Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

Of Ceruo. cap. 30.

THe Hart is called Ceruus, & hath ye name of Cereston in Gréeke, yt is an horne, as Isi. saith, li. 12. And he sayth there, that harts be enimies to serpents, which when they féele themselues grie∣ued with sicknesse, they draw them with breath of their nosethrills out of theyr dens & the mallice of ye venim ouercome, they are repaired with féeding of them. And they taught first the vertue of the hearb Diptannum, for they eat thereof, & cast out arrows & arrow heads,* whē they be wounded of hunters: and they wonder of noise of pipes, & haue liking in accord of melodye, & they heare well when they areare vp the eares, & beare downe the eares when they swim & passe riuers & great waters: and then in swimming the stronger swim before, and the féebles lay their heads vpon the loines of the stron∣ger, and swim each after other, and may the better indure with trauaile. Huc vs{que} Isid. And Plinius saith the same wordes lib. 8. cap. 34. And there he sayth moreo∣uer, that ye hart is a most pleasing beast, and tunneth wilfully and flieth to a man when he is ouer set with houndes: and when the hinde shall calue, she shunneth the lesse wayes and pathes, which bée troden with wilde beasts, whether they be common or priuy waies. After the ri∣sing Page  [unnumbered] of the starre Arturus, the hinde con∣ceiueth, and goeth with calfe eight mo∣neths, and calueth somtime two at once. And from the time of conception the fe∣males depart and goe awaye from the males, but the males leaue not raging of lecherie, but waxe cruell, and digge vp clots and stones with their feet, and then theyr snouts be black vntill they be wa∣shed with raine. An before caluing the females are purged, & they vse certain hearbs, by the which ye calfe is the better held within the wombe and she is the ea∣silier deliuered when she calueth: and af∣ter the caluing ye female eateth two man∣ner hearbes; Camum & Sisolis,* and com∣meth againe to her calfe: and so when she hath taken of ye iuyce of ye hearbe, she gi∣ueth her calfe sucke, and maketh her calfe vse to run and to make him ready to flie, and leadeth him into an high place, and teacheth him for to leape, and then the male is deliuered of the desire of lechery, and eateth busilye:* and when hée féeleth himselfe too fat, then hée séeketh dennes and lurking places, for he dreadeth do∣mage & harme by heauinesse of body: and when harts runne and flie, they continue not their course, but look anon backward: and when men come nigh to them, they séeke succour again of running & of flight. And they heare the cry of hounds, when their eares be reared vp, and then they flye fast, and perceiue no perill when the eares hang downeward, and be so simple that they wonder of all thing, and bée a∣stonied of new sightes. And so if an horse or a Bugle come to themward, they be∣holde him so earnestly, that they take no héede of a man that commeth to shoote at them: and when they swim ouer the sea in heards, they passe foorth in euen order and help each other, and come to the land, not by sight, but by smel. And because the Hart is an horned beast, among beastes the Hart hath this propertie, that hée chaungeth his hornes euerye yeare in springing time, and then hée is armour∣lesse. He séeketh him by day a priuy place, and hideth him vntill his newe hornes grow againe, & vntill he hath hornes and armour: And when he casteth his ryght horne, for enuie hée hideth it, and is sor∣rye if anye man haue medicine thereof. The age of Hartes is knowen by aunt∣lers and tines of his hornes, for euerye yeare it increaseth by a tine vntill sea∣uen yeare, and from that tines it grow∣eth all alike: And so the age may not be knowen thereby, but the age is knowen onely by the téeth. And the Hart hath few téeth or none; and hath no tines in the neathermost parte of the hornes, but before the forehead stande out the lesse tines.* And if they be gelded afore they haue hornes, afterward groweth on them no hornes, and if they be gelded after that the hornes be growen, then they loose neuer theyr hornes. And while hée is hornelesse, hée goeth to meate by night and not by daye: and he putteth his hornes in the heate of the Sun to make them sadde and harde, and froateth them afterwarde agaynst Trées softly, to assay the strength of them: and doth awaye the itching that he féeleth therein, by hard∣nesse of the rinde, and when he féeleth his hornes strong, then he goeth openlye to meate and to léese, and sometime hée froateth them against a trée that is com∣passed with Iuie, or with Weathwinde, and their hornes be snarled and fastened in it, and be sometime so taken. The hart is contrary to Serpentes, insomuch that Serpents flye and voyde the odour and smell of burning of an Hartes horne. His ruenning is good agaynst all biting of Serpentes, and the Hart liueth ryght long time, passing an hundered yeares, as it was knowen by Hartes that liued in Alexanders time, and that were taken an hundered yeares after his death, on the which Alexander had in his time marked with cheines of golde: The hart féeleth not the euill of the feauers, for hée is succoured with medicine agaynst the euill. Huc vsque Plinius libro. 8. capi∣tulo. 38.

