéepe.

Therefore kinde giueth him great strength passing other shéepe. It is séem∣ly that the Ram that is Duke and de∣fender of other shéepe, be more strong & mightie, than other shéepe: & therefore. Isi. saith, that the Ram is called Veruex, & hath that name of Vires, strength, and as it were a man, for he is male & mai∣ster of shéepe, and is more vertuous and stronger than other.

Or, as Isidore saith, this Nowne Veruex commeth of Vermis, a worme: for the Ramme hath a Worme in his head, and for fretting of that Worme & itching, the Ramme is excited, & pusheth full strongly, and smiteth full harde, all that it méeteth: and therefore the Ram is called Aries also, and hath that name of Ares, that is Gréek, and is to our vn∣derstanding, vertue: for in flockes, the males are called Arietes, for they be ver∣tuous and mightie, to get and gender Lambes, for they passe other shéepe in greatnes of body & of might, & strength and vertue.

Also this name Aries commeth of Aris, Altars, for as Isidore saith, This beast was first offred on Altars among Nations, and so the Ramme is called Aries, for he was slaine by Aaron at the Altar, and so by Moses law the Ramme was principally a cleane beast both to Sacrifice and to meate: For he was offered couenably for sinne of the Peo∣ple, and is cloue footed, and cheweth his cud, and was eaten indifferently of the people. And as Isidore sayth libro. 12. Sheepe were called sometime Bidentes: for among eight téethe that they com∣monly haue, two téeth be higher than any of the other, and therefore. Nati∣ous offered them principally in sacrifice to the Gods, as he sayth libro. 8. capi∣tulo. 47.

Plinius speaketh singularlye of the Ramme, and sayth, that it is the kinde of the Ramme in the Iustines of his youth for to noye the Lambes, and to followe the Eawes that come against him. For he is farre more tractiue and more pro∣fitable in age: and neuerthelesse hee is more ceuell in heart then the Ewes, and Page  339 his cruelnesse abateth, if his hornes bée pearced igh to the eare. If his righte gendring staue be bound, he gendreth fe∣males: and if the lesse be bounde, hee gendreth males: and he gendreth males in the Northerne winde, and females in the Southerne winde. And such Rams as haue black veynes vnder their toūgs, such Lambes they gender in colour: for if his veynes be black vnder the toūge, his Lambe shall be blacke: and if they be white, the Lambes ere white: and if they be speckeled th Lambes are so. And Arist. & Auicen meaneth the same. Looke within De Oue.

The Ram hath a full harde forhead nigh as a horne, and feeble temples, and somewhat gristly, and therefore for the defence and kéeping of the féeble parte, kinde giueth him great hornes and right hard about the féeble place of the temples, and be crooked and bended as a round shell, but they be somwhat sharp in the endes, insomuch, that they maye defend the head with sharpnesse & hard∣nesse of hornes, and withstand enimies, and fighteth with them, with sharpnesse of hornes, as he saith. For it is not seem∣ly that kinde should leaue the defendour of the flocke without weapon & defence. And therefore kinde giueth him two hornes bent, as it were circles, to defend and succour his owne head, which is fée∣ble of it selfe, and is the more bolde and hardie against aduersaries and enimyes by trust of weapon, by the which hée is strengthened and defended. And there∣fore he goeth the more boldly before the slocke, and beareth by the head, and pit∣cheth downe the foote, & treadeth strong∣ly on the ground, and is cloue footed.

His lées be thicke with long haire in the locks, and defendeth himselfe against the miuries of hot aire or colde, with strong and thicke fell and skinne, and therefore one side of the Rams skinne, by reason of the strength thereof, suffe∣reth and sustaineth the violent craftes of Curriers of parchment makers, passing other fells and skinnes of other shéepe, and be more able to receiue and to hold printing and painting of diuers colours, as he sayth.

And in time of loue, the Ram fight∣eth for his Eawes, and réeseth with his hornes on his aduersaries. And for to push his enemie the harder, he draweth backwarde, and réeseth and leapeth vp∣ward, and smiteth with his fiercenesse, and busheth with a kinde of violence.

And li. 8. Auicen speaketh of Rammes and saith, that Rams, Goates & Bucks, goe much in rains, and hide not them∣selues in Winter for colde, but they goe sometime out of hot places into colde, & when it raineth, they flye not the raine vntill they be dead. And Rams by kind follow Goate bucks, and rest all, till the Heard take one of them, and make him goe, before, and then other follow soone. And they dread kindly the thunder, as shéepe do. And if a shéepe be with lambe, and heareth the thunder, she casteth hir Lamb for dread, and standeth for feare. And sléepe with the shéepe before mid∣night, and after part, and chaunge and turne, from side to side in sléeping. For from Springing time to Haruest they sléepe on the one side, & then vnto spring∣ing time they sléepe on the other side, & hold vp their heads while they sléepe, except they be sicke, and they chew their cud sléeping as they doe waking, and if it happen that they stray and go away, they come not againe, but if the Hearde bringeth them againe.

And Isaac in dietis saith, that Rams in youth bée lesse moyst and gleymie then sucking Lambes, and that is be∣cause of the age that hath mastery ouer their complection, and therefore theyr flesh is better than flesh of Lambs and of Eawes, and gendereth better bloud, and namely if they be gelded, for theyr heate is tempered with accidentall moi∣sture, and so the flesh is of good sauour. But when they passe in age and be full olde, then for age they fayle in heate, but if they be gelded: & if they be gelded and passe in great age, then their heate faileth by double cause, for lacke of gendring stones, and also for age. And therefore their bodies be cold and dry as it were a sticke, and be more harde and vnsauo∣rie, in comparison to Goate, Oxen, and other such, that be worst in age.

Page  [unnumbered]And the bodies of rams, that be kindly hot and moyst, be more better then bo∣dyes of other beasts, that are kindly cold and drye in great age. Huc vsque Isaac in Dietis.

Aristotle and Auicen lib. 6. meane, that Rams and Goate buckes, lyke as other Beastes, haue a certaine proper voyce, by the which they crie and call to them the females in time of gendering and loue. And Rams that drinke salte water, gender before other, and be sooner moued to loue: and when ye old Rams be sooner moued to gendring & to loue, than the young in due time, that is to∣ken of goodnesse of that time in ye yeare: and if in that time the young Rams be sooner moued than the olde Rams, it is token of a pestilence of shéepe in that yeare as he saith.

¶Of Agno. chap. 4.

*THe Lambe is called Agnus, & hath that name of a name of Gréeke, as it were milde as Isidore saith. For among all the beasts of the earth, the Lambe is most innocent, soft and milde, for he no∣thing grieueth nor hurteth, neither with téeth, nor with horne, nor with clawes: and all thing that is in the Lambe is good & profitable, for the flesh is good to meate, and skin to diuers vse, and woo to cloathing, and the dirte to lande, and clawes and hornes to medicine, as Isi∣dore saith lib. 7.

Latines suppose, that this nown Ag∣nus commeth of Agnoscendo, knowing: for passing all other beastes, the Lambe knoweth his owne dam, insomuch, that if she bleate among manye shéepe in a flocke, anone by bleating he knoweth the voyce of his owne dam. Auicen and A∣ristotle meane, that some Lambes be ye∣ned in springing time, and some in har∣uest time, and some in winter: but those that be yened in springing time, be more huge and great of body, & more strong∣ger of bodye, then those which be yened in haruest and in winter. But in some countries and lands many men set win∣ter Lambes, afore Lambes of springing time, and meane, that onely these beasts be profitably yened in winter time, as Plin. saith li. 8. ca. 47. and ther it is said, that Lambes which be conceiued in the Northerne winde, be better than those that be conceiued in the southern wind, for then males be gendered and concei∣ued. And Lambes haue such coulour in flesh and in wooll, as the Ramme & the Eaw haue colour in veines of ye tonge, for if the veynes be white, the Lambes be white: and if the veynes be blacke, the Lambes be blacke; and if they bée speckeled, the Lambes be speckeled. In sucking time the Lambe bendeth his knées, and for the dam should giue the more milke, he thrnsteth and pusheth at the dder of his dam, and beséecheth the dam with bleating, and sawneth with his taile when he hath found his dam, and beareth vp the head, and sucketh neuer but first it areareth vp the head, & hath small wooll and crispe, and manye maner wise folded in it selfe. Cold grie∣ueth Lambes, and namely in raine we∣ther, and be glad and ioyfull of the com∣pany of folke, and he cleing and forie, & dreadeth full sore, when they be alone. The Lamb hoppeth & leapeth before the flock, & plaieth, & dreadeth ful sore when he séeth the Woolfe, and flyeth sodainlye away: but anone he is astonied for dread and stinteth sodaynly, and dare flye no farther, and prayeth to be spared, not with bleating, but with a simple chéere when he is taken of his enemie. Also when Butchers bind him fast, he defen∣deth him not with téeth, neyther with horne, and if he be spoyled either of his fell or of his skinne, he is still an inno∣cent and an harmlesse beast, and whether he be lead to Pasture or to death, hée grudgeth not, nor prauncheth not, but is obedient and méeke, as Plinius sayeth. It is perill to leaue Lambes alone, for they die soone if ther fal any strōg thun∣der. For the Lambe hath kindly a fée∣ble head, and therefore the remedy is to bring them together, and leite them goe together, that they may be the bol∣der because of companye, and the more hardy.

Page  340

Of Agno anniculo. ca. 5.

AGnus anniculus is a Lambe of full age of one yéere, & is within the space of one yere, the better it is ye farther it is frō sucking, for his moisture of complecti∣on increaseth by weaning and departing from milke, & superfluitie of moisture is tempered, namely if it be not yet gelded, as it is said openly in Dietis. And lambs of twelue moneths olde that be found in body, & cleane in flesh, be able to sacrifice and to meat, though they be speckled in flesh & in wooll. For speckles in flesh re∣proueth not the lambe, nor putteth him from sacrifice, but if there be stinch and corruption in flesh or in skin within, as the Glose saith super Exod. 7. and super Malac. Hierome saith super Leuiti. that specks and diuersitie of speckled flesh, let∣teth not sacrifice if the bodie be whole & sound, and without scabs in the skinne. Then as Plinius saith, libro. 8. cap. 48. a lamb of a yéere old was able & according to the Alters of Gods, and be in vse of the flesh, & in vse of the flesh the lamb, is néedfull to mankind, & therfore as bodies of neat be kept for profit of mankinde, so it néedeth to haue businesse of kéeping of lambes and of shéepe. And Diosco. saith, that the lambe hath blacke durt, which shall be dissolued and tempered with vi∣neger, and made in a plaister: and then he cleanseth away blacke speckes and red of the body, and helpeth the euill that men call the fire, and helpeth and saueth bur∣ning and scalding if it be meddeled with Waxe and Oyle.

Of Agna. chap. 6.

A Female lambe is called Agna, & is the Rammes daughter, and is lesse in bodye, and more moyst then the male lambe, because of the female complection, as it is sayde in Dietis. And the flesh thereof while it sucketh is more glemy, because of supersluitie of moystnre. And that commeth both of age and of com∣plection, and hath mastrye in the bodye. Therefore that that is gendered of the flesh thereof is fleamatike, and gleamie, and hard to defie, and vnneth passing out of the members when it is dested, & that is because of glewie and gleamie hu∣mour, which is gendered thereof, but it passeth soone downe of the stomacke, for slippernesse of the humour, as Isaac sayth. And the flesh thereof is better ro∣sted then sod, for the superfluitie thereof and moisture is consumed & wasted by the strength and vertue of greate fire. And the female lambes bée more simple and more fearefull then the male. For the female hath lesser kinde heate then the male, and bée for that cause without hornes. For hornes were superfluitie to the female lambs, for defalt of boldnesse & of the hardynesse they knowe not what to doe therewith, as Auicen sayth. Also libro. 3. Aristotle sayeth, that Lambes haue an euill, that is when they bée too fat about the reines, for if the Tallowe couereth the reines, then they dye, and the Tallowe increaseth in good pasture: and therefore Lambes be put out of the pasture, lest they waxe too fat. Look with∣in de Oue.

(*Shéepe and Lambes haue also the disease of the ret, which happeneth if they change a drie laire, and be brought into fennie or marsh groundes: they are sub∣iect to the Tikes, which come for want of pasture, to the cough, and Maggets.)

Of Alce.

A Kinde of Deare, called (the Aethio∣pian Bull) some report that the Alce hath no ioynts in his legges,* & therefore doth neuer lye, but leane to a trée. I find no such report in Gesner for truth, he is in conlour like the fallow Deare, short & broad horned: This beast is the right Elcke, of whose hide the most best Buffe is made, for doublet and bréeches. Those which translated the Bible into Eng∣lish, as it appeareth in the .14. chapter of Deu. among cleane beasts: this Elcke is named there Chaimois, and Camois in Hebrue is called Zamer: the Muscouites call him Lozzos, & some haue vsed one name and some another, because they had no farther knowledge. Gesner in folio. 2 these breed in Hircania, a coūtry in Asia.

Page  [unnumbered]

Of Apro. chap. 7.

*THe Boare is called Aper, and is a Swine that liueth in woodes or in flelds, and is most cruell and not milde, as Isidore sayth, and is called Aper, as it were Affer, for by fiercenesse of his bo∣dy, he is fierce and cruell, and so among ye Gréeks the Boare is commonly called Fiagres, that is to vnderstand, fierce and cruell, and is called among Latines Vetres, for he hath greate might and strength, as it is sayd there. And Plini∣us and Auicen meane, that the Boare is a fierce beast and a cruell, for vnneth hée is tamed and made milde though hée be gelded, though other beasts be more mild what time they be gelded. Also the Bore is so fierce a beast and also so cruell, that for his fiercenesse and his cruelnesse, hée despiseth and setteth naught by death, & he réeseth full pitcously against the point of yt Speare of a hunter. And though it be so that he be smitten or sticked with a Speare through the bodye, yet for the great ire and cruelnesse in heart that hée hath, he réeseth on his enimy, and taketh comfort and heart and strength for to worke himselfe on his aduersarye with his tuskes, and putteth himselfe in perill of death, with a wonderous fiercenesse against the weapon of his enimy, & hath in his mouth two crooked tuskes right strong and sharp, and breaketh and rent∣eth cruellye with them those which hee withstandeth: and vseth tuskes in steed of a Swoord. And hath an hard sheld broad and thicke on the right side, and putteth that alway against his weapon that pur∣sueth him, and vseth that brawne in stéed of a sheeld to defend himselfe. And when he spieth perill that shoulde befall, hée whetteth his tusks, and froteth them a∣gainst Trées, and assaieth in that while froting against trées, if the points of his tuskes be all blont. And if he féele that they be blont, he séeketh an hearb which is called Origanum, and gnaweth it and cheweth it, and cleanseth and comforteth the rootes of his teeth therewith by ver∣tue therof, as Auicen saith. And li. 28. ca. 10. Plinius sayeth, that the vrine of the Boare is medicine for euills of ye eares, if it be meddeled with Oyle of Roses. Also his Gall helpeth against the stone, as it is sayde libro. 38. cap. 40. And his vrine is heauye to himselfe, so that hée may not arise, but if hée pisse, but is hol∣den downe as though hée were dead. For it is sayde, that his vrine burneth him.

¶Also he sayth, that the Gall of the Boare exciteth to gendring. Also he saith lib. 5. That the field Swine lencth well roots, and wroteth and diggeth the earth, and wroteth vp rootes and cutteth them with his tusks, and waxeth fat when he hath rested seuen daies, and namely if he drinke but little. And the Boare fighteth with the Woulfe, & hateth him by kinde. For ye woulfe lieth in waite for his pigs, and stealeth them full oft. Therefore as he saith, lib. decimo quarto, Kind giueth to the Boare tuskes to desende the fe∣males and the pigges. For the females be more féeble in themselues then the males, & worse of complection. For the males be more bolde and more mightye then the females, but the female is fierce whē she is wroth, and grieueth and hur∣teth, digging, froting, & biting, and ren∣ting with téeth & tuskes. And the Boare hurteth with his tusks striking vpward. And yt is the cause why that he may not hurt him that lieth on the ground. And the female grieueth but little them that stand. And when the Boare is wroth, he fretteth & soameth at the mouth: and so he doth when he gendereth with the fe∣male. Plinius rehearseth all these fore∣sayd things, & saith more thereto, lib. 8. cap. 2. and sayth there, that Egedius say∣eth, that Boares and other Swine bée farrowed toothed. Also Boares be sharpe and most fierce when they be in loue. For then they bite cruellye for their Sowes, & dig and cratch the earth with theyr clawes, and set vp the bristles, and whet the tuskes, and smite therewith, & shew them the woodnesse of their brests, with horrible groning and grunting: and eate but little then, but they goe and runne about females, & be therfore right leane. And Boares goe to valleys that be darke, and dwell in woodes, and kéepe Page  341 there theyr children; and liue there by rootes and fruit of wild trées. And when they espie the sautes of the hunters, and réeses, and Wolues, they go before their young. And when they maye not flye, they put them in perill for theyr young, and harden theyr shéeldes with froating against trées when they shal fight, & wrap them in durt, and drie themselues in the Sunne, and make the durt hard and fast among the haire, that they may the more surely beare and susteine the strokes of their enimies in their fighting.

Libro. 6. Aristotle sayeth, that the females and Sowes of Boares, when they haue farrowed, bée full sharpe and cruell, to rent them that come nigh their young with cruell biting. Huc vsque Plinius.

And as Isaac sayth, Boares flesh is more harde and drye, and more cold then tame Porke, and that is for his continu∣all moouing, and for drye meate and for drye ayre, and for hot ayre that is al∣waye within them. For his grease or fat is more harde, and his flesh more ly∣king in eating, and therfore tame Bores be strongly chased and tied, and also bea∣ten before they be slaine, that theyr flesh may be the more tender and sauoury be∣cause of strong moouing.

And Dioscorides speaketh more of the Boare and sayth, that his durt dronk with Wine and water, is a singular re∣medye for them that cast bloud, and hel∣peth sore sides if it be medled with vine∣ger, and souoreth and strengthneth bro∣ken bones. Looke within de Porco.

Of Asino. chap. 3.

THE Asse is called Asinus, and hath that name of Sedendo, sitting, as it were a beast to sit vpon. For men sate & rode vppon Asses before that they vsed horse to ride vpon, as Isidore saith, libro 17. And is a simple beast and a slow, and therfore soone ouercome & subiect to mans seruice. Or else this name Asinus com∣meth of A, that is not hauing, & Synos, yt is wit, as it were a beast without wit. And of Asinus commeth Asellus, that is a lyttle young Asse, that is fayre of shape and of disposition while he is young and tender, before he passe into age. For the elder the Asse is, the fouler he waxeth from day to daye, and hairie and rough, and is a melancholyke beast that is cold and drye, and is therefore kindlye heauie and slow, and vnlustie, dull and witlesse, and forgetfull: Neuerthelesse he beareth burdens, and may away with trauaile & thraldome, & vseth vile meat and little, & gathereth his meate among Briers and thornes, and thistles. And therefore Aui∣cen saith, libro. 8. and Aristotle sayeth also, small birds that nestleth them in bushes, thornes, and briers, hate the asse. And therefore small Sparrowes fighteth with the Asse, for the Asse eateth the thornes, in the which ye Sparowes make theyr neasts. And also the Asse rubbeth and froieth his flesh against the thorns, and so the birds or the egges of the Spa∣rowes falleth out of ye neast down to the ground. And when that the Asse reareth & heaueth vp her head, then by a strong blast the thornes mooueth & shaketh, and of the great noyse the birdes he afearde full sore, and falleth out of the neast. And therfore the bréed birds suffereth them to leap on the face of the Asse, & bite & smite and réese to his eyen with their billes. And if the Asse haue a wouude or a scab in the ridge or in the side, of pricking of thornes, or in any other wise, the Spa∣rows leapeth on the Asse & pecketh with their bills in the wounds or in the sores, for the Asse should passe frō their neasts. And though such a Sparow be full lyt∣tle, yet vnneth may the Asse defend him∣selfe against his réese, pricking, and bi∣ting. Aristotle sayeth, and so doth Aui∣cen also, that she ranen hateth full much the asse, therefore the rauen flyeth aboue the asse, & laboureth with his bill to peck out his eyen: but the déepnes of eien hel∣peth thē asse, and thicknes and hardnes of the skin, for therewith the asse closeth her eyen, and healeth her sight, and de∣fendeth against the réesing and pricking of Foules: also his long eares and moo∣uing thereof helpeth, for therewith hée fearesh smal birds, that réese to peck out his eyen: also libro. 8. Aristotle sayeth, that the Beare fighteth with the asse and Page  [unnumbered] with the Bull, because he eateth rawe flesh, & this is the cause why he fighteth with them, for he desireth to eate of their flesh. Libro. 18. cap. vit. Plinius speaketh of the Asse & sayth, that the smoak of the Asses hoofe helpeth the birth of a childe, insomuch that it bringeth out a dead childe, and shall not otherwise be layde to, for it slayeth a quicke childe if it bée oft layde to, and lyeth too long time. And new dirt of the same beast staunch∣eth bloud wonderfullye. And his lyuer holpeth against the falling euill of chil∣dren.

Libro. 28. cap. 10. Plinius sayeth, that the Asses milke and Asses bloud helpeth against the biting of a Scorpion. And men saye, yt if a man looketh in an Asses eare when he is smit with a Scorpion, anone the mallice passeth. Also all veni∣mous thinges flieth smoake of the Asses liuer. Also in eodem cap. 9. it is said, that the Asses milk helpeth against venimous plaister, and against the mallice of Se∣ruse or of quicke siluer.

Also li. 9. Assess bones brused & stam∣ped, and sad, helpeth agaynst venimme, if the broath therof be dronken: and vrine of the Male asse with Nardus kéepeth & saueth and maketh much haire. Libro 8. cap. 44. Plinius sayeth, that the Asse is a beast that maye worst awaye with colde, and bréedeth not therefore in colde Countryes and lands, and so he bréedeth not in Pontus: and therefore Ari. saith, though the asse be full colde and dry, yet he is ful lecherous, but he is not moued to gendring ere he be .30. moneths olde: and though be due then the worke of gende∣ring, yet he gendereth no broode ere hee be full thrée yéere olde: and so Plinius sayth there, that the birth of the asse is most in idlenesse after 30. moneths, and is lawfull & profitable after thrée yeare. Also Aristotle saith the same, li. 5. & Pli∣nius saith thereto, that the asse foaleth selde two coltes. When the female shall foale, she flyeth light, and séeketh a darke place that she be not seene, and loueth her foale so much, that she passeth through a fire to come to her foale: and ye asse brea∣deth full sore to passe ouer water, & scra∣peth therein: and when she is compelled, & must needes passe ouer a water or ri∣uer, and wadeth therein, then she pisseth therein: and the asse passeth not gladlye, where he may sée the water through the plankes, for he hath a féeble braine, and is soone grudged, and dreadeth therefore and falleth through the chinnes of the bridge into the water, that he séeth run∣ning there vnder: and the asse drinketh not gladly but of small wells that he is vsed to, and those that he may come drie footed to: and wonder it is to tell, yt though an asse be sore a thirst, if his water bée changed, vnneth he drinketh thereof, but if it be like the water that he is wont to drinke of.

Plinius. li. 28. cap. 7. sayth, that if the female asse eateth Barlye wet in men∣struall bloud, as manye graines as shée eateth, so wet, so many yeres afterward shall she not conceiue. The Mule is gen∣dered betwéene an asse and a Mare: but to such gendering are Mares chosen, that passe in age foure yeare, and not ten yeare, and gender not alwaye either with other: Of this beast is two man∣ner of kind: the one is gendered betwéene an horse and an asse, and that other be∣twéene an asse and a Mare. But the one kinde withdraweth him from ye other, but if they be fed together in youth with one manner milke. Therefore it is said, that heardes that desire to haue Mules and burdones gendered of diuers kindes of beasts, vse this crafte, to bring forth young coltes of Mares, and set them in darkenesse to teates of asses, and to féede them with asses milke, and such horse colts when they be of age, bée mooued in time of gendering to gender with asses: also lykewise asses coltes be set to sucke teates of Mares, and be fed with Mares milke, and such colts gender with Mares when they be of age: and so of such gen∣dering betwéene an asse and a Mare com∣meth a beast that was called Ninnulus in olde time, but we tall a beast so gen∣dered Burdus, and call such beasts gende∣red betwéene an asse and a Mare, a Mule: and libro. 15. Aristotle sayeth, that if an asse gendereth with a Mare that is full fat, the conception of the Mare is corrup∣ted, for coldnesse of the semen of the asse. Page  337 For the Semen of the Asse is most cold by kinde, and the matter of them, and the matter of the Mare is hot, & therfore whē the hot is meddeled with the colde, then the meddeling is tempered, then therof may come conception, and the colt may be saued yt is gendered betwéene an horse and a female asse: and also likewise the colt yt is gendered betwéene an horse, and a Mare: but the hée of the Asse and of the Mare, that is the Mule, gendereth not, because of colde and naturall com∣plection of both horse and Asse, that hath mastrye in the Mule. And therefore the mule gendereth not another beast, as hée saith. Also there he saith, yt if an asse gen∣dereth with the same asse afterwarde, hee maketh her cast her colt, & the cause ther∣of is, as Auicen saith, for coldnesse of the semen of the asse cōmeth, & corrupteth & destroyeth temperatnesse of the first Se∣men, for the Semen of the asse is cold in complection, & brought to temperatnesse, by kind heat of ye male horse: & so when the semen of the female asse yt is colde by kind, or by complection, with coldnes of ye kinde with female by strength therof,the first temperatnesse commeth of ye hot se∣men of the horse, & of the colde semen of the asse, & this is the cause why euery fe∣male mule is barren, as Auicen saith: for the male asse yt is the father of the Mule, is passing cold of complection, and in the Mare that is mother, yt is hot, because of the heat of the horses kind. And therfore though the heat of the semen of the mo∣ther, that is the Mare, tempereth the cold semen of the asse, so that a beast may bée gendered, yet in the beast yt is gendered, the coldnesse of the father and mother a∣bideth and hath mastry therein, and dis∣poseth kindly to barrennesse. And there is a manner. Asse, that is called Indicus Asinus,* and hath an horne in the middle of ye forehead, and is whole footed on all foure. For euerye beast that hath two hornes is cloue footed: and therefore this asse Indicus hath but an horne, for he is not cloue footed, as Aristotle saith, lib. 2. But not euerye cloaue footed beast hath hornes, but againeward, if he be horned, he is cloue footed, as it fareth in the Bul, and in the sheepe. Hart, and other such, as Aristotle sayth there. Libro. 7. Aristotle sayth, that the Asse, Mule, and horse, ea∣teth fruit, hearbes, and grasse, and be fat∣ted with water, and loue more thick wa∣ter then cléere. And the cow again loueth better cléere water then thicke.

Also lib. codem, Aristotle sayth, that for the more part Asses waxe sick in one manner of sicknesse that is called Mili∣de, and this sicknesse is first in the head, and then hot fleame runneth out at the nose:and if it falleth to the lungs, the asse dieth, & this beast flyeth more colde then all other beasts, and is not found in the Countries of the North. And ioynts of the ridge boane be more strong of the Asse, & stronger bound with sinewes be∣hind about the reines then before. And therfore the Asses beare more heauy bur∣thens behinde about the reines then be∣fore about the shoulders. After euennesse of the day and night in springing time, the Asse is mooued to lethery, and then he roreth & exciteth the female to loue with dreadfull roring & stron , and draweth in breath and winde, and bringeth odour and smell of the female to his nose, & by drawing thereof his desire of lerherye burneth, as Plinius saith. And the Asse hath another wretched condition know∣en nigh to all men. For he is put to tra∣uaile ouer night, & is beaten with staues, and sticked & pricked with prickes, & his mouth is wrong with a Bernacle, and is lead hether & thether, and withdrawne from léese and pasture, that is in his way oft by refraining of the Bernacle, & dy∣eth at last after vaine trauailes, & hath no reward after his death for the seruice and trauaile that he had liuing, not so much that his owne skinne is left with him, but it is taken awaye, and the car∣ren is throwen out without sepulture or burialls: But it be so much of the car∣ren that by eating and deuouring is som∣time buried in the wombes of houndes and wolues.

Of Angue. chap. 9.

ALL kinde of Serpentes and Adders that by kinde may wrappe and folde his owne body, is called Anguis, & hath Page  [unnumbered] that name, for he hath many corners and angles in such folding, and goeth neuer straight. For as Isidore sayth, libro. 12. Anguis is called Serpens, for he créepeth with priuy paces, but he créepeth wt smal paces yt he hid with folding & sliding, and withdrawing of scales, & is accounted a∣mong créeping wormes, (* whereof came this prouerb. Anguis latit in herba. The Snake vnder leaues, & wrath in ye hart.) For he créepeth on the brest & womb, as Isi. saith, li. 12. & is called also Colluber, either for he dwelleth in shadowe, or for be glideth with slipper bendings, wrink∣lings, & draughts: for an Adder slideth while he is held. And of Adders is many manner kind: & how many kind, so many manner venim: & how many speces, so many manner malice, & so many manner sores & aches, as there are colours, as I∣sid. saith, li. 12. And as Adders be diuerse in quantitie, so they be diuers in mallice of venim. And some Adders be great and huge, as Plin. saith, li. 8. cap. 16. Magelle∣nes writeth, that in Inde be so great ad∣ders, yt they swallow vp both Harts and Bulls all whole.* And so in Punico Bel∣lo, the battell that was besides the riuer Bragada,*Regulus ye Emperour slew an Adder wt Arbalastes & Tormēts, yt which Adder was an hundred and twentie foote long, & the skin & the chéeke bones therof hang before the temple at Rome, & dured vntill the battaile Numantinum. Also in Claudeus Caesars time in Italy was a Serpent slaine, & in his wombe a whole child was found. And such an adder grie∣ueth most nowe with biting, now with blowing, now with smiting with ye taile, & now with stinging, now with looking and sight. And there are other Adders, small in bodye, but they be most greate in might of grieuing. For the Serpent Dipsas, as Isidore saith, is so little, that he vneth is séene when men tread there∣on, & the venim thereof slaieth before it be felt, and he that dieth by that venim, féeleth no sore: and so the Poet Lucan sayth.

Signiferum iuuenem Tureni sangui∣nis album.
Torta caput retro Dipsas calcata re∣mordit.
Vix dolor aut sensus dentis fuit, &c.

That is, Dispas, that Serpent wrast his owne white head backward, and bit the young Baneret of Turenis bloud, & vnneth he felt biting or sore. So sayth Isidore. Also Tirus is the least of adders, and yet as Aristotle saith, lib. 7. vnneth is remedie found against his biting. Al∣so Serpentes and adders be diuerse in disposition, figure, and shape, for some haue two heads, as the adder Amphisi∣bena.

Of him Isidore speaketh in libro. 12. and sayth, that Amphisibena hath that name, for he hath two heads, one in the one ende, and another in the other ende, and runneth and glideth and wrigleth with wrinkles, corcels, & draughts of the body after either head: and among Ser∣pents, onelye this Serpent putteth out himselfe in cold, and putteth himselfe and goeth before all other.

Also lib. 8. cap. 14. Plinius sayth the same, and sayth, that Amphisibena hath a double head, as though one mouth were too little to cast venimme. Also some Serpents haue many heads: for some be doubled, and some trebled, and some quatrebled, as Isidore sayth. And Idra is a Serpent with many heads, and such a one was séene in a marreys in the Prouince of Archadia. And it is sayde, that if one head be smit off, thrée growe againe:but this is a fable. For it is per∣fectly knowen, that Idra is a place that casted vp the water, that wasted and de∣stroyed a citie that was there nigh: and in this Idra if the head of ye streame were stopped, many head streames break out: and Hercules séeing that, burned ye place, and stopped the wayes of the water: and therefore it is said, that Hercules did kill Idra the Serpent with fiue heades, as Isidore sayth, libro. 12. Also Serpents varie and be diuerse in coulours, for some be blacke, and some be redde: as the ser∣pent Tyrus, and those bée worst, & some be speckled, as the Serpent Scytale shi∣neth with diuersitie of speckles, that all that looketh thereon for wonder of the speckles hath lyking to looke thereon: and for he is most slow in créeping by a Page  343 wonder of his diuersitie of his speckles, he catcheth them yt he maye not followe in going and in créeping, and the more diuers he is in coulours and speckles, the worse he is in venime, for his venime is accounted most sharpe and hot. For the same Serpent is so hot and feruent, that in winter time the skinnes that he hath chaunged, be feruent and hot, that bée of the body. Héereof Lucanus speaketh and sayth.

Et Scytale sparsis etiam nunc sola pruinis.
Exuujas positura suas.

When frost is nigh, this Serpent changeth his skinne, as Isid. saith, &c. Also Ophites is a Serpent painted with di∣uers speckles, and hath as many manner of wise to noy and to gréene, as he hath diuerse colours and distinct. Heereof spea∣keth Lucanus, & saith, that that manner of Serpent Ophites, hath as many man∣ner of burnings and gréeuings, as he hath speckles and coulours, & is painted with burning speckles. Also Serpents be di∣uerse by diuersitie of stéede and of place, for some lurke in dens of the earth, & sic∣keth pouder or dust, & sucketh humour of the ground, as Plinius saith. And some be water Adders, and dwell in brimmes of waters, as the Serpent Enidris, that is a water adder, and who so is smitten at that Adder, hée swelleth into dropsie. And many men call it Boua, for the durt of an Ore is remedy therefore, as Isido. sayth, lib. 8. Also Natrix is an adder, and hath that name, for he infecteth with venim each well that he commeth nigh, as Lucanus sayth, and saith Natrix in∣secteth waters, as Isidore sayth libro. 7. Some serpents dwell in woods, in dens, and in shadowye plates, and hunt small Birdes and beastes, and sucke the moi∣sture thereof, as Aristotle sayth, libro. 14.

And such Serpents and adders lye in awaite for them that sleepe: And if they find the mouth open of them, or of other beasts, then they créepe in, for they loue heate and humour that they finde there, but against such Adders, a little Beast fighteth that is called Saura, as it were a litle Euete. And some men meane, that it is a Lyzard, for when this beast Sau∣ra is ware that this Serpent is present, then he leapeth vpon his face ye sléepeth, and cratcheth with his féet to wake him, and to warne him of the Serpent, as A∣uicen saieth. And this little beast Saura, as Isidore saith, libr. 12. is as it were an Eute, and when he waxeth olde, his eien waxeth blind, and then hée goeth into an hole of a wall against the East, and ope∣neth his eyen afterwarde when the Sun is risen, & then his eien heateth & taketh light.

And some manner serpents dwell in the fire, as it fareth of the Salamandra, yt Isidore and Plinius account among ve∣nimous beastes. The Salamandra hath that name, as Isidore saith, libro. 12. for he is strong & mightie against burning: & among all venimous beasts, his might is the most of venime. For other veni∣mous beasts nyeth one and one, & this noyeth and slayeth many at once. For if he créepe on a trée, he infecteth all ye ap∣ples, and slayeth them that eate therof, & if he falleth into a pit, he slayeth all that drinke of the water. By this venim this beast is contrary to burning, and among beasts, onely this beast quencheth fire, & lieth in the burning fire wtout consump∣tion & wasting, and also with smarting & ach, and burneth not in fire, but abateth and swageth the burning thereof, as Isi∣dore sayth there.

And Plinius accordeth therewith at all points, libro. 10. cap. 47. and saith, that Salamandra is like to an Ewte in shape, & is neuer more séene but in much raine, for he falleth in faire wether. His touch is so colde that it quencheth fire, as Ise doth: and casteth out of his mouth white matter, with touching wherof mans bo∣dy leeseth haire, & what is touched there∣with, chaungeth and tourneth into most foulest coulour. Also they bée diuerse in manner of going & passing, for some créep and glide awaye wiggeling and crooked∣ly, and some alway stretch and goe forth right, as Isidore sayth, libro. 17. And bée sayth, that Cenchris is a Serpent, that bendeth not neither wiggeleth, but hold∣eth alway right foorth, as Lucanus say∣eth.

Page  [unnumbered]A Serpent eateth gladlye flesh, and sucketh gladly the moisture therof, as the Spinner sucketh flyes, and the Serpent swalloweth egges of birds, & their birds on liue. And when they haue swallowed them, they bring them to the hinder end, and putteth them out, and suffereth them not abide in the wombe. Also libro 2. A∣ristotle sayeth, that the guts of the Ser∣pents be lyke to the guts of foure foo∣ted beastes that laye egges, and haue no gendering stones, but they haue wayes as fish, and haue mothers, long and di∣uided, and theyr bowelles and guts bée long by the length of their bodies. And the tongues of Serpents be blacke, long, & thin, and clouen in twaine, and sharpe before, and moue out farre therefore, and moue easily. And the wombe of the ser∣pent is long and straight, and is lyke to a large gut. And that gut is lykened to an hoands gut, and hath after the womb a lyttle gut, and stretcheth vnto the out passing of superfluitie, and hath a lyttle heart nigh vnto the neck like to the kid∣ney in sight. And after the heart is that lung, and there after be subtill partes si∣newie and krindled, and hangeth down∣ward from the heart. After the long is the liuer, long and straight, and there∣vpon is the gall, as the flesh is lesse and more, the gall is vppon the guts in Ser∣pents, the splene is little and rounde, and their téeth be some deale sharpe and croo∣ked, and ioyned together, but they bée departed as the téeth of a Sawe.

And a Serpent hath thirtie ribbes by the number of the dayes of the moneth. And it is sayd, yt Serpents fare as swallowes birdes, for if their eyen bée put out, yet their sight commeth againe: and the taile of a Serpent groweth againe if it bée cut off, as the taile of an ewt. Also Serpents haue egges first within, and layeth them afterwarde, not all at once, but one and one. And of those Egges beastes be gen∣dered, except the Serpents that be called Tyrus and Vipera.

Also Arist. saith, li. 3. Tyrus the Ser∣pent gendereth beastes within, but shée hath first egges within, and of the egges beasts be bred within: therefore it is said, yt the mother of the other Serpents is long, after the making of the body. And their mother beginneth in ye nether part, and passeth vp in either side of the ridge boane, and is diuided in two partes, and hath as it were a wall or interclose be∣tweene the two partes, and therefore the two Egges be set arowe in the mother. And a Serpent layeth not all her egges at once, but some & some. Also lib. 5. Ari∣stotle saith, yt in tune of gendering Ser∣pents wrappeth and clippeth themselues together, that they séeme one body with two heads, as it is knowen to them that haue séene the doing. Also libr. 7 Aristo∣tle sayeth, that a Serpent, and namelye Tyrus, when he swalloweth a Birde or ought else, first he areareth himselfe, and afterward restrayneth himselfe vntil the thing that he swalloweth passe inward, and that is for his stomacke is little and smal. And Serpents may liue long with∣out meate, as it is knowen by Serpents that are kept to sell.

Also Aristotle lib. 8. telleth, that the wéesell sighteth against Serpents, & ar∣meth himselfe with eating of Rewe, and fighteth namely against Serpents yt eate Mice.* For the Wéesell hunteth and eat∣eth Mice. Also li. 7. he saith,* ye Serpentes lone well Wine, and bée therefore hun∣ted with wine. And also a serpent loueth passing well milke, and followeth the sa∣uour thereof, and therfore if a serpent be crept into a mannes wombe, he may be drawen out with the odour and smell of milke, as he saith, and Dioscorides also, Libro. 14. Aristotle sayth, that Serpents haue that propertye, that they may moue the head backwarde, resting the bodye. And the cause therof is, for the ioynts of the ridge boane be of gristles, therefore they be full plyaunt. And it is needfull to Serpents, that they may bende their heads backward to sée their long bodies and small, or else they might not rule their bodies, but they were holpe by rea∣ring of the head to rule wisely all the bo∣dy. Also serpents swimme in water by wiggeling and folding of the bodye, as they creepe on the ground. For kinde gi∣ueth not to Serpentes for to goe vppon féete, nor on sinnes to swimme with, and the cause therof is the great length of the 〈2 pages missing〉Page  345 body, for if they had many féet they shuld moue full euill: and so they should with few feet. Also if they had many finnes set nigh together, they shuld moue heuily, & if they wer set far a sunder, they wer not sufficient to susteine & to beare vp ye other deale of the body, yt is long & pliant: and therefore what fishes doe that haue fins with drawing and clitching of fins, and foules & birds with clitching & spreading of wings, that do serpents with bending & weigling & pliantnes of body. And some fishes be like to serpents in length, which for the same cause haue fewe or no fins, and swimmeth euenly with pliant∣nesse of ye body, as Lampraies, Congers, & Eles, and other such. For such mannee of fishes be like to Serpents in making, and haue onely two fins before, and vse onely pliantnesse of the body in stéede of fins and of wings. And creepe therefore vpon the grounde, and liueth long time without water, as Serpents doe with∣out meat. Also idem in eodem. Serpents haue wayes and guts, by the which som∣time superfluitie passeth out of the body, as other beasts haue ye gender, but they haue no way of vrine, for they be with∣out bladder. Item in eodem, Serpents be found wrapped together, when they come together & to loue. For they haue not a yarde nor gendering stones, for they bee without a yard, for if they had gendring stones, the Semen should coole for tarri∣eng of out passing: and so the séede were not according to generation. Item idem 18. In generation of Serpents falleth not errour nor wonderfull shape of ye kinde, but seld, & that is for the shape of the mo∣ther, that is long, strict, and strait. And so Egges of Serpents bée disposed & set a∣row, because of length of the mother.

These properties of Adders & Serpents, & many other properties & kindes, Ari∣ristotle rehearseth, which were too long to rehearse & make processe of them all arow. But in generall these be sufficient as for this time. Of the common proper∣ties of them that be knowen nigh to all men, it shall be treated & spoken off héere following in this present chapter in lit∣tera A.

Of Aspide. cap. 10.

ASpis is an Adder worst and most wicked in venime & in biting, & hath that name Aspis, of Aspergendo, sprin∣ging: for he casteth out slaieng venime, and spitteth and springeth out venime by bitings. For the Gréekes call venim Yos, as Isidore sayth, libro. 12. capit. 4. And it followeth there: Of adders that be called Aspis bée diuers manner kind, and haue diuerse effects and dooings, to noy and to grieue, that is to wit, Dipsas that is called Scytula in Latine. For when he biteth, he slayeth with thirst. I∣palis is a manner adder, that slayeth with sléepe. These manner adders Cle∣opatra layde by her, and passed out of the lyfe by death, as it were a sléepe. Also Nemorrhois is a manner adder, and hath that name, for hée sucketh the bloud of him that he smiteth, and his veines that is smitten of the adder openeth and brea∣keth, and he bléedeth to death. For bloud is ralled Emath in Gréeke. Also Prester is an horrible adder, alwaye with open mouth, & casting and shedding venim, as hée goeth. Lucanus speaketh of him and saith.

Oraque distendens auidus spumantia Prester.

This adder is a glutton, & sheddeth smo∣king venim with open mouth. Hée yt is smitten of him, is rented & slaine with horrible infection of the body, as he sayth there. Also Ceps is an adder that slayeth and maketh a man madde, and when he hath bitten a man, anone he destroyeth and wasteth him: so that by the Serpents mouth, the man melteth altogether: and this Serpent destroieth and renteth not onely the bodye, but also he destroyeth with venim and wasteth both bones and sinewes of him, the Poet sheweth in this manner.

Ossaque dissoluens cum corpore ta∣bificus Seps.

