Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

Of Cane. cap. 25.

A Hounde is called Canis, and tooke that name of Gréeke, as Isido. saith. For an hound is called Cenos in Greek, & some men meane that he hath yt name Canis, of loude barking, as he saith: No∣thing is more busier & wittier then an hound, for he hath more wit then other beasts. And houndes knowe theyr owne names, & loue their masters, & defend the houses of their masters, & put themselues wilfully in perill of death for their ma∣sters, & run to take prayes for their ma∣sters, and forsake not the dead bodies of their masters: and hounds pursue ye foote of pray by smell of bloud, & loue compa∣ny of men, and may not be without men, as Isi. saith. And there it is said, that oft hounds gender with wolues, and of that gendering commeth cruel hounds, which some men call Licisci. Also oft the In∣dians teach bitches, and lenne them in woodes by night, because Tygres should line them and gender with them, and of them come most sharpe hounds & swift, and be so strong, that they throw downe cruell beasts, as Lions, Huc vsque Isid. li. 12. cap. secundo.

Libro. 8. cap. 40. Plinius speaketh of the hound, & sayth, that among beastes that dwell with vs, houndes and horses be most gratious. Wée haue knowen when yt hounds fought for their Lords agaynst théenes, & were sore wounded, & that they kept away beasts and foules from their masters bodyes dead. And ye an hound compelled the slaier of his ma∣ster, with barking and biting to know∣ledge his trespasse & fault. Also we reade that Garamantus the king came out of exiling, and brought with him two hun∣dered houndes, and fought agaynst his enimies with wonderfull hardynesse. Al∣so Iasons hounde of Cilicie would take no meate when his Lorde was slaine, and so hée dyed with greate hunger and sorrowe.

Also we read ye Celius the Senator of Placencia, was defended by an hound yt was ouerset of men of armes, and was 〈…〉 wounded till the hound was slayne. Page  [unnumbered] So Sabinus hound forsooke him not nei∣ther in prison nor in death, but abode with the dead bodye with dolefull and sorrowfull noyse, and howling, & a man gaue the hound meate, and the hounde tooke the meat, and he would haue put it in his mouth that was dead, and when the dead bodye was throwne into Ty∣ber, the hounde leaped and swam in the riuer to holde vp the dead body, and ther came much people to sée and behold the kindnesse of the true beast. Houndes haue mind of full long wayes, and if they léese their masters, they goe by far space of lands and Countries to their masters houses. The cruelnesse of an hound aba∣teth to a meeke man. In hounds is great wit & businesse in hunting, for by winde and by smelling, and also by water, they pursue and followe beasts that run and flye, and findeth theyr sorrows and dens, and warneth thereof by sute and by bar∣king: Of Tygres and hounds commeth so strong houndes, that they ouercome Lyons and Elephauntes: as greate A∣lexander made a proofe by the Hounde that the king of Alania did send to him, first in his presence he ouercame a Ly∣on, and then an Elephaunt was brought to him, and when the hounde sawe the cruell beast, his haire stoode vp in all the bodye, and barked fiercely first, and then reesed craftely, and fought so long with the Elephant, that he drewe him downe to the grounde. After the age of a yeare a hounde gendereth, and the Bitche go∣eth with whelpe in her wombe foure score dayes, and whelpeth blinde Whelpes. And the more plentye they haue of milke, the later they take theyr light.

Also they neuer take theyr sight af∣ter the .xxi. day, nor before ye seuenth day: Some saye that when one is whelped a∣lone, the ninth daye he séeth, and when they be twaine, the tenth day, and when they be three, the thirtéenth day, and so as they be mo whelped in number, the moe dayes is theyr sight tarryed. And that whelpe is best that hath last his sight, or that that the mother beareth first to the couch. Huc vsque Plinius, libro 8. cap. 41. ther be reckoneth many other things.

Aristotle libro secundo sayeth, that Houndes chaunge no téeth, but it bée by chaunce two, and the lesse they bee, the whiter téeth they haue & the more sharpe. And thereby men haue knowledge be∣twéene the young hound and the olde, for olde hounds haue black téeth and blunt, and young houndes the contrarye. Also there, libro. 5. he sayth, the male houndes be rather mooued to the worke of gene∣ration then females. And grey houndes gender rather then other hounds, as hée saith, li. 6. And this female goeth some∣time with whelps in the wombe the sixt part of the yere: that is .40. daies, and her whelps be blinde .12. daies, and then the male commeth not at her, but in the sixt moneth after her whelping. And some grey Bitches goe with whelpes in theyr wombe .73. daies, and that is nigh the sixt part of the yeare, & her whelpes be blind 17. daies: and so the sooner the whelps bée made perfect in the mothers wombe, the sooner they haue their sight, when they be whelped and come into the worlde. And the males are sooner mooued to the woorke of generation. For when they be∣gin to heaue vp the legge for to pisse, and that is after 6. or 7. moneths, when they ware strong. And greye houndes haue this propertie, yt they may gender more when they be in trauaile, then when they be in rest. And the female may liue ten yeare, and the male liueth shorter time then the female, and that is for the tra∣uaile of the male, and so it fareth not in other. For the male liueth longer then the female, as he saith ther. And other hoūds, as wardens of houses and of cities, liue longer, for they liue sometime .14. yeeres, and sometime 20. as Homerus saith. Also li. 8. When hounds be sicke, they eat the roote of a certaine hearbe, and casteth and taketh medicine in that wise. Also lib. 8. Plinius sayth, that an hounde that hath filled him of euil meat, eateth an hearbe, and by perbraking and casting he purg∣eth him.

(*The wonderfull operation of na∣ture among brute beastes, declareth as rare effects in their kind, especially when they sort themselues by contraries. The Mastiue Bitch to the Dogge Woulfe. Page  355 the Bitch, to the Beare, and such lyke, not many yéeres past (at the place of all good roole) Parrisse Garden, was a Bitch, yt being lind with a male Beare, brought forth a mixed kinde, betwixt both, of so fierce a stomacke, and with all so strong, that vntill he was cut off from the game by péece meale, he coulde not be made to vnfasten his biting. Of olde time there was in the stable of Gereon, a notable dogge called Cerberus, that kept his cat∣tell: also in the Temple of Aescolapius was a dogge, that bowrayed the Théefe which robbed the sayd temple, called Ca∣parus, there are many dogs of ye like kind, and in a manner cōmon: the triall wher∣of is among tyed by dogs in ware-hou∣ses, backe sides, or gardens, that in yt day are very quiet, and in the night fierce: and among all the rest, the mungrell curres, which serue to kéepe the bottles & bags, with vittell, of ditchers and hedgers; wil bée sooner killed of a straunger then bea∣ten off from their masters apparell and victualls.)