Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

Of Capra. cap. 24.

THE Goat is called Capra, and hath that name of Carpendo, gathering, as Caprea, hath the name of the same, for he gathereth the ouermost ends of bran∣ches and of leaues, and eateth them, as Isidore sayth And Plinius li. 8. ca. 1. spea∣ket of the Goat, and saith: That a Goat eyneth many Kids at once, and but selde foure, and goeth with kid fiue moneths, as an Ewe doth. Also Goats ware bar∣ren by fatnesse before three yeare, & gen∣der lesse profitably, and in age after foure yeare: and conceiueth in Nouember, and eyneth in March or in Aprill, when trées and braunches spring, and haue not all hornes, but some haue, and in them the growing of knots is token of yéeres. Ar∣lclaus meaneth, that the Goats breath at the eares, and not at the nose, and bée seld without feauer, and therefore both in Goates & shéepe is the more feruent and hot working of generation, as he sayth. And we meane not, that Goates sée lesse by night then by day, and the Goat hath vnder the chin a beard that is called Ar∣mitum, and if a man drawe one out of the flocke by the beard, the other be asto∣nied and beholde. And also the same hap∣peneth when one of them biteth a cer∣taine hearbe. Their hiting is most de∣struction of Oliue, for with lyking they make the Oliue baren, and for this cause they were not offered to the Goddesse Minerua. When the Sunne draweth to glade, Goates eate not in pasture toge∣ther; but turne away their faces each frō other and lye downe: and in other times those yt turned each frō other eat toge∣ther in pasture, & tourne the face each to other. Huc vsque Plinius.

And Aristotle lib. 3. sayth, that in ma∣nye landes Goates haue milke without conceiuing: but they take Nettles and froat the vdders therwith, and then com∣meth first out bloud, and then as it were matter, and good milke at the last, not worse then the milk of them that eineth. Also libro. 6. Goates liue ten yeere or a xi. and vse work of gendering vntil their last age. And sometime the Goate hath two kiddes at once, if they haue couena∣ble meat, and namely if the Goate bucke bée well fedde. And if shée conceiue afore the Northen winde, shée eyneth males, & if she conceiue afore the Southern wind, shee eyneth females. And he telleth, that they turne ye face Northward, when they shall gender. Also li. 7. there he sayth, that Goats & shéepe eate hearbs, but sheep bite hearbs vnto the root, and be stedfast in pa∣sture: And Goates passe soone from place to place, & take onely the ouermost ends of hearbes and grasse, & conceiue better after that they drinke salte water. And when goats be moued after ye vnder time they drinke the more water, and when they eate Salt before that they drinke, then shall much milke drop out of theyr teates.

Also libro. 8. cap. 3. In Goates and shéepe is lyttle wit, insomuch that vn∣neth they can goe to a fielde to léese, or come againe, but they be lead & brought againe. And if a man take a Goate, and reare him vp sodeinelye, then the other reare them also, and beholde him sadlye. And the vse of Goate & of shéepe is need∣full to mankinde, for they féede the hun∣gry with milk and with flesh, and cloath the naked with fell and with Wooll, and amende the lande with vrine and with durt. And nothing is in the Goates body, Page  354 but it is good and profitable to vse of meate or cloathing, or else to néedfull vse of medicine. For as Plinius saith, libro. 33. cap. 10. Serpentes bée chosed and dri∣uen away with ashes of Goates hornes, and with their Wooll burnt. And by re∣medy of Goates hornes diuerse manner kinde of venim is ouercome, and super∣fluitie of dead flesh is fretted, and freshe flesh and new is gendered, and passing running humours be staunched, and by helpe of them rotted woundes fretting and gnawing haue remedy, though they be cankered or festered. With new Goats skinnes wounds be holpe and healed. Goats bloud medled with mery and sod excludeth poyson and venimme, biting of créeping wormes, and smiting of scorpi∣ons be saued and healed. The hot lung of a Goat laid to a venimous biting draw∣eth out the venimme, and abateth the ach and sorenesse. His gal putteth away dim∣nesse of eyen, and fresteth webbes and pearles, and sharpneth their sight, & clée∣reth the eyen. A Goats liuer roasted; hel∣peth against Lepra, if it be oft taken in meatrand his dirt helpeth many sicknes∣ses & euills: For as he sayth, Goates durt helpeth them that haue the Podagre, if tallow of the goat buck be medled with ye iuyce of Iute. And Goates vrine heated & dropped luke warme into the eares, hea∣leth eares that ake. He setteth these pro∣perties and many other medicinable pro∣perties: and so Plinius setteth a thousand remedyes. And héereby may bée shewed a meaning that one sayd in this manner. Each wonder, that it is not sayde, that it healeth the feauers. And héereto Aristo∣tle sayth, that a certaine beast sucketh Goates milke of the vdder and feats, and then the milke is destroyed and wasted, and the Goate wareth blinde thereby. Of the Goate looke more within in litte∣〈…〉 Hiron.

(*〈…〉de is commended to be a non∣rishing meat, & héere is to be noted, that of all beastes, the younger from a quar∣ter of no yeare of age, vntill a yeere and a halfe, the flesh is most nourishing, onely Pige and Ueale, the one at three weekes ••other at a moneth or sixe wéeks olde before which time not wholsome.)