Ceps slaieth, vndoeth, & destroyeth both body & bones: and ther be many other ad∣ders, & the venim of them is so strong, yt they slay with their venim him yt touch∣eth them with a speare, as Auicen sayth Page  [unnumbered]de venenis. Also Isidor. li. 12. speaketh of this manner adder,* yt is called Aspis in generall, & saith, that it is said, that ye ad∣der Aspis, when she is charmed by ye in∣chaunter, to come out of her denne by charmes & comurations, for she hath no will to come out, laieth her one eare to ye ground, & stoppeth ye other with her taile, & so she heareth not the voice of the char∣ming, nor commeth out to him ye char∣meth, nor is obedient to his saieng. Huc vsque Isidorus. Plinius libro. 8. capitulo 24. speaketh of the adder Aspis, & sayth, that the members that bée smit of this Adder do swell, and vnneth is any reme∣die found to heale such biting, without cutting of the partes that bee touched. This flyeng Adder and venimous hath wit to loue and affection and loueth his make as it were by loue of wedlocke, and liueth not well without companye. Therefore if the one is slaine, the other pursueth him that flewe that other with so busie wreake and vengeaunce, that passeth thinking: and knoweth the slaier, & reefeth on him, be he in neuer so great company of men and of people; & busieth to slay him, and passeth all difficulties & spaces of wayes, & with wreake of the sayd death of his make. And is not let nor put of, but it be by swift flight, or by waters or riuers: but against his mallice kind giueth remedye and medicine: For kinde giueth him right dimme sight, for his eyen are set in the sides of his head, and be not set in the forehead: and there∣fore be may not see his aduersarye foorth right, but aside. Therefore hee maye not follow his enimy by sight, but he follow∣eth more by hearing and smell: for in this two wits he is strong and mightie, as he sayth.

Also Marcianus saith, that this Adder Aspis grieueth not men of Affrica and Moores: for they take their childrē yt they haue suspect, & put them to these Adders: And if the children be of their kind, this adder Aspis grieueth thē not: and if they be of other kinde, anone he dyeth by ve∣nim of the Adder. And this Plinius sayth expresly, lib. 6. cap. vltimo, and saith, that sometime this beast grieueth no men of the land, and slaieth straungers and men of other lands. And these Serpents spare wonderfully men yt be borne in the same land. So the Serpent Anguis about the riuer Euphrates, gréeueth not, nor hurteth men of the lande, nor noyeth them that sleepe, if they be of that lande, and paine & slay busily other men, that be of other nations, what nation so euery it be. Also there Plinius saith, that Aristotle sayth, that in a certaine mountaine Scorpions grieue no strangers: but they sting & slay men of the countrey.

(*Aspis, is a little Serpent in Affrike, whose sting is not curable, but onelye with the water of a stone washed, which they take out of the sepulchre of an auncient king, &c. D. Cooper.)

Of Aranea. chap. 11.

THe venimous spinner is called Ara∣nea, and is a worme that hath that name of feeding & nourishing of the aire, as Isidore sayth, li. 12. and spinneth long thrids in short time, and is alway busie about weauing, and ceaseth neuer of tra∣uaile. For he hath oft harme in his worke for oft his web and his worke is broken with blasts of wind, or els with dropping of tame: and then he looseth all his tra∣uaile.

And Auicen sayth, that the Spinner is a little créeping beast with many feet, and hath sixe feete or eight, and hath al∣waye feete euen, and not odde. And that is verye needfull, that his going and pos∣sing be alway euen, as the charge is and burthen. And this is generall in all that haue two féete or moe, and haue some féete longer, and some shorter, for diuerse workes that they make. For with some féete they make the thridde small, and drawe it a long, and with some they knit thrids together, and right and amende the thrids with some, and hooue on the web when they will. And among beasts of rounde bodyes, the Spinner hath best féeling of touch. For hoouing in the middle of the webbe, hee feeleth sodeyn∣ly a Flye that is in the farthest parte thereof. And réeseth sodeinly on the flie, as it were on an enimye: and if hée haue the mastrye of the Flye, hée win, Page  346 beth and wrappeth him flily, among the threds of the web, for he should not es∣cape, and falleth first on the head, and sucketh the moysture thereof, and ly∣ueth by such hunting of Flies: for such humour of Flyes is most lyking to his taste, as honnie is most lyking to the taste of Baes, as he sayth, and Aristotle also.

Also in kinde of spinners is diuersity of male and female, as Aristotle saieth, lib. 5. And the female is more of bodye than the male, and hath longer feete, and more plyant, and more able so mouing and weauing. In time of gendring and of loue, the female draweth to hir the male by threds of the web, and thereaf∣ter the male draweth the female, and such drawing ceaseth not vntill they bee ioyned togethers, and then the male is set vpon the wombe of the female: & this manner is néedefull to them for round∣nesse of the wombe: and this ioyning togethers is most in the ende of spring∣ing time and in the beginning of sum∣mer, and sometime in haruest, and in the beginning of winter, and spinners are then most grieuous, and theyr biting most venemous.

Also libro. 8. Aristotle saith, That of Spinners be many kindes, for some be small and of diuers colours, and be sharp and swifte of moaing: and some are more, and blacke in coulour, and theyr hinder legs be most long, and are slowe of mouing, but onely when they goe to worke of generation. And ofte blacke spinners inhabite by the ground among holes and dennes, and they abide in the web vntill some little beast fall therein, as a flye, that he taketh, and sucketh the moysture thereof if he be an hungred, & putteth then the flye in a certaine place and kéepeth it vntill he be an hungred againe: and when he hath sucked all the moysture, he throweth awaye the other deale, and surneth againe to hunting, and hunteth not ere he haue amended the breath of the webbe: and if one breake the webbe, he beginneth for to to amend it about the going downe of the Sunne, or in the rising of the Sun, and then he trauaileth most, for then ma∣ny lyttle wormes fall into the web.

And the female bringeth forth hir brood, and the male hunteth and helpeth hir, and she hideth hir selfe vnder the web, that she be not séene of small wormes, and namely when she is great, for be∣cause of hir greatnesse she worketh not easely: and the female layeth first egs, and thereof afterward are shapen small spinners, & the mother setteth them to weane anone as they be hatcht, and they moue anon, and dispese themselues ther∣to weaue as they haue learned for to weaue, and hunt in their mothers wombe, and so the young spinner aray∣eth anon nets, that are according to his pray. And a manner kinde of spinners hunteth a little Ewte, and when they finde him, they begin to weane vppon him, and all about for to binde strongly his mouth, and leap then vpon him, and sting him till he dyeth.

Item in eodem he saith, that some Spinners are founde i. Bée hiues, and those spinners corrupt the honie, & sucke the lycour, and they make webbes a∣bout the honnie combes, and corrupte them. And Auicen sayth & Plinius also, De generatione Araneae. libro. 11. capit. 25.* That the kinde of Spinners is wor∣thye of chiefe wondering, and of them there are manye manner of kindes, a∣mong whom a certaine manner of kind is called Spalangio.* The bodye thereof is little, speckeled, and of diuers colours, with a sting, and is swifte in leaping, and most grieuous in biting.

Another Spinner there is, that is more of body,* blacke of coulour, with long legges, that weaueth in dennes by the ground.

The thirde kinde there is, which by cunning working weaueth full subtyll webbes. A greate wonder it is howe the matter of thriddes that come of the wombe of the Spinner, may indure so greate a worke, and weauing of so greate a webbe. And that is drawen, as men thinke, some and some out of the Spinners wombe, and yet vnneth it is founde voyde. And it séemeth not to bée true, that Democritus sayd, that so much corruption is in the Wombe of the Page  [unnumbered] Spinner, that of his dirte so much mat∣ter of thred might be had. Therefore Arist. reproueth Democritus lib. 8. and saith, that he said not true in this poynt, and his reason is as it séemeth, for spin∣ners and other such round beasts be lit∣tle of meates for default of bloud and of beate, and so he saith, that a spinner ta∣keth not so much meate: but more with∣out comparison cōmeth of him to weaue the web, and then should the superfluity and dirte, be more than the meate and foode that he taketh, and the superfluitie of dirte, is more than néedfull digestion, to due kéeping and sauing of the beast, as Aristotle saith.

Also Plinius saith the same, & sayth, that they spin threds rounde and long, with moderate feete and clawes, & they stretch the warpe with wonderfull craft from the neather side to the ouer, and drawe and bring out againe the thred thwart ouer from point to poynt, and all the straight draughtes with small space betwéen ye threds, they couple & knit the threds in the middle lyke farre from the middle poynt, when the worke is draw∣en and layd, and then he beginneth from the middle poynt, and goeth round about with the Ofe, and maketh knottes and holes, as it were like farre asunder, and the holes and spaces that be betwéen, be by a wonderfull crafte between ye knots made now foure cornerd, now euenlong, and now round: and the néerer they bée to the middle, the more narrow they bée and straight, and the farther from the middle they be, the more large and wide they be. The sight séeth not, and vnneth the iudgement of reson perceiueth, wher∣by the spinner reyneth thred to thred, & knitteth so fast knot to knot, and reareth himselfe with a wonderfull lyghtnes by his owne threds that be so small, and vnneth séene with mans eyen, and yet he passeth in the web swiftlye, as though he flew hether and thether, and from place to place.

Also he saith, that as long as the vt∣ter threds of the web dure, if it hap that the web be broken in any maner wise, the spinner beginneth at the middle to amend that which is broken, as though he would holde nothing whole & sound in the webbe, while the middle is not sure.

Also he saith, in spinners be tokens of diuination, and of knowing what we∣ther shall fall, for ofte by weathers that shal fal, some spin & weue higher or low∣er. Also he saith, ye multitude of spinners is token of much raine. Also li. 14. cap. 3. de lesione ficuum, he saith that somtime spinners weaue and make webs aboute burgening and buds of vines, and also a∣bout flowers and blossomes of Trées, and by such compassing of such Cob∣webs, both trées and vines he lost, when they burgen and bloome. The biting of the spinner that is called Spalangio, is venemous and slaieth, except there be remedie and succour the sooner: but the vertue of Plantaine slayeth the venyme thereof, if it be laid thereto in due man∣ner, and therefore other wormes, as Eutes and Frogs, that dread the sting∣ing of Spinners, defende themselues with iuyce of Plantaine, as Plinius sai∣eth. Dioscorides and Auicen in capi∣tulo De venenis, &c. And Macer saith the same.

Aristotle and Plinius meane, that webs of spinners come of their guts, by a manner cratte of kinde: and the web is wouen by most subtill working, and is wonderfully knit in a net wise, and made with most smallest threds, and that for it should not be séene of flyes and of other wormes, for the which it is lai∣ed, and it should be séene of them, if the threds were great: and cob-webs are made with trauayle and businesse: but it is wonderfully soone destroyed & vn∣done, for it may not sustaine fire: and spinners dread winde, for by a blaste of winde the cob-web is soone broken and vnknit.

And though the spinner be venemous,* yet the web that commeth out of ye guts thereof, is not venemous, but is accoun∣ted full good and profitable to the vse of medicine. And as Dioscorides saith, the cob-web that is white and cleane, and is not defiled with filth nor with pow∣der, hath vertue to constraine, ioyne, and to restrayne, and therefore it stauncheth Page  347 bloud that runneth out of a wound, and keepeth it from matter and rotting: and healeth a new wound, if it he layd ther∣to, and withstandeth swelling ye tarieth the heting of a wound: & a maner spin∣ner is called Spalana, as Pli. saith li. 29. cap. 4. and of this spinner is lyke to an Ant, but he is much more of bodye, and hath a red head, & the other deale of the body is black sprong with white specks: and his smiting is more bitter & more sore, than the biting of the serpent Vi∣pera, and this spinner liueth most nigh furnaces, ouens and milles: and the re∣medie against his biting or smiting, is to shewe to him that is bitten or smit∣ten another spinner of the same kinde, and are therefore kept, when they are found dead. The skinne thereof stamped and dronke, is medicine against biting of the Wesell.

Also another spinner is rough with a great head, and the sorenesse and ache of his stinging, is as it were the ache & sorenesse of a Scorpion: and by his bi∣ting the knées shake and fayleth, and al∣so of the biting, commeth blyndnes and spewing. And another manner spinner is called Mirmicaleon, or Mirmiceon, which is called by another name, For∣micaleon, and is like to an Ante, with a white head, aud hath a blacke bodye, with white speckes. His biting paineth and aketh as stinging of Waspes, and is called Formicaleon, for he hunteth Ants, and sucketh the moysture of them, but sparrowes and other foules deuoure him, as they do ants. Against all biting of spinners, the remedie is the braine of a Capon dronke in swéete wine with a little pepper:* and the congealing of a Lambe with Wine, healeth biting of spinners: and the same doth ashes of a Rams cloe with honie: also flyes stam∣ped, and laid to the biting, draweth out the venimme, and abateth the ache and sore: and ther be other remedyes which he reckoneth, but these are sufficient for this time.

And libro eodem. capitulo. 6. he say∣eth: That a long Spinner and white, with small féete, beeing stamped in olde ple, doeth awaye the white pearle of the eye, as it is there sayd.

(*Besides this large discourse of spi∣ders, it hath bene reported, that in Ire∣land be many spiders, and some verye great, and that being eaten of the Irish∣men, haue not performed any shewe of venime: it may be that the greater poy∣son subduath the losse.)

¶Of Ape. chap. 12.

THe Bée is called Apis, and is a lit∣tle short Incecti with many féete, & among all flyes with round bodyes, and so shapen, he beareth the price in manye things, as Plinius sayth libro. 11. cap. 6. Hugenesse of wit rewardeth him in lit∣tlenesse of body, and though he might be accounted among flyeng Flyes, yet for he vseth feete, and goeth vpon them, he may rightfully be accounted among beastes that goe on grounde: and ouer the properties that are sit before libro. 12. in litera A. other properties shall be set héere; the which properties Plinius rehearseth li. 10. cap. 6. and saith in this manner: Among all wonders, the wit and sleight of Bees is wonderfull, by the which wit they gather honnie, and make honnie combes of most swéetest iuyce and subtill, and most wholesome: and worke and make Waxe, that is full good and profitable to the vse of lyfe of mankinde, and lurke and be hid∣den in Winter: for they haue no might & strength to withstand the frost & snow, & blasts of Northen wind: and in spring∣ing time they go out to blooming beanes to worke & to trauaile, & none of them haue leaue to be idle in yt time: and first they ordeine hony combes, & make waxe houses & cells, & then bréed young & make hony therafter, & bring it together. And they perget the roofe of their hiues with woose & gum all about, & with iuyce of trees that haue vertue of Gumme, and strength their hiues as well as they may agaynst the greedines and réeses of other small Birdes, and if there be any durte, they breake it off and casteth it ef and farre awaye, and they washe the Hiues with the foresayd woose and iuyce.

Page  [unnumbered]And first for foundation of their work, they lay and set a certaine péece of bit∣ter sauour: and manye men call that Comosim: and make then another péece more swéete, and that is the beginning of ware, and many men call that Duli∣ces: & the third time they set more grea∣ter matter & thicke, that is the stablish∣ment and fastening of the hony combs, and many men call that matter Propo∣lim: and in these three manner wises, they strengthen, and succour, and defend their honie combes, against colde and o∣ther wrongs.

And Bées sit not on fruite, but on flowers, not withered, but fresh & new, and gather matter, of the which they make both honie and wexe: and when the flowers that are nigh vnto them are wasted and spent, then they sende spyes, for to espie meate in farther pla∣ces, and if the night falleth vpon them in their iourney, then they lye vpright to defend their wings from rayne and from deaw, that they may in the mor∣row tide flye the more swifter to their worke with theyr drye wings and able to flye. And they ordayne watches after the manner of Castles, and rest all night vntill it be daye, till one Bée wake thē all with twice buzzing or thrice, or with some manner trumping: then they flye all, if the daye be faire on the morrowe: and they diuine and are ware before of rayne and of winde, and then they holde them in theyr house, and when they know and be ware before hand of faire weather, then they passe foorth to theyr worke with a swarme and companye: and then, some gather flowers with their feete, and some water with theyr mouthes, and beare drops together with all roughnes of their bodies. The youn∣ger goeth out to worke, and beginneth such thinges, and the elder worketh at home, with flowers that they bring.

First, they charge the fore féete, and af∣terward the hinder féet, vntil they turne home againe, with the mouth full and fully charged.

And they receiue them that be char∣ged in this manner: thrée or foure dis∣chargeth them, as they be ordayned at home, for theyr offices are diuers: For some make houses, and some cleanse and make fayre the Hiue, and some dresse meate of that that is brought home, and they eate not asunder, least vncleannesse of meate or of worke should be among them: and they make the combes ordi∣nately and by lyne, & hang them aboue, with certaine things, that them holdeth, and vndersetteth them that they shall not fall, and putteth a lyttle honnye in the first rowe, and ofte filleth the laste most full.

And the Bées that bringeth and bea∣reth what is needfull, dread blastes of winde, and flyeth therefore lowe by the ground when they are charged, least they be letted with some manner of blasts, & chargeth themselues somtime with gra∣uell or with small stones, that they may be the more stedfast against blastes of winde, by heauinesse of the stones. A∣mong them is wonderfull obseruaunce of discipline and of lore, for one mark∣eth and taketh héed of them that worke not, and chastiseth them anone, and slai∣eth them that will not worke. Among them is wonderfull great cleannesse, for they suffer no filthe among theyr workes.

And some Bées gather into one place the dirte of the Bées that worke, be∣cause they shoulde not goe farre from their works, and throw out their durt at euen, and goeth into their houses & bide still vntill the same Bée that hath wat∣ched, flye about and call them to rest, and then they holde all their peace and be stil sodeinlye. Item in eodem cap. 13. Bées doe most equitie and right, and smite all that distroubleth their peace, and all that desire to destroy their honnie. And Bées haue a King, that is not armed with a sting, but with Lordshippe and mage∣stie, as he sayth, cap. 18. Or if he haue a string, kinde denieth him the vse thereof. For kind wil not yt he should bée cruell, to the intent hée shoulde not be hastie to take wreake, and therefore taketh away from him his Speare, and leaueth him vnarmed. And so it is truth, that ye Em∣perour vseth not his sting. The obedi∣ence of Bées is wonderfull aboute the Page  348 King: for when he passeth foorth, all the swarm in one cluster passeth with him, & he is compassed about with ye swarm, as it were with an hoast of knights, & is then vnneth séene that time, for mul∣titude that followeth and serueth him: and when the swarm of Bees be in tra∣uell, he is within, and as it were gouer∣nour, and goeth about to comfort other for to worke, and onely he is not bound to trauayle, and all about him are cer∣tain Bées with stings, as it wer cham∣pions, and continuall wardens of the kings body: and he passeth seldome out, but when all the swarme shall go out. His out going is knowen certaine daies before by voyce of the hoast, as it were araieng it selfe to passe out with ye King; and so if it should chaunce that ye king of the Bees: wing were cat at that time, then the swarme shoulde not passe out of the hiue; and when he passeth out of the hiue, all the Bées profereth them to the Kings seruice, and labour to bée next him, and beareth the King on their shol∣ders, if he be weary and ouercome with trauayle, and if any Bée be wearie and faileth, or erreth, and goeth out of the hoast, then they follow by smell after the King, and where euer the King com∣maundeth, there the boast pitcheth their tents. And all the hoast is comforted, & hearted when they see the King: and if they loose the king, then all the swarme breaketh, and commeth vnto, another King: For they may not be without a King.

To the Bée hiues commeth certaine false Bees that are called Fuci in ye plu∣rall number,* and haue a great wombe, and eate and deuoure hony, & true Bées slayeth these false Bees when they take them therewith. When springing time is wet and moist, then the brood of Bées is multiplyed, and if meate fayleth in the Bée hiues, then they réese and assaile their neighbors, to take from them their honie, and to spoyle them: and the other lead an hoast against them if they haue a king, and if any Bee in the other side, fauoureth them ye rise & assaileth them, then the Bées that assaile them, spareth them that fauour them, and smite not at them, but take them in companye, and defendeth them. For many other causes hoasts that be contrarye, ordayne them two Emperours with great strife: and the fighting and battaile is all destroyed and disperpled, with throwing of pouder and of dirt.

Item in eod. ca. 19. Some Bées, are fled Bées, and some be woode Bées and fowle to sight, and more wrathfull than other, but they trauayld better, and may better away therewith: & some be tame Bées, and some of them be short, diuers & round. And some be long as waspes, and those are worse than other, but they trauayle better, and may better awaye therewith and be rough: and some of these Bées are white, and gender honie, and make their neostes among corne: and in the woode, Bées gender honye a∣mong trées, and somtime in dens in the earth. And so these kinde giueth a sting, yt sticketh ther he smiteth at one stroke: and some for great wrath and desire of wreake stingeth so déepe, that the gutte followeth sodainly the speare and suche dye soone: and some loose the speare, and liue afterward, and maye not make ho∣nie, for their vertue is taken away from them, and lyue to doe profite, or to noye. Bees hate stinking & other euill smels, & namely smoke, and flye there from, & be glad & merry in things with good smell: and be comforted with smell of crabs, if they be sod nigh them. And when theyr King is dead, then they be woe for sor∣rowe, and doe for him, as it wer seruice for the dead, and all the swarme of them maketh great sorow & dole: if the King be dead in pestilence, then they beare meate togethers, and passe not out, but with sorrowfull mone they be gathered on a heap about his bodie, and abate not their sorrow and woe, but they dye for hunger and wo, except the body be taken away. Helth of Bées is knowen in their mirth and cléernesse.

Also he sayth, that Bées fall into ma∣nie sicknesses: for as it is said cap. 20. they wer sicke when their brood faileth, and also sound that reboundeth of noyse is enemy to them, for it maketh them full sore afraid with sodaine noyse.

Page  [unnumbered]Also corrupt myst, that corrupteth flow∣ers that they eate is enemie to them.

Also spinners be enimies to them, when they come in the hiue, and make webs, that grieue them. Also a flye that is like to a Butter flye, that Flieth into can∣dles,* is enemie to them: for that but∣ter flye eateth wexe, and leaueth there dirt, of the which dirt commeth Cater∣pillers, wormes that loue well war pas∣sing other things. Also the great desire of meate grieueth them, when they eate too much of flowers; and that hapneth namely in springing time, and they dye all with oyle, as such round beasts doe, and namely if the head be noynted: and such beasts set in the Sunne, quickneth againe if they be besprong with vineger. Also somtime they take sicknesse, and cause of sicknesse, when they euer gree∣delye eating, féele that theyr honnie is withdrawen and taken away. Huc vs∣que Plinius.

Auicen lib. 8. cap. 3. rehearseth noble properties and worthy of Bées, & saith that Bees are fed with hony, and lyttle they eate thereof, but they eate honie when they be sicke, & go not out of their house. And when they find cleane hiues, they make therin houses and chambers of waxe, with sire manner castes: and whē ye mouth of ye hiue is too large, they make it lesse with some manner glewie matter, that is blacke with sharpe odor and smell: and first they build the kings house, and that house is lyke an hoale vauted, and afterward they buyld other houses, by diuersitie of the more mai∣sters or lesse.

And onely the males builde theyr houses, and afterwarde is no working, but to eate and make hony: & first Bées dwell in their honie combes, and passe out when it is time, and flye vpwarde top wise, and come againe and eate hon∣nie. And the King passeth neuer out without an hoast: and the males haue no stings, except a few, and then they de∣sire to sting, but they may not: & Bées haue two maner Kings, the one is red, and that other as blacke as a coale, and is twice so much as a Bée that maketh honnie: and the male Bées, are more than the females: and the lesse Bees & round, with diuers colours be best: and Bées that are fed in mountaines, gar∣dens and meades, are small and good, and make honnie, like in parts light.

Bées that be not good, maketh not hon∣nie euen, nor lyke in parts, but the Bee that cleaueth alway to the hole of the honie, maketh best honie, and els yt hon∣nie should be soone corrupt, and spinners should gender therein, and destroye the hony. And Bees that make the hony, vse a sting for double cause: for the defence, for there is firie vertue in the sting, and therefore it worketh greatly to wast su∣perfluitie of moisture, and to amend and kéepe, and to saue the honie.

Also ofte into hiues come certaine euill flyes, and bréede there other small flyes, that are grieuous, and he called Gusanes, that pearceth the winges of other: but the very Bées pursue those flyes, and fight with them, and will not suffer them to fal vpon their house, and Bees that make hony slayeth the males that grieue them, and euill kings, that rule them not a right, but onely eate too much hony, and that they doe, namelye when honye is scarfe: and small Bees fight with long Bées, when they worke not nor trauel, and are busie to put them out of the hiues: and by such out put∣ting the hony is the better, & the more in quantitie.

There is a manner kinde of Bées, that are called Labion, and these slaye Bées that make hony, and destroy their houses: and that is, for they are wake∣full. And when they come into theyr hiues, they pitche themselues into the honie because of eating, and stick so fast therein, that they may not escape, & then the very Bées slayeth them anone. And two dayes before that the King passeth out, the other Bées are skilfullye war∣ned, and haue knowledge what the king shall doe, that they may be obedient and readie to the king. And when ye kings be made, each hath one company, & that companie will haue none other, but him that they first choose: and if anye other king will be king of that companye, they slay him.

Page  349And if young Bées that come forth bée fow, they abide the companye of another swarme, and passeth so forth the more surely: and after that the young Bees begin to flye, if they be euen and lyke, then they hast their worke, and help the olde to worke. And no creature is more wreakful, nor more feruēt to take wreak than is the Bée when he is wrath ther∣fore a multitude of the hoast of Bées, throw downe great hedges, when they are compelled to withstande them that destroye theyr honny, passing all other things.

Bees hate dirte and smoake, and la∣bour to delyuer them of their owne dirt when they flye, for their dirte stinketh full fowle, & clense therfore their houses of their owne dirt: & young virgin Bées work better, and make better hony than olde, and smite not so much, nor theyr smiting grieueth not so sore, as doth the smiting of the olde. And Bees drinke, & that is onely cléere water, whether it be farre or nigh, and drinketh not, but they purge them first of their owne dirte.

And Bées maketh most honnie in Har∣uest, and in springing time is best, be∣cause of new floures of great purenes. And Bées be pleased with harmony and melodie of sound of song, and with flap∣ping of hands, and beating of basons: & therfore with beating of basons, tinging and tinckling of timbrells, they be com∣forted and called to the hiues. When much hony is lefte in theyr hiues, they wexe slow and worke the lesse, therefore it néedeth to leaue in the hiue, honnye meanly, not too much, nor too little. Huc vsque Auicen. li. 7. And he writeth ma∣ny other properties, in the which he ac∣cordeth with Aristotle libro. 8. and also with Plin. libro. 11: Looke before lib. 12. in litera A, there ye maye finde manye properties that Aristotle, Seneca, and o∣ther Authours write: but this sufficeth for this time.

¶Of Boue. cap. 13.

THe Oxe is called Bos, and is called Boetes in Greeke, and sometime Te∣ro in Latine, for he treadeth the earth, and the dew lappe or fresh lap that han∣geth downe vnder his throte, and stret∣cheth to the legges, is called Palliaria, & hath that name of Pelle the skinne, as it were Pelliaria, a hanging skinne or a dagge, and is a token of gentlenesse & nobilytie in an Oxe, as Isidore sayth li. 14. And he sayth, that Oxen be full mild among their fellowes, for one of them séeketh another, with whom he is vsed to draw at neck at the plough. And ofte lowing proueth affection and loue, when he may not soone finde his fellow. Lib. 8. cap. 45. Plinius speaketh of Oxen, and sayth. That he findeth written of Oxen of Inde, that are as high as Camelles, with hornes of foure foote long. And ther it followeth: among beastes that goe backward onely Oxen be fed with foder and with other foode, and it is sayd, that they were fat by washing with hot wa∣ter. And Oxen maye better trauaile when they be yoaked by the horns, then when they be yoked by the necke. In Syria are Oxen that haue not dew laps nor tresh laps vnder the throte, but bun∣ches on the backes: and Oxen with straight hornes, be accompted excellent in worke: and blacke Oxen with lyttle hornes be accounted lesse profitable to working.

Oxens hornes are more thicker than Bulles hornes: and after the gelding, the Oxe increseth in body and in horns, in might, vertue, and strength: but hee is not so bold and hardie as before hand, but he is more tame, softe, and milde, and may better away with trauaile and is more slowe and heauie of going.

Also Plin. speaketh of the kinde of Ox∣en and saith: that after thrée years, an Oxe is lesse fierce than within 3. yeres: and a young Cow and an Oxe may be well coupled together. And we haue the Oxe fellow in trauel of tillyng of land: and this beast was so worthy accounted in olde time, that men would not harte the Oxe, and who that slewe an Oxe without cause, should be as sore punish∣ed, as though he had slaine his fellowe in earth tillyng, as he saith.

The Oxe is a mild beast and cleane, not onely to the vse of man, but also to Page  [unnumbered] offer in Altars of Gods: for of Oxen be best offerings and sacrifices made, and with offering of them and Sacrifice, the Gods be best pleased. The Oxe openeth the land, and carueth with culture and with share, and tilleth fields, and maketh them able and good to beare good corne & fruite. The Oxe féedeth with his flesh, and nourisheth: the skin and hide ac∣cordeth to many manner vse, and his dirte fatteth the lande: his hornes hea∣ted or sotten, were softe, and be stretch∣ed out and made right and euen, and of them be made diuers vessells, tooles, and instruments. Of Oxe hornes be made tapping and nockes to bowes, to arbala∣sters, and arrowes to shoote against E∣nemies, and breast plates, and other ar∣mour, by the which, vnstrong places of mans bodye, be warded and defended a∣gainst shot and smiting of enimies. And of Oxe hornes be lanternes made: to put off darknesse, and combes to right & to cleause heades of filth. Also Hunters vse Oxe hornes to feare wilde keasts, & to comfort hounes to pursue beasts that taketh the flight. Also writers and pain∣ters vse the hornes, and keepe in them diuers colours at best. Also warriours life hornes and blow therewith, and cō∣forteth their fellows, both such as fight, and then: that flye, and call them to the boast with blowing of hornes. Also kée∣pers and wardens of beasts and of Ca∣stels and waites, vseth hornes, and com∣forteth each other to wake with blow∣ing of hornes. And the Oxe hornes bée néedfull to all manner of vse. Also that that is in the Oxe is néedfull to diuers vse, and also his durt is good and profi∣table, as Plinius sayth, libro. 28. cap. 11. And sayth, that Oxe durt helpeth against ach of the ioyntes, and is a singular re∣medy against the dropsie, if the patient be therewith annointed in the Sun. For it consumeth and wasteth humours be∣twéene the skinne and the flesh: & swa∣geth and abateth holning and swelling of the dropsie.

Also li. 30. ca. 3. Plinius saith, yt there is a little beast like to Ecarabeus, and is called Bupestris, and this Bupestris be∣guileth and betrayeth the Oxe in the grasse, and that is (as it is sayde) for the Oxe treadeth on him.* For this Bupe∣stris lyeth among hearbs and grasse that the Oxe loueth, and hideth him therein: and the Oxe gathereth his meate, and swalloweth this beast Bupestris, & when this beast Bupestris is swallowed, hée chafeth sodeinely the lieur of the Oxe, and maketh him break with great paine and sorrow. Héerof Papias speaketh and saith, that the necke of the Oxe is wrong and grieued with charge of the yoake, & the Oxe is grieued with the ache of the pricke, with the which hée is so pric∣ked. And the Oxe dyeth with woe and sorrowe that commeth of the venimme of that beast Bupestris, when hée com∣meth into the Oxe wombe amongst his meate.

Of Bubulco. cap. 14.

AN Oex heard is called Bubulcus, & is ordeined by office to kéepe Oxen: Hée féedeth & nourisheth Oxen, and brin∣geth thē to léese and home againe, & bin∣deth their féet with a langhalds and spa∣nells, and neigheth and cloggeth them while they be in pasture and léese, and yoaketh and maketh them drawe at the plough, and pricketh the flowe with a gad, and maketh them drawe euen. And pleaseth them with whistling and with song, to make them beare the yoak with the better will for lyking of melo∣dye of the voice. Oxen and hartes loue melody by kinde, as Auicen saith. And this hearb driueth & ruleth them to draw euen, and leatheth them to make euen sorrowes, & compelleth them not only to eare, but also to tread and to thresh. And they lead them about vpon corn to break the straw, in threshing and treading the floure. And when the trauaile is done, then they vnyoke them and bring them to the statl; and tie them of the stall, and féedeth them thereat.

Of Bubalo. cap. 15.

THe Bugle is called Bubalus, and that nound But•••us is diminitiue of Bos,Page  350Bouis. And the Bugle is called Bubalus for he is lyke to an Oxe, & is a fierce beast, and is not gladly tamed, nor ta∣keth gladly the yoake on his necke. In Affrica be Bugles: and in Germa∣nia be wilde Oxen with so long horns, that ye Kings boord is serued with drink thereof: for he holdeth so much, as Isi. saith. And is a beast of great strength, and may not be tained but with an yron ring put through his nosethrill, by the which ring he is led about: and is black or red, and is thin haired, with hornes: and his forhead is beclypped with full strong hornes, and his flesh is good, not onely to meate, but also to medicine.

For as Plin. saith lib. 28. cap. 10. Bugle flesh sod or rosted, healeth mans biting: his marrow taken out of the right leg∣doth away haire of the eye lyds, and is medicine for euills of eyen: his bloude taken with vineger, healeth wonderful∣ly them that cast bloud: his hoofe with Mirra fastneth wagging téeth: and Bu∣gle milke helpeth against fretting and gnawing of the guttes, for it softeneth them, and easeth with his fatnesse, and helpeth against the bloudye flure: and is full good against smiting of serpents & of Scorpions, and against venimme of the Creket, and of the Worme that is called Cicada,* and heleth new wounds: and Bugle dirt heated, healeth harde po∣stumes, and softneneth the mallice there of: his gall helpeth against dimnesse of eyen. Also some wilde Oxen be won∣full great, and neuerthelesse most quiuer and swifte, insomuch that the dirte that they shite in turning about falleth on theyr hornes, or euer it may come to the ground.

(*There are no wilde Oxen, but ei∣ther Bulls, Buffells, or females of that kinde: this is a tame errour, the Au∣thor meant the furious Buffell of the greater kinde, called Vro or Tarando, who vyolently runneth vpon any man, to spoyle or destroye him. In the woode Hercynia these Beastes are bredde, not much lesse than the Elephant, pro∣portioned lyke a Bull, the flesh good to eate, with diuers other propertyes. Read Gesner lib. 1. folio. 157.)

(*Hyreynia, is a great Woode in Germany, the which is in bredth nyne dayes iourney, and in length forty daies iourney, as Caesar writeth. Pompone∣us Mela affirmeth it to be fortie dayes iourney in length also.)

These Bulls hate all thing that is redde: and therfore hunters cloath them in redde, to make these Bulles pursue them, and when the hunter séeth yt this beast is nigh him, then he starteth be∣hinde a strong trée, and the Bull in his wrath réeseth with the hornes strongly, and pitcheth his hornes into the trée, & is so helde in the trée by his horns, and destroyed and throwen downe by hun∣ters dartes.

Also another beast is lyke a wylde Bull, and is not so great, but hée hath full great hornes and sharp, with whom he throweth downe bushes and trées, & throweth strong Dakes downe to the ground, and at the last, to gather meate, he putteth his head among shrubs, and long roddes, small and tough, that com∣passe and wind about the hornes of the beast, and so the beast is tyed and held: and then he striueth and praunceth long therewith, and striueth against the win∣ding and fastening of the roddes, and is faster and faster bound and holden, and when he hath long striuen, yet he maye not delyuer himselfe out of the bondes, but is alway faster & faster bound, then for indignation he loweth full loud, and the hunter heareth his great voyce, and knoweth that the beast is snarled, and fast helde: and then he commeth vpon the beast boldly, that is most sharp and mighty, & slaieth him with his toole, and weapon, and durst not aduenture vpon him in great woodes nor in fieldes, but now he dare stay him when he is held a∣mong small rods.

Phisiologus calleth this beast Ap∣taleon: If his words may be beléeued,* it séemeth a wonder, why so strong & so fierce a beast draweth not his hornes out of shrubbes and roddes that are small: with the which hornes, hée so mightelye breaketh great trées & strong, and throweth them downe flatte to the ground.

Page  [unnumbered]Also there is a manner wylde Oxe, that Aristotle libro. 8. cirea finem cal∣leth Bonboricus, and saith, it is a great Beast, asia, great Bull, and is lyke a Bull, and hath haire shad on either side on the necke, as it fareth on the haire of an horse: and his haire is rōre softer than horse haire, and more shorter, and is haired continually vnto the eyen, and is some deale redde or citrine, and his voyce is lyke to the voyce of a Bull, & his hornes are some deale redde or ci∣trine, and be some deale crooked: and in to eyther of his hornes, maye halfe the measure that is called Bos, and hath no téeth aboue, but is toothlesse aboue, as a Bull: and his legges be not full hairy, but they be lyke to a speare, and is clo∣uen footed, with two clées in one foote: and his tayle is short in comparison to his bodye: and he diggeth the earth, and teareth him in digging, as a Bull doth, and hath an harde skinne, and suffereth well strokes, and his flesh is full swéet, and is therefore hunted and beaten, and flyeth, and resteth when he is hunted, & throweth dirte foure paces from him, & doth so for dread, and houndes that run after him, smell to the dirte: and while the hounds be occupied about such smel∣ling, the beast dyeth and runneth, and passeth farre away.

Also libro. 10. Aristotle speaketh of the wilde cowe and sayth, That when hir time of Caluing commeth, manye of them come about hir, and make of dirte as it were a wall, and this maner beast hath much dirte, as Aristotle sayth, and Auicen also.

¶Of Basilisco. cap. 16.

THe Cockatrice is called Basiliscus in Gréeke, and Regulus in Latine, and hath that name Regulus of a litle king, for he is King of serpents, and they are afeard and flye when they sée him, for he slayeth them with his smell and with his breathe: and slayeth also all thing that hath lyfe, with breathe and with sight.

In his sight, no fowle, nor birde pas∣seth harmelesse, and though he be farre from the foule, yet it is burnt and deuou∣red by his mouth. But he is ouercome of the Wesel: and men bring the We∣sell to the Cockatrice denne, wherin hée lurketh and is hidde, for the Father and maker of all thing, lefte nothing with∣out remedy: and so the Cockatrice fli∣eth when he séeth the Wesell, and the Wesell pursueth and slayeth him: and the Cockatrice is halfe a foote long, and hath white speckes: and the Cockatrice slayeth that that he commeth nigh, as the Scorpion, and that water that hée toucheth, maketh the Dropsie, and it is venemous and deadly. And some men call the Coackatrice Sibilus, for with hissing he slayeth, ere he biteth or stin∣geth. Huc vsque Isidorus. lib. 12, capi∣tulo. 4.

Plinius also sayth, libro. 8. capitulo. 22. Among the Hisperies and Aethy∣opes is a well, that many men suppose is the head of Nylus, and there beside is a wilde beast that is called Catoble∣tas, and hath a lyttle body, and nice in al members, and a great head hanging al∣way, toward the earth, and els it were great noyeng to mankinde: for all that sée his eyen, should dye anone, and the same kinde hath the Cockatrice, and the Serpent that is bred in the Prouince of Syrena, and hath a bodye in length and breadth as the Cockatrice, and a tayle of twelue inches long, and hath a specke in his head as a precious stone, and feareth away all Serpents with hissing, and he presseth not his bodye with much bow∣ing, but his course of way is forth right, and goeth in meane: he dryeth and bur∣neth leaues and hearbes, not onely with touche, but also by hissing and blast, he rotteth and corrupteth all thing aboute him. And he is of so great venime and perillous, that he slayeth and wasteth him yt commeth nigh him by the length of a speare, without tarrieng. And yet the Wesell taketh and ouercommeth him: for it pleaseth God, that no kind∣ly thing should be without peere, for the biting of the Wesell is death to ye Coc∣katrice: and neuerthelesse the biting of the Cockatrice is death to the wesell, & yt is sure, except ye wesel eat rew before. Page  351 And against such venime, as Aristotle sayth and Auicen, first the Wesell ea∣teth the hearb of Row, though it be bit∣ter, and by vertue of the iuyce of that hearb, be goeth boldly and obey commeth his enemie. And though the Cockatrice be venomous without remedy, while he is alway, yet he léeseth all the mallce, when he is burnt to ashes: his ashes are accounted good and profitable in worke∣ing of Alkamie, and namely in turning and changing of mettall.

(*The Basiliske as Cockatrice, a∣mong créeping wormes is the most pe∣stilent. And among men, the most pesti∣lent minded, are the spoilers of the Cler∣gie with such vnconscionable are rages, that many Ministers haue bene forced to leaue their lyuings, and go a begging. If the tituled clemencie of the Gospell, he become oppression, God will bring shortly all to confusion. There were no such Basiliskes in Plinies time: My self haue bene so plagued, that I speak by experience, and haue to shewe by proofe, &c.)

¶Of Botrace. cap. 17.

BOtrax is called Rubeta also, and is a manner venemous frogge, & dwel∣leth both in water and in lande, as Pli∣nius saith lib. 18. cap. 32. And it is sayde, that he chaungeth his skinne in age, & eateth alway certaine hearbes, and kée∣peth and holdeth alway venime, & sight∣eth against the common spinner, and a∣gainst the spinner that is called Spalan∣gio, and ouercommeth their venime and biting by benefise of Plantaine, and his venime is accounted most cold, and sto∣nieth, therefore each member that he toucheth; it maketh lesse feeling, as it were froze, and is a venemous beast, & comforteth therefore himselfe, at each touching: and the more he is touched, the more he swelleth, and as manye speekes as he hath vnder the wombe, so many manner wise, his venimme is accompted grieuous.

And he hath eyen, as though they were site shining, and the worse he is, the more burning is his sight, & though he hath cléere eyen, yet he haleth ye light of the Sunne, and séeketh darke places, and flyeth to dennes, when the Sunne riseth, and his beames shineth vpon the earth.

This Froggs loueth swéete hearbs, and eateth the rootes of them, but in ea∣ting, he infecteth and corrupteth both rootes and hearbes Therefore ofte in gardene in: Rew set, that is venime and enemye to Eoades, and to other vene∣mous wormes: for by vertue of Rew, then be chased away, and may not come to other hearbes and rootes that growe therein. The Toade loueth stinking places and dirie and hateth places with good smell and odour: and so it is sayd, that he flyeth out of the vineyard, when the vines begin to bloome, for he maye not suffer nor sustaine theyr good odour and smell. And libro. tricesimo capitu∣lo. 4. Plinius speaketh of the Toad, and sayth in this manner.

There be right venemous Frogges, that are called Rubetae, and liue among biers and bushes, and the more great they be, the worse they be. And some be browne, and some are reddish, and some pale, and soone yeelow, or citrine. And they meane that these wormes Rube∣tae haue double lyuer, that one is most venemous, & that other is remedie, & is giuen in stéed of Triacle against poyson and venime: and for to assay & knowe which is good and which is euill, the li∣uer is throwen into an Ant hill, then the Antes flye and voyd the venemous parte, and desire and choose that other parte, and shall be taken and kept to the vse of medicine.

And Authours tell wonders of these manner of Frogges as Plinius sayeth, and tell, that in the right side of such a Frogge, is a preuie boane, that cooleth same deale séething water, if it be thro∣wen therein: & the vessell may not heate afterwarde, but if the bone be first ta∣ken out: and Witches vse that boane to loue and hate: and they meane al∣so, that the feauer quarlane is healed thereby. And be that worme noiser so venemous, yet by burning he léeseth the mallyce of venymme, and taketh most Page  [unnumbered] vertue of medicine: and ashes thereof helpe wonderfullye to recouer flesh and skinne that is happelye soft, and to make sadnesse and sinnewes, and to healyng and preseruation of wounds, if the ashes be vsed in ouer draner. Looke within De Rana, in litera. R.

(*Bofo the Toade; whereof are di∣ners kindes: some Toads that bréed in Italy and about Naples; haue in theyr heas, a stone called a Crpo, of hignes like a big peach, but flat; of colour gray, with a browne spot in the midst, said to be of vertue. In times past; they were much Morlie, and vsed in ringes, as the forewarning against venime.)

¶Of Bombace. cap. 18.

BOmbax is a worme that bréedeth in twigges and branches of Cipresse, of Ashe, of Malberrie trées, and of Tere∣bintus, as Plin. sayth lib. 11. cap. 24. And Isid. saith in this manner, Bombax is a Worme of two twigges and branches: of his weauing is cloathing made, and is called Bombacinium. And is called Bombax, for he is made voyde & cleane while the thred passeth out of him, and in him abideth ut aire onely as he say∣eth. And this Worme hath wonderfull chaunging: for first he commeth foorth as a worme lyke a Malshrāg, that gna∣weth caule leaues and vine leaues, this worme may not away with colde, and weaueth webs, as spinners doe: and first he maketh him a place or a house to dwell in, and to defond himselfe against the colde, winter, and maketh his webbe with his feete, and draweth his small threds, and kemeth them with his feet, and ordayneth them so, & maketh therof a webbe.