Aristotle and Auicen meane, that the Hart is a beast without gall, but onelye in the guttes, and hath therefore bitter guts and stinking, and therefore hounds eate not his guttes, but if they bée pas∣sing sore an hungred. Also libro. 2. Ari∣stotle saith, that some men think that the Hartes gall is in the loungs, but that is Page  358 false, as Auicen saith, but he hath a ma∣ner moisture like to the moysture of the gall. Also he sayth, that the Harts bloud, and Hares bloud coniealeth neuer, but it is alway thin and fléeting against kind of all other beasts, and no beast chaung∣eth hornes, but Ceruus alone. And héere it séemeth, that he calleth Ceruus both Hart and Bucke. And Harts hornes be sound within, and be therefore heauye, but he changeth them not for heauines, and hath foure great téeth in the one side, and foure in the other, and he grindeth therewith his meate: and two other great téeth, as it were tuskes, and the male hath greater than the female, and bendeth downward, as Auicen saith.

Also libro octauo Aristo. saith, that some men suppose of the Hart, that hée is among all foure footed beastes, vsing the wood, most ready and wise, and the Hinde calueth nigh a waye, that other beasts spareth for comming of men, and flyeth the light of the Sunne with hir Calfe, and seeketh thicke places & darke, as dens and caues of stones, that haue but one entering: for there they maye fight with other beasts, for as hée saith, Harts fight each with other with strong fighting, and he that is ouercome, is right obedient to the victor, & they dread most the voyce of a Foxe & of a Hound, and sometime the Hart hideth himselfe, least hunters finde him, and slay him for his fatnesse. And he sayth there, that the Hart is hunted in this manner: a hun∣ter whisteleth and singeth, & the Harte hath liking therein, and another hunter tolleth him inward, and shooteth at him, and slayeth him: and when the Hart is areared, he flyeth to a riuer or to a pond and if he maye swim ouer the water, then he taketh comfort and strength, of the coldnes of the water, and scapeth the hunters. And the Hart roareth, cryeth, & wéepeth when he is taken. Also when the hounds followe him, if he findeth double wayes, he runneth not foorth∣right, but now hether and now thether, and leapeth thwart ouer wayes, and a∣side halfe, and then he purposeth to take a mightie large pace, and starteth with contrary leapings and startings, that it be the harder for the houndes, to finde and to followe his chase by odour and smel. Also as he saith, ye hinde hath great trauayle and payne when she calueth, and that is knowen by bending & croo∣king of the body, and by ruthfull crieng, and therefore she eateth of the hearbe Dragantea to be delyuered of hir. Calfe the more easely:* and when she hath cal∣ued, she eateth sodaynly. Secundina, the bagge that the Calfe is in, in ye mother, ere it fall to the ground, and the Secun∣dina is accounted venime, as he sayeth: Aristotle libro. 8: rehearseth other pro∣perties of the Harte, which Plinius re∣hearseth also. And li. 28. Pli. saith, That when the Hinde féeleth heauinesse, she swalloweth a stone, and is holp by ver∣tue of that stone: and the same stone is sometime found in hir entrayles when she is dead, and it is accounted, that this stone helpeth wonderfully women that goe with childe, and so doth the boane found in hir hart, as he saith: & that bone that is fonnde in the heart of an Hart, is passing profitable against many euils of the body, and is medled in all noble confections, as Dioscorides saieth, and Constantine also.

(*The pisell of the Hart dryed into pouder and dronke, is good against the Collicke and stopping of water. Giue the boane of a Harts heart, ground, to a barren woman in drinke, and thou shalt sée the glory of God. Gesner foorth of Galen. There is a stone of great va∣lew against poyson, called the Beswar stone, which as Gesner writeth, when the Hart is sicke, and hath eaten manye Serpents for his recouerie, is brought into so great a heate, that he hasteth to water, and there couereth his body, vn∣to the very eares & eyes, at which time, distilleth many teares, from the which, the sayd stone is gendred, &c.)