Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

¶De naso Elephantis. Chap. 43.

ARistotle lib. 1. and Auicen meane, that the Elephants nose is long, and strong with bolning, and harde as an horne: and he vseth his nose in stéed of an hand, and thereby he taketh meate & drinke, and putteth it in his mouth, and so the Elephant hath two pappes in the breast, and strong tuskes in the mouth, and his tongue is full lyttle in compari∣son to his bodye, and is seene within: & is but seldome séene without, but when he lycketh his lyppes after meate and drinke, and in him is found but one gut folden and wrapped in manye manner wise: and that gut is in him in stéede of stomacke, and therafter is but one other by the which his dirte passeth out, and hath a great lyuer, foure times so greate as the lyuer of an Oxe, and hath a lytle mylte & splene in comparison to his bo∣dy, and that is as Auicen sayeth, for in him Melancholia that humor passeth in to nourishing. Also li. 7. Arist. saith, that when he is gendred, teeth be gendered in him. With his snowte and nose hée wrooteth vp trees, and breatheth there∣with when he swimmeth, and casteth out water: and that harde snowte Cal∣ceus is made of hard gristles. And when the Elephant sitteth, he bendeth his feet: and may not bend foure at once, for he∣uinesse and waight of the body: but hee leaneth to the right side or to the lefte side, and sléepeth standing, and he bend∣eth the hinder legs right as a man. Also libro. 5. the male gendereth at the fifthe yeare, and the female at the tenth, and vnto fortie yeares, and resteth after that she hath foaled thrée yeares, & after that she hath conceiued, she toucheth not the male, and gorth with fole in hir wombe, two yeares: and when the foale is foa∣led, it is lyke to a Calfe of two or thrée months olde. Also lib. 6. the Elephaunt hath sicknesse that commeth of ventosi∣tie and of winde, and by that sicknesse, he may not pisse nor shite. And if he ea∣teth earth he dyeth, but if he be vsed ther¦to, but somtime he swalloweth stones: and hath also ache in the ioyntes, and there-against helpeth drink of colde wa∣ter, and grasse and hearbs plunged in ho∣nie, for these two things letteth fluxe of the womb: and when the ache is so sore, that he may not sléep, his sholders must be balmed with oyle and hot water, and thereby he is holpe: and the same doth Swines flesh rosted, laied and bound to the shoulders that aketh. And if he hath yron in his bodye, Oyle is giuen him to drinke, and the yron is drawen oute by drinking of Oyle: and if he may not drinke Oyle, medicines are sodden in Oyle, and giuen him to eate. Also libro. 8. he saith, that the male is more of body and more bolde and hardie then the fe∣male, but the male is tamed by beating, & when he is beaten he is obedient while the hunter sitteth vpon him, and when the hunter lighteth downe, his fore feete bée bound vntill he be tame. And in the same booke in littera F. it followeth, that he is more able to be tamed, & more obe∣dient then all other wilde beastes, and hath more wit, and feeleth colde in win∣ter, and colde winde, and is a beast that vseth much waters and riuers, & dwel∣leth beside riuers, and wadeth in water vnto the chinne, and swimmeth: but he may not dure long in swimming for he∣uinesse of the bodye. And Elephauntes bée without Gall, as Aristotle sayeth libro. 14. but they be accidentallye cru∣ell Page  [unnumbered] and fierce. When they bée too soone an∣gred, or if they be wine dronken, to make them sharpe to fight in battaile. Also li. 18. Aristo. saith, that no beast lyueth so long as the Elephant, and that his com∣plection is lyke to the ayre that he dwel∣leth in: and so it néedeth that she goe with foale two yeares, for greatnesse of the foale, that may not be perfectly, and complete shapen in lesse time.

(*The Elephant, of all foure footed beasts, and next vnto man, is most of per∣seueraunce. When the Indians bring them to the warres, they put great pack-saddles on their backes, such as in Italy they vse for the great Mules. These they girde with two chaynes of yron in stéede of girts. Upon these saddles, they place little Turrets or Cages made of woode: euery Turret containeth thrée men, betwéene the Turrets sitteth an Indian on the backe of the beast, and speaketh to him in his language, which the Elephant vnderstandeth and obay∣eth. Seauen men are placed vpon one Elephant when they goe to warres, and all armed with coates of fence, and tar∣gets, bowes, launces, dartes, and slyngs: and to the snowte or trunke of the Ele∣phant is fastened a sharpe sword, of two cubites in length and of a handfull broad, wherewith he fighteth also. The Elephants are of great strength, the fe∣males more fierce than the males. The two great téeth, are growing foorthe of the vpper iawe, in height fourtéene and sixtéene handfulls high, two yards, and two yards quarter, and sometime sea∣uen foote and sixe inches of height.

Lewes Vertomannus 3. lib. of Persia, chap. 6. &c.)