(*Bumbix, a silke worme, the origi∣nall spinner, whereof all sorts of silkes, dressed and died into colours, serue mans vse.)

¶Of Camelo. cap. 19.

CAmells are called Cameli, and haue that name of a nowne of Gréeke, as Isidore sayth libro. 12. for when they be charged they bowe and lye downe, and are méeke to them that charge them. For méeke and short is called Caine in Gréeke.

Or els they haue that name of Ca∣mur in Gréeke, that is crooked, for when they take charge vpon them, they bnde and crooke the knées. Also Camelles bée beasts that beare charges and burthens, and are milde and softe, and ordayned to beare charge and cartage of men, and bée found in many countryes and landes, and namely in Arabia, and Camells of Arabia be diuers from Camels of other landes, for a Camell of Arabia hath two bounches in the backe, and a Camell of another Lande, hath but one bounche in the backe, as Isidore saith in eodem.

And libro. 8. capitulo 19. Plinius sai∣eth in this manner: The Cast féedeth Camells among tame beastes, of which Camells is two manner kindes: For some are of Bactria, and some are of A∣rabia: the Camell of Arabia hath two bounches on the backe, and the Camell of Bactria hath but one in the backe, on the which he beareth his burthen: and another in the breast, and leaneth there∣on. Camells be soothlesse aboue as Ox∣en are, and chew their cudde, as Oxen and Shéepe, as Isidore sayth libro. 12. and is cloue footed, as it shall be sayde héereafter, and is full swifte, as Plinius sayth, and is therefore good in battayle and warre, and to beare charge and ca∣riage.

And the Camell goeth no more a daye, than he is wont to doe, nor ta∣keth no more burthen than he is wont to beare. And the Camell hateth the Horse by kinde, and suffreth thirst, foure dayes, and stirreth the water with his feete when he drinketh, or els the drinks doth him no good. And the Camell liueth fiftie yeare, and some an hundred yeare, and wereth mad sometime. Camells be gelded that are ordained to battaile & to warre: for they be the stronger, if they be put from the worke of generation. Huc vsque Plinius.

Auicen speketh of the Camel in this maner, the Camel he saith moueth first yePage  352 right soote as the Lyon doth, and onelye the Camell hath a hunch on his backe, & is choi•• footed, and hath fells in the clifts as it fareth in a Goose foote, and those clefts be fleshly as ye rielies of a Beare foot: and therefore men maketh thē shooes, least their feet be hurt that bée tender be∣neath. And sometime in the Camelles heart is a bone found, as there is in the heart of an Hart. And the Camell hath foure teates in the two vaders, as ye row hath, and the female Camell boweth her selfe & goeth on her knées, when shée wilt be coupled with the male. And her ta∣lent and desire is strong and feruent in time of loue, & she eateth then but little, and desireth alway to bée assayled of the male, nigh to the place in which shée was first assailed. And as Arist. saith, li. 5. it is one propertie of Camells to be solitary & alone in mountains in time of loue, & no man may come nigh to them yt time, but the heard alone, and the Camells yard is sinewy & full hard. Therefore men make bow strings of such yardes. Item ibidem in eodem, Camells haue certaine times ordeined to the worke of generation: the female nourisheth the colt in the wombe 12. moneths, and they ingender not be∣fore they be thrée yéere olde, & rest a yéere after louing. Also he sayth, libro. 8. that certaine manner of Camells bée gelded, to be the more able to flie: and saith, that such Camells be more swifter then hor∣ses, and that is because of large pase and wide, but héereof look within de Drome∣datio. Aristotle sayth, lib. 9. cap. 17. that the Camell doth not the woorke of gene∣ration with his owne mother. For in a certaine citie a Camell was héeled with a mantell, & her owne sonne leape on her, and by falling of the cloth that she was couered with, hée knew it was his owne mother, and though hée did the déede, hée leaped downe & slew the man, that him had beguiled. Aristotle setteth this en∣sample, and other like of a horse of a cer∣taine king.

Also libr. 11. cap. 37. Plinius speaketh of Camells, and saieth, that among foure footed beasts camells ware bald as men do, & as the Estridge & certeine beasts a∣mong foules. Also he saith, that among beasts without hornes, the Camelles bée toothlesse in the ouer iawe, & accord ther∣fore in téeth with beasts yt chew the cud, & in disposition of the wombe, but not in horns. And Ari. li. 14. sayth, yt a beast that eateth thorny matter, hath not yt wombe as the camell, & an hard horned beast hath us téeth in either iaw, & therefore the Ca∣mell hath no teeth in either iaw, but one∣ly beneath, though he be hornelesse. Then it néedeth that the Camels wombe be of such disposition, and is like to the womb of beastes that be toothlesse in the ouer iawe. And the making of his téeth is like to the making of the téeth of horned beastes. And it followeth there, and for the Camells meate is thorny and hard, it néedeth that his tongue be fleshie for the hardnesse of the palat. Therefore kinde vset the palat as the earthy part of téeth: and therfore the camell cheweth his cud as horned beasts do, for his wound is like to the wombe of horned beasts, & hée ta∣keth his meate in his first wombe, & all vndigest, and in the second wombe the meat beginneth to defie, and is better de∣fied in the third womb, and in the fourth wombe is full digestion and compleate, and this diuersitie of wombes is néedful for hardnesse of his meat, for he grindeth and cheweth his meate little with his teeth.

And li. 13. Aristotle sayth, yt the camell hath no gall distinguished vpon yt liuer, no more then the Elephant hath, for the matter of this liuer is full whole & sound, and his bloud is kindlye sweete: and in such beastes is no gall found, but if it be found in full small veines, and therefore olde men sayde, that Anaxagoras sayth, that Camells be beasts of long lyfe, for they be gallesse, and beastes with lyttle galls liue longer then beasts with much Gall. And therefore Anaxagoras sayde, that gall is cause of all sharpe sicknesses, when gall is multiplyed vnto the lungs, and shedde to other partes of the bodye. But Aristotle sayth, that this is false, for many beasts in whom no gall is found, haue ryght sharpe sicknesse sometime and euills that slaye them, as it fareth in Camelles that haue the Podagre and phrensie, and by the Podagree their Page  [unnumbered] feet be strained, and this euil slaieth them sometime, and bée neuerthelesse without gall, vt dicit ibidem. Huc vs{que} Aristoti. Also in Dietis vniuersalibus. Constant: speaketh of the Camell, & sayth, yt the ca∣mell is most hottest beast of kind, and is therefore leane by kinde, for the heat dra∣weth of all fatnesse of the bloud, & there∣fore the Camell is leane. And Camells milke is more thin then milke of other beasts, and lesse vnctuous, and lesse nou∣rishing, and more heating and opening & departing. And milke is nought else but bloud, oft sodde, and therefore Camelles milke is fall in sauour and sharpe, & tem∣pereth therefore those humours & maketh them thin. And cow milke is contrarye thereto, & is thicke & vnctuous, & nourish∣eth much. Looke other properties within de Dronedatio.

Of Cameleoperdo. cap. 20.

CAmeleoperdus is called Cameleoper∣dalis also, and is a beast of Aethiopia, as Isidore sayth, libro. 12. and Plinius li∣bro. 8. cap. 30. And hath the head of a ca∣mell, and the necke of a horse, and legges and feet of a Bull, and specks of the Per∣de, and is a beast befprong with white speckes distinguished with bright colour and cléere, and is called Cameleoperda∣lis, for he hath the head of a Camell, and speckes of the Perde. And Plinius sayth, that this beast is more worth in sight then in fiercenesse, and is so milde & soft, that he had almost the name of a sheepe. As he sayth, this beast was clene to meat by Moses lawe, but not to sacrifice, for he is cloue footed as a Bul, and cheweth his cudde as a Camell, and therefor it was lawfull to eate thereof, as it is written Deut. 14. &c.

(*The Aethiopians call this Beast Nabis, his necke lyke a Horse, his féete lyke an Oxe, and his head lyke a Camel, spotted redde, very loftie before, and low behinde.)

Of Camelion. cap. 21.

CAmelion is a lyttle beast with di∣uerse coulours, and his bodye chaun∣geth full soone to diuerse coulours, as hée sayth. Also another beast there is founde, that taketh also chaunging of contrarye coulours, as Isidore sayth there. And A∣uicen meaneth, that Camelion and Stel∣lio the Lusard, is all one: for he shineth as a starre, and chaungeth coulours. For it is a fearefull beast, with lyttle bloud, and chaungeth therefore coulours. And is foure manner diuers: he hath the face of the ewte, and sharpe clawes and croo∣ked, and the bodye sharpe, and an harde skinne, as the Crocodile. And libro se∣cundo Aristotle sayth, that the Cameli∣on is a beast lyke to the Ewte in body, and his sides bée euenlong to the nea∣ther partes of his wombe, as it were a Fish: and his ridge boanes bounch vp∣warde, as it were a Fish: his face is as it were a beast compowned of a Swine & of an Ape: and his tayle is full long and small at the end: and his féete be crooked, as it were a little Ewte: and each of his féet is departed a twaine, and the compa∣rison of one foot to another, is as in com∣parison of the thombe of a man to the other deale of the hand: and each of those two partes is diuided in fingers: And his clawes be like to the claws of a bird: and all his bodye is rough and sharpe as the bodye of a Bardan: His eyen bée déepe, great, & round, and conteined with a skinne, lyke to the skinne of the body, and that skinne couereth the eyen. And he turneth and casteth oft his eien hether and thether. And chaungeth his coulour when his skinne is blowen, & his colour is somewhat blacke with black speckles therin: and this diuersitie is in al his bo∣die, & namely in the eyen, and also in the tayle, and is full heauie in moouing and foule of colour in his death, and what is in his body is but of little flesh, and hath but little bloud, but in the head and in the ende of the taile where he hath little bloud, & also in the heart, & in the veines that come therefrom: and also hath bloud about the eien, though it be right little. And the braine is nighe the eyen, and if the bodye bée departed in two, it abi∣deth in his working by spirite thereof: and a lyttle moouing abideth about the bodye, and is splenenesse, and dwelleth Page  353 in dennes, as an Ewte. Huc vsque A∣ristotle.

And libro vicesimo octauo. Plinius sayth, that Camelion is a beast like to the Crocodile, and varyeth therefrom onely in crookednesse of the back; and in long∣nesse of the tayle. And no beast is accoun∣ted so fearefull, as the Camelion, & chan∣geth therfore his colour. His most might and strength is against the kinde of Gos∣haukes: for hée draweth them, and they flie to him, and he taketh them wilfully to other beasts to be deuoured. And De∣mocritus sayth, that if his head and his throate be set a fire with Oaken woode, it maketh both raine and thunder: but Pli∣nius scorneth this saieng. But what beast so euer it be, it is accounted among clene beasts, Super Leui. 11. Isichius saith, that in sicknesse he feyneth himselfe soft and milde though he be cruell. And it is said, that the Camelion liueth onely by aire, and the Mole by earth, and the Hearring by water, & the Cricket by fire, as these vearses meane.

Quatuor ex puris vitam ducunt ele∣mentis.
Camelion, Talpa, maris Halec, & Sala∣mandra.
Terra cibat Talpam, flammae pascunt Salamandram,
Vnda fit Halecis cibus, aer Camele∣onti.

(*The Chamelion féedeth on Flies, and taketh them with the sodaine slip∣ping forth of his tongue, which is long and rounde, and may not be kept aboue fourtéene dayes without putting forth in the aire.)

Of Caprea. cap. 22.

THE wilde Goate is called Caprea, & hath that name of Carpendo, gathe∣ring. Thereof Isidore speaketh; libro. 12. and saith, that they be called Capri & Ca∣pree, for they gather braunches & twigs: And some men meane that they haue ye name, for they climbe vpon hard crags: and some meane, that they haue that name of noyse that they make with their legges: and so wilde Goates be called Caprie, for they sée most sharplye. The Gréekes call them Dorko and they dwell in high mountaines, and sée hun∣ters come a farre. And those same be cal∣led Ibices, for they cōe vpward into high places, as it were Birdes, so high that vnneth they be séene with mannes eien, as Isidore sayth, libro. 12. And he sayeth, that those beastes dwell in high Rockes and cragges. And if they perceiue some∣time, that they bée pursued of men or of wilde beastes, they fall downe headlong out of the high cragges, and saue them∣selues harmelesse on theyr owne hornes. And be called also Dame or Damule, as Papias sayth: Looke within in litrea D, de Damula.

Also this beast Caprea, the wild Goate, is most swifte in running, most light in leaping, most sharpe in sight, most swéete in tast, most tender & wholsome to meat, & most busie to gather his own meat: for the Goat knoweth diuersity of hearbs, of trées, of twigs, of braunches, & of spraies, which they eate and féede themselues of by sight, tast, & smell. Also Plin. saith, that the Leopard drinketh milke of the wilde Goat, and voideth sorrow and woe.

Of Capriolo. cap. 23.

CApriolus, as Auicen sayth, is lyke to Hynnulus an Hinde calfe, and this beast chaungeth not his téeth, and when one may perceiue that he hath greate téeth, then it is token of long life, and also of long continuance. And this beast Ca∣priolus hath right fayre and pleasaunt eyen, and also sharpe. Also libro. 8. Ari∣stotle affirmeth & saith, that these beasts Caprioli haue wit when they be woun∣ded, and séeke the hearbe Pulegium Ceri∣num,* and ease thereof to drawe out ar∣rowes out of theyr bodye if they sticke therein. By businesse of running & swift∣nesse of mouing his flesh is discharged of superfluitie of moisture, and his flesh is so made the more tender, & the better to defie, & the better of sauour and smell. For the heuie sauour thereof is taken a∣way, as Constant. sayth. To get meate, this Capriolus climbeth vp from high places, to more high places, and knoweth by smel betwéene wholsome hearbs & vn∣wholesome. And be cheweth his cud, and is cloue footed, and defendeth himselfe in Page  [unnumbered] woods and lands from hunters and their houndes, not with his clawes, hornes, and téeth, but onelye with swiftnesse of flight. And so when he is pursued in valleys & in fieldes, hée taketh his course and flyeth: into high places and moun∣taines. In the mountaynes of Iude bée some Caprioli, that cateth hearbes with good smell and sauour, and in theyr féete be certaine hollownesse, in the which cer∣tayne humours bée gathered, and brée∣deth postumes, the which postumes first be riped, and then broken with moouing and with froting, and throwe out of the body with small hairye leaues. And the substauite that is conteined within the skinne, is best of smelling, and most precious among spicerye, and most profitable and vertuous in medicine, as Dioscorides sayth, and Platearius also, & that we call commonly Moricum.

Of Capra. cap. 24.

THE Goat is called Capra, and hath that name of Carpendo, gathering, as Caprea, hath the name of the same, for he gathereth the ouermost ends of bran∣ches and of leaues, and eateth them, as Isidore sayth And Plinius li. 8. ca. 1. spea∣ket of the Goat, and saith: That a Goat eyneth many Kids at once, and but selde foure, and goeth with kid fiue moneths, as an Ewe doth. Also Goats ware bar∣ren by fatnesse before three yeare, & gen∣der lesse profitably, and in age after foure yeare: and conceiueth in Nouember, and eyneth in March or in Aprill, when trées and braunches spring, and haue not all hornes, but some haue, and in them the growing of knots is token of yéeres. Ar∣lclaus meaneth, that the Goats breath at the eares, and not at the nose, and bée seld without feauer, and therefore both in Goates & shéepe is the more feruent and hot working of generation, as he sayth. And we meane not, that Goates sée lesse by night then by day, and the Goat hath vnder the chin a beard that is called Ar∣mitum, and if a man drawe one out of the flocke by the beard, the other be asto∣nied and beholde. And also the same hap∣peneth when one of them biteth a cer∣taine hearbe. Their hiting is most de∣struction of Oliue, for with lyking they make the Oliue baren, and for this cause they were not offered to the Goddesse Minerua. When the Sunne draweth to glade, Goates eate not in pasture toge∣ther; but turne away their faces each frō other and lye downe: and in other times those yt turned each frō other eat toge∣ther in pasture, & tourne the face each to other. Huc vsque Plinius.

And Aristotle lib. 3. sayth, that in ma∣nye landes Goates haue milke without conceiuing: but they take Nettles and froat the vdders therwith, and then com∣meth first out bloud, and then as it were matter, and good milke at the last, not worse then the milk of them that eineth. Also libro. 6. Goates liue ten yeere or a xi. and vse work of gendering vntil their last age. And sometime the Goate hath two kiddes at once, if they haue couena∣ble meat, and namely if the Goate bucke bée well fedde. And if shée conceiue afore the Northen winde, shée eyneth males, & if she conceiue afore the Southern wind, shee eyneth females. And he telleth, that they turne ye face Northward, when they shall gender. Also li. 7. there he sayth, that Goats & shéepe eate hearbs, but sheep bite hearbs vnto the root, and be stedfast in pa∣sture: And Goates passe soone from place to place, & take onely the ouermost ends of hearbes and grasse, & conceiue better after that they drinke salte water. And when goats be moued after ye vnder time they drinke the more water, and when they eate Salt before that they drinke, then shall much milke drop out of theyr teates.

Also libro. 8. cap. 3. In Goates and shéepe is lyttle wit, insomuch that vn∣neth they can goe to a fielde to léese, or come againe, but they be lead & brought againe. And if a man take a Goate, and reare him vp sodeinelye, then the other reare them also, and beholde him sadlye. And the vse of Goate & of shéepe is need∣full to mankinde, for they féede the hun∣gry with milk and with flesh, and cloath the naked with fell and with Wooll, and amende the lande with vrine and with durt. And nothing is in the Goates body, Page  354 but it is good and profitable to vse of meate or cloathing, or else to néedfull vse of medicine. For as Plinius saith, libro. 33. cap. 10. Serpentes bée chosed and dri∣uen away with ashes of Goates hornes, and with their Wooll burnt. And by re∣medy of Goates hornes diuerse manner kinde of venim is ouercome, and super∣fluitie of dead flesh is fretted, and freshe flesh and new is gendered, and passing running humours be staunched, and by helpe of them rotted woundes fretting and gnawing haue remedy, though they be cankered or festered. With new Goats skinnes wounds be holpe and healed. Goats bloud medled with mery and sod excludeth poyson and venimme, biting of créeping wormes, and smiting of scorpi∣ons be saued and healed. The hot lung of a Goat laid to a venimous biting draw∣eth out the venimme, and abateth the ach and sorenesse. His gal putteth away dim∣nesse of eyen, and fresteth webbes and pearles, and sharpneth their sight, & clée∣reth the eyen. A Goats liuer roasted; hel∣peth against Lepra, if it be oft taken in meatrand his dirt helpeth many sicknes∣ses & euills: For as he sayth, Goates durt helpeth them that haue the Podagre, if tallow of the goat buck be medled with ye iuyce of Iute. And Goates vrine heated & dropped luke warme into the eares, hea∣leth eares that ake. He setteth these pro∣perties and many other medicinable pro∣perties: and so Plinius setteth a thousand remedyes. And héereby may bée shewed a meaning that one sayd in this manner. Each wonder, that it is not sayde, that it healeth the feauers. And héereto Aristo∣tle sayth, that a certaine beast sucketh Goates milke of the vdder and feats, and then the milke is destroyed and wasted, and the Goate wareth blinde thereby. Of the Goate looke more within in litte∣〈…〉 Hiron.

(*〈…〉de is commended to be a non∣rishing meat, & héere is to be noted, that of all beastes, the younger from a quar∣ter of no yeare of age, vntill a yeere and a halfe, the flesh is most nourishing, onely Pige and Ueale, the one at three weekes ••other at a moneth or sixe wéeks olde before which time not wholsome.)

Of Cane. cap. 25.

A Hounde is called Canis, and tooke that name of Gréeke, as Isido. saith. For an hound is called Cenos in Greek, & some men meane that he hath yt name Canis, of loude barking, as he saith: No∣thing is more busier & wittier then an hound, for he hath more wit then other beasts. And houndes knowe theyr owne names, & loue their masters, & defend the houses of their masters, & put themselues wilfully in perill of death for their ma∣sters, & run to take prayes for their ma∣sters, and forsake not the dead bodies of their masters: and hounds pursue ye foote of pray by smell of bloud, & loue compa∣ny of men, and may not be without men, as Isi. saith. And there it is said, that oft hounds gender with wolues, and of that gendering commeth cruel hounds, which some men call Licisci. Also oft the In∣dians teach bitches, and lenne them in woodes by night, because Tygres should line them and gender with them, and of them come most sharpe hounds & swift, and be so strong, that they throw downe cruell beasts, as Lions, Huc vsque Isid. li. 12. cap. secundo.

Libro. 8. cap. 40. Plinius speaketh of the hound, & sayth, that among beastes that dwell with vs, houndes and horses be most gratious. Wée haue knowen when yt hounds fought for their Lords agaynst théenes, & were sore wounded, & that they kept away beasts and foules from their masters bodyes dead. And ye an hound compelled the slaier of his ma∣ster, with barking and biting to know∣ledge his trespasse & fault. Also we reade that Garamantus the king came out of exiling, and brought with him two hun∣dered houndes, and fought agaynst his enimies with wonderfull hardynesse. Al∣so Iasons hounde of Cilicie would take no meate when his Lorde was slaine, and so hée dyed with greate hunger and sorrowe.

Also we read ye Celius the Senator of Placencia, was defended by an hound yt was ouerset of men of armes, and was 〈…〉 wounded till the hound was slayne. Page  [unnumbered] So Sabinus hound forsooke him not nei∣ther in prison nor in death, but abode with the dead bodye with dolefull and sorrowfull noyse, and howling, & a man gaue the hound meate, and the hounde tooke the meat, and he would haue put it in his mouth that was dead, and when the dead bodye was throwne into Ty∣ber, the hounde leaped and swam in the riuer to holde vp the dead body, and ther came much people to sée and behold the kindnesse of the true beast. Houndes haue mind of full long wayes, and if they léese their masters, they goe by far space of lands and Countries to their masters houses. The cruelnesse of an hound aba∣teth to a meeke man. In hounds is great wit & businesse in hunting, for by winde and by smelling, and also by water, they pursue and followe beasts that run and flye, and findeth theyr sorrows and dens, and warneth thereof by sute and by bar∣king: Of Tygres and hounds commeth so strong houndes, that they ouercome Lyons and Elephauntes: as greate A∣lexander made a proofe by the Hounde that the king of Alania did send to him, first in his presence he ouercame a Ly∣on, and then an Elephaunt was brought to him, and when the hounde sawe the cruell beast, his haire stoode vp in all the bodye, and barked fiercely first, and then reesed craftely, and fought so long with the Elephant, that he drewe him downe to the grounde. After the age of a yeare a hounde gendereth, and the Bitche go∣eth with whelpe in her wombe foure score dayes, and whelpeth blinde Whelpes. And the more plentye they haue of milke, the later they take theyr light.

Also they neuer take theyr sight af∣ter the .xxi. day, nor before ye seuenth day: Some saye that when one is whelped a∣lone, the ninth daye he séeth, and when they be twaine, the tenth day, and when they be three, the thirtéenth day, and so as they be mo whelped in number, the moe dayes is theyr sight tarryed. And that whelpe is best that hath last his sight, or that that the mother beareth first to the couch. Huc vsque Plinius, libro 8. cap. 41. ther be reckoneth many other things.

Aristotle libro secundo sayeth, that Houndes chaunge no téeth, but it bée by chaunce two, and the lesse they bee, the whiter téeth they haue & the more sharpe. And thereby men haue knowledge be∣twéene the young hound and the olde, for olde hounds haue black téeth and blunt, and young houndes the contrarye. Also there, libro. 5. he sayth, the male houndes be rather mooued to the worke of gene∣ration then females. And grey houndes gender rather then other hounds, as hée saith, li. 6. And this female goeth some∣time with whelps in the wombe the sixt part of the yere: that is .40. daies, and her whelps be blinde .12. daies, and then the male commeth not at her, but in the sixt moneth after her whelping. And some grey Bitches goe with whelpes in theyr wombe .73. daies, and that is nigh the sixt part of the yeare, & her whelpes be blind 17. daies: and so the sooner the whelps bée made perfect in the mothers wombe, the sooner they haue their sight, when they be whelped and come into the worlde. And the males are sooner mooued to the woorke of generation. For when they be∣gin to heaue vp the legge for to pisse, and that is after 6. or 7. moneths, when they ware strong. And greye houndes haue this propertie, yt they may gender more when they be in trauaile, then when they be in rest. And the female may liue ten yeare, and the male liueth shorter time then the female, and that is for the tra∣uaile of the male, and so it fareth not in other. For the male liueth longer then the female, as he saith ther. And other hoūds, as wardens of houses and of cities, liue longer, for they liue sometime .14. yeeres, and sometime 20. as Homerus saith. Also li. 8. When hounds be sicke, they eat the roote of a certaine hearbe, and casteth and taketh medicine in that wise. Also lib. 8. Plinius sayth, that an hounde that hath filled him of euil meat, eateth an hearbe, and by perbraking and casting he purg∣eth him.

(*The wonderfull operation of na∣ture among brute beastes, declareth as rare effects in their kind, especially when they sort themselues by contraries. The Mastiue Bitch to the Dogge Woulfe. Page  355 the Bitch, to the Beare, and such lyke, not many yéeres past (at the place of all good roole) Parrisse Garden, was a Bitch, yt being lind with a male Beare, brought forth a mixed kinde, betwixt both, of so fierce a stomacke, and with all so strong, that vntill he was cut off from the game by péece meale, he coulde not be made to vnfasten his biting. Of olde time there was in the stable of Gereon, a notable dogge called Cerberus, that kept his cat∣tell: also in the Temple of Aescolapius was a dogge, that bowrayed the Théefe which robbed the sayd temple, called Ca∣parus, there are many dogs of ye like kind, and in a manner cōmon: the triall wher∣of is among tyed by dogs in ware-hou∣ses, backe sides, or gardens, that in yt day are very quiet, and in the night fierce: and among all the rest, the mungrell curres, which serue to kéepe the bottles & bags, with vittell, of ditchers and hedgers; wil bée sooner killed of a straunger then bea∣ten off from their masters apparell and victualls.)

Of Canicula. chap. 26.

THE Bitch is called Canicula, and is called mother of Houndes, and in her the mother is euenlong set in the length of the wombe, and hath manye beates set it in two rowes, eyther afore other, eudlong the wombe. Which teates waxe greate in time of conception. And the Bitch whelpeth manye whelpes at once, but always blinde: But she loueth them most tenderly, and defendeth them with barking and biting: and if the Whelpes goe out of the couch ofte, the Bitch fetcheth them agayne, and hea∣reth them in hir mouth betwéen hir téeth, without anye biting grieuing and heareth: first home the best and the fay∣rest, for him shée loueth best, and giueth him first sucke, and stretcheth to him the teate; ••Aristotle sayth, libro. 5. In time of generation and conception seuen daies the Bitch delueeth her of vncleare matter, and then waxeth sicke, and the mother in her appayreth and hath no will to worke in generation, but flyeth and aydah, but after purgation shee kindeleth the better, and whelpeth the more liuelye. And after the whelping shee casteth out much fleamatik humour and thicke, and therefore then her bodye is cleane, an hée sayth. Also in Bitches, milke is founde many dayes before the whelping, and sooner in greye Bitches then in other: and first she milke is thicke, and thinne afterward, and is good and conuenient after whelping, and com∣monly Bitches liue lyttle time for great trauaile and running about. And when the Bitch desireth for to pisse, she rea∣reth not vp the legge as the male doeth, but bendeth her downewarde behinde, as it were sitting. And the Bitch is lesser in bodye then the male, & more smaller and more féeble in might and strength: and most best to nourish and bring vppe the whelps, and more soft and mild in heart, excepte it bée when shée nourisheth her whelpes, and is more able to bée taught then the male, and more nimble in bodye for plyauntnesse of members, and more swifte. But for féeblenesse of sinewes she dureth lesse in course and in running. Gentlenesse and nobilytie of hounds and of Bitches is knowen by length of face and of the snoute, and by breadth of the breast, and by smalnesse of the wombe and flarike. And a gentle hounde is small about the reines and flanke, and also in the wombe, and is broade before about the breast, and hath long eares and plyaunt, and long legges and small, and that is needfull, to bée the more swifte in course & in running & his tayle is more long and crooked then the tailes of other houndes, and hath lesse flesh then a dogge and shorter haire, and more thinne and smooth. For if hée were too roughe and hairie, he shoulde be too hot in course and in running: If hée were too fleshie, hée shoulde be ouerset with flesh and run the worse: And if the tails were long downe betwéen the legges, it should let greatly the course and running. And also by han∣ging downe of the taile hée is accounted fearefull and not hardye. Also gentle houndes be cruell and fierce in pursuing and in taking of wilde beastes,* and bee full milde and softe to men and to tame beastes.

Page  [unnumbered]And if it happen sometime that he réeseth against straunge men, anone hée ceaseth, and withdraweth the réese. Also gentle houndes when they take an Hart or an Hare, they deuoure not anone the beast that they take, but kéepe the pray to their Lorde, and holde them content with the bowelles and other vile partes, as bloud & other such, for theyr portion and part, and though they haue no parte of the praye of one beast: yet for all that they spare not to pursue and take another.

De alijs proprietatibus canum, Chap. 27.

GOundes haue other propertyes that be not full good, for hounds haue con∣tinuall Bolisme, that is immederate ap∣petite, and be sometime punished with hunger, that they waxe rabbish and mad: for houndes haue sicknesse and euilles, baldnesse, squinatye, and madnesse, as A∣stotle sayth, libro. 7. And all beastes that be bitten of a mad hound, waxe madde, except men alone, that scape sometime by helpe of medicine. And Constan. sayth in Viatico. li. viti. that an hound is kind∣ly cold and dry, and blacke. Cholera hath mastrie in him. And if Cholera be much rotted and corrupt, it maketh the hound madde. And this falleth most in haruest and in springing time. And other hounds flye and voyde the madde hound; as pe∣stilence and venim: and he is alway exi∣led; as it were an outlawe, and goeth a∣lone wagging and rowling as a dronken beast, and runneth yaning, & his tongue hangeth out, and his mouth driueleth and foameth, and his eyen vs euertourned and reared, & his eares lie backward, and his faile is wrickled by the legges and thighes: and though his eyen bée open, yet hée stumbleth and spurneth against all thing, and barketh at his owne shadow. Other houndes dreade him and flie and barke against him. And no hounds come nigh the bread that is wet in the bloud of the wounde of his biting. And those that bée bitten of him, dreame in theyr sléepe dreadfull dreames, and bée afearde in sléeping, and that commeth of rotten∣nesse of corruption, and be wroth and a∣stonied without cause, and looke and be∣holde aboute, though nothing grieueth them: and if this eulil increase, then they begin to dreade and haue abhomination of all drinke, and then they dread water, and barke as houndes, and dread so wa∣ter, that they fall for dreade, and such die, but they be the sooner holpen with medi∣cine. Cures and remedyes looke before libro de Morbis, cap. de Veneno. Libro 29. Plinius sayth, that vnder the houndes tongue lyeth a Worme that maketh the hounde madde, and if this worme bée ta∣ken out of the tongue, then the euill cea∣seth. Also he sayth, that the violence and biting of a madde hound is so much, that his vrine grieueth a man if he treadeth thereon, and namely if hée haue a Botch or a wound. Also who that throweth his owne vrine vpon the vrine of a mad hound, he shall anone féele sore ach of the neather guts and of the lends.

Also an hound is wrathfull and ma∣licious, so that for is awreak himselfe, he biteth oft the stone that is throwen to him: and biteth the stone with great mad∣nesse, that he breaketh his own teeth, and grieueth not the stone, but his owne téeth full sore. Also he is guidefull and decei∣cable, and so oft he sickleth and fawneth with his tayle on men that passeth by the waye; as though he were a friends; and biteth them sore, if they take no héede backewarde. And the Hounde hateth stones and rods, and is bolde and hardye among them that hée knoweth, & busieth to bite and to feare all other, and is not bold when he passeth among straungers. Also he is couetous and gluttonous, and eateth therefore di•••rde: so gréedely, yt he perbraketh and tasteth it vp, but after∣ward when he is n hungred, he taketh again that yt he cast vp in foule manner. Also the hounds ••••tous, and therefore Auicen saith, yt he gathereth hearbs pri∣uely, by whom he purgeth himselfe with perbraking and casting, and hath anuye, and is right forrys if any man knoweth the vertue of those hearbes: and is also euill apaide, if any straunge houndes and vnknowne come into the place there hée dwelleth, and breadeth least he should face the worse for the other hounds presence, Page  356 and fighteth with him therefore. Also hée is couetous & scarse, and busie to lay vp & to hide the reliefe that he leaueth. And therefore he communeth not, nor giueth flesh and marrow boanes, that hée maye not deuoure to other houndes, but layeth them vp busily and hideth them vntil he hungreth againe. Also he is vncleane and lecherous. And so, li. 6. Aristot. saith, that hounds both male and female vse leche∣ry as long as they be aliue, & giue them to vncleannesse of lechery, yt they take no diuersitie betwéene mother and sister, and other bitches touching the déede of leche∣rie: and therefore offering of the price of an hounde or of a Bitch was accounted as vncleane by the law of Moses, as offe∣ring of ye price of a common woman: for such wretched persons serue in al lechery as hounds doe.

Also an olde hound is oft slowe and heauy. And so libr. 7. Aristotle saith, that houndes in age haue ye podagre, & few of them scape that euill, and therefore they sleepe in daytime vpon dunghills among flyes and other wormes, and be then fore grieued with Flyes, that be about theyr bleared eyen, and about theyr scabbed ei∣en. And though they bite and pearce som∣time the houndes eares, yet for slouth he taketh no comfort and strength to chase and driue them away: but vnneth when they flye agaynst his face, hée snatcheth at them with his mouth, and busieth to bite them with his téeth. And at the last the scabbed hound is violentlye drawen out of the dunghill with a roape or with a whippe bounde about his necke, and is drowned in the riuer, or in some other Water, and so hée endeth his wretched lyfe. And his skinne is not taken of, nor his fleshe is not eaten nor buryed, but left finallye to Flies and to other diuerse wormes.

Of Catulis. cap. 28.

WHelpes be called Catuli, and bée the children of hounds. And Catulus is a nowne diminitiue, & so is Catellus also. And by a manner misse vse the young of other beasts are called Catuli, as Isi. say∣eth, li. 12. And generally these whelps bée whelped blinde touching perfect dooing of sight: for hounds whelps be whelped with sawing téeth though they be full small. And all beasts that haue téeth like a saw and departed, be gluttons, and fight, as the Hound, the Woulfe, the Lion, yt Pan∣ther, & such other. And all such beasts gen∣der vnperfect broodes, as it is said before hand, in codem li. de Animalibus in ge∣nerali. And in all beastes that bringeth forth vnperfect young, the cause is glut∣tony, for if she shuld abide vntil ye whelps were compleate and perfect, they shoulde slay the mother with strong sucking: and therefore it néedeth that kind be hastie & spéedfull in such beastes. Looke before in eod. lib. For as Solinus saith, whelpes of houndes were in most worship among men in old time. As Plin. saith, li. 29. ca. 9 sucking whelps were accounted so pure & so good to meat among men in old time, yt they offred such whelpes to please their Gods in stéede of other beastes. And no∣thing was accounted better & more pro∣fitable against poison & venim. And yet to this day Authors commaund to take such whelpes wholsomely against veni∣mous bitings: for such whelpes opened & layd hot to the biting of Serpents, draw out venim, & abate the age, and maketh ye sore members whole with remedies laid therto, as he telleth. And as he sayth, such whelpes the sooner they bée whelped, the later they haue their sight, and the nobler milke they be nourished with, the more slower they receiue perfect sight, and yet while they be blinde, they loue their mo∣ther, and know her with voice and with odour, and séeketh her and her teates: and if it happen that the mother withholdeth the milke, they bite her teates with the sharpest téeth, and compell the mother to giue more largelye milke. And when they be an hungred they cry and whine, and séeke their dammes teates. Also it is sayd, that they sucke in the same manner of order, as they lay in the Bitch. And the whelpe that is best and strongest the mother taketh first to sucking, and lo∣ueth him best, and comforteth him. And meate shall bée with-drawne warilye and wisely from hunting houndes, least they waxe too fat by too much meate, for Page  [unnumbered] by too great fatnesse they take slouth, and be the slower to their praye and to run∣ning. And though they be melancholyke beasts of qualitie and of complection, yet they bée nimble and swifte by dispositi∣on of members, and bée gladde and me∣ry, and play much, and that is because of theyr age. And when they bée weaned from milke, they be able to be taught to hunting, and also to playeng, and to kée∣ping of beasts, and to defend them from Wolues. And houndes that be ordey∣ned to kéeping of houses shoulde bée clo∣sed and bound in a darke place by daye, and so they be the stronger by night, and the more cruell agaynst Théeues, for the office of such Houndes is to rest, and to sléepe by daye, and to wake by night, and to goe about courtes and closes a∣gaynst Théeues. For the hound is to be blamed, that waketh and barketh and goeth about by daye, and sléepeth and hi∣deth himselfe, and barketh not by night. Also that hounde is an euill hound, whe∣ther hée bée young or olde, that kéepeth and wardeth shéepe, and defendeth them from Wolues by daye in pasture, and strangleth and biteth them by night in the folde.

Of Castore. cap. 29.

*CAstor is a wonderous beast, & liueth and goeth in land among foure footed beasts, and swimmeth vnder water, and dwelleth with Fish that swimme ther∣in, and hath that name Castor, of Ca∣strando, gelding, as Isidore sayeth, libro 12. for their gendering stones accorde to medicine, and because of the same stones they geld themselues when they be ware of the hunter, & bite off their gendering stones, as hée sayth. Cicero speaketh of him and sayth, that they raunsome them∣selues with that parte of the bodye, for the which they bée most pursued. And Iuuenal sayth, that they geld themselues and loose theyr stones, for they desire to scape. And the Castor is called Fiber also, and is called a sea hound of Pontus. Huc vsque Isidor. Of Castoris Plinius spea∣keth, libro. 11. capitulo. 3. In Pontus hée sayth, is a manner kinde of beastes, that dwelleth now in lande and now in wa∣ter, and maketh houses and dens arayed with wonderfull craft in the brinkes of riuers and of waters. For these beastes liue together in flockes, and loue beastes of the same kinde, and commeth together and cutteth rods and stickes with theyr téeth, and bringeth them hoame to theyr dens in a wonderfull wise, for they laye one of them on the grounde vpryght in stéed of a slead or of a dray, with his legs and féete reared vpward, and lay & loade the stickes and wood betwéene his legges and thighes, and draweth him home to their dens, and vnlade and discarge him then, and make them dwelling places ryght strong by great subtiltye of craft. In theyr houses bée two chambers or thrée distinguished, as it were thrée cel∣lers, & they dwell in the ouer place when the water ariseth, & in the neather when the water is away, and each of them hath a certeine hole properly made in the cel∣ler, by the which hole he putteth out his taile in the water, for the taile is of fishy kind, he may not without water be long kept without corruption. And the beast is wonderfull and wonderfully shaped, for his taile onely is fish, and all the other deale of his bodye hath the kinde of a foure footed beast, and is shaped as a lit∣tle hounde, and his hinder feete bée as it were the féete of an hound, & therwith he goeth principallye in the lande, and his two fore feete be as it were Goose féet, & therewith he swimmeth principallye in water. His skinne is full precious and hath téeth longer and shorter as a hound, and is not swift of moouing, for his legs be full short. And Castor hath two gen∣dering stones that be greate in compari∣son to his little bodye, and we call these stones Castorea. And of these stones Pli∣nius speaketh li. 32. ca. 3. and sayth, That the Castor biteth off his gendring stones that we call Castoria, and that least he be taken of hunters. And Sextinus, a most diligent sercher of medicine, denieth this: For he saith, that those gendring stones cleaue so nigh & so fast to the ridge bone, yt they may not take them from the beast, but his life is taken also. Also Plat. sayth the same, and Dioscorides also: that that Page  357 beast is not so wary nor so witty, that he could helpe himselfe in yt manner. And that is known all day in Castoris that be found in diuers places. And so this that Isidore and Phisiologus tell of their gel∣ding, shall not so be vnderstood of the cō∣mon Castoris: But of some other beast yt be like Castores in gendering stones. And very Castorium & not feined, helpeth against the greatest euill of the bodye, as Plinius saith there, & namely if ye stones be of a Castor that is not too young nor too olde. And Castoria these stones be cho∣sen in this manner: For they be double, & hang by one string, and coupled by one sinew, for such may not soone be feined. And many men take ye bladder of a beast, and fill it full of Castoris bloud, and put thereto a little of ye Castor to haue smel, & a little pepper for to haue sharp sauour: and bindeth the necke of the bladder, for it should séeme a sinew, but it is impossi∣ble yt two bladders shoulde hang by one neck: and therefore ye Castorium is best, yt is double, & hangeth by one sinew. And ye Castorium is best that is meanly sharp in sauour. For if it be too sharpe, & as it were earthie, then it is feined, & namely if it haue not sinewes medled, as Diosc. saith. And so good Castorium is meanely sharp of sauour & glewie, without strong or salt sauour: for with Sal aromaticum oft Castorium is feined, as Pli. saith ther: The more feesh & new Castorium is, the better it is, & the more vertuous in me∣dicine. And it is a token that it is not feined, when the stones haue certeine skins yt cleaue essentially thereto full of vnctuous fatnesse, and may be kept seuen yeares in greate vertue, & shall be put in medicine without the vtter skin, and shal he weighed in due manner: and hath ver∣tue to dissolue and temper, to consume & to wast, and to abate euill humours, and namely to comfort sinewy members: and so Castorium helpeth against many sick∣nesses & euills, for it accordeth to them yt haue the falling euill, and helpeth against colde euills of the head, and doth awaye sodeine palsie of the tongue, and restoreth ye speech, if it be onely tempered in moy∣sture vnder the tongue, & helpeth against vniuersall & generall palsie of the body, if it be sod in wine with Rew and with Sage. And oft in meat & in drinke, exci∣teth, moueth, & comforteth the brain, and maketh to sneese: and therfore the Litar∣gike man, yt hath the sléeping euill, is a∣waked therwith, & prouoketh and causeth sléepe, if the head be anointed therwith, & Oleum Rosaceum, and helpeth against strong venim, & against the venim of scor∣pions, & of the serpent Cerastes, & of the Serpent Prester, as Plinius saith, libr. 8. cap. 3. Also his vrine helpeth in all the foresaid things, as he saith, and exciteth menstruall bloud, and helpeth concepti∣on, and many other dooings, & his grease is most effectuall and vertuous in Oint∣ments.

(*The Beuer is a greate deuourer of fish; as is the Otter.)

Of Ceruo. cap. 30.

THe Hart is called Ceruus, & hath ye name of Cereston in Gréeke, yt is an horne, as Isi. saith, li. 12. And he sayth there, that harts be enimies to serpents, which when they féele themselues grie∣ued with sicknesse, they draw them with breath of their nosethrills out of theyr dens & the mallice of ye venim ouercome, they are repaired with féeding of them. And they taught first the vertue of the hearb Diptannum, for they eat thereof, & cast out arrows & arrow heads,* whē they be wounded of hunters: and they wonder of noise of pipes, & haue liking in accord of melodye, & they heare well when they areare vp the eares, & beare downe the eares when they swim & passe riuers & great waters: and then in swimming the stronger swim before, and the féebles lay their heads vpon the loines of the stron∣ger, and swim each after other, and may the better indure with trauaile. Huc vs{que} Isid. And Plinius saith the same wordes lib. 8. cap. 34. And there he sayth moreo∣uer, that ye hart is a most pleasing beast, and tunneth wilfully and flieth to a man when he is ouer set with houndes: and when the hinde shall calue, she shunneth the lesse wayes and pathes, which bée troden with wilde beasts, whether they be common or priuy waies. After the ri∣sing Page  [unnumbered] of the starre Arturus, the hinde con∣ceiueth, and goeth with calfe eight mo∣neths, and calueth somtime two at once. And from the time of conception the fe∣males depart and goe awaye from the males, but the males leaue not raging of lecherie, but waxe cruell, and digge vp clots and stones with their feet, and then theyr snouts be black vntill they be wa∣shed with raine. An before caluing the females are purged, & they vse certain hearbs, by the which ye calfe is the better held within the wombe and she is the ea∣silier deliuered when she calueth: and af∣ter the caluing ye female eateth two man∣ner hearbes; Camum & Sisolis,* and com∣meth againe to her calfe: and so when she hath taken of ye iuyce of ye hearbe, she gi∣ueth her calfe sucke, and maketh her calfe vse to run and to make him ready to flie, and leadeth him into an high place, and teacheth him for to leape, and then the male is deliuered of the desire of lechery, and eateth busilye:* and when hée féeleth himselfe too fat, then hée séeketh dennes and lurking places, for he dreadeth do∣mage & harme by heauinesse of body: and when harts runne and flie, they continue not their course, but look anon backward: and when men come nigh to them, they séeke succour again of running & of flight. And they heare the cry of hounds, when their eares be reared vp, and then they flye fast, and perceiue no perill when the eares hang downeward, and be so simple that they wonder of all thing, and bée a∣stonied of new sightes. And so if an horse or a Bugle come to themward, they be∣holde him so earnestly, that they take no héede of a man that commeth to shoote at them: and when they swim ouer the sea in heards, they passe foorth in euen order and help each other, and come to the land, not by sight, but by smel. And because the Hart is an horned beast, among beastes the Hart hath this propertie, that hée chaungeth his hornes euerye yeare in springing time, and then hée is armour∣lesse. He séeketh him by day a priuy place, and hideth him vntill his newe hornes grow againe, & vntill he hath hornes and armour: And when he casteth his ryght horne, for enuie hée hideth it, and is sor∣rye if anye man haue medicine thereof. The age of Hartes is knowen by aunt∣lers and tines of his hornes, for euerye yeare it increaseth by a tine vntill sea∣uen yeare, and from that tines it grow∣eth all alike: And so the age may not be knowen thereby, but the age is knowen onely by the téeth. And the Hart hath few téeth or none; and hath no tines in the neathermost parte of the hornes, but before the forehead stande out the lesse tines.* And if they be gelded afore they haue hornes, afterward groweth on them no hornes, and if they be gelded after that the hornes be growen, then they loose neuer theyr hornes. And while hée is hornelesse, hée goeth to meate by night and not by daye: and he putteth his hornes in the heate of the Sun to make them sadde and harde, and froateth them afterwarde agaynst Trées softly, to assay the strength of them: and doth awaye the itching that he féeleth therein, by hard∣nesse of the rinde, and when he féeleth his hornes strong, then he goeth openlye to meate and to léese, and sometime hée froateth them against a trée that is com∣passed with Iuie, or with Weathwinde, and their hornes be snarled and fastened in it, and be sometime so taken. The hart is contrary to Serpentes, insomuch that Serpents flye and voyde the odour and smell of burning of an Hartes horne. His ruenning is good agaynst all biting of Serpentes, and the Hart liueth ryght long time, passing an hundered yeares, as it was knowen by Hartes that liued in Alexanders time, and that were taken an hundered yeares after his death, on the which Alexander had in his time marked with cheines of golde: The hart féeleth not the euill of the feauers, for hée is succoured with medicine agaynst the euill. Huc vsque Plinius libro. 8. capi∣tulo. 38.

Aristotle and Auicen meane, that the Hart is a beast without gall, but onelye in the guttes, and hath therefore bitter guts and stinking, and therefore hounds eate not his guttes, but if they bée pas∣sing sore an hungred. Also libro. 2. Ari∣stotle saith, that some men think that the Hartes gall is in the loungs, but that is Page  358 false, as Auicen saith, but he hath a ma∣ner moisture like to the moysture of the gall. Also he sayth, that the Harts bloud, and Hares bloud coniealeth neuer, but it is alway thin and fléeting against kind of all other beasts, and no beast chaung∣eth hornes, but Ceruus alone. And héere it séemeth, that he calleth Ceruus both Hart and Bucke. And Harts hornes be sound within, and be therefore heauye, but he changeth them not for heauines, and hath foure great téeth in the one side, and foure in the other, and he grindeth therewith his meate: and two other great téeth, as it were tuskes, and the male hath greater than the female, and bendeth downward, as Auicen saith.

Also libro octauo Aristo. saith, that some men suppose of the Hart, that hée is among all foure footed beastes, vsing the wood, most ready and wise, and the Hinde calueth nigh a waye, that other beasts spareth for comming of men, and flyeth the light of the Sunne with hir Calfe, and seeketh thicke places & darke, as dens and caues of stones, that haue but one entering: for there they maye fight with other beasts, for as hée saith, Harts fight each with other with strong fighting, and he that is ouercome, is right obedient to the victor, & they dread most the voyce of a Foxe & of a Hound, and sometime the Hart hideth himselfe, least hunters finde him, and slay him for his fatnesse. And he sayth there, that the Hart is hunted in this manner: a hun∣ter whisteleth and singeth, & the Harte hath liking therein, and another hunter tolleth him inward, and shooteth at him, and slayeth him: and when the Hart is areared, he flyeth to a riuer or to a pond and if he maye swim ouer the water, then he taketh comfort and strength, of the coldnes of the water, and scapeth the hunters. And the Hart roareth, cryeth, & wéepeth when he is taken. Also when the hounds followe him, if he findeth double wayes, he runneth not foorth∣right, but now hether and now thether, and leapeth thwart ouer wayes, and a∣side halfe, and then he purposeth to take a mightie large pace, and starteth with contrary leapings and startings, that it be the harder for the houndes, to finde and to followe his chase by odour and smel. Also as he saith, ye hinde hath great trauayle and payne when she calueth, and that is knowen by bending & croo∣king of the body, and by ruthfull crieng, and therefore she eateth of the hearbe Dragantea to be delyuered of hir. Calfe the more easely:* and when she hath cal∣ued, she eateth sodaynly. Secundina, the bagge that the Calfe is in, in ye mother, ere it fall to the ground, and the Secun∣dina is accounted venime, as he sayeth: Aristotle libro. 8: rehearseth other pro∣perties of the Harte, which Plinius re∣hearseth also. And li. 28. Pli. saith, That when the Hinde féeleth heauinesse, she swalloweth a stone, and is holp by ver∣tue of that stone: and the same stone is sometime found in hir entrayles when she is dead, and it is accounted, that this stone helpeth wonderfully women that goe with childe, and so doth the boane found in hir hart, as he saith: & that bone that is fonnde in the heart of an Hart, is passing profitable against many euils of the body, and is medled in all noble confections, as Dioscorides saieth, and Constantine also.

(*The pisell of the Hart dryed into pouder and dronke, is good against the Collicke and stopping of water. Giue the boane of a Harts heart, ground, to a barren woman in drinke, and thou shalt sée the glory of God. Gesner foorth of Galen. There is a stone of great va∣lew against poyson, called the Beswar stone, which as Gesner writeth, when the Hart is sicke, and hath eaten manye Serpents for his recouerie, is brought into so great a heate, that he hasteth to water, and there couereth his body, vn∣to the very eares & eyes, at which time, distilleth many teares, from the which, the sayd stone is gendred, &c.)

¶Of Ceraste. cap. 31.

CErastes is an horned Serpent, as Isi∣dore telleth li. 10. and hath hornes in either side of the head, crooked & wrin∣kled as the hornes of a Ramme: and he hydeth all his body in grauell and sand, Page  [unnumbered] and onelye leaueth his hornes vncoue∣red: and foules sée them, and think that they be wormes, and lyght vpon them, & intend to feede themselues therewith, and then the false and guylefull serpent, taketh sodainly the fowles ere they bee ware.

Also this Serpent lyeth in a waight, in wayes and in priuie places, and sueth both men and horses, that passe vnware∣ly by the wayes, and slayeth them with priuie biting. And the Glose super pen. cap. Gines. sayth, as it séemeth, that Ce∣rostes is a manner kinde of Serpent, so malitious and venemous, that if onely his venime toucheth an horses hoose, it slayeth both horse and man. And there∣fore wher we haue, Fiat Dan sicut Co∣lubet in via, Cerastes in semita: ye other lether hath, Fiat sicut Coluber in via, & sicut Regulus in locato. Other men meane, that Cerastes is a manner Serpent, most venemous, and most ma∣lytious. Looke before in litera A. De Aspide, for there is mention made of Cerastes.

(*Cerastes, a Serpent with a verye lyttle bodie, and hornes crooked lyke a Ramine.)

¶Of Cornu. cap. 32.

COrnu an horne, as Arist. saith. lib. 3. is of the kind of a bone, and is more softer than a boane, and is more harde than gristells, as hooues and clawes of beasts: and all such may be bathed and made softe with fire, as he sayeth there, that the colour of hornes, and of soles of beasts, is after the colour of the haire of the body of the beast. And so if that the skinne be blacke and the haire also, the hornes be blacke, and so of other colour. And hornes are giuen to beastes to de∣fend them with, in stéed of armour and weapon, and are therefore set in ye ouer∣most part of the head, that they may al∣way be ready to withstand wrongs and enemyes.

And all hornes be voyde and hollow within, except Harts hornes, that be hard and sound within, & haue many tyndes and auntiers: and no beast chaungeth his hornes but the Hart alone, and so it seemeth that Ceruus is the name of the Hart, and of the Bucke, and of the Roe bucke: and the Hart changeth his horns each yeare once, and hideth that one, so that vimeth it may be found. Therefore it is sayd 3. Prouer. Go there as ye Hart casteth his horne. Libro. 8. it is sayde, that the hornes be faster ioyned to the skinne than to the boane, and therefore Arist. saith, that some beasts moue the hornes as well as the eares, in ye coun∣trey that is called Aufrage, and Auicen saith the same, and Aristotle sayth so of this lande that is so called, and the same matter is matter of hornes & of hooues: for smoake that passeth by vapours, and is resolued by heate of the heart, is mat∣ter of hooues and of hornes, as Const. saith.

And therefore beasts hauing much a∣boundaunce of smoke, that is resolued & departed by the right strong and seruent heate of the hearte, and conuayed, and brought out vnto the vttermost partes of the bodye, by vertue of heate: suche beasts haue great hornes and strong, & namelye if this smoakie matter be not to subtill, and tourneth not to haire: or if it be not too thicke and earthy, and tourneth not into téeth and tuskes. And therefore Aristotle saith at best, libro tercio, capitulo de dentibus, that beasts with teeth and tuskes in either iawe, haue no horns, as it fareth of Elephants and Bores.

Also all foure footed beasts with téeth in either iawe alone, and be cloue fooled haue hornes, and chewe their cudde, and haue two wombes, and some haue moe wombes, as it is sayde before hande, and so pluralitie of hornes follow the clefte of the foote. Therefore the Asse of Inde, that is called Asinus Indicus, hath an horne alone, and is foure footed, as Ari. saith and Auicen also. And there is so great affinitie betwéene houes, clées, & hornes, that Aristotle commaundeth to annoynt with Oyle and other medi∣cines betwéene the hornes, a Cow that hath sore ache in the clées of the féete. Of profit and goodnesse of hornes it is treated before in litera. B. de Boue.

Page  359(*In the olde time was made of hornes (beaten flat) armour for men, of diuers strange fashions, shields and tar∣gets, and the endes of manye weapons armed therewith. Horne is applyed to many good vses.)

Of Cunneyes in generall, newly added.

AS for those small beasts, bréeding in warrens, Parkes, or closures among vs, according to the soyle where they breed, so are they of goodnesse in flesh.

The skinnes are a good furre, especially the blacke, mixed with white haires, called siluer haires. There is brought forth of Turkey, Cunnies called Por∣cello Indico, because their haire is short as a Pigges haire, and reddish: more lyke the Rats of Indie, than Connyes. Peter Martyr in his description of the new Ilandes, writeth of thrée sortes of Cunnyes, whereof I suppose ours are the best.

¶Of Crocodilo. ca. 33.

CRocodilus hath that name of yelow colour,* as Isido. sayth, and is a foure footed beast, as Isidore sayth, libro. 12. ca∣pit. de Piscibus, and dwelleth both in water and in lande, and is nigh twentye cubites long, & is armed with great teeth and clawes, and his skinne is so harde, ye he regardeth not though he be strong∣ly beaten on the backe with stones, and resteth in water by night, and by day in land, and layeth egges in the lande, that are greater that Goose egges, and the male and female kéepeth times & houres: and a certaine fish hauing a creast lyke to a sawe, renteth his tender womb, and slayeth him: and it is sayd, that among beasts onely the Crocodile moueth the ouer iawe, all this Isidore sayth. And Plinius libro. 8. ca. 16. sayth, in this ma∣ner, The Crocodile is a beast, & dwel∣leth in the riuer Nilus, & among beasts of the land he is tonguelesse, and onelye his ouer iawe moueth, and his biting is venimous: his teeth be horrible, & strong∣ly shapen as a combe or a saw, and as a Bores tuske, and no beast that commeth of so lyttle beginning, wexeth so great as the Crocodile, and is a beast nourish∣ed in great gluttenie, and cateth right much, and so when he is full, he lyeth by the brinke or by the cliffe, and bloweth for fulnesse, and then there commeth a little bird, which is called Cuschillus a∣mong them, and is called king of foules among the Italians, and this bird flyeth before his mouth, and sometime he put∣teth the bird off, and at the last, he ope∣neth his mouth to the birde, and suffe∣reth him to enter. And this bird claweth him first with clawes softly, and maketh him haue a manner lyking in clawing, and falleth anone asléepe, and when this bird Cuschillos knoweth and perceiueth that this Beast sléepeth, anone hée de∣scendeth into his wombe, and foorth∣with sticketh him as it wer with a dart, and biteth him full grieuouslye and full sore.

The Crocodile is right softe and full tender in the wombe, and for that cause he is soone ouercōe of such fishes, which haue sharpe prickes and creastes grow∣ing on their backes on high. And for this cause Plinius sayth, that this grim and most horrible beast followeth & pur∣sueth them that flye, and is dreadfull to them, and be flieth Serpentes, and hath dimme eyen while he is in water, and séeth too sharply when he is out of wa∣ter: and be hideth him in winter, name∣ly foure months, and commeth out in Springing time, and groweth still, all the time that he is alyue, as it is sayde. Huc vsque Plin. lib. 8. cap. 26. Phisiolo∣gus saith, that if the Crocodile findeth a man by the brim of the water or by the cliffe, he slayeth him if he may, and then he wéepeth vpon him, and swalloweth him at the last. And Plinius sayth, that of his dirte is made an oyntment, and with that Oyntment, women annoynt their owne faces, and so olde women & riueled, séeme young wenches for a time: and the Crocodile eateth gladlye good hearbes and grasse,* among whom lurk∣eth a litle serpent, that is called Enidros, and is enemy to the Crocodile, & hideth him priuely in the grasse, and wrappeth Page  [unnumbered] himselfe therein, and so while the Cro∣codile eateth grasse, he swalloweth this serpent, and this serpent entreth into his wombe, and all to renteth his guts, and slayeth him, and commeth out harmles. Also Isidore saith the same libro. 12. and sayth, that the same worme lyeth in a∣wayte on the Crocodile when he slée∣peth, and then wrappeth himselfe in fen, and entreth in betwéene his teeth, and commeth into his body. And héereto So∣linus saith, that the Crocodile lyeth in awayte on certaine small birdes, yt bréed among the grasse of the riuer Nilus, the which birdes flye into the womb of the Crocodile, for heate of the Sunne, and eateth the wormes of his wombe: and so that fierce beast is cleansed and puri∣fied of wormes, and his skin is so harde, that vnneth it may be pearced with a sword, and so dwelleth in lande by day, and in water by night: for the water is hotter by night than by daye, for the water holdeth the Sunne beames, and be moued, and so the water is hotte, and this Beast hath no tongue, stret∣ching outwarde to make voice there∣with, but he hath a lyttle tongue with∣in as fish haue for tast of sauour, as So∣linus sayeth, and Aristotle, and Aui∣cen also.

(*The Crocodill, an ill beast bred in Aegypt, lyuing partly in water, and on land, in fashion lyke a Dragon, but with very small eyes, long teeth and sharpe: he moueth onely the vpper iawe, and hath great & strong nayles or clawes, his skinne is vnpearceable, scalye and browne coloured: he deuoureth man & beast comming by Nilus. There hath bene séene of them twentie foote long, or after some 22. cubites. Of late yeares, there hath bene brought into England, the cases or skinnes of such Crocodiles to be séene, and much money giuen for the sight thereof, the policy of strangers, laugh at our folly, either that we are too wealthy, or else that we know not how to bestow our money.)

¶Of Colubro. cap. 34.

AN Adder is called Coluber, as it wer Colens vmbras, dwelling in shad∣dowes. Or els he hath ye name Coluber, for he slydeth and wiggeleth in slipperye draughts and wrinckles, and in slimie passing: for all that slydeth while it is helde, is called Lubricum, as Papias sai∣eth. The Adder Coluber flyeth ye Hind, and slayeth the Lyon, as Isidore sayth, & he eateth Rew, and chaungeth his skin, and loueth hollownesse of woode and of trées, and drinketh milke busely: and he hurteth and grieueth with the téeeth, and with the tayle, and sheddeth ven;m, and lyeth in the Sun vnder hedges, and suc∣keth bitches, eateth flyes, and lycketh pouder. Looke before De Angue. And Plinius lib. 30. ca. 4. saith, that the greace of the water Adder Coluber, helpeth a∣gainst the biting of the Crocodile. And if a man haue with him the gall of this Adder, the Crocodil shal not grieue him nor noy him: and that most ieoperdous and fearfull beast dare not, nor maye doe against him in no manner of wise, dommage nor griefe, which beareth the gall of the sayd Adder.

(*The Adder is not much vnlike the water Snake, onely the head flatter like a Newte, the skinne more browne, and at the tayle a hard tippe, lyke a spur of a young Cocke, and is verye vene∣mous.)

¶Of Damula. cap. 35.

DAmula and Dama also is a wilde Goate, as Papias saith. And libro. 12. Isid. saith, that the wild Goate is called Damula, and is a fearfull beast, and dare not fight, & so cannot defend him but by flight, and in stéede of armour and we∣pon, this wilde Goate hath ablenesse & lightnesse to runne and to fly. And Mar∣cianus sayth.

Dente tuetur Aper, defendunt cor∣nua Ceruum.
Imbelles Damae, quid nisi praeda sumus?

The Bore defendeth him with tuskes, and the Hart with hornes, and we wilde Goates fight not, what be we but pray? Page  360 The wilde Goate loueth mountaines & woodes, and eateth medicinall hearbes & grasse, with good smell, and gathereth and biteth crops and stalkes of twigs, and of and of branches, and when he is woun∣ded, he eateth Dragantea, and taketh so the arrow out of the bodie.* The bloude thereof is medicinall, as Plin. sayth libr. 28. for it softneth sinews that be shronk, and doth away ache of the ioynts, and smiteth and putteth out venime. Ser∣pents hate and flye the wilde Goate, & may not suffer the breath of him, as hée saith. This Goate is most sharpe of sight, and swifte of course and of run∣ning. Looke before in eodem, De Caprea agrosti.

¶Of Dromedario. cap. 36.

DRomedarin: is an heard and kéeper of Dromedes; and Dromedus is a manner kind of a Camell, as Isid. sayth lib. 12. And he saith that Dromedus is a maner kinde of Camell, and lesse in sta∣ture than a Camell, and is much swif∣ter of course and running: and hath therefore the name Dromedus, of swift running, which is called Drombs in Gréeke, and the Dromedus goeth an hundred miles and twentie and more in ane daye, and the same beast cheweth his 〈…〉 an Oxe and a Camell, and so Dromedarri be masters of Dromedis, properly so speake, as Papias saith. But the Glose super f••. 60. saith, that both Dromedarius and Dromis is accounted a beast lesse than a Camell, and much more swifte. And Mudian and Epha be countreys beyond Arabia, and therin be many Dromedaries, and be ge••th in youth & be the more 〈…〉 to runne as Auicen saith, lest they be letted of their running, by desire & liking of females: and are so swifle by reason of long pa••〈…〉 for they haue most large pce, as Aristotle saith, and Auicen and Pli∣nith〈…〉 and also for great heate: for it is the most hottest beast of kinde complection, and so strong heat consu∣meth land wastreth in him all ventositie and fastnesse, and suffereth him not to 〈…〉 ouercharged with much flesh and fat¦nesse. Also for ablenesse of members, for his legges be long and small, and full of sinnewes, and is therefore lyght and a∣ble to mouing, and strong to continue course and running, and is a light beast for scarcitie of meate, for it is not a beast of much meate, but is sufficed with lyt∣tle meate, and scarcely eateth heye, and rindes, and loueth well the stoanes of dates, and is content with them at euen after right long iourneyes. As Plinius saith, his bloud is full hot, sharpe, and thin: therefore milke of Dromedaries is full thin, and fléeting, more than milk of other beasts, as Constantine sayth, & lesse nourishing, and more heating, and more departing thicke humoures. Looke before De Camelo, that hath nigh the verye same propertyes that this Beast hath.

¶Of Dipsade. cap. 37.

DIpsas and Dipsades is the feminine gender, and is a Serpent that is cal∣led Situla in Latine, and hath that name Sytula for it that he biteth dyeth for thirst, as Isidore saith libro. 12. And such Adders are subtill and small, and vnneth they be séene when men tread on them. The venim of them slayeth or it be felt, so that vneth he féeleth sorenesse and shall dye, and is a manner kinde of Serpents, as it is sayde before De Aspide, Looke there.

Of Dracone. cap. 38.

THe Dragon is called Draco, and is most greatest of all Serpents, as Isi∣dore saith lib. 12. The Gréekes call him Draconia, and ofte he is drawen out of his den, and réeseth vp into the aire, and the aire is moued by him, & also the Sea swelleth against his venime, & he hath A creast with a lyttle mouth, and draw∣eth breath at small pipes and straight, & reareth his tongue, and hath téeth lyke a saw, & hath strength, & not only in téeth, but also in his tayle, and grieueth both with biting & with stinging, & hath not so 〈…〉 as other serpents: for to Page  [unnumbered] the ende to slay any thing, to him ve∣nime: is; not néedfull: for whom he fin∣deth he slayeth, and the Elephant is not ••re from him, for all his greatnesse of body, for he lurketh in the waye, where the Elephant goeth, and bindeth & span∣neth his legs and strangleth and slateth him. The Dragon bréedeth in Ide and in Aethiopia, there as is great burning of continuall heat, as Isidore saith li. 12.

Plin. li. 8. ca. 13. speaketh of the dra∣gon and saieth, that the Dragon is xx. cubites great, and bréedeth among the Aethiopes. Ofte foure or fiue of them, fasten theyr tayles togethers, and tea∣reth vp the heads, & sayle ouer sea, and ouer riuers, to get good meate. Also cap. 12. besayeth. Betwéene Elephants and Dragons is euerlasting fighting, for the Dragon with his tayle bindeth & span∣neth the Elaphaunt, and the Elephaunt with his foote, and with his nose throw∣eth downe the Dragon, and the Dragon with his tayle, bindeth and spanneth the Elephants legges and maketh him fall: but the Dragon buyeth it full sore, for while he slayeth the Elephant, the Ele∣phant falleth vppon him, & slayeth him?

Irem ca. 14. The Elephant séeing the Dragon vpon a tree, busieth him to break the tree to suite the dragon, and the dra∣gon leapeth vpon the Elephant, and bu∣sieth to bite him betwéene the nosethrile, and assayleth the Elephants eyen, and maketh him blynde some time, and leapeth vppon him some time behinde, and byteth him, and sucketh his bloude, and at the last, after long fighting, the Elephant wexeth féeble for great blindnesse insomuch, that he fal∣leth vpon the Dragon, and slayeth in his dieng, the Dragon that him slayeth.

The cause why the Dragon desireth his bloud, is coldnes of the Elephants bloud by the which the Dragon desireth to coole himselfe, as Isi. saith super illum locum Leuitic. 14. Attraxerunt ventum sicut Dracones, They drew winde as Dra∣gons.

There Ierome sayth, that the Dra∣gon is a full thirstie beast, insomuch, that vnueth he may haue water inough to quench his great thirst: and openeth his mouth therefore against the winde, to quench the burning of his thirste in that wise. Therfore when he séeth ships sayle in the sea in great winde, he flieth against the saile, to take ther cold wind, and ouerthroweth the ship somtime for greatnesse of body and by strong réese a∣gainst the saile, and when the shipmen sée the Dragon come nigh, and knowe his comming by water that swelleth a∣gainst him, they strike the sayle anone, & scape in that wise.

Also Solinus saith, that Aethiopians vse Dragons bloude, against burning heate, and eate the flesh against diuers euills, for they can depart the venimme from his flesh: and he hath venim on∣ly in his tongue and in his gall, & ther∣fore they cut off the tongue, and throw away the gall, in which the venime is receiued: and so when the venim is ta∣ken away, they vse the other deale of the bodie, both in meate and in medicine. And it séemeth, that Dauid toucheth this, where he sayth: Dedisti eum efcam populis Aethiopium, Thou gauest him for meate to the people of Aethi∣opia.

Also Plin. saith, that for might of the venime, his tongue is alway areared, & somtime he setteth the ayre on fire, by heate of his venime, so that it séemeth that he bloweth and casteth fire out of his mouth: and sometime he bloweth out outragious blastes, and thereby the aire is corrupted and infected, and there∣of commeth pestilent euilles, and they dwell somtime in the sea, and sometime swine in riuers, and lurke sometime in caues and in dens, & sléepe but seldome, but wake nigh alway. And they deuour beasts and sowles, and haue right sharp sight, and sée therefore their pray a farre out of mountaines, and fight with biting strokes and stinging, & setteth him most on the eyen and nose of the beast that he fighteth with.

Therefore Plin. saith li. 8. That hée grieueth most the Elephant in the eyen and in the mouth, and maketh him ofte blinde, so that sometime the Elaphaunt maye not eate and dyeth therefore in that wise.

Page  361Also of the Dragon Arist. speaketh lib. 7. and sayth, that the Dragons biting, that cateth venemous beastes is peril∣lous, as the Dragons biting that eateth Scorpions, for against his biting vnneth is any remedy or medicine founde. Also lib. 28. Plinius sayth, that all venemous beasts flye and voyd the greace and fat∣nesse of the dragon: and his greace med∣led with honnie, cureth and healeth dim∣nesse of eyen. Also libr. 7. Aristot. saith, those Fishes dye; that are bitten of the Dragon.

(*Of the wonderfull greatnesse of Dragons and how manye sortes hath bene, and of the mischiefes they haue done, read the Chronicle of the Doome.)

¶Of Equo. chap. 39.

HOrses are called Equi, & haue that name for they are ioyned and cou∣pled in cartes or in Chariots, euen, and and not odde, and they be also coupled in shape and in course. Also the horse is called Caballus, and hath that name of his hollow féete: for he maketh there∣with a caue or a pit in the ground there he goeth, and other beasts haue no suche féete, as Isidore saith lib. 12. And among many men the horse is called Sonipes, for he foundeth with his féete. And hor∣ses are ioyfull in fields, and smell Bat∣tayles, and be comforted with noyse of trumpets, to battaile and to fighting: & be excited to runne with noyse that they know, and are sorie when they be ouer∣come, and glad when they haue the ma∣sterie, and so feeleth and knoweth theyr enemies in battaile, so farre foorth, that they arise on their enimies with biting and smiting: and also some know theyr owne Lords, and forgetteth mildnesse, if their Lords be ouercome: & some horse suffereth no man to ride on his backe, but onely his owne Lord. and manye horses wéepe when their Lords be dead: and it is sayd that horses weepe for sor∣row, right as a man doth, and so ye kind of horse and of man, is medled in Cen∣taures, such beastes. Also ofte men that all sight, take euidence and diuine gesse that shall befall by sorrowe, or by the ioye that the Horse maketh. Horses of Persia, or of Cicilia, liue long time, fif∣tie yeare and more: and horses of Gal∣lia, of Inde, and of Spaine line lesse time. And héereto Isidore saith, that old men meane, that in gentle horses, noble men take héede of foure things: of shape & of fairenesse, of wilfulnesse and of colour. Of shape, that he be strong and sadde of body, and according to strength & might and height, and length, and breadth, that the side be long, and some deale small, that the loynes be great, and the thighs round and large, and broad breasted, and all the body full sad, and full of brawne, and the foote drye, and hoofe hollow and sad. Fairnesse is knowen by lytle head, and the skinne cleauing nigh to ye bone, if the eares be little and sharpe, if the eyen be great and the nosethrills large, if he beareth vp the head, if the maane be thicke, and the tayle long, and if the hoofe be well pight and round. The wil∣fulnesse is knowen, if he be bold of hart, and swifte of féete, if ye members quake: it is token of strength, and if he be soone areared, and riseth soone from great rest: or els, if he be soone stinted in swifte course and running. The colour is kno∣wen, for the coulour in them, is nowe red, now blacke, nowe white, and nowe graye, and now diuers, and now specke∣led. The diuers colour beautifieth much or disfigureth an horse, and is a token to know strength and will of a horse: but to pursue by order, and to make processe orderly, it were long. Huc vsque Isido∣rus. libro. 12. Libro. 7. capitulo. 43. Plinius speaketh of the Horse, and saith: That the Horses of Scythia fight for their Lordes, and eschewe to ingender with their owne damme, for in them is a manner knowledge of kinred. And Aristotle speaketh héereof libro. 8. and sayth, that a King of the North hadde a very fayre Mare, that foaled him a very faire horse: and the king would haue had some Colte gotten of the same horse of his owne damme, and couered hir face: when the Mares head was vncouered, anone the horse knew hir, and fled, and fell downe from an high place, and dyed for sorrowe.

Page  [unnumbered]Also in company of Mares, the horse goeth more gladly with the mare colts, than with his damme, and be glad with the noyse of Simphonie and of a trum∣pet, and starteth and réeseth on his ene∣mies, and bodeth warre and fighting, & wéepeth. for their friends and Lordes: and these horses are accounted best, in warre & in battaile, that thrust the head déepest into the water when they drink, for he meaneth, that such horses bée not let in running with heauinesse of vrine. Also libr. 28. cap. 9. he sayth, that the gall of an horse is accounted among venim, and therefore it was not lawfull for I∣dolatrous Priestes to touche the horse: his fresh bloud and raw is venemous, as the bloud of a Bull: the Horse foame dronke with Asses milke slayeth vene∣mous wormes. Also Aristotle and Aui∣cen meane, that ye horse casteth his téeth, and the elder he is, the whiter are his téeth. Also libro. 5. Aristotle saith, that the male horse lyueth xxv. yere, and gen∣dereth from thrée yeare to xxv. And the Mare liueth longer, and gendereth to xl. yeare: and when the horse beginneth to gender, then his voyce is greater, and so fareth the Mares also, and they loue the worke of generation more than other beasts, as he sayth libro 5. Also lib. 7. he saith, that sometime horses haue the po∣dagre, and loose the soales of theyr féete, and then groweth new: and the signe héereof is quaking of the right gendring stone, and horses that be fed in houses, haue an euill that is called Illiaca pas∣sio, and the token therof is, that the hin∣der members crimpleth togethers, and be constrayned, and this horse is tyed from his meate, and if he be let bloud he shall be holpe. And also an horse hath shrinking of sinewes, and the token ther¦of is, that all the veynes be straight vp∣pon the head and the necke, and it grie∣ueth him for to goe. Also horses gather venimme, and haue another euill in the mouth that is called Forem, and the to∣ken of this euil is, that that matter fal∣leth to the roofe of the mouthe, and his breath is hot, and this euill is without remedy, except it heale by himselfe. And somtime an horse is mad, and the token token thereof is, that his eares bend to∣ward the necke, and this euill hath no medicine. And the horse hath sickenesse in the bladder, and the token thereof is, that he may not pisse, and also he draw∣eth his loynes and soles. Also an horse is bitten grieuously with a flye that is cal∣led Mugelis. The biting of that Flye,* grieueth full sore both Horses & Mules: for he maketh to rise theron both blains, and whelkes,* and oftentimes horses dye by venime thereof. And the horse know∣eth his neighing, that will fight with him, and hath lyking to stand in medes and to swim in water, and to drinke troublous and thicke water, and if the water be cléere, the horse stampeth and stirreth it with his foot, to make it thick. Huc vsque Arist. lib. 6.

¶Of Equa. cap. 40.

THe Mare is called Equa, & that name commeth of the name Equus. And li. 7. Arist. saith, that if a Mare being with foale smelleth the snuffe of a candle, she casteth hir foale. Item, Idem Mares go in léese together, and if one of them dye, and leaue hir Colte aliue, another Mare feedeth and nourisheth him, for the kind of Mares loueth beasts of ye same kinde. Also libro. 8. cap. 42. Plin. saith, That a Mare foaleth standing, and loueth hir Coltes passing other beastes: and if a Colte léeseth his damme, another Mare feedeth and nourisheth him, and loueth him as it were hir owne. Also he sayth that in the forehead of the Colte bréed∣deth a blacke skinne, of the quantitie of a Sedge, and the Mare lycketh it with hir tongue, and taketh it away, and re∣ceiueth neuer the Colt to suck hir teats, except it be first taken away. And Plyn. calleth that skinne Veneficium amo∣ris, for women that be witches, vse that skinne in their charmings, when they will excite a man to loue. Also Aristo∣tle sayth, that the Mare is proude, and hath ioye of hir mane, and is sory when it is shorne: and when hir maane is short, hir lyking of lechery is quenched: as though the vertue of loue, wer in the maane.

Page  362Also lib. 8. Arist. saith, that a Birde that is called Ibis, fighteth with the horse, because the horse driueth hir out of hir pasture and léese, for Ibis is féeble of sight, and hath a voyce as an horse, & when he flyeth aboue an horse, he sto∣nieth him, and maketh him flye, & slay∣eth him somtime.

(*That is a Fable, for the birde is but of the bignesse of a Snype, and a ve∣ry filthy and stinking bird.)

¶Of Poledro. ca. 41.

A Colte is called Poledrus, and Pul∣lus equinus, also: and is a Mares sonne, and hath that name while he suc∣keth. And li. 7. Arist. saith, that in his forhead when he is foaled, is found Ico∣nemor, that is called also, Amoris vene∣ficium, and the Mare licketh it off with hir tongue, and taketh it away, and hy∣deth or eateth it: and women Witches haue prouerbes thereof as he saith. Also li. 13. he sayth, that the hinder part of the Colte is more than the former part, and when the Colte wexeth, the former part wexeth vpward, and therefore in manye horses, the former part is higher than the hinder: and therfore while he is a colte he maye touch his head with his hinder foote, and maye not so when he is of age: and all the while he is a Colte, he loueth his damme with wonderfull great affection, and followeth hir, where¦euer she goeth, and if it happeneth that he léeseth hir, he presently neigheth.

The Colte is not lyttered with strawe, nor curried with an horse combe, nor arayed with trapping, and gaye har∣nesse, nor smitten with spurs, nor sadled with a saddell, nor tamed with bridle: but he followeth his dam fréely, and ea∣teth grasse, and his féete be not pearred with nayles, but he is suffered to runne hether and thether fréely, but at the last he is set to worke and to trauayle, and is helde and tyed, and lead with halters and with raynes, and taken from his damme, and may not sucke his dammes teates, but he is taught in manye man∣ner wise to goe easely and softe, and as Isi. saith li. 18. he is set to cartes, chary∣ots, and chaires, and to trauell and bea∣ring of horsemen in chiualry.

The silly horse colte is foaled to diuers happes of fortune: for Isi. saith in eod. libro, that horses were sometime hallo∣wed in diuers vsage of the Gods: for chariot horse were ordayned and hallo∣wed to the Sunne, for foure chaunges of the Sunne in one yeare. In Springing time, in Summer, in Haruest, and in Winter, the which times chaungeth by vertue of the Sunne. And carte horses were hallowed to ye Moone, that is séene in double time by night and by daye.

Therefore they that worship ye Moone, couple alway two horses, a white and a blacke: and thrée horses that drew in one carte, they hallowed to the Gods of hel, for fiends draw to them men in thrée a∣ges, in childhood, in youth, and in age.

And these men coupled togethers horses of diuers colors, and durst not well cou∣ple togethers past seauen horses at once, and lykened that number to the seauen starres, by the mouing of the which sea∣uen starres they supposed generally that the world is ruled: or els to the num∣ber of seauen dayes, for by the passing about of the seauen Circles, they saye, that this lyfe passeth and endeth: and describeth therefore wonderfully the co∣lours of horses, as Isid. sayth there. For they hallowed red horses to the Fire,* or to the Sunne: and white to the Aire: and browne to the earth: and blew to the Water and to the Sea. And they rode red horses in Summer, for then all thing héateth: & white horses in win∣ter, for then all thing whiteth by colde & by frost: and graye in springing time, for then all thing wexeth gréene: and browne and blacke in Haruest, for then all thing dryeth, & fayleth as it were, of the first fairnesse. And also ther he saith, ye they halowed red horses to Mars, that is named God of battayle & of warre, or for the banners of the Romanes wer dressed with redde silke, or for Mars had ioye and lyking in bloud. And they hal∣lowed white horses to the West coun∣trey, or to the fayre weather: and gréene to the flowers of the earth: and blewe to the sea and to the water, for water is blewish of coulour: and they hallowed yeolow horses, and horses of diuers co∣lours Page  [unnumbered] and purpured, to the Rain-bowe, that they call Arcum, for the Raine-bow hath many colours: and this cur∣sed doing men vsed somtime by procu∣ring and inticing of fiends, about the E∣lements of the world, as Isidore saith. Therefore this world is to be dispised, for manie hath fulfilled the lykenesse of Sathanas. Huc vsque Isidorus libro. 8. And now at the last, take héede of the horse colte: for the going and pace, hard or softe, easie or vneasie, that he vseth in youth, vnneth he may leaue it in age.

(*The Irish Hobbie, and the Genet of Naples, the Coursers of Tartaria, & the Englysh stoned horses, are the foure principall & best kindes of horses in the world: the Flemish Mare for the brée∣ding.)

¶Of Elephante. cap. 42.

THe Elephant is called Elephas, and Elephantus also, and hath that name of Elphio in Gréeke, that is to saye, an hill, and that for great quantitie of his body: but the Indies call him Barro, & therefore his voyce is called Barritus, and his téeth are called Ehur, and his snowte and wroote is called Promuscis, or Proboscis, for therewith he bringeth his meate to his mouth, as Isido. sayth, libro. 12. and sayeth, that this Beast is sharpe in wrath and in battayle. Uppon these beasts the Medes and Perses vsed to fight in towers of trée, and threwe & shot out darts, as it were out of towers and Castles. These beasts haue wit and minde passing other beastes, and goe in feare in their manner going, and voyd & flye the mouse, and doe the déede of ge∣neration backward: and the female fo∣leth in water or in wood, and leaueth hir foale where she foaleth, because of dra∣gons that be enemies to them, and span∣neth them and slaieth them: she goeth with foale two yeares, and gendereth not but once, & he lyueth thrée hundred yeare, as Isid. saith li. 12. And lib. 8. ca. 1. Pli. saith, that among beasts ye Elephant is most of vertue: so ye vneth among men is so great redines sound. For as he tel∣leth, in ye new Moone they come together in great companies, and bath and wash them in a riuer, & come so together in the new of ye Moone, & lot each to o∣ther, & turne so againe to their owne pla∣ces, & they make the young go before in the turning againe, & kéepeth them busi∣ly, & teach them to do in the same wise: and when they be sicke, they gather good hearbs, and ere they vse the heards,* they heaue vp the head and looke vp towarde heauen, & pray for help of God in a cer∣taine Religion: and they be good of wit, & learne well, & are easie to teach, inso∣much yt they be taught to know ye king, & to worship him, and busieth to do him reuerence, & to bend ye knées in worship of him. Also ca. 5. it is said, that if Ele∣phants sée a man comming against them that is out of the way in wildernes, for that they wold not afray him, they will draw themselues somewhat out of the way, & then they stint, & passe little & lit∣tle before him, and teach him the way, & if a dragon come against him, they fight with ye dragon, & defend ye man, & put them forth to defend the man strongly & mightely, and doe so namely when they haue young foales: for they dred yt the man séeketh their foales, & therfore they purpose first to deliuer them of ye man, yt they may more safely féed their yoūg, & keep them ye more warely. Also li. 8. ca. 6. Alway they goe together, & the eldest leadeth ye company, & the next in age hel∣peth in the doing. When they shal passe ouer a riuer or a water, they send ye yoūg before, lest ye foord were let by cōming of ye more Elephants, & so they might not passe conueniently. Also among them is a strange shamefastnes: for if one of thē be ouercome, he ye is ouercome, flyeth the voice of ye victor, & they doe ye déedes of generation in priuy places, when ye male is fiue yeres old, & the females x. yere, & that but in two yeare, as he telleth: & in these two yeare, but onely fiue daies, & seldome the sixt day, as he saith: and be full perillous in time of generation, and namely the wilde Elephants, for they throw downe houses and stables of the Indians, and therefore the Indians hide that season their tame female Elephāts.

And Elephants bée best in chiualrie Page  363 when they be tame: for they beare to∣wers of tree, and throw down scaffolds, and ouerturne men of armes, and that is wonderful, for they dread not men of armes ranged in battayle, and dread and flye the voyce of the least sounde of a Swine. Also cap. 40. with forhead and snowte he throweth down high palmes, and eateth the fruite thereof. Also be∣twéene Elephants and Dragons is per∣petuall wrath and strife: For that one hath enuie at that other, for great might and strength, and for quantitie of body, and the Dragon loueth to drinke the E∣lephauntes bloude, to coole his burning heate, for that bloud is most colde, as it is sayde before in the same Booke, wher he intreateth of the Dragon. Looke there.

¶De naso Elephantis. Chap. 43.

ARistotle lib. 1. and Auicen meane, that the Elephants nose is long, and strong with bolning, and harde as an horne: and he vseth his nose in stéed of an hand, and thereby he taketh meate & drinke, and putteth it in his mouth, and so the Elephant hath two pappes in the breast, and strong tuskes in the mouth, and his tongue is full lyttle in compari∣son to his bodye, and is seene within: & is but seldome séene without, but when he lycketh his lyppes after meate and drinke, and in him is found but one gut folden and wrapped in manye manner wise: and that gut is in him in stéede of stomacke, and therafter is but one other by the which his dirte passeth out, and hath a great lyuer, foure times so greate as the lyuer of an Oxe, and hath a lytle mylte & splene in comparison to his bo∣dy, and that is as Auicen sayeth, for in him Melancholia that humor passeth in to nourishing. Also li. 7. Arist. saith, that when he is gendred, teeth be gendered in him. With his snowte and nose hée wrooteth vp trees, and breatheth there∣with when he swimmeth, and casteth out water: and that harde snowte Cal∣ceus is made of hard gristles. And when the Elephant sitteth, he bendeth his feet: and may not bend foure at once, for he∣uinesse and waight of the body: but hee leaneth to the right side or to the lefte side, and sléepeth standing, and he bend∣eth the hinder legs right as a man. Also libro. 5. the male gendereth at the fifthe yeare, and the female at the tenth, and vnto fortie yeares, and resteth after that she hath foaled thrée yeares, & after that she hath conceiued, she toucheth not the male, and gorth with fole in hir wombe, two yeares: and when the foale is foa∣led, it is lyke to a Calfe of two or thrée months olde. Also lib. 6. the Elephaunt hath sicknesse that commeth of ventosi∣tie and of winde, and by that sicknesse, he may not pisse nor shite. And if he ea∣teth earth he dyeth, but if he be vsed ther¦to, but somtime he swalloweth stones: and hath also ache in the ioyntes, and there-against helpeth drink of colde wa∣ter, and grasse and hearbs plunged in ho∣nie, for these two things letteth fluxe of the womb: and when the ache is so sore, that he may not sléep, his sholders must be balmed with oyle and hot water, and thereby he is holpe: and the same doth Swines flesh rosted, laied and bound to the shoulders that aketh. And if he hath yron in his bodye, Oyle is giuen him to drinke, and the yron is drawen oute by drinking of Oyle: and if he may not drinke Oyle, medicines are sodden in Oyle, and giuen him to eate. Also libro. 8. he saith, that the male is more of body and more bolde and hardie then the fe∣male, but the male is tamed by beating, & when he is beaten he is obedient while the hunter sitteth vpon him, and when the hunter lighteth downe, his fore feete bée bound vntill he be tame. And in the same booke in littera F. it followeth, that he is more able to be tamed, & more obe∣dient then all other wilde beastes, and hath more wit, and feeleth colde in win∣ter, and colde winde, and is a beast that vseth much waters and riuers, & dwel∣leth beside riuers, and wadeth in water vnto the chinne, and swimmeth: but he may not dure long in swimming for he∣uinesse of the bodye. And Elephauntes bée without Gall, as Aristotle sayeth libro. 14. but they be accidentallye cru∣ell Page  [unnumbered] and fierce. When they bée too soone an∣gred, or if they be wine dronken, to make them sharpe to fight in battaile. Also li. 18. Aristo. saith, that no beast lyueth so long as the Elephant, and that his com∣plection is lyke to the ayre that he dwel∣leth in: and so it néedeth that she goe with foale two yeares, for greatnesse of the foale, that may not be perfectly, and complete shapen in lesse time.

(*The Elephant, of all foure footed beasts, and next vnto man, is most of per∣seueraunce. When the Indians bring them to the warres, they put great pack-saddles on their backes, such as in Italy they vse for the great Mules. These they girde with two chaynes of yron in stéede of girts. Upon these saddles, they place little Turrets or Cages made of woode: euery Turret containeth thrée men, betwéene the Turrets sitteth an Indian on the backe of the beast, and speaketh to him in his language, which the Elephant vnderstandeth and obay∣eth. Seauen men are placed vpon one Elephant when they goe to warres, and all armed with coates of fence, and tar∣gets, bowes, launces, dartes, and slyngs: and to the snowte or trunke of the Ele∣phant is fastened a sharpe sword, of two cubites in length and of a handfull broad, wherewith he fighteth also. The Elephants are of great strength, the fe∣males more fierce than the males. The two great téeth, are growing foorthe of the vpper iawe, in height fourtéene and sixtéene handfulls high, two yards, and two yards quarter, and sometime sea∣uen foote and sixe inches of height.

Lewes Vertomannus 3. lib. of Persia, chap. 6. &c.)

¶De Elephantibus. chap. 44.

OF Elephants Solinus speaketh and sayth, that he kéepeth the course and order of the starres: and Elephants in wexing of the Moone goe to Riuers, and when they are besprong with lycour, they salute and welcome the rising of the Sunne with certaine mouings, as they may, and then they tourne againe into woodes and landes. Their youthe is knowen by whitenesse of téethe, of the which téeth, that one is alway wor∣king, and that other is spared, least hée shoulde wexe dull with continuall smi∣ting and rubbing: but when they are pursued with hunters, then they smite both togethers, and breake them, that they be no longer pursued, when ye téeth be appayred and defiled: for they know, that theyr téethe, are the cause of theyr perill.

They gender seldome, and then they wash themselues ofte in running wa∣ter, and tourne not againe to the flock, before the washing and bathing. They fight neuer for females, nor knowe not spouse breache: and if they fight in any case, they be sull busie to helpe them that are hurte and wounded in the mid∣dle among them, and defend them more than themselues. And when they be ta∣ken, they are made tame and mild with Barley: and a caue or ditche is made vnder the earth, as it were a pitfall in the Elephaunts waye, and vnwares he falleth therein, and then one of the hun∣ters commeth to him, and beateth and smiteth him, and pricketh him full sore: and then another hunter commeth and smiteth the first hunter, and doth him a∣way, and defendeth the Elephaunt, and giueth him Barley to eate: and when he hath eaten thrice or foure times, then he loueth him that defended him, and is afterwarde milde and obedient to him.

And if it happeneth, that he swal∣loweth a Worme that is called Came∣lion, he taketh and eateth of wilde O∣lyue Tree, and is so holpe agaynst the venimme. His wombe is softe, and his ridge is harde: and therefore when he fighteth with the Unicorne, he putteth foorth the backe against him, least he sticke him with his horne in the softe bellye. He hath lyttle hayre, and no bristelles, and large eares, long and thinne, and hanging downewarde.

And hée réeseth and smiteth therewith full sore, when he is wrath against the Dragon that hée hateth full sore: and no wonder.

Page  364For the Dragon desireth to drinke his bloud when he may. And the dragon as∣saileth him neuer, but when the Ele∣phant is full of drinke, that he may take the more plenty of the weary Elephants bloud, when he is full of moisture with∣in, Huc vs{que} Soli. that setteth many other propertyes, the which Plinius rehearseth before.

Of eodem. cap. 45.

I Haue read yt in Phisiologus booke, that the Elephant is a beast that pas∣seth all other foure footed beasts, in quan∣titie, in wit, and in minde. For among other doings, Elephants lie neuer downe in sléeping: But when they be wearye, they leane to a trée, & so rest somewhat. And men lye in a waite to aspy their re∣sting places priuely, for to cut the trée in the other side: and the Elephaunt com∣meth, and is not ware of the fraud, & lea∣neth to the trée & breaketh it with weight of his body, and falleth downe with the breaking, and lyeth there: and when hée seeth he may not help himselfe in falling, he cryeth & roareth in a wonderful man∣ner, & by his noyse and crieng commeth sodeinly many young Elephants, & reare vp the olde, little and little, with all their strength and might: and while they a∣reare him with wonderfull affection and loue, they bend themselues with al their might and strength. Elephaunts hate the worke of lechery, but onely to gender of springing. And so it is sayde, that when vertue of loue pricketh the Elephants of Inde, the female goeth before Eastward, and the male followeth her vntill they come to a priuie place, and there the fe∣male in some wise gotteth Mandragora, and eateth first the fruit therof, and then her male eateth oft the same, and gende∣reth with her, and shée conceiueth, as it is sayd. But for greatnesse of the foale, the female beareth long time the foale in the wombe, but in time of foaling she fée∣deth and nourisheth her foale in waters, and in Ilands, for dread of the Dragon, least he should swallow the tender foale, or lead him awaye: and while the dam trauaileth in foaling, the male defendeth her with all his strength and might. Al∣so there it is said, that the Elephauntes bones burnt, chase and driue away Ser∣pents and all venimous beasts. Also ther is another thing sayde, that is full won∣derfull: for he sayth, that among the Ae∣thiopians in some countries Elephantes be hunted in this wise: There go in the desart two maydens all naked and bare, with open haire of the head, and one of them beareth a vessell, and the other a swoorde: and these maidens beginne to sing alone, & the beast hath liking when he heareth their song, and commeth to them, and licketh theyr breasts, and fal∣leth a sléepe anone for liking of the song, and then the one maide sticketh him in the throate or in the side with a swoord, & the other taketh his bloud in a vessel, and with that bloud people of the same coun∣trie dye cloth, and doe coulour it there∣with.

(*Iuorie comforteth the heart, & hel∣peth conception. Syluius sayeth, we must take héede that it be not counterfeit, with the bones of other beasts. Iuorie is cold and dry in the first degrée.

The shauings of Iuorye with pure honnie, taketh awaye the spottes in the face. The pouder of Iuory burnt, and dronke with Goats bloud, breaketh the stone in the kidneyes and bledder, with∣out all perill. Gesner in fol. 436.)

¶For the better vnderstanding of Ele∣phantes, in what coast they most a∣bound, I haue forth of Ortelius (set vnto a common view) the Empire of the Abissines, or of Presbiter Iohn, as followeth.

THE Empire of the Abissines or of Presbiter Iohn,* whome the inhabi∣tants of Europe doe call Presbiter Iohn, is surnamed of the Moores Aticlabassi, of his owne people, that is of the Abis∣sines, he is tearmed Acegue & Neguz, yt is Emperour & king for the proper name (as among vs is giuen by the parents.) They séeme also euen as the manner is, among ye Romane Bishops, to alter their proper name in comming to the Empire, Page  [unnumbered] for he which in our age entered into the league of friendshippe with the king of Portugale, was called Antoni Tingil, which name when he came to the Em∣pire, he chaunged into Dauid: This Presbiter Iohn, is without doubte to bée reckoned among the greatest Monarchies of our age, as he, whose dominions stret∣cheth betwéene the Tropikes, from the red sea, almost to the Aethiopike Occe∣an, and to describe somewhat more dily∣gently, the limits of his Empire: on the North side he hath Aegypt to neighbor, which is vnder the Turkes: on ye East side it stretcheth out to the red sea, and in parts to the gulfe of Barbary: on the South it is fenced, by nature with the mountains of the Moone, but on ye West it is limited with the kingdome of Ma∣negogue, with the kingdome of Nubea, with the riuer of Nilus. By these writ∣ten limits it seemeth to comprehend, the Aethiop of the auncients, surnamed vn∣der Aegypt: The Countryes Troglo∣ditica, and Cinamoniphera, and a parte of the innermost Affrica: These regions at this day are distinguished with many diuerse names, as the Table doth shew, all the inhabitauntes call themselues A∣bissmi, they are of a browne colour, and Christians, as it appeareth by the letters of the foresayd Dauid, written to Cle∣ment the seauenth, of whose manners, kinde of lyfe, and religion, I haue gathe∣red these fewe lines out of the iourneye booke of Fraunces Aluaretius, imprinted in the Italian tongue.

There is in this Countrye a greate number of Monestaryes of both kindes, and in the Monestaryes of men there en∣tereth no woman, nor liuing creature of the feminine kinde. The Monkes for the most parte, doe fast bread and water fiftye dayes, for among them is greate scarcitie of fish, namelye in the innermost partes of the lande, for al∣though the riuers be full of fish, yet they giue not themselues to fishing: Some of them at that time of theyr fast, doe scarcelye tast bread, but onelye liue by hearbes. There are among them, which during the time of theyr fast sleepe not, but sitting in the water vp to the chin. They say Masse, they goe in procession, with Crosses and Sencers (as the Ro∣mish Apostates doe) the Monkes weare long haire, the Priestes not so, none of them weare shooes, not anye of them with shooes, no not the laye men canne goe with shooes into the Church: They kéepe Saturne day, & Sol day, holy dayes: all bée circumcised, yea, the very women, they are lykewise baptised. In the name of the Father, of the Sonne, and of the holy Ghost, but not vntill they bée fortie dayes olde, they which liue not so long, dye without Baptisme: All that are bap∣tised, doe receiue at that present the ho∣ly Eucarist, hauing much colde water cast vpon their mouths, that the children may the easilyer swallow it downe, and the names which are giuen them are sig∣nificant: They saye that they were tur∣ned to the christian religion by Quéene Candace, of whome mention is made in the Acts of the Apostles, assembled toge∣ther at Hierusalem, all the contents whereof they doe most studeouslye ob∣serue: The commen people doe common∣ly kéepe two or thrée Wiues, without breach of lawe, according to the wealth they haue to kéepe them, but such the Church men driue out of their temples: it is also lawefull for them to make di∣uorce. The Gentlemen doe make greate daintie of rawe Cowes flesh, dipped in bloud, as it were in anye broath or Po∣tage.

In all the kingdome of Presbiter Iohn, there is no vse of Copper coyne, but in stéed thereof they way pure & vn∣wrought golde. Moreouer Salt (but this is in vse, not onely in those Countryes, but also almost through out all Affrica,) serueth in the waye of bartering or ex∣chaunge: The same Presbiter Iohn in some places doth pullishe yron in forme of Pellettes. But Pepper is in so great price amonge them, whatsoeuer a man will buy, he may easilye redéeme for it: These Countryes haue well néere all kinde of Beastes and Birdes, as Ele∣phants, Lyons, Tygres, Lynxes, Bad∣gers, Apes, Parrets, and Harts, and this is contrary to the opinion of the auncy∣ents, who denieth that in Affrica bree∣deth Page  365 this beast namely the Elephaunt:* but for the space of sixe yéeres, in yt which Aluaretius made abode in these quar∣ters; he writeth, that he sawe neither Beare, Connie, Godlefinche, nor Cuc∣koe.

Locustes are a peculyar mischieuous plague in these quarters, whose number sometimes groweth so greate, that they seeme to darken the Skye, spoyling now this, nowe that prouince, in a manner of Enimyes, that they deuoute all theyr corne in haruest, they féede vpon leaues, and barkes of trées, and they so spoyle the fieldes, that oftentimes the inhabi∣tants are compelled to leaue their olde dwelling, and for want of foode, to goe to other places.

There is in this Countrye a Citye called Gassumo, sometimes the seate (as it is specified in the Cronicles, of quéene Saba, which they saye was called Ma∣queda) and they saye moreouer, that shée had a sonne by king Salomon, named Meilech, they are perswaded, that this Citie was after inhabited by Queene Candaca, but it is best for the Reader, desirous of these things, to reade Fraun∣ces Alueretius, who hath diligentlye set forth those things which hée: obserued in his Embassage. Let him read also a little booke of Damian A-goes touching mat∣ters of Aethiopia.

Of Hedo. cap. 46.

A Kidde is called Hedus, and hath that name of Edendo, eating, and is lyttle and fatte, and his flesh is of good sauoure, as Isidore sayeth, libro. 12. his kindlye drynesse is tempered, by moy∣sture of the age, as Isaac sayeth in Die∣tis. And so the Kidde is better and more according to digestion, and namelye the male, for his flesh nourisheth well, and bréedeth good bloud, and hath strong heat by benefite of the age, and therefore Kid flesh for temperatnesse thereof is good and wholesome to them that recouereth out of sicknesse, and is according to mans kinde, and namelye to them that liue de∣licately in case and rest.

And his Wooll is more long and rough then is Lambes Wooll, and his flesh is better and more obedient to digestion for temperatenesse thereof in moysture and in heate. And the Kidde hath full sharpe sight and simple looking, and looketh a∣side, and knoweth and séeketh his damme with bleating, as Plinius sayeth, libro. 8. capitulo primo. And it is sayde, that his lycour eaten helpeth and healeth dimnesse of eyen in them that he called Noctilupi.

Also libro. 28. cap. 10. hée sayth, That skinnes of Kiddes healeth venimous bi∣lings, if they bée layde thereto all hotte, and Kidde Wooll burnt, driueth awaye Serpentes with the smell thereof: and the skinnes of Kiddes bée vsed to heale woundes, his bloud helpeth agaynst ve∣nunme, and his ruenning helpeth against venimous glew dronke or eaten, and al∣so against bloud of a Bull it helpeth, if it bee dronke. Huc vsque Plinius. And is a mild beast, and myeth not nor figh∣teth, he cheweth his cudde, and is cleane, & was ordeined to sacrifice in olde time, he skippeth and leapeth, and is ful swift, and fat within and fleshie, and tough and leane without, and eateth and gnaweth stalkes, twigges, and braunches, and lo∣ueth specially leaues of Iuie and of such shrubs.

(*They are not to bée pastured in Orchards and gardens, nor to be fedde among coppises and frith, for they will spoyle the young springes, and kill the stockes: voyde and barren soyles are best.)

(*To make Pomatum, mixe Goates fat with the soft of fiue apples, striped in rose or swéet water, and cloues sticked in the apples, put therto Camfiri, and make these in an Ointment, and annoint thy face, it maketh the face faire, smooth, and without spots. Also to cure the stopping of bloud, ye commeth out of the stomacke, drinke Goats bloud, Ges. in fol. 317.

Of Eruca. cap. 47.

ERuca, the Malshrag is a worme with many féet,* & bréedeth in cole leaues and in vine leaues, and fretteth and gnaw∣eth twigges, branches, fruit, and flow∣ers, and hath that name Eruca of E∣rodendo, gnawing, for hée gnaweth Page  [unnumbered] leaues of trées and of hearbes,* as Isidore sayth, libro. 12. Thereof Plautus maketh mention and sayeth, that this euill beast and wicked is enimye to the vine leafe, and wrappeth himselfe in the vine leafe and cleaueth thereto, and flieth not away hether and thether, and as a flie doth that is halfe fedde, and leaueth the leaues, but this Malshragge abideth vppon twigges and leaues, and wasteth them all with gnawing and biting, and is slow in crée∣ping. Huc vsque Isidorus li. 12. Libro. 8. Plinius sayeth, that the Malshragge is rough, as it were hairie. For in crops of trées, when hée hath gnawen the branch, and destroyed the greines therof, he wea∣ueth certeine webs of his owne guts, as the Spinner doth, & wrappeth himselfe in those webbes, and kéepeth his shrewd Semen all the winter long. And hée lay∣eth certeine egges, of the which commeth other broode of that kinde in springing time when trées bourgen, & by multitude of them, trees be grieued & lose their fruit, & so doth Iuie & tender hearbes. And the Malshrag is a soft worme & full of mat∣ter, distinguished with diuerse coulours, shining as a Starre by night. And hath many coulours and foule shaped by day. And is not without some pestilentiall venime, for when he creepeth vppon an hotte member of a man, hee scaldeth the skinne, and maketh whelkes arise, and chaungeth his shape,* as Bombax doeth that maketh silke, and this Eruca loueth the shape of a flyeng Worme, for hée ta∣keth thin wings and broade, and flyeth vp hether and thether fréely in the aire, & as many coulours as he had first in the body, so many diuersities he sheweth in priuie winges, and such a flieng worme is called Papilio. And Isidore sayth, libro 12.*Papiliones bée called small Fowles, and bée most in fruit, as apples, and brée∣deth therein Wormes that come of their stinking filth, as Isidore sayeth. For of Malshrags commeth and bréedeth But∣terflyes, and of the durt of Butterflyes left vppon leaues bréedeth & commeth a∣gaine Malshrgges, & doth lesse harme in gnawing & fretting when he flyeth, then when he créepeth. And Papias sayth, that Butterflyes bée small flyeng Flyes, that come by night when lyght is kindeled in Candles,* and labour to quench the lyght of the Candles, and so they be burnt in the fire of the candles, & sometime when they labor to destroy light of other beasts, they are punished and hurt in their own bodyes.

De Faunis & Satiris. ca. 48.

CErteine beastes bée called Fauni and Satiri also, and be meruaylous beasts wonderouslye shapen, hauing the lyke∣nesse and also shape of mankinde, but they bée not full perfect of reason of man∣kinde, nor indued perfectly with natural wit. And so they be not taught to speake by craft nor by kinde, but they haue bea∣stiall wit, & be stubburne and cruell with beastiall appetite, & such beasts be full le∣cherous, insomuch that they slay women in the déede of lecherie, if they take them walking in woods, and be called Satiri, for they may not haue inough of leche∣ry, as Isid. saith, and though such beasts vse not reason of mankinde, yet they bée like to mankinde in voice and in manye déeds, as Isi. saith, li. 11. de Protentis. And there he sayth, that Satiri be somewhat like men, & haue crooked noses, & hornes in the forehead, and like to Goats in their feete. Saint Anthony saw such a one in the wildernesse, as it is said, & he of ked what he was, and he answered Antho∣nie, & said, I am deadly, and one of them that dwelleth in wildernesse: and misbe∣léeued nations deceiued by diuers errors worship such beasts that bée called Fau∣ni, Satiri, and Incubi. Satyri be called Fauni and Fatui also, & some thinke, that they be wilde men, as Isidore sayeth in eodem cap. and these wonderfull beasts be diuerse, for some of them be called Ce∣nophali, for they haue heads as hounds, and séeme by the working beasts rather then men, and some be called Ciclopes, and haue that name, for one of them hath but one eie, and that in the middle of the forehead, and some be all headlesse and noselesse, & their eien be in the shoulders, and some haue plaine faces without nose∣thrilles, and the neather lippes of them stretch so, that they heele therewith their Page  366 faces when they be in the heate of the Sun, & some of them haue closed mouths in their breasts onely one hole, & breath and sucke as it were with pipes and veines, & these be accounted tonguelesse, and vse signes and becks in steed of spea∣king. Also in Scithia bée some with so great and large eares, that they spreade theyr eares and couer all their bodyes with them. And these be called Panchi∣os, Pan is Gréeke, and is to vnderstande all. And an eare is called Ochi in gréeke, and some be in Aethiopia, and goe stou∣ping looking to the ground - warde as beasts, and may not reare themselues vp∣right, and these be called Arabice, & other be in Aethiopia, and each of them haue onely one foote so great and large, yt they shadow themselues with the foote when they lye gaping on ye grounde in strong heat of the Sun, and yet they be so swift yt they be likned to hounds in swiftnesse of running, & therfore among the Gréeks they be called Synodopes. Also some haue the soles of theyr féet turned back∣ward behinde the legges, and in each foot 8. toes, and such goe about and stare in the desarts of Libia. Also; in Scithia bée beasts with shape of men and féet of hor∣ses, and such wonderfull beasts be called Lamine among many men, as Paschasi∣us sayth super Trenos. Isidore reckoneth many other such beasts wonderfully sha∣pen, lib. 11. and hée gathereth and taketh all of Plinius libro. 6. &. 7. and also of Solinus.

(*Fauni were named of the Poets, Rusticall Gods, and monstrous beasts, lyke vnto men, and Fanesij, people in the North part of the world, whose eares be so great, that with them they couer all theyr bodies.)

Of Femina. cap. 49.

THe female is called Femina, and hath that same name of Femur, that is to vnderstand, the thighs. For in these parts betwéene the thighes is distinction and great diuersitie betwéene the male and also the female. And also this name com∣meth of Fos, that is firie, for the female hath firye vertue, whereby she is vehe∣mently moued to loue: In all kinde of beasts, the female is more feruently desi∣rous of loue then the male, as Isidore sayth, libro. 6. And Aristotle telleth ge∣nerall propertyes of the same female, li∣bro. 8. and saith, that the females be more féeble then the males, except the Beare & the Leoparde, for their females be more hardy & strong then the males, & females be more light to learne, and to be taught then ye males be, & more busie about their brood & young, and more mild. Looke be∣fore more heereof libr. 6. cap. 1. de puella, for there thou shalt finde much of this matter. And generally the female is more wrathfull then the male, and fighteth therfore soone against the male. And li. 8. Aristotle setteth an ensample of Foca, for that beast dwelleth and bideth alway in one place, and the male striueth with the female, vntill the one of them slaieth that other, & the female is lesse steadfast with lesse true to her owne male, then o∣therwise. And Aristotle setteth ensample of Sepia, for when the female is smitten, the male helpeth and succoureth her. But when the male is smitten, the female chaseth him. Also libro. 5. Aristotle say∣eth, that in gendering of broode the fe∣male is as it were matter, and the male is forme & shape, and of both commeth Semen, and of medling thereof commeth the creature: & therefore I say, that male and female bée as it were principall of generation. And the male is a forme and a shape, and the female is matter. Ther∣fore it is giuen and graunted to ye male to get and gender another, & the female gendereth and conceiueth of another then her selfe. Also generally ye female is more vnstedfast in kinde, and more changeable then the male, and that commeth of fée∣ble heat and of strong cold humour that is more plenty in the female then in the male, & therefore in women, and also in some foure footed beasts is menstrual su∣perfluity, as hée saith, but in one kinde of beasts the female hath that euill, so much and so oft as the woman. Of these con∣ditions and other of females good & euil, looke before li. 6.

(*Women be weak, yet iracundeus: cold, yet more lecherous: men are more strōg, Page  [unnumbered] no lesse vicious, more hot, néere to phren∣sie, betwixt both, no greater amitye, and in both wanteth not superfluitie. Ves∣per in the defence of nature & generatiō.)

Of Fetante. cap. 50.

IN all kinde of beasts those that gen∣der or go with brood, is called Fetans or Parentes, & so Fetans, fetantis, & pecus, dis, haue one manner meaning, & so it is sayd in holy writ, De post fetantes acci∣pit cum. And so this Fetans hath a pro∣per member, in the which he conceiueth & nourisheth, & beareth the brood yt is cal∣led Fetus, and bringeth it forth into this world and to dispose & bring forth ye brood, reuolutions & going about of ye ouer cir∣cles of heauen, influence of stars worketh & helpeth, as Arist. sayth, lib. 18. in fine. Kindly, he sayth, the tearme and time of generation compleat shal be by reuoluti∣ons & passing about of stars. Of this pro∣ces & matter, looke before libro. 6. cap. de Muliere parente, &c.

Of Fetu. cap. 51.

FRuit, brood, and birth of the wombe of the woman, and of each other female beast is called Fetus, and declined Fetus, tus, tui, and is properlye called Fetus while he is in the wombe, in the which it is susteined and nourished, and brought to perfect shape of lims and to lyfe. And so Isidore sayth, libro. 12. that it is called Fetus, for it is yet nourished and succou∣red in the wombe and in the bagge, in the which the childe is in in the mother, and commeth out with the childe, when it is borne, and conteyneth him. And is called Secundina, and hath that name as it were the second mother, for that is in the mother, and the childe is therein, and followeth the child when it is borne, and the mother dyeth, if it it happen in anye wise, that this bagge Secundina abideth within, & cōmeth not out with the child. And of Fetus, females that conceiue and vse to boare children and broode, haue the name, and be called Fetose, as it were oft ful of Fetus, going with child, or with broode, as Isid. sayth. Of the same wombe Fetus be diuerse, and namelye in Sexus, that is by diuersitie of male & female, but in those in the which kind goeth out of kinde, as in Hermophroditus, for in such a one is found both Sexus,* male and female, but alwaye vnperfect, as Isidore saith, li. 12. Of Fetus and broode, looke be∣fore, lib. 16. There is treated de homni∣bus generatione.

Of Ficario. cap. 52.

IN one signification Ficarius is he that gathereth & selleth figges, and in ano∣ther signification, Ficarius is taken for a wild man yt liueth by figges. And so it is taken in Ier. where it is said in this ma∣ner, Dragons shal dwell with nice Fica∣rijs. There the Glose saith, yt it is to bée vnderstood with mad men. And yet in a∣nother signification Fatui ficarij be cal∣led Fauni & Satiri, that dwell betweene wilde figge trées and other trées, and bee hairy men, & such be called Onocentauri, and other beasts wonderfully shapen, of whom Isaac speaketh, li. 14. And Isidore speaketh of them, li. 9. cap. de Protentis. looke before in the same booke de faunis. And they be called so nice figge gatherers and beastly madde men, for though they be wonderfully shapen, yet they accord in some things in shape with mankind, & in other things with other beasts, & passe out of the shape of mankind. Such beasts be called Fatui Ficarij, as it fareth in Apis, Lamijs, & Sirenis, & Meremaidens, & other such be Ficarij, for they haue liuing by fruit, as the wild men hath, & neuerthe∣les they be fooles, for they lack vse of re∣son, & therefore the letter of the old booke is allowed, yt sayth in this manner, Cum satuis sicarijs, for Sicarij be certain guil∣full theeues, that slew men vnware with short Swoords, as Aioth that slew Eg∣lon the king, which that was most fatte, with a short Swoorde that hung in the right side, and such a Swoorde is called Sica, as it is sayde Iudicum. 3. Such théeues be not now in Babylon that is destroyed, and is no place for men to dwel in, but for beasts wonderfully sha∣pen, as Hierome sayth super Esay.

But it might be said, that Ficarij be Si∣carij,Page  367 for a figge is called Sica in Gréeke, and Ficus in Latine, and héereby the first exposition should abide: but by the mea∣ning and vnderstanding of Latines such men wonderfully shapen be more vere∣ly called Ficarij, then Sicarij, as it is said before, where it is spoken and shewed de Faunis & Satiris.

(*A Chapter of small substance.)

De Formica. cap. 53.

THE Ant is called Formica, and hath that name, as it were bearing crums and graines of corne. Héere Ouid speak∣eth and sayth.

Grande opus exiguo formicas ore ge∣rentes.

It is a great worke to sée the Antes beare great graines in little mouths. Or else it hath ye name Formica, as it were bearing crums or graines of corne that they gather, and biteth of the ende of the graines for they should not grow, sleight and businesse of them is much, for they make prouision and gather store agaynst time that commeth: for in Summer they gather store, by the which they may liue in Winter, as Isidore saith, libro. 12. and they gather wheat, & way not of Barly, and when the Wheate is wet, that they gather to a heape: then the Ants doe all the wheat out into the Sun, that it may be dried againe. And it is sayde, that in Aethiopia be Ants of the greatnesse of a bigge Dog, but not in shape as dogges: and diggeth vp golden grauell with their féete, & kéepe it that it be not taken away. And pursueth anone to the death them that take it away, as Isidor, sayth, li. 12. cap. 1. de Minimis animalibus. Also So∣linus speaketh of Ants and sayth: that Antes bée full lyttle, and bée neuertheles more slie & busie then many great beasts: For they make purueyaunce wisely for themselues, whereby they maye lyue in time to come afterward. And they lyue in company, and make heapes and hills, in whom they inhabit themselues in: and gather gréenes busily and properly, & put them in their inner closets full waxilye, that they be not taken away with foules, nor spilt and shed with winde nor with weather, and maketh them priuy wayes euen & straight to the houses that they dwell in, and the more wiser Ants stand in those waies, for the vnwiser should not goe out of the waye, and when they bée ouerset in theyr houses to be taken, then shed they venimous water vppon men:* And therefore it is commonly sayd, yt hée pisieth. And that water burneth his hand that it toucheth, and bréedeth therin itch∣ing and smarting: For they haue that water in stéed of weapon and armour. Huc vsque Solinus, libr. 11. capitulo. 31. Plinius sayeth, that Antes communeth their trauaile each to other, and séeke and gather theyr owne meate: But Bées bée better then Antes, for Bées make good meate and profitable, and gather and doe it together. The Ants gather great bur∣thens, which be more greater then theyr owne bodyes. And so they recouer re∣ward of littlenesse of bodye, in the great∣nesse of vertue, and beare theyr charge & burthen with biting. And if it be so great, that he may not beare it in his mouth, then he tourneth him and busieth him to drawe it forth with his hinder féete: They take greate charge of their com∣mon profite, and haue therefore season and winde. And they shale the graines, that they do togethers, because they shuld not growe agayne & waxe gréene corne: And gather busily graines that be shed, that they bée not lost: and in entering they breake the greater grains, that they maye the more easilye bring them into their place of purueyaunce. And they worke by night in the full of the Moone, and cease of worke in the chaunge of the Moone. And because they bring and fetch theyr meate out of diuerse places, they haue certaine time giuen to thē to know∣ledge each to other, and then is most gathering of them and meeting. And among them when they meete, is as it were a manner treating and talking and busie as king and spyeng. And they come agayne by wayes that they treade, and choose such wayes yt bée among stones. And Antes be small and straight about the wombe, as though they were girde in the middle: and growe and haue Winges at last as it were Flyes, and Page  [unnumbered] chaunge so and tourne into small Vola∣tiles, dyng wonnes. Also capitulo. 32. It is sayde, that in Indie bée right great Antes with hornes, that kéepe golde and precious stones with wonderfull coue∣tousnesse and desire, but the Indians stele them in Summer time, when the Antes bée hidde in hilles for stronge burning heate, but the Antes flye after them bu∣silye, which take awaye the golde: and wounde them after, though they flye the Antes riding on swift Camells, in them is so wicked fiercenesse for loue in gold. Aristotle libro. 8. speaketh of Antes, and sayth, That in Antes is wit of smelling right as in Bées. And the Ant hateth all stinking things. And so if a man be∣smoketh the house of the Ant with brim∣stone, or with wilde Origanum, or with an Hartes horne burnt, the Antes will forsake & leaue their houses: and though the Antes liue in companye, and bée at∣tendaunt each to other, yet haue they no king, as Aristotle sayth, libro. 1. and Sa∣lomon sayth the same, Prouerb. 6. The Ant hath no Duke nor commaunder. There the Glose sayeth, of such a lyttle beast without Prince, and by reasonable leading of kinde, maketh purueyaunce for time that is comming: much more thou that art made to the Image of God, and called for to sée his blisse, and art hol∣pen with so great mystery, and hast our Lorde Duke and leader. Therefore thou shouldest héere gather fruit, by the which thou mightest liue afterwarde in blisse. Looke the Glose of the wit and businesse of Antes. That Authours praise heere be∣fore, Aristotle alloweth it, libro. 8. where hée sayth, that the working of Antes is knowen to them that take héede: For Antes goe alway by one waye, and laye downe theyr meate, and trauayle also by night in the full of the Moone: But Ants haue some properties yt be not full good, for they hurt and grieue rootes of trées, by whom they make their neastes: and de∣file theyr handes that touch them, and stye vp to the toppes of trées, and gnawe and defile burgenings, flowres, twigges, and braunches thereof. And bite and eate the fruit, and make hoales therein. And noy and grieue men, but they helpe Beares. For Plinius saith, libro. 8. That when Beares be sicke, they séeke Antes and denour them and heale themselues in that wise. But in some cause Ants egges bée medicinable. Looke in the last booke de Ouis.

(*Formica, an Emmet, Ampt, & Pis∣mere, whereof some be red, & other black, and also in some soiles are bigger found, then in low places.)

De Formicaleone. cap. 54.

FOrmicaleon, that beast hath ye name of Formica, and of Leo, for as Isi∣dore sayth, libro. 12. It is a beast with the lykenesse of an Ant, and of a Lyon, and is a little beast, and enimy to Ants: for he cōmeth thée uishly into their place of purueiance, and eateth their corne, and so by wasting of theyr meate he is cause why the simple Antes dye néedes at last: and this Formicaleon is eaten of other beasts, as Antes bée, and may not defend himselfe by his owne strength, & is a ma∣ner kinde of Spider. Looke before de A∣ranea in littera A.

De Fuco. cap. 55.

FVcus, ci, is the name of a Drane,* that is more then a common Bée, and lesse then an Hornet, and hath that name Fu∣cus, for he eateth the trauaile of other, as it were Fagus that commeth of Fagin, that is, eate, for hée eateth that yt hée tra∣uaileth not for, for he maketh no honny, but he eateth the honnie of other Bées. Héereof speaketh Virgil and saith.

Ignauum fucus pecus a presepibus arcet.

That is, the Drane driueth towarde beasts, & chaseth them from cribs. So sai∣eth Isi. li. 12. ca. 12. Of these dranes or bées Plinius speaketh li. 11. ca. 12. & saith, that in Bée hiues is the more plenty of hony because of company of such Dranes: and such Dranes be without sting, as it were vnperfect Bees, and be seruauntes to the very Bees: and very Bées com∣maundeth them to worke, and stingeth, & punisheth without pity the Dranes that be slow in working, and also in breding. Page  368 For it is certaine yt the more multitude is of such Dranes, the more swarmes be bred, and when honnie beginneth to bée ripe, they driue thē away from the honie, and punisheth them and chaseth: and bée not séene but in springing time. And such Dranes make roial habitations & large, & disseuered to the masters and comman∣ders of Bées, and h••leth them, & maketh them séemely passing other, & such dwel∣ling places and cells be all sire cornered. And though the Dranes susteine so ma∣ny trauailes, yet vnneth they be suffered to eate of the hony, but as much as they eate, they eat it by stelth, vt dicit Plini.

De Grife. cap. 56.

GRifes the Gripe, is a beast with wings, & is foure footed, and bréedeth in the mountaines Yperboreis, & is lyke to the Lyon in all the parts of the body, & to the Eagle onely in the head & wings, and is strong enimy to the horse: as Hu∣gution saith, he taketh vp the horse and the man armed, as the Glose saith super Deut. 14. And Gripes kéepe the moun∣taines, in the which he Gemmis & preci∣ous stones, as Smaragdus and Iaspis, and suffer them not to be taken from thence, as Isi. saith, li. 14. ca. 3. And in some coun∣tries in Scithia is plenty of gold and of precious stones: but for great gripes men dare not come thether openly, but seld for fiercenesse of Gripes: There is best Sma∣ragdus & Christall: & the Gripe hath so great clawes & so large, that of them bée made cups that bée set vppon boordes of kings.

(*There are common Gripers in England, that deuoure more men by vsu∣ry, then al the Gripes in India, the fetch∣ers of golde.)

De Glire. cap. 57.

GLires bée lyttle beastes, as it were great Mice and haue that name Gli∣res, for sléepe make them fat. And Glis∣cefe is for •• ware, as Isidore sayeth, and hée sléepeth all the Winter vnmoue∣able, and telleth as though he were dead, and quickneth again in Summer time, as he sayth, libro. 8. cap. 57. Plinius spea∣keth of these Glires, and sayth, that they dwell gladly in woods, and loue their fel∣lowes that they know, and striue & fight against other, & they loue their sires with great mildnesse & pitie, and féed and serue them in their age.

(*It is reported by Andrew The∣ued, that in the Indies are Battes verye great: and by L. Vertomannus, that hée saw Bats bigger then Eagles, fierce and venimous.)

De Grillu. cap. 58.

GRillos is a little beast, as Cirogril∣lus is, feeble and mightlesse and thée∣uish, and venimous with prickes and pikes, and is lesser then an Irchin, as the Glose sayeth, super Leuiticum. 40. And hath that name of the sound of his voyce, as Isidore sayeth, libro. 12. This beast goeth backewarde, and saweth and dig∣geth the Earth, and worketh by nyght, and is hunted with an Ampt ryed with an haire, and throwen into his den: and the pouder is first blowen a waye, least the Ampt hide her selfe therein, and so he is drawne to loue of the Ampt, as Isi∣sidore sayth.

De Hinnulo. ca. 59.

THE Hart Calfe is called Hinnulus, and hath name Hinnulus, of Innu∣endo, becking, and nodding, for he is hid by beckes and signes of the Hinde, as I∣dore sayth, libro. 12. and is a féeble beast and loth to fight, as Dmula is, and hée is most sharpe of sight, and swifte of course and of running, and the Hinde hi∣deth him in caues and dens, and in pla∣ces that bée shadowye, and teacheth him to start and to leape ouer briers, thorns, and bushes, as Plinius sayeth, libro. 8. cap. de Ceruis. Looke before in littera C. His flesh is tender and good to defie, for hée is oft moouing and stirring aboute, as Constantine sayth, & Isaac in Dietis. And if he be gelded ere his hornes grow, his flesh is the better and the more tem∣perate in drinesse and in heat, as he saith, And if he be gelded while he hath horns, Page  [unnumbered] then he chaungeth neuer his Hornes, as Aristotle sayth libro. 8. and Plinius. Al∣so the Hart Calfe is contrary to the ser∣pents in a wonderfull wise, for he yt is a∣nointed with his sewet or wt his bloud, shall not be touched of any Serpent that day, as Plinius sayth, lib. 38. And his ru∣ening is chiefe medicine in venims, as he sayth.

De Hirco. cap. 60.

THE Goat bucke is called Hircus, & is a lecherous beast, alwaye seruent to the déede of lechery, as Isid. saith libr. 12. And his eyen looke thwart ouer to le∣chery ward, & hath that name therefore: for Hirci be the corners of the eien, as he sayeth: his kinde is most hot, insomuch that his hot bloud softeneth and carueth the harde Adamant stone, that neyther fire nor yron may ouercome, as it is said there. This Goate bucke is called also Caper, and hath that name of Capio, to take, for bée laboureth to take croppes of trées: And the Goate bucke beginneth to bée mooued to gender after one yeare, as Aristotle sayth, li. 6. and the male that is first gendered, is more great and more fat then those that bée gendered after∣ward. Also libro. 7. he sayth, that some Goate Bucks haue notable hugenesse in eares, as some Rammes haue in theyr tailes. For some haue in bredth more thē the breadth of the hound. And the Goate bucke hath a long beard & a small taile, & long downe to the earth, & many & strong and great hornes, and rough Wooll and hard, with stinking smell, and hath much fatnesse, and namelye within about the reines, and then he dyeth lightly, excepte the fatnesse bée with-drawen. And the more fat he is, the lesse Semen hée hath, and gendereth the lesse, a hée sayth, lib. 8. And then hee doeth the déede of gene∣ration but seldome. And therefore wise heardes slayeth them, ere they doe the déede of generation, or else suffer them to bée leane, and maketh them bée leane, and though hée séeme leane without, yet sometime he is full fat within, and it oft happeneth that the Goat bucke is won∣derfullye shapen, as Aristotle sayeth, li∣bro. 8. for sometime it happened that a Goate Bucke was séene with hornes in the legges, and that was wonderfull to sée. And among all flesh of beasts, flesh of Goate Buckes is worst, hardest, and worst to defie, as Isaac sayeth in Dietis, and namely when the Goat buck is right olde. The skinne of the olde Goat bucke is better and more stronger then the young: but the odour and the smell is more, and the flesh is worst, and if hée bée gelded, his fleshe is the more moyst and tender, and lesse harde to defie, and lesse euill to be eaten. Also libro. 28. Plinius sayth, that Democritus sayeth, that the Goate Bucke is neuer without the Fea∣uers. And the bloud of a Goat buck, that is sedde with Iuie, breaketh wonderfully the stone both in the bledder and in the reines; as he saith: and his horne burnt, feareth & chaseth away Serpents, & hea∣leth feauers & cankers, & fretteth awaye & cleanseth Polipus, superfluitye of flesh in the nose. The liuer of the Goat bucke helpeth agaynst biting of the madde houndes. His gall cléereth the sight, and fretteth awaye the webbes of the cyen: His vrine meddeled with his gal helpeth leprous men, and doth awaye seales and scabs.

(*Diuerse authors affirme, that the hot bloud of a Goat bucke, dissolueth a flint¦stone into softnesse.)

De Hiena. cap. 61.

HIena is a cruell beast lyke to the Woulfe in deuouring and gluttony, and réeseth on dead men, and taketh their sarcasse out of the earth and deuoureth thē. And therfore hath ye name Hiena, of Niando, for desire he réeseth to his praye with open mouth and voyce. It is his kinde to chaunge Sexus, for he is nowe found male and now female, and is ther∣fore an vncleane beast, as Isidore sayth, and commeth to houses by night, and sei∣neth mannes voyce as hée maye, for men should thinke that it is a man. Libro. 8. cap. 30. Plinius speaketh of this Beast, and sayth, that in Hiena is eyther kinde, for it is sayd, he is one yéere mal••e ano∣ther yéere female. And she bringeth furth∣her Page  369 broode without male, as the common people suppose. And Aristotle denieth that. And hath the necke of the adder Vi∣pera, and the ridge of an Elephaunt, and may not bend but if he beare all the bo∣dy about. And heards tel that among sta∣bles be seyneth speach of mankinde, and calleth some man by his owne name, & renteth him when he hath him without, and he feineth oft the name of some man, for to make bounds run out, that he may take & eat them: And this beast hath end∣lesse many manners & diuerse colours in the eyen, & full moueable eyen & vnsted∣fast, and his shadowe maketh houndes leaue backing & be still, if he come neere them: and if this beast Hiena goeth thrice about anye beast, that beast shall stint within his steps. And this beast gende∣reth with a Lyonesse of Aethiopia, and gendereth on her a beast that is most cruell, & followeth the voice of men & of tame beasts, & hath many rowes of téeth in euery side of the mouth. In Affrica be many Hienas, & manye wilde Asses and Fibres, & many other beasts wonderfully shapen. As Plinius sayth, this beast Hie∣na bréedeth a stone that is called Hiena: and what man that beareth it vnder his tongue, he shal by vertue of that stone de∣uine and tell what shall befall, as Soly∣nus sayth.* Also libr. 28. Plinius sayth, that Hiena hateth the Pantera. And it is sayd, that if both theyr skinnes bee han∣ged togethers, the haire of the Panthe∣res skinne shall fall awaye. This beast Hyena flyeth the hunter, and draweth to∣warde the right side, to occupy the trace of the man that goeth before: and if hée commeth not after, he telleth that he go∣eth out of his wit, or els the man falleth down of his horse: and if he turne against the Hiena, ye beast is soone taken, as Ma∣gitians tell. Also as he sayth, this beasts gall is full medicinall, and helpeth most against dimnesse of eien: and also witches vse the heart of this beast and the licour in many witchcrafts, as it is sayd there. And Aristo. li. 7. sayth, that the quantity of Hiena is as the quantity of a Wolfe, & in his neck is haire, as in the necke of an horse, & hath haire vpon all the length of the ridge, and bequileth and deceiueth men, & rauisheth and stealeth them, and taketh houndes and deuoureth them, as gladly as men, and diggeth burialls and graues, & eateth the flesh of dead bodyes that be in them.

(*Of this Hyena Plinie maketh men∣tion in his 8. booke. chap. 30. A beast lyke a Woulfe, with a mane like an Horse, which comming in the night vnto shep∣heards houses, will counterfeit mannes voyce, & by harkning learne ones name, and call him forth to the end to deuoure him. Gesner is doubtfull whether there be any such beast, yet hath he set downe, from other Authors.)

Of Hiricio. cap. 62.*

THe Irchin is called Hiricus,* and is a beast couered with pricks, hard and sharpe, and his skinne is cloased about with pikes and prickes, and hée cloaseth himselfe therwith, and defendeth himselfe therewith all about, for anone as he kno∣weth and féeleth that anye thing com∣meth after him, he areareth vp the pricks and wrappeth him therein as a clew, as it were within his armour: and is a beast of purueyaunce: For he climbeth vpon a vine or on an apple trée, & shaketh downe grapes and Apples. And when they bée feld, he walloweth on them, & sticketh his pricks in thē, aud so beareth meat to his young in that manner wise, as Isi. saith, li. 12. And for roughnesse & sharpnesse of the pricks & pikes, he is called Hirena∣cius or Hiricius, and hath as Aristotle saith, li. 1. pikes in stéed of haire: and pis héeleth him as the haire of other beasts, and be his weapon and armour: for with them he stingeth & pricketh and hurteth him that taketh or toucheth him. Also li. 3. Aristotle saith, yt some Irchins dwell in woods, & some in other places in land, & some in water, & lay many egs that be not eaten. And Irchins haue but lyttle flesh, and this is the propertye of him, hée hath beneath head and mouth, and outpassing of superfluitye aboue, for hée taketh his meate beaneth, and hath therefore an hoale in the other side, and the superfluity is in the ridge aboue, and the Irchin hath fiue téeth within Page  [unnumbered] the mouth, and hath amonge the téeth fleshy parts in stéed of the tongue: & his wombe is departed in fiue parts, & therin is much superfluitie. And there is a man∣ner kind of Irchins with a white shell & white pikes, and layeth many egges. Also the Irchin hath feeble hearing, more fee∣ble then other beasts with hard shells, and that goe on foure féete. Also libro. 5. wilde Irchins gender standing, with back turned to backe: For in that part, in yt which superfluitie passeth out, there they touch themselues in generation. Al∣so there li. 8. it is said, yt often it séemeth, that in Irchins is wit and knowing of cōming of winds, North or South: for he maketh a den in the ground, when he is ware that such windes come. And so sometime was one in Constantinople, yt had an Irchin, and knew & warned ther∣by, that windes shoulde come, & of what side, and none of his neighbours wist whereby he had such knowledge & war∣ning. Also li. 12. he sayth, that the Irchin hath also as many wombes as téeth, and in these wombes bréedeth fiue egges bet∣ter then other, and the egges of some bee much and greate, and some be lesse: for some bée better to séething and defieng then other. Also li. 19. Irchins haue a lit∣tle body and many pikes, that, occupye more place then the bodye, and the cause of many great prickes, & the littlenesse of the body is, for féeding of the bodye pas∣seth into nourishing and growing of pikes, because of scarcity of heat, & for the meat is not well defied, & therfore in his bodye breedeth much superfluity, & that superfluity passeth into nourishing & fee∣ding of prickes. Huc vsque Arist.

(*Histrix, is the Porcapine, like vnto the Hedghog, but more stronger armed with prickes, and bigger bodyed.)

Of Herinacio. cap. 63.

*HErinacius is that same Cirogril∣lus, & is a little beast with prickes, and dwelleth in dens, and is lyke to the Irchin, but he is accounted more then he. Lib. 8. cap. 38. Plinius speaketh of him and sayth, that hée walloweth vppon ap∣ples, as the Irchin doeth, which sticke thereon his prickes, and he beareth them into hallownesse of trées. And beside the Apples that he beareth on his backe, al∣way he beareth one in his mouth: & when he is hunted, he cloaseth him rounde as a hall, for nothing should him touch for his pikes and prickes, and when he tru∣steth not to scape, then hée casteth from him pissing most venimous, & that pisse grieueth himselfe first, if it cōmeth in any wise on his back, or on his pricks, for by such moisture of that pisse, his back smar∣teth and grieueth, & also the prickes of his backe fall away. Therfore he know∣eth not, yt he is thereby the sooner taken, by the which hée casteth for to grieue other: Therefore there is a craft to hunt such a little beast, when his vrine is all spent and wasted, for then his backe is hurt or broken, and his pricks and pikes be loose and fall, and he may not flie, for be knoweth by the smell kindlye, in his vrine is strength of venim hid, & spareth therfore his vrine. For he doth not away nor sheddeth his venim, ere the last néede of taking cōpell him thereto. And though this beast be little, yet when he dreadeth he constraineth himselfe so fast, that vn∣neth he may be opened and streighted, sa∣uing the skinne. Therofore he is put in hot water, and so he openeth himselfe, as it were sodeinly, when hée seeleth the heate: And he is bounte and hanged vp by the hinder feete, and is so hanged and slayne with hunger, otherwise hée maye not be slaine in good manner, to haue good and profite of his féeble skinne, & though the little body of the beast be not full ne∣cessary to vse of mankinde, yet his skin yt is so picked is needfull to men, that if there were no pikes and pricks, softnesse of flesh in beasts were idle to mankinde. For with such a beasts skinnes, clothes be cleansed & picked. And it is said, that this beast Herinacius hath this property, that after yt he is charged with Grapes or with apples, if any apple or grape fall out of his pikes in any maner wise, then for indignation he throweth away of his backe all the other deale, and oft turneth agayne to the trée to charge him agayne with new charge.

Page  370

¶Of Iuuenca. cap. 64.

IVuenca or Iuuencus, is a young Stéere or Bullocke that is able to be yoaked to draw at plough, as Isido. saith: or els it hath that name Iuuen∣cus, for in old time such a young Stéere was offered to Iupiter, and not a Bull, as he sayth: and is a lecherous Beast, because of youth, & is therefore ouerset with a strong yoke to make him easie & tame, and is pricked with a pricke, and compelled to follow euen and foreright, the steps and fores of Dren. Iuuenca, such a young Stéere, is ofte able to the coupling and ioyning of Bulles, for in that age such a Stéere is ioyned to the Bull to drawe. The young Cowe is made fat in léese and in pasture, to bée slayne of a Batcher, for diuers vse of mankinde. Hir flesh is more drye and more sad, than ye flesh of sucking calues, for she is lōger without féeding of milk, and is more tender, and more hot and moyst than the flesh of an olde Oxe, or of an olde Cow: for yet she is néerer the age of sucking, than those that are of more age, as it sayd in Dietis.

¶Of Leone. cap. 65.

LEon in Gréeke, is called Leo in La∣tine, a King in English, and is cal∣led Leo, king, for he is king & Prince of all beasts, as Isid. sayth li. 12. And some Lions are short with crispe haire and maane, and these Lions fight not: and some Lions haue simple haire of mane, & those Lions haue sharp & fierce harts, & by their forheads and tailes their ver∣tue is known in the best, and their sted∣fastnes in ye head. And when they be be∣set with hunters, then they beholde the earth, for to dread the lesse the hunters, and their gins, that do beset them about, & he dredeth noyse & rushing of whéeles, but he dreadeth fire much more: & when they sleepe, their eyen be open, and when they go forth or about, they heale & bide their fores and steps, for hunters should not finde them. And it is supposed, that the Lions whelpe, when he is whelped, sleepeth thrée dayes and thrée nights: & it is sayd that the place of ye couch trem∣bleth and shaketh by roring of the Fa∣ther, that waketh the whelpe that sléepeth. It is the kinde of Lions, not to be wroth with man, but if they be grieued or hurt. Also their mercie is known by many and oft ensamples: for they spare them that lye on the ground, and suffer them to passe homeward that be priso∣ners, and come out of thraldome, and eate not a man, nor slaye him, but in great hunger, Huc vs{que} Isid. li. 12. Li. 8. ca. 17. Plin. speaketh of the Lion & saith, that the Lion is in most gentlenesse and nobilite, when his necke and shoulders be healed with haire and maane, and he that is gendered of the Parde, lacketh that nobilitie. The Lion knoweth by smell, if the Parde gendreth with the Lionnesse, and réeseth against the Lion∣nesse that breaketh spousehood, & punish∣eth hir full sore, except she wash hir in a riuer, and then it is not knowen to the Lion. And when the Lionnesse whelp∣eth, hir wombe is rent with the clawes of hir whelpes, & whelpeth therfore not oft. And Arist. saith as Plin. saith, that the Lionesse whelpeth first fiue whelps, and afterward foure, and so each yeare lesse by one, & mereth barren when she whelpeth one at last: and she whelpeth whelpes euill shapen & small in quanti∣tie of a wesell in ye beginning. And he saith also, ye whelps of vi. monthes maye vneth be whelped, & whelps of 2 mōths, may vneth moue: & the Lion heaueth by his leg when he pisseth, as an hoūd doth, & the vrine that he pisseth, stinketh right foule, and when he eaeth once inough, afterward he is meatlesse, 2. dayes or 3. And if he néedeth to flye when he is ful, he casteth vp his meate into his mouth, and draweth it out with his clawes, to be in that wise the more light to runne and to flye. The Lion liueth most long, and that is knowen by working or wa∣sting of his téeth: and then in age he rée∣seth on a man, for his vertue and might faileth to pursue great beasts & wilde: and then he besiegeth Cities, to ransack and to take men: but when the Lyons be taken, then they be hanged, for other Lyons should dread such maner paine. The olde Lyon réeseth woodly on men, Page  [unnumbered] and onely grunteth on women, and rée∣seth seldome on children but in great hū∣ger. By the tayle the boldnesse & heart of the Lyon is knowen, as the Horse is knowen by the eares: for when the Li∣on is wroth, first he beateth the Carthe with his tayle, and afterwarde, as the wrath increaseth, he smiteth and bea∣teth his owne backe: and out of eache wounde, that the Lyon maketh, with clawe or with téeth, runneth sharp and sower bloud, as Isido. saith. Also in per∣rill the Lyon is most gentle and noble, for when he is pursued with houndes and with hunters, the Lyon lurketh not nor hideth himselfe, but sitteth in fieldes where he may be séene, and arayeth him∣selfe to defence, and runneth out of wood & couert, with swifte running & course, as though he would account vile shame to lurke and to hide himselfe. And he hi∣deth himselfe not for dread that he hath, but he dreadeth himselfe somtime, onely for he would not be dread: and when he pursueth man or beast in lands, then he leapeth when he réeseth on him: and so when he pursueth man or beast, he v∣seth to leape, and so doeth he not when he voydeth & flyeth. When he is woun∣ded, he taketh wonderfull héed, & know∣eth them that smiteth him first, & réeseth on the smiter, though he be in neuer so great a multitude: and if a man shoote at him, the Lyon chaseth him, and thro∣weth him downe, and woundeth him not, nor burieth him. When the Lyon dyeth, he biteth the earth, and teares fall out of his eyen: and when he is sicke, he is healed and holpe with the bloude of an Ape, and he dreadeth greatlye the crowing and the combe of a Cocke: and he is a right kinde beast, and knoweth, and loueth him that doth him good, as it sayde in ensamples, that Plinius setteth there. Huc vsque Plin. li. 8. ca. 12. And li. 2. Arist. speaketh of the Lyon and saith, and Auicen, saith also, that ye Lion hath a necke as it were vnmoueable, and is full grimme, and hath entrailes & bow∣ells as an hound, and moueth alway first with the right foote, and afterward with the lefte foote, as the Camell doth: and hath lyttle marrow in his bones, & his bones be so hard, that by smiting of them togethers, sire springeth out thereof. Al∣so li. 16. the Lyon hath many cleftes in his féete, and gendereth therefore blinde whelpes, as the Hound doth, & the woolfe also: for he hath sawie teeth, and gende∣reth therefore vnperfect whelpes, as hée sayth, and Solinus also, that saith. That the Lyon dredeth, when he séeth or hea∣reth a whelpe beaten. His whelpes are borne blinde, as ye whelpes of all beasts, that haue the féete departed, be whelped vnperfect because of gluttonie. He hi∣deth himselfe in high mountaines, and espieth from thence his pray, and when he séeth his pray, he roareth full lowde, & at the voyce of him other beasts dred & stint sodainly, and 〈…〉 maketh a circle all about them with his taile, and all the beasts dread to passe out ouer the line of the Circle, and the beasts stand astony∣ed and afeard, as it were abiding ye hest and commaundement of theyr King. When the Lyon passeth rough places & hard, he clyncheth in his clawes, and draweth them toward the foote, for them he vseth in stéede of a sword, and hideth them therefore within softe places and fleshie, that they be not hurte, nor made blunt: and he is ashamed to eate alone the pray that he taketh: therefore of his grace of free hart, he leaueth some of his pray, to other beastes that follow him a farre, as he saith: and is so hot of his complection, that he hath alway the fea∣uer quartane, and hath kindly this euill to abate his fiercenesse, and his flesh pas∣seth in heate, and is therefore grieuous to eating, as he saieth, and Plin. libro. 28. And his flesh is good in medicines, in many manner wise, and his greace is contrarie to venimme, so that who so be anoynted therewith, shall not dread that time biting of Serpents, nor créeping wormes. Also his greace medled with Oleo rosaceo, kéepeth and saueth ye skin of the face from wennes and vices, and kéepeth whitenes, and healeth burnings, and swageth swellyng of eyen. His gall medled with water, sharpeneth and cléereth the sight, and helpeth against in∣fecting euills, and against falling euills: his heart taken in meate, destroyeth the Page  371 Feauer quartane, Huc vs{que} Plin. li. 28. cap. 8. And the Lion is hunted in this wise: one double caue is made one fast by that other, and in the seconde caue is set a Whitche, that cloaseth full soone, when it is touched: and in the first den and caue is a Lambe set, and the Lyon leapeth therein when he is an hungred. for to take the Lambe. And when he sée∣eth, that he may not breake out of ye den, he is ashamed, that he is beguiled, and would enter into the second den to lurk there, and falleth into it, and it cloaseth anone, as he is in, and letteth him not passe out thereof, but kéepeth him fast therin vntill he be taken out and bound with chaines till he be tame. This tou∣cheth Ier. super Ezech. cap. 19. super il∣lum locum, Miserunt cum in Caue∣am, &c.

(*The Lion among the Hebrewes, as sayeth Dauid Kimht, hath diuers names, according to the degrées of his age. The first name is Gur, the second Kephir, the thirde Arieth, in the fourth Labi, in the last Laisch. Gur, signifieth the whelp of euery beast, yet most com∣monly for excellencies sake, he is put for the Lions whelpe, as Stymnos is amōg ye Gréeks. Kephir, a little elder. Arieth, in the second chapter of Naum the Pro∣phet a Lyon. Labi a Lionesse, Cepha∣rim young Lyons, and Gur a Lyons whelpe, are all contained in one Period. The Lion drinketh seldome and lyttle: the Lyon is sayd of some in watching to shut his eyes, which sléeping he ope∣neth: héere vpon the Auncients did paint vpon their Temple gates a Lion, for a badge or signe. If one sit vpon a Lions skinne, the Emeroydes will goe from him.)

¶De Leena. cap. 66.

THe Lionesse is called Leena, and is a right lecherous beast, and loueth al∣waye the déede of lecherie, and is there∣fore more cruell than the Lyon & name∣ly when she hath whelpes: for she put∣teth hir selfe in perill of death for hir whelpes, and for defence of them, shée dredeth not nor spareth the shot of hun∣ters. And she whelpeth moe whelps in the first whelping, then she doeth after∣ward, for by sharpnesse of the clawes of hir whelpes, hir mother is grieued, & hurt, and so from yeare to yeare, shee wexeth barren, as Aristotle saith. And Plinius sayeth in this wise, as Isidore saith lib. 12. Beasts with sharp clawes, may not ofte whelpe, for in them ye mo∣ther is grieued and hurt within by moo∣uing of the whelpes, and therefore the Lionesse may not abide whelping, vntill the perfect complishment of hir young, but she delyuereth hir of hir whelpes, & whelpeth ere hir young be perfect and complete, and is compelled thereto by great ache and sorenesse, and feruent le∣cherie. The Lyonesse meddeleth in le∣cherie with the Parde, but after the déed of lechery with ye Parde, she dredeth the Lion, for ye Lyon knoweth such a fowle medlyng by odor & smell, but if the Ly∣onesse be washed of the spouse breaking in a riuer ere she come to the Lyon, as Plinius saith. When he knoweth that she is guiltie, he punisheth hir anone, & therefore she flyeth anone, and commeth not to hir make, but if she be first wash∣ed. There is a lyttle beast that the Lion and the Lionesse dreadeth wonderfully, and that beast is called Leonzeufones, for that beast beareth a certain venime which slaieth the Lion and the Lionesse. Therefore this sayd beast is taken, and afterward burnt, and the flesh is sprong with the ashes, and layd and set in mée∣ting of wayes, shall slay and destroy the Lions which eate thereof, as Isid, sayth lib. 12. cap. 1. Auicen saith, that the Ly∣on is a beast of great gluttonie, and co∣ueteth and desireth much meate, and is a deuourer of meate therefore without chewing, and casteth vp therefore the meate that he eateth, and eateth it afterwarde, and he eateth right much, so that he is heauie by meate, and fast∣eth afterward by the space of two daies and two nightes, and voydeth not his dirte but once in two daies or in thrée, and his dirte is drye without moysture, and stinketh right fowle, and so doeth his vrine.

And also out of his wombe issueth & Page  [unnumbered] commeth an euill smell, when it is cut and opened: and his breath stinketh, & is right infectious and contagious, & in∣fecteth other things, and his biting is deadly and venemous, and namely when he is woode: for the Lyon wexeth wood as the Hound doth, as Arist. sayth & A∣uicen also. And is cruell and wood when he is wroth, and biteth and grieueth him selfe for indignation, when he is wroth, and gnasheth with his téeth, and namely when he hungreth, and spieth and lyeth in awayle, to take beasts, which passe by the waye. He hideth himselfe in preuie caues, and reeseth on beasts vnware, and slayeth them with his téeth & clawes, & breaketh all their members, and eateth them péece meale: & if he see any come against him to take away his pray, then he beclippeth the pray, and grunteth and smiteth the earth with his tayle, and if he commeth nigh him, he lepeth on him, and ouercommeth him, and turneth to the pray. First he drinketh and licketh the bloud of the beast that he slaieth and renteth and haleth the other deale lim meale, and deuoureth and swaloweth it.

¶De Leopardo. ca. 67.

LEopardus is a beast most cruell, and is gendered of a Perde and of a Ly∣onesse, as Isi. saith li. 12. For as Plin. sai∣eth, the Lion gendreth with the Perdus, or the Perde with the Lionnesse, and of such gendering commeth vnkinde Per∣des, as of an Horse and of a she Asse, or of a Mare and a male Asse is gendered & Mule. As Isi. saith, the Leopardis a full réesing beast and head strong, and thir∣steth bloud: and the female is more cruell than the male, as Arist. saith, and hath diuers colours, as the Parde hath, and pursueth his pray starting and lea∣ping, and not running: and if he taketh not his praye in the third leape or in the fourth, then he stinteth for indignatiō, & goeth backward, as though he wer ouer come, and is lyke to a Lyon in bodye, tayle and féete, but in shape of the head, he is lyke to the Parde. And he is lesse in body than the Lyon, and therefore he dreadeth the Lyon, and maketh a caue vnder the earth with double entering, one by which he goeth in, and another, by which he goeth out: and that caue is full wide and large in either entring, & more narrow and straight in the mid∣dle, and so when the Lyon commeth, he flyeth and falleth sodainlye into the caue, and the Lyon pursueth him with a great réese, & entereth also into the caue, and thinketh there to haue the masterie of the Leopard, but for greatnesse of his body, he may not passe fréely by the mid∣dle of the den, which is full straight: and when the Leopard knoweth that ye Ly∣on is so let and helde in ye straight place, he goeth out of the den forward, & com∣meth againe into the denne in the other side behinde the Lion, and réeseth on him behinde with biting and with clawes: and so the Leopard hath ofte in ye wise, the masterie of the Lyon by crafte, and not by strength, & so the lesse beast hath ofte the masterie of the strong beast, by deceipt and guyle in the denne, and dare not reese on him openly in the fielde, as Homer saith, in libro. De pugms & A∣stucijs bestiarum. Lib. 8. Arist. speaketh of a beast that is called Ferculio, and A∣uicen calleth that beast Leopardus. A beast sayth Ari. that is called Ferculio, eateth somtime venemous things, and lecketh then mans dirte, and eateth it: and therefore Hunters hangeth suche dirte in some Uessell, on a trée, and when the Leoparde commeth to that Tree, and leapeth vp to take the dirte, then the hunters slaye him in the meane time while he is thereabout: & the Panther doth the same, & the Perdus also, as it is sayd ther. Also Plinius spea∣keth of the Leopard and saith, that som∣time the Leopard is sicke, and drinketh wilde Goates bloud, and scapeth from the sicknesse in that wise.

¶De Lepore. ca. 68.

THe Hare is called Lepus, as it were Leuipes, light foote, for hée runneth swiftly, and is called Lago in Gréeke, for swiftnesse in running. And li. 12. I∣sidore sayth, that euery swifte beast is fearefull and fighteth not, and hath no Page  372 manner kinde of armour nor of wepon, but onely lightnesse of members and of lims, & is feeble of sight as other beasts be, that close not the eye lids in sléeping, and is better of hearing than of sight, namely when he reareth vp the eares. His eares be full long and pliant, & that is néedefull for to defend the eyen, that be open, & not defended with couering, nor with heling to kéep them frō gnats and flyes great & small, for against noy∣full things, kinde giueth remedy to cre∣atures, as Auicen saieth. And therefore kinde giueth to the Hare lightnesse and pliantnesse of limmes, and swiftnesse of course and of running, to kéep him from houndes & other beasts that pursue him: and kind giueth him long eares, against gnats and flyes, that grieue oft and bu∣siy his féeble eyen, as he saith: & kinde giueth much haire vnder his feete, that the haire of the féete maye defende the flesh thereof from hurting in running, & for he should by lyghtnesse thereof in no wise let the féete in running: and ther∣fore Arist. saith li. 3. that the Hares feete be hairie beneath, & that is seldome séene in other beasts. His hinder legs be lōger than the former, and that is néedfull to reare the body when he flyeth: & when he rūneth against an hil, he is harder to take, than when he runneth downward toward the valley, & that is for shortnes of the fore legs, for because of lownesse of the fore part of the body, hée falleth soone when he runneth downe the hill, and may not continue euenly his course and running, & for he séeth, that he shall fall when he runneth and flyeth downe a hill, he runneth therefore aside and a∣slont by the hill side, and reareth the for∣mer legs as he may, towarde the high∣nesse of the hills side, and ofte beguileth the hounds that him pursueth, and sca∣peth in that wise. And li. 8. ca. 55. Plini. speaketh of Hares and sayth, that many kindes be of Hares, for some are more in quantitie, with more great haire and rough, and more swifte of course and of running, than those that be called Cu∣niculi, and so héere this name Lepus, is the name of Hares and of Conies: for Conies be called Parui Lepores, small Hares & féeble, & they dig the earth with their clawes, and make them bowers & dens vnder the earth, and dwell therein, and bring foorth many Rabets & multi∣ply right much. And in some Woodes of Spain, be so many Conics, that somtime they wast and destroy corne in the fielde, by the which they cause hunger in the Countrey and lande: and Rabets are so loued in the Iland Balearitis, yt those Rabets be taken and eaten of men of the countrie, though the guts be vnneth cleansed. And it followeth there, ye Ar∣chelaus the Author saith, that as manye dens as be in the increasing of the Co∣nies, so many yeres they haue of age. In the bodye are so many hoales, as the Conies haue yeres.* Therefore it is said that they gender without males, & haue both sexes, male and female: therefore many men suppose, that the Conie gen∣dereth and is gendered without male, as he sayth: and such Conies be so plen∣teous, and bring forth so much breede, that when they bring forth one Rabet or moe, anone she hath another in hir wombe, and is a profitable beast both to meate and to clothing, and to many ma∣ner medicines, for his ruenning helpeth agaynst venime, and stancheth the flixe of the wombe, his bloud abateth ache & smarting of eyen, as Plinius sayth, and Dioscorides also: and in no beast with téeth in either iawe, is ruenning found, but in the Hare, as Arist. saith: and the elder the ruenning is, the better it is, as Plinius saith.

(*Hare & Conie maketh grose bloud, it dryeth and stoppeth. Conie maketh better, and more pure nourishing, and is sooner digested than Hare. It is well proued, that ther is no meat more whol∣some, or that more cleane, firmelye, and temperatelye nourisheth, than Ra∣bets.)

¶De Lince. cap. 69.

LInx, lincis, is a beast, and hath that name, for he is accounted among the kinde of Wolues, that is a beast like to the woolfe, and his backe is diuersly spe∣kled as the Parde, & his vrine changeth and tourneth into a precious stone, that Page  [unnumbered] is called Ligurius, & that precious stone is also called Linx, lincis. And this beast Linx hath enuie, & is sorie that it should tourne to the vse of mankinde, and hi∣deth his vrine vnder ground when hee pisseth, but there it is the sooner hard, & turneth into stone, as Plin. saith li. 8. ca. 39. and Isid. 12.

¶De Limace. cap. 70.

LImax is a worme of slyme, and hath that name Limax, for he bréedeth slime, or of slime, and is therefore alway foule and vncleane, as Isid. saith lib. 11. And it is a verye slowe worme in moo∣uing, and beareth an harde shell on his backe, and closeth him therein, and is an horned worme, & hath two small horns before the mouth, and when he féeleth a∣ny grieuous thing, he draweth the horns anone into his shell, and closeth himselfe in the shell, as it were within an house. And such wormes are gendered princi∣pally in corrupt aire and raine: and hée créepeth, though it be with slow pace, & commeth vp to the tops of trées, and bi∣teth and gnaweth the buds and fruite thereof, and where euer he créepeth or slydeth, he leueth after him a glemy froth and strake of vncleannesse.

(*In Italy they vse to eate Snailes, which custome is vsed in England (be∣cause as the Phisitions haue made ma∣ny beléeue) being well cleansed in salt & vineger, they be in Sallets restoratiue: Snakes be as good, for from whence they had the one, is the custome of the other to be eaten.)

¶De Lupo. cap. 71.

THe Woolfe is called Lupus, and hath that name as Isid. sayth, as it were Leopos, for he hath vertue in the féete, as the Lyon hath, and so what he trea∣deth with his feete, liueth not: and is a rauenous beast, and desireth and coue∣teth bloud, and slayeth him that he may finde in woodes of rauine. Husbandmen speake of him and say, that a man léeseth his voyce, if the Woolfe séeth him first: therefore to a man that is sodainly still and leaueth to speake, it is sayd, Lupus est in fabula, the Woolfe is in the tale: and certainly if he know, that he is seene first, he léeseth his boldnesse, hardinesse, & fiercenesse. In all the yeare, Wolues do not the déed of generation but xii. daies, and he may not dure with hunger long time, and deuoureth much after long fa∣sting. In Aethiopia are Wolues with haire and maanes in the necke, and are so speckeled, and haue so manye diuers colours, that they lacke no manner co∣lour, as he telleth. Huc vsque Isid. li. 13. cap. 23. Plin. saith the same, and saith al∣so that Wolues of Affrica be slender & lyttle: and those that are bred in colde countries and landes be lesse of bodies than other, and more sharpe and fierce. Libro secundo. Arist. saith, that in Indie is a Woolfe that hath thrée rowes of téeth aboue, and hath féete like a Lyon, and face as a man, and tayle as a Scor∣pion, and his voyce is as it wer a mans voyce, and dreadfull, as a trumpe: and the beast is swifte as an Harte, and is right fierce and cruell, and eateth men. Also libr. 6. Aristo. saith, that in time of generation, Wolues are full cruell and fierce, and be worse when they haue whelpes, as the females of hounds. Also lib. 7. Wolues haue sawie téeth, & eate flesh, and not grasse, but when they are sicke, for then they eate some grasse or hearb for medicine: for when the woolfe féeleth himselfe too full, he séeketh a cer∣taine hearbe and eateth it, that he maye cast vp that that he hath eaten. Also li. 8. when they flye, they beare with them their whelpes, and eate Origanum,* and chew it when they go out of their dens to whet and sharpe their téeth therwith. Also he saith, that the Woolfe is a full euill beast when he eateth, and resteth much when he hath no hunger: he is full hardie, and loueth well to playe with a childe, if he maye take him, and slayeth him afterward, and eateth him at ye last. And Homer saith, that the Wolfe is a full wakefull beast, and flyeth from the sight of the fire. And it is said, that if the Woolfe be stoned, he taketh héed of him that throweth the first stone, and if that stone grieueth him, he will pursue him Page  373 that hurt him: and if it grieueth him not, and if he may take him that throw∣eth that stone, he doeth him not much harme, but some harme he doth him, as it were in wrath, and leueth him at last: and the elder the Wolues be, the worse they be, and greue men, for they may not hunt beasts because they be olde, and by reason that their vange téeth be weked, and they liue long time, and the age of the Woolfe is perceiued in the téeth, for they are constrained in age. And ther he saith, that there is double manner kinde of wolues: for some be as it wer round, and some long, and those be more rough of haire and thicke and more bolde and hardie of hart, & the entrailes of wolues be right féeble, and take soone corruption when they be wounded, & the other deale of the bodie suffereth many strokes, and hath great strengthe in the necke and in the head. Also woundes of theyr bi∣ting are euill, for venimme commeth of them, and these wounds be heled, as the biting of a mad hound, as Aristo. saith, Also lib. 13. he saith, yt the woolfes mouth openeth most wide, & hath most strēgth in his mouth, and that Beast is a great glutton and deuoureth much. Also li. 7. Auicen speaketh of the woolfe, and saith: that the woolfe desireth kindlye to eate fish, & eateth the fish that fishers throw out of their nets: and when hée findeth nothing to eate that the Fishers leaue, then he goeth to their nets, and breaketh and renteth them. Phisiologus speaketh of wolues and saith, that their vertue & strength is in the breast, & in the clawes, and in the mouth, and lest in the hinder parts. And the woolfe may not bend his neck backward in no month of the yere but in Maye alone, when it thundereth: and hath a cruell warinesse, so that hée taketh no pray of meate nigh to ye place where he nourisheth his whelpes, but he hunteth in places that be far thence: and when he goeth by night to a Folde for to take his pray, he goeth against the winde, for hounds should not smel him. And if it hapneth in any wise, that his foote maketh noyse, treading vppon any thing, then he chasteth that foote with hard biting. His eyen shine by night, as lanternes, and as Solinus saith, he bea∣reth in his taile, a locke of haire that ex∣citeth loue, and doth it away with his téeth, when he dreadeth to be taken. The woolfe dreadeth greatly stones, so that if a man take two stones, and smite them togethers, the woolfe looseth boldnes and hardinesse, & flyeth away, if the noyse of the stones commeth to his hearing. The Woolfe whelpeth blinde whelps, and lo∣ueth and nourisheth them full tender∣ly, and eateth earth when he is sore an hungred and findeth none other praye, and hideth him in grasse, bushes, and shrubs, and in leaues, to rauish and take Goates, that gather leaues and crops of Trées, and deceiueth shéepe more with guile and wrenches, than with might & strength, but when he hath the mastery, if he be suffered, he biteth and slayeth all the flocke, and the part that he may not deuoure, he burieth and hideth vnder the earth, and diggeth and taketh vp a part when he is agayne an hungred. He in∣fecteth the wool of the shéepe that he slai∣eth, and maketh the cloth lowsie that is made of that wooll, as Isidore saith. Also Arist. saith, that all the kinde of wolues is contrarie and aduersarie to all the kinde of shéepe: and so I haue read in a booke, that a string made of Wolues gut,* put among harp strings made of the guts of sheepe, destroyeth and corrupteth them: as the Eagles fethers, put among Culuers, pilleth and gnaweth them, if they be there lefte together long in one place, as he saith. Looke before De A∣quila.

De Mulo. cap. 72.

A Mule is called Mulus, and hath that name of Molendo, grinding, for he is vnder the yoke of Bakers, and draweth about milstones, as Isid. saith libro. 15. And the Iewes tell, that Ana Esaus ne∣phew, made first Asses and Mares, for to haue first against kinde, the kinde of mules bred and gendred as he saith: and therefore the Mule followeth the kind of the Mare, and is more than an Asse, & fairer, and swifter: but he is more slow, fouler, and lesse than an Horse, and so Page  [unnumbered] the mule is a barren beast, and neuer∣thelesse a noble beast to trauaile, as Pli∣nius saith lib. 8. ca. 44. And these beasts, the Mare and the Asse desire neuer to gender together, except they be together in youth, and sucke togethers while they be coltes: therefore Heards put and set their coltes to sucke Asses, and Asse colts to sucke Mares, when they will haue such beasts gendered betwéene beasts of diuers kinde as he saith. Also he saith: that wine drinking is forbidden ye Mule. Of wilde Asses and Mares, are swifte Mules gendred, with hard féete and able to runne, and haue great riuells in the body, and are wilde in heart, and neuer∣thelesse gentle: and those that be gen∣dered betwéene a wild Asse and a Mare, passe all other. Libro septimo Aristotle speaketh of the Mule and saieth, that the more water that the mule drinketh, the more good his meate doth him. Also li. 14. the Mule hath no gall openlye séene vpon his liuer. Also lib. 21. he saith, for the mule is gendered betwéene the Asse and the Mare, he gendereth not, for the kinde of either of them, of the Asse and of the Mare is colde, and so the coldnesse of the sire and of the dam hath masterie in the mule that is gendered, and there∣fore the mule is barren, and nothing is gendred of his séede, by reason of passing colde that hath mastrie on him. Also, there it is sayd, that it hapneth, that bo∣dies of Mules be great and huge, for menstruall superfluitie passeth into nou∣rishing and féeding of the body, and the bloud that néedeth not to kinde, passeth out with vrine, & therefore ye male mules smell not to the vrin of ye female mules, as other beasts do that haue houes: and the other deale of superfluitie passeth in∣to increasing and greatnesse of the body. Therefore the female mule conceiueth but by hap and full selde, and the male Mule for he is the more hot, because of the male kind, gendreth somtime in some countries and lands, and that but by hap, but what he gendereth is straunge and occasion, as he yt is gendred betwéene an horse and an Asse, and is worthye that such a one be barren, for he is gendered against kind. Huc vs{que} Arist. li. 16.

Isaac in Dietis saith, that mules flesh is worse to nourishing and defieng than Asses flesh his dirt stamped and burnt: stauncheth bloud, if it be tempered with vineger, as Dioscorides saith, and the same dirte helpeth against stinging of of Scorpions, as he saith.

(*Musmoue, a kinde of great shéepe very white, the which somtime bred in the North Iles of Scotland, as Hector Boetius affirmeth, of the bignesse of a Bucke, horned round and bending: of forme betwéene a Sheepe and a Goate, strong and swifte. Read Gesner in his additions, fol. 10.)

De Mure. cap. 73.

THe Mouse is called Mus, & is a little beast, as Isido. sayeth, and hath that name of Humus earth: for he breadeth and is gendered of humors of the earth, for earth is called Mus and Humus. Al∣so the the lyuer of this beast wexeth in the full of the Moone, lyke as a certaine fish of the sea increaseth then, and wa∣neth againe in the waning of the Moone: and Mice are called Sorices also, for they fret and gnaw things as it were a saw. Huc vsque Isid. lib. 12. And libro septi∣mo Arist. saith, that the mouse drinketh not, and if he drinketh he dyeth: and is a gluttonous beast, and is therefore be∣guiled with a little meate when he smel∣leth it, and will taste thereof. His vrine stinketh, and his biting is venemons: and his vrine is contagious, and also his taile is venemous accounted. Also lib. 8. cap. 38. Plinius speaketh of Mice & sai∣eth, that some Mice are wittie, and ga∣ther meate into their dennes, and hide themselues in dennes in winter time, & their palate is perfect in taste, and also their nose in smell. In haruest the male and female gather corne, and charge ey∣ther other vppon the wombe, and the male draweth the female so charged, by the taile to hir denne, and dischargeth hir, and layeth vp that stuffe in a place in the denne: and then they goe againe to trauaile, and gather eares of corne, & the male layeth himselfe on his owne Page  374 backe, and his female chargeth him, and taketh his taile in hir mouth, and dra∣weth him so home to the denne, and so they beare their burthens and charge, & chaunge course, & ste••s, and times. Also he saith, of Mice is diuers maner kinds, for some mice liueth in houses, & some in fields, & some in banks & brims of wa∣ters, and some depart the yeare atwaine in sléeping, for they sléepe halfe the yere, as Glires doe, which be a certaine ma∣ner of Mice, as Plin. saieth. And though Mice be full grieuous & noyfull beasts, yet they are in many things good & pro∣fitable in medicines: for as Plin. saith lib. 29. cap. 7. Ashes of Mice, with honye and with oyle dropped into the eares, doth away ache and griefe: and if any worme entreth and commeth into the are, the chiefe remedie is the gall of Mice tempered wt wine, dropped warme into the eares. Dioscorides sayth, that Mice durt brused with vineger, cleanseth that euill Allopicia, and kéepeth and sa∣〈…〉 from falling of haire. Also that durt stamped with wine, and taken in drinke, softneth the wombe wonder∣fully 〈…〉 skinne laid all about the héele, heleth and saueth kybes & wounds therefrom.

(*Many be the kindes of Mice, as in Gesnes is depressed, the field Mouse: the Farie with a long snoute: the sleeper, that is of a un coulour, and will runne on the edge of a sword, and sléepe vpon the payne.

De Mustela. cap. 74.

THe Wesell is called Mustela, and is so called, as it were a long mouse, as Isi. saith li. 12. for long is called Telon in Gréek, this beast hath a guileful wit, and nourisheth hir Kittons in houses, & beareth them from place to place, and chaungeth place and dwelling, for hir neast should not be found. The Wesell pursueth and chaseth Serpents, and ha∣teth and eateth mice. And of Wesels is double manner kinde, one dwelleth in woodes, and is more than other. And the Gréeks call it Lodas, and the other go∣eth about in houses. And their opinion is false, that means, that Wesells con∣ceine at the mouth, & kitneth at the eare. as Isid. saith li. 12. The wesell is enemie to Sparowes, and lyeth in awaite for them and other small birdes, and swal∣loweth vp their egges: and if the We∣sels kittens fall by any hap in chins or in pits, and be hurt or dead, the Wesell heleth them with a certain hearb, & rea∣reth them from death to life, as Pli. sai∣eth, and eateth Rewe, and bawmeth hir selfe with iuyce thereof, and réeseth then on the Cockatrice, and assaileth and slai∣eth him without any dred boldly, as Pli. saith li. 8. ca. 22. There it is said, that the vertue of wesells is death to the Cocka∣trice, for God and kinde will, that no∣thing be without a help: the wesell kno∣weth soone of the Cockatrice, and goeth into his den, and slaieth him there, and is a beast that sléepeth much, and wexeth fat with sléepe, as the mice doe, that are called Glires, as he saith. Also li. 29. ca. 1. he saith, that ye wesell is of double kind, fame & wilde, & either hath gall yt help∣eth much against Adders: for their pre∣uie chose stinketh right foule, & stinking things is contrary to adders & serpents, and we meane, that their flesh helpeth a∣gainst venim. A wesel burnt to ashes, is helthfully done in medicine, & helpeth a∣gainst Litargie, ye sléeping euill, & so if a man fall into Litargy the sléeping euill, by venimme of an Adder, the ashes of a wesel tempered with drops of water, dissolueth and destroyeth ye strength and might of ye sléepe, as he saith: & ther it is said, ye pouder helpeth against festers, for kind yt is mother of all, gendreth nothing without great cause, as it is sayd. Li. 8. Arist. saith, yt the wesell fighteth against serpents, for either eate mice, & is a swift beast of mouing, & pliant of body, & full slipper & vnstable, & wise in smell, & hath a red & a white wombe, & changeth cou∣lour: for in some countries somtime of ye yeare all his skinne is white, except the tayle. His biting is malitious and ve∣nemous, and his vrine stinketh as the v∣rine of the mouse.

(*The Wesell Ictis and Mustela, a meruailous stinking beast if he be pur∣sued. Furunculus a little théefe, also a Wesell.)

Page  [unnumbered]

De Migali. cap. 75.

A Firet is called Migale, & is a little beast,* as it were a wesell, and is a glutton & guilefull, and a rauener: for wt guile he rauisheth what he will eate af∣terward, as the Glose saith, sup. Leu. 11. For dred he saineth himselfe mild, when a man commeth nigh him, but he biteth anone. & sheddeth venimme, as it is sayd ther Arist. speketh of this beast Migale & faith, that he hateth horses & mules, & grieueth them, & lieth specially in await on a mare that is with foale, & fighteth against Serpents, and armeth him with rewe, as he saith.

(*The Ferret is a common enemie to Conics, and is vsed of the euill dispo∣sed to rob warrens in the night, with pursnets and hayes.)

De Murilego. ca. 76.

THe Cat is called Murilegus, & Mu∣sio, and also Cattus, & hath that name Murilegus,* for he is enemie to mice & to rats, and is commonly called Cattus, & hath that name of rauening, for he raui∣sheth mice and rats. Or els he hath that name Cattus of Cata, that is to sée, for he séeth so sharply, that he ouercommeth darknesse of the night by shining of the lyght of his eyen, and the name Cattus commeth of Gréek, and is to vnderstand slye and wittie, as Isi. saith li. 12. And is a beast of vncertaine haire & colour: for some Cat is white, some red, some black, some skewed and speckled in the féete, and in the face, and in the eares, and is most like to the Leopard, & hath a great mouth, and sawie teeth & sharp, and long tongue & pliant, thin & subtill, & lappeth ther with whē he drinketh, as other beasts do that haue the nether lip shorter than the ouer, for because of vneuennesse of lips, such beasts sucke not in drinking, but lap and lick as Ari. saith & Plin. al∣so: & he is a ful lecherous beast in youth, swift, pliant & merie, & leapeth & réeseth on al thing yt is before him, & is led by a straw, & plaieth therwith: & is a right he∣uie beast in age & full sléepy, & lieth slily in waite for mice, & is ware where they be, more by smell than by sight, & hunt∣eth & réeseth on them in priuy places: & when he taketh a mouse, he plaieth ther∣with, & eateth him after the play, & is as it were wilde, & goeth about in time of generation, among eats. In time of kind is hard fighting for females, & one scrat∣cheth & renteth ye other grieuously with biting & with clawes, and they make a ruthfull noise & gastful,* when one prose∣reth to fight with another: & is a cruell beast when he is wilde, and dwelleth in woods, & hunteth then smal wild beasts, as Conies & Hares: and falleth on his owne féete when he falleth out of high places, & vneth is hurt, when he is thro∣wen downe off an high place. His durte doth stinkful foule, & therfore he hideth it vnder earth, & gathreth thervpon coue∣ring with féete & clawes: & when he hath a faire skin he is as it wer proud therof, & goeth fast about, & when his skin is burnt, then he bideth at home, & is ofte for his faire skin, taken of the skinner and slaine.

(*The propertie of cats is to climbe trées for birds, as also to kill mice; and being néere warrens, for sake the house & become wild, praieng on rabits & birds.

De Noctiluca. cap. 77.

NOctiluca is a litle beast,* wt féete and with wings, & is therefore somtime accounted amōg Volatiles, & he shineth in darknes as a candle, & namely about ye hinder parts, & is foule & dark in full light, & infecteth & smiteth his hand that him toucheth: & though he be vnséene in light, yet he flieth light, & hateth it, & go∣eth by night, and is contrary to another little one that is called Lucipeta, that ri∣seth gladly oft light, as Isid. saith, lib. 12. cap. de minutis volatilibus &c.

Of Odonta.

IN the years of the world .3640. or néere therabout, Alexander ye great entring India with a great army, amōg diuers strange assalts amōg wild beasts & serpents, a beast of a strange kind ap∣peared greater then an Elephant, armed with thrée hornes, in his forehead, & ha∣uing a head of a blacke coulour, like a horse, the Indians tearme ye said beast O∣donta, & when he had dronke, he behold∣ing the tentes, sodeinelye settle vppon Page  375 the Souldiers, with great vyolence, nei∣ther was he driuen backe with the heat of the fire that was before him, At the ouerthrow of the sayd straunge & fierce beast, 36. souldiers were slaine, and 53. sauchenets or swords of that time were quite marred, and with much adoe, at length, the beast being deadly wounded dyed. Lucostenes de Prodigijs in fo. 99 in the Cro. of the Dome. fol. 66. Bat.)

De Onagro. cap. 78.

ONaget is a wilde Asse, as Isid. sayth, and such Asses be greate and wilde in Affrica, and vntamed, & goeth about in desart place: and each of them leadeth a company of females, & they haue enuy to the males when they be foaled, & bite off their gendering stones, & the females bée ware thereof, and hide theyr male foales in priuy places. And Plini. sayth, li. 8. Betwéene wilde Asses and tame as∣ses li 2 gendered most swift Asses. And is a free beast at large, and not tamed, & lecherous: and hunteth oft mountaines and woodes, & though hée be of himselfe a beast that fighteth not nor gréeueth, yet by benefice of running and of lyght∣nesse he ouercommeth in desart both the Lyon and the Wolfe: and is a beast that maye well awaye with thirst, and suffe∣reth it long, and abideth vntill he maye drink that is couenable for him. And of him Phisiologus speaketh and saith, that in the 25. daye of March, this beast roa∣reth twelue times in that day, and as oft in the night: and by his roaring the euen∣nesse of the day and night is knowen a∣mong the Affrikes, and he saith, that al∣waye he roareth as manye times in the daye, as there be houres in the day, and also in the night. And so woode men in mountaines of Affrica, in the which bée many wild Asses by the number of their roarings they account the diuersitye of the day and of the night. This Beast is wise and wittie, and enuious in smel∣ling, and so when he is feruent in loue, & wolteth not where his female is, hée goeth about and styeth vppon an high rocke, and openeth his nosethrillrs, and draweth in ayre and winde, and know∣eth and perceiueth by the wind and aire where his female is. And oft in moun∣taines hée fetcheth good hearbes and grasse, and hée loueth them well, and see∣keth them with businesse in high moun∣taines, with trauaile, and roareth for ioy when he findeth therin gréene grasse and hearbes, but when hée knoweth that hée is hunted by men or by beasts, he flieth: and hateth greatly the company of men, and loueth well desart places and wil∣dernesse.

De Onocentauro. cap. 79.

ONocentaurus, as the Glose sayth su∣per Esay. 9. is a beast of a straunge forme, and is gendered betwéene a Bull and an Asse. For an Asse is called O∣nos in Gréek: and so it is a beast le∣cherous as an Asse, and stronge necked and nowled as a Bull. But Phisiologus•••meth otherwise, and sayeth. That O∣necentaurus is compounded of the shape of a man and of an asse: for he hath shape of a beast from the nauell downwarde. It séemeth that Plinius accordeth héere∣to libro. 7. cap. 3. where he sayeth, that wise and wittie kinde maketh to vs gameful things and wonderfull, to shew his might. And in the same chapter hée setteth example of many wonderful sha∣pen beasts, which be in Indie, as of Fau∣nie and Satiris and Onocentauris, and of other such, which hee calleth beastes, and feineth somwhat the shape of mans kinde. And other meane, that Centauri were called Horse men of the Countrye of Thesalon, which pricked vp & downe on horses, and therfore some of them sée∣med that horse and man were one bo∣dye, and so they accounted, that Cen∣tauri were then feyned, as he sayth, lib. 11. where he speaketh of beastes wonder∣fullye shapen: and Centaurus in Gréek, is Homo in Latine, in English, a man, and this name Centaurus is compoun∣ded with Onos and Centaurus, and so Onocentaurus hath that name, for the halfe thereof hath the shape of a man, and halfe of an Asse, as Ipocentaurus is a beast wonderfullye shapen, in whome is accounted the kind of man and of an Page  [unnumbered] horse, as Isidore saith.

(*As auncient men spent their time in writing of follyes, to make the com∣mon people wonder at that they knewe not themselues: so in the last discouered Indies, the barbarous people séeing a far of the Spaniards on horsebacke, hauing neuer séene such a sight before, supposed they had bene monstrous deuourers, as in very déede they so proued, but in ano∣ther forme, then the simple and naked people, at the first tooke them.)

¶De Orice. cap. 80.

ORix, as the Glose saith super Esay. is an vncleane beast, and not accor∣ding to sacrifice: and the seuentie trans∣lated and made this translation, Quasi Beta seminocta: & all ye other transla∣ted in this wise, Sicut Onix illaqueatus, as Orix is snarled: and Orix is called Tho in Hebrue,* and is accounted in the lawe among vncleane beastes, and is a beast lyke to a water mouse, or to cer∣taine mice yt are called Glires, & haue ye name, for sléeping maketh them fat, and they sléepe all, the winter long, and laye egges vnmoueable as they were dead, & quicken againe in Summer, and so O∣rix is a beast like to such mice: and it séemeth that the letter of Isa. toucheth the same, and accordeth with Plini. that saith in this manner: In Aegypt they call a beast Orix, that standeth against the starre Canicula and the rising there∣of, the seuenth daye before, in the begin∣ning of Summer, and beholdeth on the starre as he would worship it, and that he doth when he is awaked after long sléeping. And this nowne Orix is deely∣ned Orix, cis, after that it is said Sorex, cis, and Orix, cis, and such other. But Iuuenall meneth, that Orix is a certain bird, that is most fat, and he blunteth & dulleth the knife with his fatnesse, as he saith lib. 3. there he saith, that olde Orix blunteth yron, and there by the meaning of this place the Expositors meane, that Orix is like to an hen of Affrica, or such an Hen, and so it is sayde after Briton, Orix, gis. And after the rule of Grecis∣mus, the nowne that endeth in ix, shall giue the Genetiue ease in cis, or in gis, as Fex, cis, Lex, gis, except Nox, Nix, Senex, and Suppellex, and therefore it is sayd, that Orix is that beast, that is accounted in lawe cleane to eating. Deu∣teronomeum. 14. there it is sayd in this manner: Thou shalt eate Orix & Ca∣meleopardalus, but it is accounted vn∣cleane to sacrifice. And libro. 8. capit. 3. de Animalibus somniferis, Plinius sai∣eth in this manner: Wilde Goates be shapen in many manner likenesses and shapes, for among them are some called Ilices, and be wonderful light, and leape downe of high rockes and cragges, and fall vpon their owne hornes. They are great and mightie, with the horne theyr heads be charged: and some be Origes, and their haire groweth and stretcheth toward the head, against the kinde of o∣ther beasts: and some be called Dame, and some Pigrasti, and many other such, and come of mountaines, and from be∣yond the sea, and so for to speake, Orix is a wilde Goate, and in this significa∣tion it is not taken in Esa. there he spea∣keth of beastes that men do dreame off in euill sléepe and dreames, for it accor∣deth not to the proportion and compari∣son: For Aristotle saieth, that euerye wilde Goate is wakefull by kinde, and sléepeth but little, and is soone awaked, for it is a fearefull beast: and so Orix is taken for a beast in Deuterono, and for another in likenesse in Esa. as many men meane.

(*Orix a certaine wilde beast in A∣frike. The latter writers are in doubt, what this Beast should be, some sup∣pose a kinde of wilde Goate, some the Unicorne, some the Rinoceros, &c.)

¶De Oue. cap. 81.

A Séepe is called Ouis, and is a softe Beast, and beareth Woll, and is vnarmed in body, and pleasing in heart: and hath that name Ouis, of Oblacio, offering: for men in olde time offered shéepe in sacrifice, and not Buls, as Isidore saith libro. 12.

And some of these beasts are called Page  376Bidentes, as it were with two teeth, for among eight teeth two passe the other. And Nations vsed them most in sacri∣fice, as Isidore sayeth. Or else they bée called Bidentes, as the age meneth Qua∣si biennes, as they were of two yeares old: For of that age they were, when they were chosen to sacrifice: but most verily they haue the name of two strou∣ting téeth, with the which they be yaned. And li. 5. Aristotle speaketh of shéepe, and saith, that they conceiue and yane vntil 8. yeare. And li. 7. if sheepe conceiue toward the Northen wind, they conceiue males. And if they conceiue toward ye Southern winde, then they conceiue females. And such as the veines bée vnder the shéepes tongue, of such colour is the lambe when he is yaned. Look before de Agnis & Ari∣ete. And whē old shéep be moued to gene∣ration in certeine time ordeined, the shep∣heards say, that it is a good signe in them: And if young shéep be moued so, they tell yt it betokeneth pestilence among shéep in that yéere.

Also libro. 8. Aristotle sayth, that shéepe conceiue in drinking water, and there∣fore heardes giue them Salte to eate, to make them drinke the more, and to conceiue the more faster, and to kéepe them the more safe and whole without all kind of sicknesse. And also in Haruest they giue to them Cucurbitas,* such hearbes, & salt them to make much milke in their teates. And shéepe conceiue with Tilles and salt: & if shéepe fast thrée daies and cate afterward, then they ware soone fat. And colde water of the North is good to them in Summer, & warme wa∣ter of ye South is good to thē in haruest: and meat helpeth them in the end of the daye & of the night: For by farre wayes and long trauaile they waxe leane, and heards know which of them maye dure in Winter, for vpon some is found Ise, & vppon some no Ise is founde, and some of them bée séeble and may not shake off the Ise. And shéepes flesh yt is nourished in watry places is euill, as flesh of other foure footed beasts is, that bée nourished in places that be right moyst and watry, and those that haue long tailes maye worse away with winter, then those that haue broade tailes, and those that haue litte Wooll and crispe, may worst away with Winter. And Wooll of shéepe that a Wolfe eateth, is infected, & the cloth that is made thereof is lousie. Also libro. 8. he saith, that in shéep is lesse wit and vnder∣standing thē in another foure footed beast. And Thunder gréeueth them, and if one abide alone, & if it be in the euentide, it may happen that she shall cast her lambe for dread. Also li. 8. ca. 67. Plinius sayth, that thundering maketh solitary shéep to cast their lambs. The remedy and helpe thereof is, to gather & bring them toge∣ther into one flocke. Looke before in this same booke, in littera A. where he trea∣teth de Ariete & Agno.

(*Of sheepe, their Wooll is a singu∣lar benefit in a common wealth, especial∣ly the Cotsell wooll for finenesse. And in Bartholmes time, the Staple for Wooll, was not so well husbanded as it hath bene since. The increase of pasture for shéepe, hath so much decreased the tillage of corne, that vntill it be restored againe, there wil grow a poore common wealth: the more shéepe, the déerer the wooll, the flesh, and the fell: the moe shéepe the dée∣rer corne and graine, beside, Béefe, But∣ter, Egges, & Chéese: Pastures consumes tillage, the want of tillage bréedes beg∣gars, decayes villages, hamlets, & vpland townes. It is better to want Wooll then corne, shéepe then men, but excesse & pro∣digalitie, which cannot away with mea∣sure, hath brought this England to great penurie: it is espyed where it wanteth, but not wanting where it is espied, much lesse regarded.)

De Panthera. cap. 82.

PAnthera, as Isidore sayth, libro. 12. hath that name because hée is friende to all beastes saue the Dragon, for him hée hateth full sore: Or because he hath ioye and lyking of beastes of his owne kinde, and maketh all that hée ta∣keth of one lykenesse. And Panthera is Gréeke, and is to vnderstande, all. And is a Beast painted with small rounde speckles, so that all the skinne Page  [unnumbered] without seemeth full of eyen by diuersi∣tie of speckles blacke and white, and red, as he sayeth. And as Isidore saith, this beast whelpeth but once, and the cause thereof is openly knowen: for when the whelpes waxe strong in the dammes wombe, and be strong to come into the world, they hate the damme and rent her wombe with claws, as it were ye womb letted their whelping and comming in∣to the worlde: and therefore the damme letteth passe and whelpeth them, con∣strayned and compelled by sore gréeuance of the wombe. Therefore Plinius sayth, that beastes with sharpe clawes maye not oft whelpe, for the whelpes mooue within and hurt the damme. Huc vs{que} Isidore, libro. 12. Phisiologus speaketh of the Panther, and sayeth, that he hateth the Dragon, and the Dragon flieth him: And when he hath eaten inough at full, he hideth him in his denne, and sléepeth continuallye nigh three daies, and riseth after three dayes and crieth, & out of his mouth commeth right good aire & sauour, and is passing measure sweete: and for the sweetnesse all beasts follow him. And only the Dragon is a feard when he hea∣reth his voyce, and flyeth into a den, and may not suffer the smell thereof, and fai∣leth in himselfe, and looseth his comfort. For he thinketh that his smell is verye venime. And libro. 8. cap. 18. Plinius spea∣keth of the Panthera, and sayth: that the Panthera and the Tigre bée most dres∣sed with diuers speckles and diuers cou∣lours: and some beastes ioye of theyr owne coulours, as Lyons in Siria, that be blacke with white specks, and be like to Panthers. And all foure footed beasts haue liking to beholde the diuerse cou∣lours of the Panthera and Tygres, but they be a fearde of the horriblenesse of theyr heads, and therfore they hide their heads, and toll the beastes to them with fayrenesse of the other deale of the body, and take them when they come so tolled and eate them: and though he be a right cruel beast, yet he is not vnkind to them that helpe & succour him in anye wise, as Plinius setteth an ensample of one, that delyuered and holpe vppe a Panthers whelps, that were fallen into a ditch, and the Panther lead him out of the wilder∣nesse with glad assemblance, and fawned on him, and thanked him right busily, as it séemed.

De Perdo. cap. 83.

THE Perde is called Perdus, as Isi∣dore sayth, & is the most swift beast, with many diuers coulours and rounde speckes, as the Panther, and réeseth to blend, and dyeth in leaping, and varyeth not from the Panther, but the Panther hath moe white speckes, so sayth Plinius libro. 8. Also libro. 5. Aristotle sayth, the Perde when he is sicke eateth mannes durt, because of medicine. Hunters hang that durt on a trée, and goeth vp to it: & the hunters slay him, and is lecherous, & gendereth with the Lyonesse: Of that ba∣stard generation commeth Leopardus. Looke before de Leena. The Perde is cruell when his whelps be stolen, as the Glose saith super Ose. 13.

De Pilosis. cap. 84.

PIlosi, as the Glose meaneth super E∣say. 13. be beasts wonderfully shapen to the lykenesse of men, & be called wilde men. And lib. 8. cap. 5. Isidore sayth: that Pilosi is called Pauide in Gréeke, and In∣cubi in latine or Inuij, of Ineundo, mans going in sometime with beasts: and haue that name Incubi, of Incumbendo, doo∣ing the déede of generation, and oft they couet women ouer measure, and do with them the déede of lecherye, and men call them Deniones Galliducij such manner fiends, for oft they doe such vncleannesse. And one of them is called Iucubouis, and the Romanes call such an one Faunum Ficarium. Also Papias sayth, that Pilosi be called Panites in Gréeke, and Incubi in latine. And their shape beginneth with mens likenesse, and endeth in the lyke∣nesse of beastes in the vtter parte. And the Glose sayth super Esay. 34. the same. But another Glose saith, that Pilosus is an Ape, and is a beast wonderfully sha∣pen, rough and hairie, shapen as a man, in many pointes. Looke heereafter de Si∣mia.

Page  377

De Pigargo. cap. 85.

*PIgargus is a cleane beast to meate, as it is said Deutro. 14. and is an hor∣ned beast, as a Goat bucke, & is lesse then an Hart, & greater then a goat bucke: and is like to the beast yt is called Hircocer∣uus, but is much lesse then he. Looke wtin de Tragelapho.* And he cheweth his cud, as the Goat buck, & is cloue footed as an Hart, and is a wilde beast, and of great switnesse, and dwelleth in woods and in desart. And Hugution saith, that Pigar∣gus is a little lowe bird, and that name commeth of Pige, that is lownes. But in Deut. it is taken for a foure footed beast, yt is like to the beast that is called Hirco∣cemus, as the Glose meaneth there. And this name Pigargus hath no aspiratiō in the first silable, & so it shall not be writ∣ten with Hbut some men write Phigar∣gus, and doe amisse, as it is knowen by bookes that be dilligently corrected.

De Pigmeis. cap. 86.

PIgmei be little men of a cubite long, and the Gréekes call them Pigmeos, and they dwell in mountaines of Inde, and the sea of occean is nigh to them, as Papias sayth. And Austen sayth in this wise,* that Pigmei bée vnneth a cuibite long, and bée perfect of age in the thirde yeare, and waxe old in the seauenth yere, & it is said, that they fight with Cranes. Lib. 7. ca. 3. Plinius speaketh of Pigmeis, and sayth, that Pigmei be armed in yron, and ouercome Cranes, and passe not theyr bounds, and dwell in temperate land vnder a merrye parte of heauen, in mountains in the North side. And ye fame is, that Cranes pursue them, and Pigmei armed, ride on goat bucks with arowes in springing time, and gather an hoast, & come to the sea & destroye their egs and birds with all their might and strength, and doe such voyages in thrée moneths, and except they did so, Cranes should in∣crease, and be so many, that Pigmei shuld not withstand them, and they make them houses to dwell in of feathers, and with the pens of Cranes, and of shells of their egges, as he sayth, and saith also, that A∣ristotle meaneth, that Pigmei lyue in dennes.

(*All the later writers affirme this to be true, they are in the vttermost moun∣taines of Indie.)

De Porco. cap. 87.

THE Swine is called Porcus, as it were Spurcus, vile & defiled, as Isid. saith, li. 12. for he sroteth and walloweth in durt and in fen, and diueth in slime, and fouleth himselfe therewith, and rest∣eth in a stinking place. Horatius sayth, that a Sowe is friend to fen & to myrye places: and therfore Swine be accounted foule and vncleanly, and we call the bri∣stice of Swine Setas in latine, and Shoo∣makers call them Bristles, & sow there∣with, as he saith: and some swine be tame, & some wild. And among the tame, the males be called Boares & Barowes: and be called Verres in latine: for they haue great might and strength, & the females be called Sowes, & Sues in Latine: for they digge and wrote & séeke meate vn∣der earth. And the wild male Swine bée called Bores, Apri in latine, as it were fierce, as Isidor. saith, lib. 8. cap. 51. Plini∣us speaketh of Swine and sayeth, that they be farrowed toothed, and the males gender not passing thrée yéere, a Swine dieth, if he léeseth an eie: and a swine may liue .15. yeares, or 20. yeres. And Swine haue many sicknesses, & hold their heads aside: and when they be sicke, they wal∣lowe in fenne and in puddles, and lye more on the right side then on the lefte side, and waxe fat in fortye dayes, and fat sooner if they suffer hunger thrée daies in the beginning of the féeding. Swine loue each other, and knowe each others voice: and therefore if any crie, they cry all, and labour to helpe each other with all their might. Tame Swine knowe their owne houses and home, and learne to come therto without guide and loads∣man, as hée sayth, and grunt in going and in lieng and in sléeping, and namely if they be right fat. And Swine sléepe faster in May then in othertimes of the yere, and that commeth of fumosity that Page  [unnumbered] stoppeth their braine that time: And in Summer though there be great resoluti∣on of humours, there is greate wasting thereof and drieng by passing heat of the Summer: and there is no great genera∣tion of fumositie yt is cause of sléepe: and therefore they sleepe not in Summer, as they doe in springing time, as Auicen sayth. In Haruest and in Winter hu∣mours be sad and fastened togethers by coldnesse of the aire, & compasseeth them without. And therfore few fumosities be resolued in that time for passing cold that fastneth the humours in the body, as hée sayth libro secundo, Aristotle sayeth of Swine, that Swine chaunge not theyr téeth, & the male hath more téeth then the female. Also libro. 3. Aristotle sayth, that the Boare leapeth on a Sow after eight moneths, and the Sowe farroweth after one yeare, and what the Boare gende∣reth within the first yeare, it is full fée∣ble. Also the Boare hath no vsage, that if he gendereth first with one Sow, then his pigges of the second Sowe be fewer in number, & lesse of body: when a young Sow farroweth first, her pigs shall haue but small bodyes: & if the Sow bée right fat, her milke is the more scarce after the farrowing: and pigges that bée farrow∣ed in Winter be best, and they that bée farrowed in Summer be worst: and those that be gendered in youth, bée bet∣ter then those that be gendered in age. And the Boare when he is fat, may gen∣der in euerye time of the day, and of the night, and namelye earely in the morow tide. And libro. 6. When a Sow farrow∣eth, shée giueth her first pigge the first teate: and when she desireth the déede of lecherie, she suffereth not the male to leap vppon her, vntill her eares hang downe∣ward. And Barly is full good meate for Swine, when they shall gender, & name∣ly if it be sodden. Also lib. 6. Swine haue thrée manner euills,* one is called Bran∣cos, & is a postume in the eare and in the iawe, & oft in the féet,* and the flesh about that place is corrupt, and the corruption passeth some and some into the flesh that is nigh thereto vntill it come to the lungs, and stuffeth then the spirit, & the Swine dieth, and this euill increaseth so∣deinly. And Swine heards, when they know first this euil, cutteth off his mem∣ber, in yt which this euill is in: and may not be healed without cutting. And swine haue another euill, that is ach and heaui∣nesse of head, and of this euill the most part of Swine die. Another disease that they haue, is fluxe of the wombe, & hath vnneth any remedy, for it slaieth in thrée daies. And when Swine be great, it doth them good to eate Beryes: and also bath∣ing in hot water delighteth them. And they be let bloud in the veine vnder the tongue. Also diuers meat fatteth Swine, and some meate maketh them to swell, & some gendereth flesh, and some greace & fatnesse. And hogs both male and female haue liking to eate akornes: for it tem∣pereth their flesh, but and Sowes eate much thereof, it maketh them cast theyr pigges, as it maketh sheepe cast theyr lambs. And many other things Aristotle telleth of them. Looke before de Apro, & looke after de Sue.

(*The flesh of wilde Swine is much better & wholsomer, because of their stir∣ring too and fro, then is the flesh of the tame Swine.)

De Pediculo. cap. 88.

A Lowee is called Pediculus, and is a worme of the skinne, and hath that name of Pedibus, the féete, as Isido. sayth lib. 12. And grieueth more in the skinne with the féete and with créeping, then hée doth with biting, and is gendered of right corrupt aire & vaporous, that sweate out betweene the skinne and the fleshe by pores, as Constantine sayth in Viatico. Oft as he sayth, lice and nits gender in the head or in the skinne, and come of purgations, which kinde casteth out, and maketh them fast betwéene the flesh and skinne vpon that place. And expositours say, that some lice gender of sanguine hu∣mour, and be red and great, and some of fleumatike humours, and they be softe & white, and some of cholarike humours, & be citrine, long, swifte, and sharpe: some of melancholike humour, and they bée couloured as ashes, and bée leane and slow in moouing. And where great mul∣titude Page  378 of Lice is in a bodye that is right full and corrupt, it is oft token of general corruption, as of Morphea, or of Lepra, as hée sayeth. Against the grieuing of lice, oft washing, combing, and medici∣nall cleansing of the head helpeth, For as Constantine sayeth, quicke Siluer with ashes of willowes, slayeth them, & name∣ly if they be gendred of hot humour, & so doth Lead burnt with oyle and vineger, & if they be gendred of cold humour, then helpeth Staphisagra & Auripigmentum, with oyle and vineger, & so doth sea wa∣ter, and water of salt Welles. And as there be diuerse kinde of beastes, so in thē be diuerse manner of lice, as it fareth in hogs, his lonce is called Vsia, and hath that name because he burneth, for where hée biteth, the place burneth so, ye blaines arise there, as Isidore sayth, lib. 12. And the leaner that a louce is, the sharper the biteth and gréeueth.

(*A louce is a loathsome vermin, yet was he king ouer Pharao and Herod, to the great terrour of the enimies of God: there be many that haue the lousie euill, and cannot be cured, which commeth of the fluxe of the reines and flegma.)

De Pulice. cap. 89.

THe flea is a little worme, and grée∣ueth men most, and is called Pulex, and hath that name of Puluis, pouder, for it is namely fed with pouder, as Isidore sayth, libro. 12. And is a little Worme of wonderfull lightnesse, and scapeth & voy∣deth perill with leaping, and not with running, and waxeth slowe, and fayleth in colde time, & in Summer time it wer∣eth nimble & swift. And though it bée not accounted among beasts that be gendred, and knowen among beastes by medling of male & female, yet he multiplyeth his owne kinde by bréeding of Néetes: For they bréede certeine neets in themselues, and of that commixion or comming of Néets, many Fleas do come of one Flea. And the Flea is bred white, and chaun∣geth as it were sodeinelye into blacke coulour, and desireth bloud, and biteth and pearceth therefore, and stingeth the flesh that hee sitteth on, and sucketh the thinnest parte of humours that bée be∣twéene the skinne and the flesh, and ma∣keth in that parte of the bodye, in the which he sucketh, a bloudie token, and doth let them that wold sléep with sharpe biting, and spareth not kings, but a little Flea gréeueth them, if he touch theyr flesh. And to Fleaes Warmewood is ve∣nim, and so be leaues of the wilde Figge trée, as Constantine sayeth. And Colo∣quintida, a wéede that is lyke to a wilde Nep, helpeth against Fleas, if it be stam∣ped and medled with water, and sprong in the place there as many Fleas be: and so doth Wormewoode leaues, for as it is said, they die by smell & sauour of worm∣wood: and by swiftnesse of leaping, they be the worse to take, & they bite full sore against raine.

(*A sluttish kept house bréedeth fleas, and lodging next to stables of horses: al∣so the horse vrine bréedeth fleas, his dung falling vpon his taile, brédeth Snakes, his flesh, Waspes.)

De Rinocerote. ca. 90.

RInoceron in Gréeke, is to meaning, an horne in the nose, and Monoce∣ron is an Unicorne, and is a fierce or cruell beast, and hath that name, because he hath in the middle of the forehead an horne of foure foote long, and that horne is so sharpe and so strong, that he throw∣eth downe all or pearceth all that he rée∣seth on, as Isidore sayeth, libro. 12. And this beast fighteth ofte with the Ele∣phaunt, and woundeth and sticketh him in the wombe, and throweth him downe to the grounde. And the Unicorne is so strong, that he is not taken with might of Hunters. But men that write of the kinde of things, suppose that a maide is sette there as he shall come, and she ope∣neth her lappe, and the Unicorne layeth thereon his head, & leaueth all his fierce∣nesse, & sléepeth in that wise: and is taken as a beast without weapon, & slaine with darts of hunters. Huc vsque Isidorus, li∣bro. 12.*

Gregory super Iob in Moralibus sai∣eth héereto, that Rinocero the Unicorne is a wilde beast by kinde, and maye not Page  [unnumbered] be tamed in no wise: and if it happen that he be taken in any wise, he may not bée kept in any manner: for he is so vnpati∣ent and so angry, that he dieth anone. Li. 8. ca. 21. Plinius speaketh of the vnicorne and saith, that he hath an horne in ye mid∣dle of the forehead aboue the nose, and is enimye to the Elephaunts, and froateth and fileth his horne against stones, and sharpeth it, and maketh it ready to fight in that wise. And in the fighting hée as∣saileth the Elephant on the wombe, for he knoweth that that is the soft place of the Elephants body. His length is as it were the length of an horse: but his legs bée much more shorter, and his coulour is bay. And as he meaneth, libro. 8. cap. 22. There be many kinds of vnicornes, for some bée Rinoceron, and some Mo∣noceron and Egloceron. And as he saith, Monoceron is a wilde beast shapen like to the horse in body, and to the Hart in head, and in the féet to the Elephant, and in the taile to the Boare, and hath heauy lowing, and an borne strouting in the middle of the forehead of two cubites long. And they denie that this beast may be taken aliue. And Egloceron is a man∣ner of Unicorne, that is called Capricor∣nus in latine, and hath that name of Egla, that is a Goat, & Ceros that is an horne: And is little a beast like to a Kid, with an horne that is full sharpe in the middle of the forehead. Also Plinius saith there, that in Indie be one horned Oxen, with white speckes and bones, and with thick hoofes as horses haue. And in Indie bée some one horned Asses, as Aristotle, A∣uicen, and Plinius say. And bée called one horned Asses, because they haue one horne in the forehead, betwéene the eares, and bée called Asini Indici, Asses of Indie, and the other part of their bodyes be like to the bodyes of wilde Asses, and such an Asse is called Monoceros, and is lesse bolde and fierce then other vnicornes, and hath this name Monoceros, of Monos, that is one, and Ceros, that is an horne. And this nowne Rinoceron is declined, hic Rinoceron, ge. huus Rinocerontis. Also Monoceron is declined, Monoce∣ron, tis. Also we finde Rinoceros, & Mo∣noceros, and is then declined Rinoceros, Rinocerotis, in the Genitiue case, and so of other.

(*The Rhinoceros in Aethiopia, a perpetuall enimie to the Elephant, hée is not so high as the Elephant, armed ouer with shells in steed of haire, so yt nothing can easily pearce the same: euen so is the little beast, called of the Affricans Tat∣ton, of Gesner Zibeti, in fo. 20. at the end of his booke of birdes, &c. Which armed case I haue to shew.)

De Rana. cap. 91.

THE Frogge is called Rana, and hath that name of noise and crieng of his voice, for he cryeth gréedely, and maketh much noyse in the marreys where he is bred, as Isidore sayth, libro. 12. cap. ter∣cio, de Piscibus. And some Frogs be wa∣ter Frogges, and some bée of moores and of marreys, and some bée called Ru∣bete, of whom it is spoken before in lit∣tera Byde Buphone: & some be called Ca∣lamite, for they dwell among reeds that be called Calami, & other among shrubs and in réedie places, and be but little and gréene, & dumbe without voice. And some be called Agredule, and be small Frogs, and dwell both in lande and in water, & haue therefore that name Agredule.

And ther is a manner Frog that maketh an hound still and dombe, if he commeth in his mouth: But many men deny this, as Isidore sayeth, libro. 12. And libro quarto, Aristotle saith, that the Frogge hath his owne tongue, & the further part of the tongue ioyneth to his mouth, as though it were bound thereto, as the vt∣ter part of the tongue of a fish, though the hinder part and inner of the tongue bee loose and slacke toward the wosen: and therefore the Frog hath his owne voice, and that voyce is called Coax, and ma∣keth not that voice but onely in water: And properly the male in time of loue, when he crieth for the female. For euery beast that hath voyce crieth in time of loue, and the Frogge multiplyeth his voyce when he doth his neather iawe some deale in the water, and striketh the vpper iawe, for by the strength of stret∣ching of the two iawes, his eyen shineth Page  379 as a Candle, and namelye by night: for he gendereth more by night then by day, and all fish nourisheth and féedeth his brood, except the Frogge, as he saith li. 7. when he is first shapen in water, the frogge séemeth all head, with a manner string, hanging as it wer a taile, & after∣ward is spread abroad in the manner of a womb, & then the taile is away, & then groweth féete: and he is shapen & turned into a foure footed beast. Al frogs, except the Toad, and Rubeta, moue more, and passe by leaping more then by going, for the olde Rubeta leapeth but seld. Then the Frogge is watry and moorish, cri∣eng, and slimie, with a great womb, and speckled there vnder, and is venimous, and abhominable therefore to men, and most hated, and both in water & in land he liueth.

De Salamandra. ca. 92.

SAlamandra, as Isidore sayth, libr. 10. cap. 67. is like to the Ewt in shape, & in neuer séene but in great raine, & fay∣leth in faire wether, and his song is cri∣eng: and he quencheth the fire that hée toucheth, as Ise doth, & water frore: and out of his mouth commeth white mat∣ter, & if that matter touch a mans body, the haire shall fall, & what it toucheth, is corrupt and infected, and tourneth into foule coulour. Also Salamandra is a manner kind of an Ewt or of a Lisard, and is a pestilent beast, most venimous. For as Plinius sayeth, libro. 29. cap. 4. Salamandra infecteth fruit of Trées, and corrupteth water, so that he that eateth or drinketh thereof, is slayne anone. And if his spittle touch the foot, it infec∣teth and corrupteth all the mans body, and though he be so venimous, yet some beasts eate him in stéed of meate. Of all beasts, onely the Salamandra liueth in fire, as he saith, & quencheth the fire. And a certain kind of Salamandra hath rough skinne and hairy, as the skin of the sea Sele, of the which skinne bée sometime girdles made to the vse of kings: The which girdles when they be full olde be throwne into the fire harmelesse and without went purged, and as it were re∣nued: and of that skinne be tongues & bonds made in lampes & in Lanternes, that be neuer corrupt with burning of fire. Looke before in A. de Anguium di∣uersitate, & there thou shalt finde of this worme.

(*Salamander, a beast in figure like a Lisard, full of spottes: being in fire it quencheth it, and is not burned.)

De Sanguisuga. ca. 93.

A Water léeche is called Sanguisuga, and is a water worme, & hath that name for he loueth and sucketh bloud, & lieth in a wait vpon them that drink, and when he falleth to the iaws, or clea∣ueth to any place, he sucketh & drinketh bloud, and when he hath dronke ouer∣much, he casteth it out againe, and suck∣eth newe bloud yet againe, as Isidore sayth, lib. 12. and is a worme with some part browne colour, distinguished with some deale red strakes, & is soft of body euenlong, and plyaunt, and his mouth is thrée cornered, and in his mouth is a pipe, with the which he sucketh bloud: and he sitteth vppon venimous things, and therefore when he shall bée set to a member because of medicine, first he shal be wrapped in nettles and in Salt, & is thereby compelled to cast out of his bo∣dy, if he haue tasted any venimous thing in warme water. And in hot time he ap∣plieth & setteth himselfe soone to a mem∣ber for to sucke. A horse léech.

De Stellione. cap. 94.

THE Lisard is called Stellio, & hath ye name of his owne colour, for it is a litle beast painted on the back with shining specks, as it were stars. Ouid speketh of him, & saith, yt he hath a name according to his colour, for hée hath di∣uerse shining specks in the body, & shine as stars, as Isidore sayth, lib. 12. And he saith, that the Lisard is so contrarye to Scorpions, that the Scorpions dread & léese comfort when they see the Lisarde. Li. 8. Plin. saith, that the Lisarde liueth most by dew: And though he be a fayre beast, and faire painted, yet he is right Page  [unnumbered] venimous. For as Plinius sayth, lib. 29. cap. 2. the worst medicine is made of the Lisard: for when he is dead in Wine, he couereth their faces yt drinke therof, with vile scabs. Therefore they eschew to put him in medicine, and Ointment, yt haue enuie to fairenesse of strumpets.* His remedy is, the yolk of an egge, hony & glasse: & the gall of a Lisarde stamped in water, assembleth together wéesels, as it is sayd. And the Lisarde is a manner kind of Ewts, & créepeth, & is foure foo∣ted, & cloue footed, with fingers departed as it wer in manner of an hound, & ther∣with he créepeth & climbeth vp to tops of houses, and in the chinnes of Welles there he maketh his dennes, and chaun∣geth their skins in age, as the Serpent doth, as he sayth, and lurketh in winter in dens and chinnes, and his sight dim∣meth, & in springing time hée commeth out of his den, and féeleth that his sight faileth, and chaungeth his place, and sée∣keth him a place toward the East, and openeth continually his eien toward the rising of the Sun, vntill the humour in the eye be full dryed, & the mist wasted, that is cause of dimnesse in the eie. And super Prou. cap. 30. the Glose meaneth, that the Lisard is the most swift beast, & is not feathered neither penned, but on∣ly by ablenesse and swiftnesse of feet hée créepeth & climbeth vpon the top of the house and the wall.

(*Stellio, is not the Lisard, but like in bodye, and hath spottes in his backe, lyke starres, and is venimous. Lacertus is the Lisard or greene worme, and not hurtfull.)

De Serpente. cap. 95.

THe Serpent hath that name Serpens of Serpere, to créepe, for he créepeth with priuy pares and glidings, & goeth not nor steppeth openly, but créepeth wt priuy puttings forth of teates, as Isido. saith, lib. 12. Héere I make no processe of this kind, for before in littera A, cap. de Angue, all his properties be declared & shewed at full, but it noyeth not to set héere shortly some of his properties that be knowen. Io. de sancto Egedio speak∣eth of the Serpent, and sayeth, that hée dreadeth a naked man, and leapeth on a man that is clothed. Spettle is venim to ye serpent, for spettle of a fasting man is venim to him, the Serpent fighteth for his head, for therein is accounted the place of the heart. His flesh is accounted colde, for he is of colde kind, he glydeth on ye brest & on the wombe, & that is said for he goeth not forth right, but créep∣eth, & renueth himselfe euerye yere, & li∣keth moistie places, & loueth filthy pla∣ces and shadowye, and he looketh aside, & not forthright, and stingeth also aside, and the téeth be dented inwarde, & croo∣ked, & so be bendeth when he smiteth. The serpent hideth Lepra, & is eaten for to heale that euill yt it be not knowne: and vseth not to turne & wind te tongue, for he moueth it alway, & that by strēgth of venim. The serpent fasteth & suffreth hunger long time, & stoppeth his eares, because he wil not heare the inchanters coniurations. And is hunted with wine, & he hisseth before he bileth, & slaieth all that he biteth, & is enimy to birdes, for he slaieth them with his blowing: and taketh againe that thing that he casted vp, for he taketh againe the venim that hée casteth.

De Simea. cap. 96.

THe Ape is called Simea in Gréeke, & hath that name of a flat nose. And so we call Apes Simie, for they bée flat in the nose, and foule and riueled in the face. Or we call them Simeas, and giue them that name for lykenesse of reason. For that he in many things counterfei∣teth the déeds of men, but this is false, as Isi. saith, li. 12. And there he sayth, that Apes haue knowledge of elements, & be sory in the full of the Moone, & be merie and glad in the new of the Moone. And when ye Ape hath two whelps, she bea∣reth yt that she loueth best in hir armes, and that other on her shoulder, & when she is beset, then she must néeds flie, and may not beare both the whelps: then she is compelled to throw away yt that she bare in her armes, and is charged with that other that sitteth on her shoulder, & Page  380 is the more slow to run and to flye, and is therfore ye sooner taken with ye hunter. Of Apes be 5. manner kinds, as he saith, of whom some haue tailes: and ther is an Ape with a taile,* & that Ape is called Cluna amōg some men: and some be cal∣led Cenophe, and be like to an hound in the face, & in the body like to an Ape. Al∣so some be called Spinge, and be rough & hairie, with strouting paps and teats, and forgetteth soone wildnesse: and some be Sati••, pleasing in face, and merrye mouings and playengs, and resteth but little. And some bée called Calatrices, & be vnlike to ye other, nigh in all manner points, for in the face is a long beard, & haue a broad taile, as Isidore saith. And Plin. saith the same, li. 8. cap. 54. There he saith, yt kinde of Apes is next to mans shape, & be diuerse, and distinguished by tailes, & labour wanderfully & busily to do all thing that they see: and so oft they sh themselues with shooes that hunters leaue in certeine places slily, & be so ta∣ken the sooner: for while they would fa∣sten the thong of the shooe, & wold put ye shooe on their féete, as they sée ye hunters doe, they bée oft taken with hunters ere they may vnloose the shooes, & be deliue∣red of them. Also Plinius saith ther, that the kind of Apes loue wel their whelps, for tame Apes that be in an house, she∣weth her whelpes that she whelpeth, to all men that he therein, & haue liking to be stroked, and knoweth them that com∣forteth and pleaseth him, and maketh them good chéere, Huc vs{que} Plinius. But eod. li. cap. 22. he saith, that in Indie bée Apes white in all ye body and those Apes be hunted & taken with Beares of Inde. Aud li. 2. Auicen saith, that the Ape ac∣cordeth in shape with a man, & in haire with a wolfes & some apes haue euil ma∣ners, & tatches, & their teeth be as it were hounds teeth, & haue malitious biting, and namely those that haue tailes, and some be rough and all hairie before, ex∣cept the face, & such haue teeth as a man, & haue other things as a man, and red∣dish eyen & sharpe, and paps and teats, in the breast, and handes, feete, and fing∣ers, and toes, and may goe and steppe on two feete, for they haue soles in theyr féet as a man hath, & so hath few beasts except a man, and namelye foure footed beasts, as Aristotle saith. And ye female Ape is like to a woman in the priuye chose, and the males yarde is like to an hounds yarde, & his entrailes be like to a mans entrailes Huc vsque Auicenne. And Aristotle saith, yt some foure foo∣ted beasts commeth to mans kinde, as the Ape. There he rehearseth all ye fore∣said likenesse. The Ape is a beast won∣derfully shapen, but he hath some likenes of mankind, and is learned and taught, and so he is taught to leape and play in diuers manner wise, and is an vntamed beast, and malitious by kinde, and is ta∣med and chastised by violence wt bea∣ting, and with cheines, and is refrained with a clogge, so that he may not runne about freely at his owne will, to abate his fiercenesse and outrage. And the Ape safeth all manner of meats & vncleane things, and therefore he séeketh and loo∣keth wormes in mens heads, and thro∣weth them into his mouth, and eateth thē. The Lion loueth Apes flesh, for by eating therof he recouereth, as it is said when he is sore sicke, as Isido. and Pli∣nius meaneth. Looke before de Leone in littera L.

De Sirena. cap. 97.

THe Mermaid is called Sirena, & hec Siren, Sirenis, is a sea beast wonder∣fully shapen, & draweth shipmen to peril by swéetnes of song, & so this noune Si∣rena commeth of ••iren, yt is to vnder∣stand, draught or drawing, as Hugueo saith. The Glose saith super Esa. 13. G. that Sirene be Serpentes with creasts.* And some men say, that they are fishes of the sea in likenesse of women. Papias sayth, that Sirene be great Dragons fli∣eng with creasts as some men suppose. And Isidore saith li. 20. where hée brea∣teth of wonders, in this wise, some men feine yt ther are three Sirenes sou••de ••• maidens, and some deale Fowles with claws and wings, and one of them •••∣geth with voy••, and another 〈…〉 Pipe,* and the third with an Harpe; and they please to shipmen with 〈…〉 of Page  [unnumbered] song, that they drawe them to perill and to shipwracke, but the truth is, that they were strong whoores, ye drewe men that passed by them, to pouertie & mischiefe. And it is feined, that they brought them to shipwracke. And Isidore lib. 12. saith, that in Arabia be serpents with wings, that be called Sirene & run more swift∣ly then horses, and doe flye, and also it is sayd, that they flye with wings, and theyr venimme is so strong, that death is self sooner then ach or sore. And Phi∣siologus speaketh of Sirena, and sayth, it is a beast of the sea wonderfully shapen as as maid from the nauell vpward, and a fish from the nauell downeward, and this wonderfull beast is gladde and me∣rie in tempest, and sadde and heauie in fayre weather. With swéetnesse of song this beast maketh shipmen to sléepe, and when ••sée séeth that they be a sléepe, she goeth into the ship, and ratisheth which she may take with her, and bringeth him into a drye place, and maketh him first lye by her, and doe the déede of lechery, & if he will not or may not, then she slaieth him and eateth his flesh. Of such won∣derfull beasts it is written in the great Alexanders story.

(*The nature of diuers fishes is to pray vpon man, as the Conger, the Mac∣krell, and the Crab or Lopster: my selfe in the yeare. 63. sawe the experience, and as for the Mermaide that is the sea fish, shapes appere after diuerse formes, that some groose-head imagine to be lyke a maide, as the Monke fish, the Frier, and Hippotamus wherein is a kinde of re∣semblaunce, but fa••e from proporti∣on.)

De. Scorpione cap. 98.

A Scorpion, as Isidore sayth, libro.••. 〈…〉 lande Wo••, with a crooked things in the tayle, and hath that name Scorpio in Gréeke, for it stingeth with ••• tayle, and sheddeth venimme in the 〈…〉 wound. And it is his propertie, that he 〈…〉 euer nor her oh neuer the palme of the hand, as he sayth: And this maner scorpion commeth of Scote the 〈…〉 is sweet, and of 〈…〉, that is to feine, for before he feineth pleasance. By likenesse of the worme Scorpion a bush of thornes, & of briers, & knotted braun∣ches of roddes be called stinging. Also a signe in heauen is called Scorpio. For when the Sunne is in that signe, wée féele first stinging of colde. Therefore Horace sayth.

Maturina parum tunc cautos frigora ledunt.

The morow cold grieueth but litle. Also an arow that is venimed is called Scor∣pio, for when it commeth out of the bow vnto a man, & hitteth him, if sheddeth venim, & for that cause it hath that name Scorpio. And of al these it is said in this vearse following.

Scorpius est signum, vemūsque, sa∣gitta, flagellum.

The effect of this vearse is saith before. And Plin. li. 11. ca. 26. speketh of Scorpi∣ons, & saith, that they bring forth small wormes, shapen as egges, & bréedeth fer∣uent & right pestelentiall venim, as ser∣pents do. And the venim of Scorpions noieth & gréeueth thrée dayes full sore, & afterward flaseth with soft death, but it be holpen & succoured the sooner. And ye Scorpion smiteth maidens with deaths stroke, when he smiteth & stingeth them, & women also: But he smiteth not men so soone, & grieueth most & noieth in the morow tide, those yt they finde in theyr wayes, when they cōeout of their dens, or if it happeneth yt they shed venim by any smiting. The Scorpions taile is al∣way redy to smite & sting, & ceaseth in no momēt of gréeuing or noieng, if he haue any occassion or cause: & hée stingeth and smiteth a slon, & sheddeth in the smiting white venim. Apoderus is author, & de∣scribeth many maner of gréeuous scor∣piōs by double colour, some haue stings, & among these scorpions the males bée most grieuous, & namely in time of loue, and these scorpions be smaller and lon∣ger then other. And of them all the ve∣nim is most gréeuous a little after the midst of the daye, in the great and fer∣uent heate of the Sun, and also when they thirst, and haue certeine knots or riuells in the taile, and the mo such they haue, the venim is the worse, and they Page  381 haue sometime such knots sixe or seuen. Apolodius meaneth, yt in Affrica some Scorpions haue feathers, and those bée full gréeuous: and because of winning, Inchanters gathereth venime of diuers lands, and labour for to beare these win∣ged Scorpions into Italy, but they may not liue vnder heuen within the country of Italy. But such Scorpions bée some∣time séene in Italy, but they be not grée∣uous. And in Scithia they smite blacke Swine, so that they die soone, but they bath thē in water afterward. To a man smitten of ye scorpion, ashes of scorpions burnt, dronke in wine, is remedy. Also scorpions drowned in oile, helpeth & suc∣coureth beasts that bée strong with scor∣pions. The Scorpion hurteth no Beast that hath any bloud, & some Scorpions bréed & bring forth a leauen young scor∣pions. And it is sayd, that the Scorpions eateth them sometime, but one of them that is most flie leapeth on the thigh of the Scorpionesse, and sitteth there safe & sure from the stinging of the taile, and from the biting of the mouth, and this slaieth the hée, and worketh the death of his young, and kinde ordeineth this prouision, for such a pestilentiall kinde should not multiply too much. Huc vs∣que Plinius. libro. 11. And Aristotle lib. 7. sayth, that some Scorpions doe eate some venimous thinges, and haue the worse venime, and so Dragons doe eate Scorpions, and those bée worst. A∣gainst stinging of Scorpions bée manye remedyes, as it is sayde before in libro de Venenis, where it is perfectly trea∣ted.

(*In Italy are manye Scorpions, they are much lyke a Cricket, but more browner, venimous, & hanteth in clifts of posts, and beds, and be quicke in run∣ning.)

De Sue. cap. 99.

A Sow is called Sus, and hath ye name of Subigendo, vnder wroting & dig∣ging, for she routeth, & diggeth the earth to get her meate & foode, & ouerturneth & wrouteth, that shée may come with the teeth to moores & roots. And Plinius saith li. 8. cap. 51. that the young Sow concei∣ueth against the euennesse of the day and night in springing time, and sarroweth sometime 20. pigs at once, but she may not reare them nor bring them vp, and eateth all sometime, except the first. For she loueth him best that cōmeth out first of her wombe, for he is most kindlye to her. And shée giueth him alwaye the first seat, as Plinius sayth. Solinus and Aristotle li. 6. meane, that the sow is an vncleane beast, & a right greate glutton, and she eateth & deuoureth gluttonously all manner stinking things & vncleane, and couereth and desireth baths, fennes, and puddles, and re••eth hir selfe therin, & waxeth fat. And Aristotle saith lib. 7. she waxeth fat, and namely in resting. And the seuenth part of her meat turneth into haire and bloud, and into other such. And the Sow waxeth leane after yt she hath farrowed, for the meat that she eateth turneth into milke, by the which her pigs bee nourished and fed, and the Sowe waxeth fierce and cruell, when she hath Pigges, and fighteth and put∣teth her selfe in peryll for her Pigges a∣gaynst the Woulfe. Looke the other properties of this sayde beast in littera P. before, de Porco, & in this same booke in littera A. de Apro, where they bée more largely treated and spoken of in di∣uerse things.

De Tauro. cap. 100.

THe Bull is called Taurus, & is nei∣ther roother nor gelded, as Isid. saith. And Taurus is a nowne of Gréeke, & so is Bos also. And as hée sayeth, libro. 12. Bulles of Indie be red, and swifte, and cruell, & their haire is turned in contra∣rywise, & such a Bull bendeth his necke at his owne will, and putteth off dartes and shot with hardnesse of the backe, and is fierce, and is not ouercome, and when he is tyed vnder a Figge trée, hée looseth and leaueth all his fiercenesse, and is sodeinelye sober and softe, as Isidore sayth libro. 17. Looke before de Ficu, in littera F. and is a proud beast and head∣strong, and his most strength is in the necke, in the hornes, and in the powle. Page  [unnumbered]Plinius speaketh of the Bull, libro. 8. cap. 45. and saith, that the gentlenesse of the Bull is knowen by sight, & by sterne face, and ful eares, and in hornes, and in shape disposed to fighting: al his manace standeth in his fore-feet, with the which he diggeth the earth, and throweth it vp among beasts. He vseth specially such casting and throwing of earth, & com∣forteth him therewith, as he saith. And Aristotle lib. 2. saith, that the Bull hath a round liuer, lyke to a mans lyuer: and eateth alone before time of generati∣on & of loue, but then hée commeth into company of kine, as he saith, lib. 7. And fighteth then strongly against other. Also in codem, Bulls be fatted with grasse, hearbes, & corne, which bréedeth ventosi∣tie, & also they be fatted with Pesen & Beanes, and other such, & if thou doest cut & slit his skin,* so that it areare some∣what from his flesh with blowing with a pipe, & giuest him afterwarde to eate, then he fatteth, & is made fat with swéet meats, as with Figs and Grapes, and Reysons. Also lib. septimo, Bulles be in contrary manner & doing to horses: for they couet not to drinke water but it be colde and cléere. Also libr. 7. it is sayde, that Bulles doe fight for theyr Kine, and he that hath ye mastry, and is victor, leapeth on the female: and when he is faint and féeble by much dooing the déeds of generation, then he yt was ouercome, commeth & fighteth with him, & he that hath the mastry leapeth on the female, as it were making ioy of the mastrie. And Bulls vse the worke of generation after one yere, & perchance after 8. months, as kine do. Looke within following in this same booke, de Vacca, in littera V. Bulls before that they bée gelded, be fierce and proude, but when they haue lost theyr gendring stones, they be soft as females and mild, and fight not, and waxe in bo∣dye, and fatten,* and be made milde and soft with yokes of ploughs. Look within in littera V, de vitulo castrato. Also lib. 11. in fine it is saide. That Bulles haue stronger sinews & strings, or brawnes, then Oxen: for in the gelding all the mē∣bers of the body soften, & therfore in the hart of ye Bul oftentimes a bone is foūd: as in the heart of an Hart. Also Pli. li. 8. cap. 22. saith, that some Bulls be wilde, fierce, and sterne, and be more in quāti∣tie & greatnesse then other Bulls, & more swifter, and those Bulles be red in cou∣lour, and bléew in the eies, hauing theyr haire ouerturned, and groweth towards their eyes: & they haue mouable hornes & moueth them one after another in figh∣ting. And haue ridges & backes as hard as flint, so that they may not be woun∣ded. And he hunteth all wild beasts, and may not be taken but in déepe pits and caues, & be alway fierce when they bée taken, & destroy themselues, & die for in∣dignation.

De Tragelapho. cap. 101.

TRagelaphus is called Hircoceruus also, & hath that name Tragelaphus of Tragos, yt is a goat bucke, & Elephos, that is an hart, as Isid. saith, lib. 12. And be called Tragelaphi among ye Gréeks: and some be of the kind of an Hart, and haue rough eares as Goat buckes, and rough chins with beards. Aristotle li. 2. speaketh of them and sayth, that some wild beasts haue crooked hornes, as Hir∣coceruus, yt is called Tragelaphus also, & hath soles in the féet: & his body wax∣eth to the quantity of an hart: and this beast beareth downeward his face, and hath hornes lyke vnto an Hart Calfe.

(*Tragelaphus, whose name is not common, is like a Goate, but he is not bearded, his hornes are bending more compasse then the Goat, headed as a Ram, both in forehead and ears, white as a shéepe, sauing his brest is blackish, bending necke, as the Déere. The lear∣ned haue named this beast Tragela∣phum, this beast is wholsome to eate, ye hide and hornes for sundrye purposes. Gesner, who supposeth it a kind of deere,in folio Appendix. Addition or rem∣nant of collections. 20.)

De Talpa. cap. 102.

A Mole is called Talpa, and is a little beast, somewhat like vnto a Mouse. Of this beast Isidore speaketh libr. 12. Page  382 and saith, that he is damned in euerlast∣ing blindnesse and darknesse, & is with∣out eyen, and hath a snowte as a swine, and diggeth therewith the earth, and ca∣steth vp that he diggeth and gnaweth, and eateth mores and rootes vnder the earth, and hateth the Sunne, and flyeth lyght, and may not liue aboue the earth, and hath a blacke skinne, hairie, softe & smooth, and most short legges, and broad footed, deuided or parted with toes, as it were an hound. And Arist. speaketh of the Mole in this wise: euery beast that gendereth a beast like to himselfe, hath eyen, except the Mole, that hath no eyen séene without, and who that slitteth the skinne subtilly and warely, shall finde within the fores of eyen hidden: & some men suppose, that that skinne breaketh for anguish & for sorow when he begin∣neth to dye, and beginneth then to open the eyen in dieng, that were cloased ly∣uing. Héereto Plin. saith lib. 10. cap. 49. that the Mole heareth better when he is healed with earth that is a thicke Ele∣ment and deafe of kinde, and if he heare a man speake, he voydeth and flyeth far awaye.

(*The Mole or Want hath eyes, but they are very small, wherewith he séeth. In the end of Maye he leaueth open his earthing, and will somtime come so far thēce, that he is taken or he can recouer the same.)

De Taxo. cap. 103.

*THe Brocke is called Taxus and Me∣lus also, and is a beast of the quanti∣tie of a Foxe, and his skin is full hairie and rough, and is called also Melota.

And the Glose saith vppon that worde, Circuerunt in melotis, &c. Ebre. 12. Of this beast that is called Taxus and Me∣lota also, Plin. lib. 8. cap. 39. saith. In such beasts is wit and slight, and holdeth in the breath and blowing, stretcheth the skinne so holding their brethings, when they be hunted and chased with hunters dogges, and so they finde sleight and ma∣ner by such strouting out of the skin to eschew and put off the biting of those hounds that so do pursue and follow to noye them, and also for to slay them: and in like wise put they of the smiting of ye hunters: these beasts know when tēpest shall fal, & maketh thē therfore dens vn∣der earth, with diuers entrings, & when the Northerne winde bloweth, he stop∣peth the North entring with his rough taile, and letteth stande open the South entring, chaunging his hoales, as the winde altereth. In the same dens they make prouisions, and gather them store of meate against winter: and somtime if they lacke meate, they take sléepe in stéede of meate, as he saith: for they bée of those kinde of beasts, that hide them∣selues in winter, and liue most parte by sléepe, as it is sayd before of the Mouse. And as Phisiologus saith, there is a ma∣ner kinde of Brockes, that gather meat with the female against winter, & laieth it vp in his den, and when cold winter commeth, the male dreadeth least store of meate should faile, and refraineth ye fe∣male, and withdraweth hir meale, and suffereth hir not to eate hir fill, and shée faineth peace, as it were following the males will, and commeth in on that o∣ther side of the den, & openeth hir iawes, and eateth and deuoureth and wasteth the meate that is gathered, vnwitting to the male. Also he saith yt these beasts hate the Foxe, and fight oft times with him, but when the Foxe séeth, yt he may not for roughnes & hardnes of the skin grieue him, he faineth him as though he were sicke & ouercome, and flieth away, and while the Brocke goeth out to get his pray, the Fox commeth into his den, and defileth his chamber with vrin and other vncleannes: & the Brocke is sque∣mous of such foule things, & forsaketh his house that is so defiled, and getteth néedfully another dwelling place.

De Tigride. cap. 104.

TIgris is the most swiftest beast in flight, as it were an arrow, for ye Per∣sians call an arrow Tigris & is a beast spotted with diuers specks, & is wonder∣full strong and swifte: and the Riuer Tigris hath the name of this beast, for it is the most swiftest of all floudes.

Page  [unnumbered]And in the more Hircania bréedeth ma∣nie beasts of this kinde. Huc vs{que} Isid. And Haec Tigris, dis, is the name of the riuer. Looke before De fluminibus. And Plinius speaketh of the Tigers & sayth: that beastes of that kinde come out of Hircania, and are beastes of dreadfull swiftnesse, and is namely knowen when he is taken, for the whelpe is all glemie and sinewie: and the Hunter lieth in a∣waite and taketh away the whelpes, & flyeth soone awaye, on the most swifte horse that he may haue: and when the wilde beast commeth, and findeth the den bayd, & the whelps away, then he ri∣seth headlong, and taketh the sore of foo∣ting of him that beareth the whelpes a∣way, and followeth him by smell: and when the hunter heareth the grutching of that beast that runneth after him, hée throweth downe one of the whelpes, & the Tiger bitch taketh the whelpe in hir mouth, and beareth him into hir den, & layeth him therein, and runneth againe after the hunter: but in the meane time the hunter taketh a ship, and hath with him the other whelpes, and scapeth in that wise: and so she is beguiled, and hir fiercenesse standeth in no stéede. For as Plinius saieth lib. 6. cap. 19. the male careth not for the whelpes. And he that will bears away the whelps, leaueth in the way great mirrours, ••• the damme followeth and findeth the mirrours in the waye, and looketh on them, and séeth hir owne shaddowe and image therein, and thinketh that she séeth hir young therein, and is long occupied therefore to deliuer hir whelpes out of the glasse, and so the Hunter hath time and space for to scape: and so she is beguiled with hir owne shadow, and she followeth no farther after the Hunter to delyuer hir young.

De Tinea. cap. 105.

A Moth is called Tinea, & is a worme of clothes, as Isid. saith, & hath that name, for he holdeth the cloth that hée is in, vntill he be within, and eateth and gnaweth it, and is gendered of corrupti∣on of cloth, when the cloath is too long in presse and thicke aire, and is not blo∣wen with winde, neither vnfolded in pure aire. And this worme eateth ye vt∣ter part of the cloath, and wasteth it so slily, that it is not knowen ere it be har∣med, and though he be a sensible beast, yet he hideth himselfe within the cloth, that vnneth he is séene. Mothes hate & flye bitter things and bitter smells, and come not lightly in the cloth yt is sprong with such things, and therefore leaues of the Laurel trée, of Ceders and of Ci∣pres, and other such, put among cloathes in hutches, saueth clothes and also books from corruption and eating of mothes, as Constantine saieth. Also a manner scab of the head is called Tinea,* for it holdeth and cleaueth fast to the skinne. Thereof looke before libr. 5. De capitis infirmitate.

De Teredine. cap. 106.

MAny wormes are called Teredines in Gréeke, for they pearce and eate trées, as Isi. saith li. 12. and are gendered of corrupt humours, that abide in trées vnder the rinde and in the sap and pith, and be gendred namely in trées that are felled or planted in vndue time, as he sai∣eth: and that namely in the full of the Moone, when the moysture is much in bodies by vertue of the Moone, & is not defied for superfluitie thereof, nor ruled by kinde, and therefore such superfluitie must néeds turne into wormes and cor∣ruption. Looke before De effectu Lunae libr. 6. The worme Teredo is a little worme of a trée, and is most softe in substaunce, and fretleth, gnaweth, and wasteth most hard Trées, and maketh thereof smaller powder than anye fyle might make. Looke héereafter De vermiculo.

De Testudine. cap. 107.

A Snayle is called Testudo, and is a worme, and hath that name, for he is healed in is house, as in a chamber, as Isid. saith li. 12. And there are foure ma∣ner of snailes, land snailes, & sea stronde Page  383 snailes, & fennie snailes that lye in ma∣reyes, and riuer snailes, and some men suppose though it be not to be beléeued, that the ship goeth flower, if he beareth the right foote of the snaile, as Isi. sayeth lib. 12. De Testudine autem quaere su∣pra, in litera L. de Limace.

(*The Snaile hath no féet at all, but he meaneth the sea Tortuce, because he carieth his shell vpon his backe.)

De Tortuca. cap. 108.

THe Tortuse is accounted among snailes, for he is closed betwéen most hard shells, in the which he closeth him when any thing grieueth him: and of Tortuca is double kinde, that one dwel∣leth in riuers, and that other in lande. And Tortuca of riuers slaieth and is venemous: and the lande Tortuse dwel∣leth in houses & in woodes, and is cleane and good to eating, but it is horrible and foule in sight, and layeth egges as an Hen, but they be more pale and lesse in quantitie, and is a foure footed Beast, with foure small féete, as a frogge, with a little head as a serpent, and hath hard shells, and many foule specke. And their flesh that dwelleth in woodes be medici∣nable, and hath vertue to restore, & hel∣peth therfore for Tisikes and Etikes, & for them that be consumpt. Arist. lib. 8. speaketh of the sea. Tortuse and sayth, that he eateth all thing, and his mouth, is stronger thā any other waste mouth, for if he take a stone in his mouth, hée breaketh it,* and he commeth out of the water to the brinke, & eateth the grasse and hearbes, and when he tourneth a∣gaine to the water, he goeth vp & swim∣meth, so that his backe is drye with the Sunne, for it is not easie to him to bée déepe in water. Also lib. 13. a beast that hath stales, feathers, and shells, hath no bladder for scarcitie of drinke, for super∣fluitie of drinke passeth into the fethers and into other things, except ye Tortuse: for his loung is most fleshie and bloudy like to the l••ng of a Cowe: & the lung of the wilde Tortuse is more than hee should be, for his body is contained in a thicke shell, and is not onely dissolued therefore but in flesh, and therefore in the Tortuse is a bladder to receiue su∣perfluitie, but the bladder is full lyttle: & in all beasts that haue bloudie lungs, is a bladder, & therefore onely the Tor∣tuse among all beasts with hard shells, hath bladder and raines.

De Vacca. cap. 109.

THe Cowe is called Vacca, and hath that name, as it were Boacta, as Isi∣dore saith libro. 12. And is an incresing beast: for Aristotle saieth libro. 6. The Cowe is moued to the deede of kind af∣ter one yeare, and perchaunce after eight months, and the Cowe goeth with calfe nine months, and calueth in the tenthe month. If they range without a Heard, they wexe wilde, so that Heardes maye not tame them: and the desire of Kine is knowen, by swellyng of the twists, and by their continuall lowing: for Kine lowe when they be a Bulling, and leape on Buls and follow them, & stand with them. Also in codem he sayth in ye end: Men meane, that a Cow goeth ten mo∣neths, & if the calueth before that time, the Calfe liueth not, nor his clées be not full complete, and commonly she calueth one Calfe, and perchaunce twaine: and the female lyueth commonly xv. yeares, and the males also: and when they bee gelded they be the more strong, and may liue xx. yeare. And the Cowe hath good milke after the caluing, and no milk be∣fore, and if they haue any milke it is li∣tle worth, or nothing of value: and when a Cowes milke is first crudded, it is made as it were tough, and that falleth, when it is medled with waters and a yeareling Cow commeth seldome with a Bull: and when the Kine toe often calue and haue many Calues, it is a to∣ken as men meane, that in winter shall be much raine: and Kine lyue in com∣panye, and be ofte lost, if they goe out of companye, for then wilde beasts eate them. Also among all beasts, the males haue more stronger and greater voyce, except Kine, that haue more greater voyce than Bulls.

Also he saith, that ye Cow hath more Page  [unnumbered] stronger hornes, and more knottie than the male, but they are not so great: But and they be heated, they maye be bowed toward each side, and when they haue sore féete, it is medicine therefore to an∣noynt them betweene the hornes with oyle and pitch, and other medicines. Al∣so he saith, that Kine loue to drink cléere water, and drinke vneth or neuer, trou∣bly water & thicke: and haue the Po∣dagre, and die of that euill, and the to∣ken thereof is, when they beare downe their eares and eate not, as he saith.

The fat Cowe shunneth the yoake, that she was vsed to beate last, or she was fat: she lyeth in hir owne dirte, & wex∣eth fat, and the more she is forborne and spared of trauaile, the more slow she is: and when she is stong with a great flie,* then she reeseth vp hir taile in a won∣derfull wise, & stertleth, as she wer mad, about fields and plaines.

(*The Cowe hide is not so good for shooe soale leather, as is the Oxe.)

De Vacca agresti. cap. 110.

SOmetime a Cowe is wilde. Of such a Cowe Auicen speaketh and Arist. also and say: that in the lande of Parthia is a Cow, that hath haire in hir necke as an Horse, & is of the quantitie of an Hart, therefore many men call that Cow, Equiceruus and such a cow is without horns, & dwelleth in moun∣taines and in woodes, and hath faire ey∣en and is sharpe of sight. And somtime such a Cow hath hornes, but they be li∣tle, as the hornes of an Hart calfe, and bend backward, as the horns of a Goat bucke: and in hir heart is a bone found as in the hart of an Hart, and that bone, when the bloud warmeth, tickeling mo∣ueth the sinewes and substaunce of the heart, and is the cause of mouing a beast to ioye and to lyking: and so by suche tickeling areareth sodainly the head, and leapeth swiftly, and startleth about.

Also li. 8. Arist. saith, that beasts yt maye not haue helpe of hornes, haue other ma∣ner helpe and succour of kind, and kind giueth switnesse to Harts and to wilde Kine that haue crooked hornes, and may not for greatnesse defend all the bodye, and therefore kinde giueth another help to the wild Cow that helpeth hir great∣ly, casting of dirte, with the which shée noyeth hounds that come nigh hir. Also other hounds that finde such dirte, occu∣pie them about the smell thereof, vntill the beast that may not fight, is fled and scaped perill. Heereof looke before in lit∣tera B. de Boue and Bubalo, yt is a wild beast.

De Vitulo. cap. 111.

A Calfe is called Vitulus, and hath that name of Virore aetatis, spring∣ing of age, as Isi. saith lib. 12. For when he is calued, anone he riseth by his own vertue, and seeketh the Cowes vdder, & sucketh anone, and he is licked with the Cowes tongue, & cleansed of all manner filth that commeth with him out of hir wombe. And the Calfe when he is cal∣ued hath a certaine blacke specke in the forhead, and Witches meane, that that specke or whelke exciteth loue, but the Cowe biteth away this specke out of the Calues forhead, and receiueth him not to hir teates, ere the foresayd venime be taken off and done away. And Ari. sai∣eth the same of the Mare, & of hir colte, and Auicen also. Looke before in litera E. de Equa. The Calfe loueth his dam, and knoweth hir lowing, and followeth hir, and busheth with his forhead ye vd∣der that he sucketh, and getteth so the more milke of his dam. And when he is full, and hath wel sucked, then he is me∣rie and glad, and leapeth and startleth leaping about: and goeth not out of his dams foores. Also lib. 8. Arist. saith, that Calues be gelded after one yeare, and if they be not gelded, then they shall be lit∣tle of body: and a Calfe is gelded in this manner. He is throwen downe to the ground, and the skinne is cut and slit, & the gendring stones be cut out, and the strings thereof be areared vpwarde, and the sinewes also, & the caruing is bound vntill that the bloud passe out: and som∣time there gendereth a postume in that place, and then they burne that one gen∣dring stone that is cut off, and put the Page  384 pouder thereof vppon the postume, and so the place is saued. Also in the sea is a beast lyke to the Calfe, and is there∣fore called the Sea calfe:* and this beast calueth on the land, and gendreth as an Hound, and calueth neuer more than twaine, and he féedeth his whelpes with teates, and bringeth them not to the sea vntill the eleuenth day, and then he tea∣cheth them to swim, and they are euill to slaye, except they be hit in the heads, and they lowe as a Calfe,* and be there∣fore called Calues, and becke and make signes to men with voyce & with sem∣blaunce with most discipline. No beast sléepeth faster than these, and with the fins that they vse in the sea, they creepe on the lande, in stéede of feete, and haue rough skins and hairie as calues haue, and when the skinnes be falue off, they hold the kinde of the Sea, for the haire thereof ariseth when the sea floweth, his right fin hath a milde vertue, for it gen∣dereth sléepe, if it be laid vnder the head. Huc vs{que} Plin. li. 8. ca. 7.

(*Uery simply did the olde Authors write of the nature of things, the cause was, they lacked varietie of wordes, to expresse their mindes.)

De Vrso. cap. 112.

THe Beare is called Vrsus, and hath that name, for with his mouth he shapeth his whelpe, and so he is called, Vrsus, as it were Orsus. She whelpeth before hir time, as Isido. saith li. 12. For Auicen saieth, that the Beare bringeth forth a péece of flesh vnperfect and euill shapen, and the dam licketh the lumpe, and shapeth the members with licking: and thereof is written.

*Hic format lingua soctum, quem pro∣tulit vrsa.

The Beare shapeth with hir tongue, the broode that she bréedeth and bringeth forth. And this vnripe whelping ma∣keth, and then he gendereth the thirtie daye, and thereof commeth hastie whel∣ping and euill shaps. The Beares head is féeble, and his most strength is in his armes and in the loynes, and therfore he may stand thrée daies, as Isi. saith li. 12. cap. de bestijs. Or els this name Vrsus commeth of Vrgendo, to thrust & con∣straine that thing that he taketh. Lib. 8. cap. 37. Plin. speaketh of Beares, & saith, that their gendring is in the beginning of winter, and gender not as other foure footed beastes doe, but they gender both lieng, and then they depart a sunder each from other, and goe in dens and eyther by themselues, and whelpeth therein the xxx. daye, and the whelpes be not moe, than fiue, and be white and euill shapen, for the whelpe is a piece of flesh little more than a Mouse, hauing neither eyen nor haire,* and hauing claws some deale bourging, and so this lumpe she licketh, and shapeth a whelpe with licking: and so men shall sée no where beastes more seldome gender nor whelp than Beares, and therefore the males hide them and lurke fortie dayes, and the females aray their houses foure months with boughs fruite and braunches, and couereth it, for to kéepe out the raine with softe twigs and braunches. The first fortye dayes of these dayes, they sléepe so fast, that they may not be awaked wt woūde, and that time they fast mightely: and the greace of a Beare, helpeth against the falling of the haire. And after these dayes she sitteth vp, and lyueth by suc∣king of hir féete, and imbraceth the cold whelpes, and holdeth them close to hyr breast, and heateth and comforteth them, and lyeth groueling vpon them, as birds doe. And it is wonder to tell a thing, that Theophrastus saieth, and telleth, that Beares flesh sod that time, vanish∣eth if it be laide vp, and is no token of meate found in the Almerie, but a little quantitie of humour: and hath that time small droppes of bloud about the heart, and no manner of bloud in the other deale of the body. And in spring∣ing time the males goe forth and be fat, and the cause thereof is vnknowen, namely, for that time they be not fatted with meate neither with sléepe, but one∣ly seauen dayes.

And when she goeth out of hir den, she séeketh an hearb, & eateth it to make soft hir womb, that is then hard & boūd, than hir eyen be dimmed, and therfore Page  [unnumbered] namely they labour to get them honnie combes, for the mouth should not be wounded with stinging of Bées & bléed, and so reléeue the heauinesse & sore ache of their eyen: his head is full féeble, that is most strong in the Lyon, and there∣fore somtime he falleth downe headlong vpon the rockes, and falleth vppon gra∣uell, and dieth soone: and as men saye, the Beares braine is venemous, & ther∣fore when they be slayne, their heads be burnt in open places, for men shuld not taste of the braine, and fall into madnes of Beares. And they fight against Buls, and take them cruelly with the mouth, and hangeth on them by their féete and hornes, and draweth them with waight downe to the ground, and renteth & slai∣eth them with biting: and no beast hath so great sleight to doe euill déedes, as the Beare. Huc vsque Plin. libr. 8. cap. 37. And Arist. speaketh of the Beare lib. 7. & saith that the Beare eateth all things, for he eateth fruite of trées, when he cli∣meth vpon them, & breaketh Bée hiues, and eateth honie, and Bées grieueth his eyen, and stingeth his tongue, and dri∣ueth and chaseth him awaye sometime. And eateth Crabs and Antes for medi∣cine, and eateth flesh for great strength, and fighteth with Hartes & with wilde Swine, and with hounds, & with Buls, and throweth them downe to ye ground, and goeth vpright against the Bull, and ofte holdeth the hornes in his fore féete, and ouercommeth him, and is an vnpa∣cient beast and wrathfull, and will be aduenged on all those yt toucheth him. If another touch him, anone he leaueth the first, and réeseth on the seconde, and réeseth on the third: and when he is ta∣ken, he is made blinde with a bright ba∣sin, and bound with chaynes, and com∣pelled to playe, and tamed with beting, and is an vnstedfast beast and vnstable, and uneasie, and goeth therfore all daye about the stake, to the which he is strōg∣ly tied: he lycketh and sucketh his own féete, and hath liking in the iuyce there∣of: he can wonderfullye climbe vppon trées, vnto the highest tops of them. And ofte Bées gather honie in hollowe trées, and the Beare findeth honie by smell, & goeth vp to the place that the honnye is in, and maketh a waye into the Trée with his clawes, and draweth out the honie and eateth it, and commeth ofte by custome vnto such a place, when he is an hungred: and the Hunter taketh héed thereof, and pitcheth full sharpe hookes and stakes about the foote of the trée, and hangeth craftely a right heauie hammer or wedge, before ye open way to ye hony, then the Beare commeth, and is an hun∣gred, and the logge that hangeth ther on high letteth him, and he putteth awaye the wedge with violence, but after the remouing, the wedge falleth againe and hitteth him on the eare, and he hath in∣dignation thereof, and putteth away the wedge fiercely, and then the wedge fal∣leth and smiteth him harder than it did before: and be striueth so long with the wedge, vntill his féeble head doth fayle, by ofte smiting of the wedge, and then he falleth downe vpon the prickes and stakes, and slayeth himselfe in that wise. Theophrastus telleth of this manner Hunting of Beares, and learned it of the Hunters in the Country of Ger∣manie.

De Vrsa. cap. 113.

THe female Beare is called Vrsa, and is a Beast most cruell, when hir whelpes be stolne, for she is right busie to saue hir whelpes, and therefore she licketh them busilye, and giueth them sucke, and nourisheth them, and putteth hir selfe ofte foorth with all hir might, against them that would take away hir whelpes. And she departeth from the male when she hath conceiued, and com∣meth not in his company, till ye whelps be perfectly shapen, as he saith. And shée hideth hir selfe in time of lechery, and is ashamed to be séene in the time of loue: also then the male spareth the female, & commeth not to hir, till she hath whelp∣ed, as Ari. Plin. and Auicen meane. Also lib. 73. Beares licketh not drinke: as beasts doe with sawie téeth, and sucketh not, neither swalloweth, as beasts doe that haue continuall téeth, as shéepe and mē: but biteth ye water, & swaloweth it.

Page  385

De Vulpe. cap. 114.

A Foxe is called Vulpes, and hath that name, as it were wallowing féete a∣side, and goeth neuer forthright, but al∣way in by wayes, and with fraud, and is a false beast and deceiuable: for when he lacketh meate, he faineth himselfe dead, and then fowles come to him, as it were to a carren, and anone he catcheth one and deuoureth him, as Isi. saith lib. 12. The Foxe halteth alway, for ye right legges be shorter than the lefte legs: his skinne is very hairy, rough, and hot, his taile is great and rough, and when an hound weneth to take him by the taile, he taketh his mouth full of haire, & stop∣peth it. The Foxe doth fight with the Brocke for dens, & defileth the Brockes den with his vrine and with his dirte, and hath so the mastrie ouer him, with fraud and deceipt, and not by strength. The Foxe inhabiteth himselfe in holes and dens vnder the earth, and stealeth & deuoureth more tame beasts than wild. Arist. saith li. 8. The Hart is friend to a Foxe, and fighteth therefore with the Brock and helpeth the Foxe. Betwéene the Foxe and the Brocke, is kindelye wrath:and often the Foxe ouercommeth the Brock, more by guile, than by might and strength: and is a right gluttonous beast, and deuoureth much: and he gen∣dreth blinde whelpes, as doth the Lyon and the Woolfe, as Arist. saith libro. 16. For as Solinus saith, in all beasts that gender brood incomplete, ye cause is glut∣tonie: for if kinde suffered them to a∣bide vntill they were complete, they should slay the dam with sucking: and therefore kinde maketh them not to be full complete, least they should slay their owne kinde by gluttonie and great de∣sire of meate. The Foxe is a stinking beast and corrupt, and doth corrupt ofte the places that they dwell in continual∣ly, and maketh them to be barren: his wombe is white, and the necke vnder the throate, and his taile is redde & his backe: his breth stinketh, and his biting is some deale venemous, as Plin. sayeth. And when hounds do pursue him, hee draweth in his taile betwéene his legs, and when he seeth he may not scape, hee pisseth in his taile that is full hairie and rough, and swappeth his taile full of pisse in the hounds faces yt pursue him, and the stench of the pisse is full grie∣uous to the houndes, and therefore the hounds spare him somwhat. The Foxe faineth himselfe tame in time of neede: but by night he waiteth his time, and doth shrewd déedes. And though he bée right gu••efull and malitious, yet hée is good and profitable in vse of medicine, as Plin. sayth lib. 28. cap. 8. For his greae and marow helpeth much against shrin∣king of sinewes, as it is said: his blond is accounted tempering and dissoluing, and departing harde things, and is good therefore to breake the stone in the bla∣der and in the reynes, as it is supposed. Plinius setteth there other opinions of great men, of properties of Foxes, of whom I force not to make mention: but he saith, that if a man haue vpon him a Foxe tongue in a ring or in a bracelet, he shal not be blinde, as witches meane.

(*The lyuer of the Foxe is sayde to be good to restore the lyuer in man or woman: his smell is a great helpe a∣gainst the Palsie, therefore he is tyed néere the lodgings of the diseased.)

De Verme. cap. 115.

A Worme is called Vermis, and is a beast that ofte gendereth of flesh and of hearbs: and gendereth oft of Caule, and somtime of corruption of humours, and somtime of medling of male and fe∣male, and somtime of egges, as it well appeareth of Scorpions and of Tortu∣ses and Ewies, as Isidore saith lib. 12. And the Worme is called Vermis, as it were Vertens, turning and winding: for the worme turneth and windeth to∣ward many sides, for the worme neither créepeth nor glideth as serpents do, but the worme draweth and haleth his bo∣dy in diuers places of the bodye, with many diuers draughts, as Isidore saith: and wormes come out of their dens in springing time, which is called Ver, as he sayth.

Page  [unnumbered]Of Wormes be many manner diuerse kindes, for some be water wormes, and some bée lande Wormes, and of those, some be in hearbes and in Wortes,* as Malshragges: and other such, and some in Trées, as Teredines, trée Wormes, and some in clothes, as Moathes, and some in flesh, as Maggots, that bréede of corrupt and rotted moysture in flesh, and some in beasts within & without, as long wormes in childrens wombes, and those long wormes be called Lumbrici, and those other that be not long be cal∣led Ascarides,* and Chirones, hounde wormes, and lice and néetes in heads,* & all such wormes bréed and gender of cor∣rupt humours in bodyes of beasts with∣in or wtout. And there be other wormes of the earth which be long and rounde, soft and smooth, as Anglitwitches, and males doe hunt them vnder earth,* and with Anglitwitches fish is taken in wa∣ters, when fish hookes be baited with such wormes in stéede of baite.

And Constantine saith, such wormes helpe agaynst the Crampe, and agaynst shrinking of sinewes, and also agaynst biting of Serpents, and against smiting of Scorpions: And among Wormes some be footlesse, as Adders & Serpents, and some haue sixe féete, and some bée full euill and malitious, and enimies to mankinde, as Serpentes, and other ve∣nimous wormes: and some wormes be round of body, and hath no sinewes nor bones great nor small, neyther gristles, neither bloud, and all such dieth if they be annointed with Oyle, and do quicken againe in vineger, as Aristotle sayeth. And some wormes gender and be gen∣dered, and some be gendered and gender not, as the Salamandra, and in such Wormes is Sexe of male and female. And in these diuerse manners and in many other Wormes be diuerse, both lesse and more.

De Vermiculo. cap. 116.

VErmiculus is a right little Worme, and this Nowne Vermiculus is a Nowne diminutiue and commeth of this Nowne Vermis, and oft such small wormes be found in trées and in fruite, as it is sayde, Secundo Regum. 24. Da∣uid was lykened to the tender Trée worme, which is called Teredo, or Te∣rebucca, and is softe in kinde, and yet it pearceth and gnaweth verye hard trées, and nothing is more harder then hée when he toucheth, and there is nothing more softer then he when he is groped, as the Glose sayth there. Then specially land-wormes doe bréede of Earth, of leaues, of fruit, and of trées, and do come out of the earth, when winter is passed away, in springing time. The Worme doth hate & also doth voide salt things, & toucheth not those things which be an∣nointed with some bitter things, & with strong smelling, & doe eat linnen clothes, and the Moath doth eate and gnaw, and is the occasion of destroyeng and wast∣ing of wollen clothes, and destroye that cloth, namely that is made of the Wooll of such shéepe which were bitten with Wolues, for the Wooll of that shéep that is bitten of a Woulfe, gendereth Lice and Moaths, as Aristotle sayth, libro. 8.

(*Lice commeth also of that cloth that is trained in the wooll, with the fatte or greace of an horse or of a swine, & there∣fore ye Northen clothes worne of a swe∣ting bodye, doe bréede lice in .12. houres. And Plin. li. 10. saith, yt the little worme is foule & soft, & round, & his vtter partes be small, & the middle great, and biteth a trée priuely, and wasteth it, and passeth drawing himselfe more with the mouth then with the féet, & is vile, pliant, & soft. In al worms is a kind of touch & of tast, as Pli. saith li. 11. ca. 71. And therfore they hide thēselues when they perceiue noise, & haue knowledge betwéene sauours: and wormes forsake bitter & salt, and loueth and sucketh that thing that is swéet, and so some taketh what them néedeth, with téeth, and some with clawes and souts, and some pearceth with a sting, & some sucketh, licketh, and swalloweth, and casteth vp and eateth, & no lesse diuersity is in the seruice of the féet, to take, to di∣uide, and rent, to beare downwarde, and to wey, and he ceaseth not to digge the earth, as Plinius saith. lib. 10. cap. 71.

Page  386

De Vipera. cap. 117.

VIpera is a manner kinde of serpents that is full venemous. Of this ser∣pent Isid. speaketh lib. 12. and saith, that Vipera hath that name, for she bringeth forth broode by strength: for when hir wombe draweth to the time of whelp∣ing, the whelpes abideth not couenable time nor kinde passing, but gnaweth and fretteth the sides of their dam, and they come so into this world with strength, & with the death of the bréeder. It is said, that the male doeth his mouth into the mouth of the female, and spetreth the se∣men, and she wexeth woode in lyking of increase, biteth off the head of ye male, & so both male and female are slaine, for the male dieth in gendring, & the female dyeth in whelping. Of this serpent Vi∣pera be made pastees which are called, Trocisci Tiriaci, of the which is made Triacle, that is remedie against venim. Li. 8. ca. 40. Plin. speaketh of this Adder Vipera and saith, that he hideth himself only in chins and deus of the earth, and other Adders and Serpents hide them∣selues in hollow stones and trées: and this Adder Vipera sustaineth and may beare hunger long time in a strong win∣ter, and commeth to the den vnder earth, and casteth first away his venime, and doth sléepe there vntill Springing time come againe. And when the pores of the earth open, then by heate of the Sunne, this Serpent Vipera awaketh and com∣meth out of his den, and for his sight is apppaired by the long abiding vnder the earth, he séeketh the roote of fenell, or the hearbe of it, and washeth his dim eyen with the iuyce thereof, and taketh of the hearb to recouer his sight which he hath lost. And Tyrus is a maner serpent that is called Vipera also. Of him Aristotle speaketh lib. 8. and saith, That Tirus right as the Crocodile, hideth him in winter, and doth afterward off his skin that is betwéene his eyen, and they that know not the doing, wéene that hée is blinde, and then he doth off the skin of his head all in one day: and his flaieng and passing out of his skin, is as the passing out of a childe of the mothers wombe, and he is by that manner renu∣ed, and putteth away, and is so deliuered of his age. Moreouer, in the same booke, in the ende thereof it is found, that it is sayd in this wise: Great Serpents flye this serpent Tirus though he be little, and all his body is rough, and when he biteth anye thing, all that is about the thing, rotteth anone. And one little ser∣pent called Tirus is found in Inde, and his biting is so strong, that against it no medicine can be found. Ambrose in Ex∣ameron saith, that among all Serpents, the kinde of Vipera is worst, and when he would gender, he wooeth a Lampray that is called Murena, and commeth to the brinke of the water that he thinketh Murena is in, & calleth hir to him with hissing, and exciteth and wooeth hir to be clipping, and this Lampray commeth a∣none: and anone as the Adder Vipera séeth that she is ready, he casteth awaye all his venime, and goeth then and be∣clippeth the Lamprya: and when the déede is done, then he drinketh and ta∣keth again the venim which he had cast away, and so tourneth againe to his den with his venim. Also lib. 39 cap. 1. Plin. sayth, that this Adder Vipera swalow∣eth a certain stone, and some men know∣eth that, and openeth slyly the serpent, and taketh out that stone, and vseth it a∣gainst venim. Also if the Dragon or the Adder, which is called Aspis, biteth a man or a beast, the head of the Adder Vipera healeth him and saueth him if it be layd to the wounde. And againe∣ward, the flesh of the Adder Aspis ofte times heleth and saueth him, that ye Ad∣der Vipera stingeth, & draweth out the venim, which the Adder Vipera did shed in the wounds.


THe Uiper is spoken of in the 28. of the Actes of the Apostles.* Of al kind of Serpents most daungerous, as appe∣red by the men in the Ile of Miletum, now called Malta. When they sawe the Uiper hang on Paules finger after the shipwracke, they sayde: Surelye this Page  [unnumbered] man is a murderer, whom (although he haue escaped the daunger of the Sea,) vengeaunce will not suffer to liue. But when they saw him to haue no harme, the Uiper shaken off, they altered theyr mindes, and said, he was a God. Also in the thirde of the Euangelist Mathewe, Christ called the Pharisies & Sadduces the generation of Uipers. There are in England, as venemous serpents, called Timiopolae, Ingrossers and Regraters of Markets, that buye much corne & vic∣tuall together, to make a dearth to the great hurt and hindraunce of the poorer sort, I praye God to send a Paule to les∣sen some of these, not onelye to burne or hang them, but to banish them for euer, that they poyson no more so fertile a soyle.