Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

¶Of Camelo. cap. 19.

CAmells are called Cameli, and haue that name of a nowne of Gréeke, as Isidore sayth libro. 12. for when they be charged they bowe and lye downe, and are méeke to them that charge them. For méeke and short is called Caine in Gréeke.

Or els they haue that name of Ca∣mur in Gréeke, that is crooked, for when they take charge vpon them, they bnde and crooke the knées. Also Camelles bée beasts that beare charges and burthens, and are milde and softe, and ordayned to beare charge and cartage of men, and bée found in many countryes and landes, and namely in Arabia, and Camells of Arabia be diuers from Camels of other landes, for a Camell of Arabia hath two bounches in the backe, and a Camell of another Lande, hath but one bounche in the backe, as Isidore saith in eodem.

And libro. 8. capitulo 19. Plinius sai∣eth in this manner: The Cast féedeth Camells among tame beastes, of which Camells is two manner kindes: For some are of Bactria, and some are of A∣rabia: the Camell of Arabia hath two bounches on the backe, and the Camell of Bactria hath but one in the backe, on the which he beareth his burthen: and another in the breast, and leaneth there∣on. Camells be soothlesse aboue as Ox∣en are, and chew their cudde, as Oxen and Shéepe, as Isidore sayth libro. 12. and is cloue footed, as it shall be sayde héereafter, and is full swifte, as Plinius sayth, and is therefore good in battayle and warre, and to beare charge and ca∣riage.

And the Camell goeth no more a daye, than he is wont to doe, nor ta∣keth no more burthen than he is wont to beare. And the Camell hateth the Horse by kinde, and suffreth thirst, foure dayes, and stirreth the water with his feete when he drinketh, or els the drinks doth him no good. And the Camell liueth fiftie yeare, and some an hundred yeare, and wereth mad sometime. Camells be gelded that are ordained to battaile & to warre: for they be the stronger, if they be put from the worke of generation. Huc vsque Plinius.

Auicen speketh of the Camel in this maner, the Camel he saith moueth first yePage  352 right soote as the Lyon doth, and onelye the Camell hath a hunch on his backe, & is choi•• footed, and hath fells in the clifts as it fareth in a Goose foote, and those clefts be fleshly as ye rielies of a Beare foot: and therefore men maketh thē shooes, least their feet be hurt that bée tender be∣neath. And sometime in the Camelles heart is a bone found, as there is in the heart of an Hart. And the Camell hath foure teates in the two vaders, as ye row hath, and the female Camell boweth her selfe & goeth on her knées, when shée wilt be coupled with the male. And her ta∣lent and desire is strong and feruent in time of loue, & she eateth then but little, and desireth alway to bée assayled of the male, nigh to the place in which shée was first assailed. And as Arist. saith, li. 5. it is one propertie of Camells to be solitary & alone in mountains in time of loue, & no man may come nigh to them yt time, but the heard alone, and the Camells yard is sinewy & full hard. Therefore men make bow strings of such yardes. Item ibidem in eodem, Camells haue certaine times ordeined to the worke of generation: the female nourisheth the colt in the wombe 12. moneths, and they ingender not be∣fore they be thrée yéere olde, & rest a yéere after louing. Also he sayth, libro. 8. that certaine manner of Camells bée gelded, to be the more able to flie: and saith, that such Camells be more swifter then hor∣ses, and that is because of large pase and wide, but héereof look within de Drome∣datio. Aristotle sayth, lib. 9. cap. 17. that the Camell doth not the woorke of gene∣ration with his owne mother. For in a certaine citie a Camell was héeled with a mantell, & her owne sonne leape on her, and by falling of the cloth that she was couered with, hée knew it was his owne mother, and though hée did the déede, hée leaped downe & slew the man, that him had beguiled. Aristotle setteth this en∣sample, and other like of a horse of a cer∣taine king.

Also libr. 11. cap. 37. Plinius speaketh of Camells, and saieth, that among foure footed beasts camells ware bald as men do, & as the Estridge & certeine beasts a∣mong foules. Also he saith, that among beasts without hornes, the Camelles bée toothlesse in the ouer iawe, & accord ther∣fore in téeth with beasts yt chew the cud, & in disposition of the wombe, but not in horns. And Ari. li. 14. sayth, yt a beast that eateth thorny matter, hath not yt wombe as the camell, & an hard horned beast hath us téeth in either iaw, & therefore the Ca∣mell hath no teeth in either iaw, but one∣ly beneath, though he be hornelesse. Then it néedeth that the Camels wombe be of such disposition, and is like to the womb of beastes that be toothlesse in the ouer iawe. And the making of his téeth is like to the making of the téeth of horned beastes. And it followeth there, and for the Camells meate is thorny and hard, it néedeth that his tongue be fleshie for the hardnesse of the palat. Therefore kinde vset the palat as the earthy part of téeth: and therfore the camell cheweth his cud as horned beasts do, for his wound is like to the wombe of horned beasts, & hée ta∣keth his meate in his first wombe, & all vndigest, and in the second wombe the meat beginneth to defie, and is better de∣fied in the third womb, and in the fourth wombe is full digestion and compleate, and this diuersitie of wombes is néedful for hardnesse of his meat, for he grindeth and cheweth his meate little with his teeth.

And li. 13. Aristotle sayth, yt the camell hath no gall distinguished vpon yt liuer, no more then the Elephant hath, for the matter of this liuer is full whole & sound, and his bloud is kindlye sweete: and in such beastes is no gall found, but if it be found in full small veines, and therefore olde men sayde, that Anaxagoras sayth, that Camells be beasts of long lyfe, for they be gallesse, and beastes with lyttle galls liue longer then beasts with much Gall. And therefore Anaxagoras sayde, that gall is cause of all sharpe sicknesses, when gall is multiplyed vnto the lungs, and shedde to other partes of the bodye. But Aristotle sayth, that this is false, for many beasts in whom no gall is found, haue ryght sharpe sicknesse sometime and euills that slaye them, as it fareth in Camelles that haue the Podagre and phrensie, and by the Podagree their Page  [unnumbered] feet be strained, and this euil slaieth them sometime, and bée neuerthelesse without gall, vt dicit ibidem. Huc vs{que} Aristoti. Also in Dietis vniuersalibus. Constant: speaketh of the Camell, & sayth, yt the ca∣mell is most hottest beast of kind, and is therefore leane by kinde, for the heat dra∣weth of all fatnesse of the bloud, & there∣fore the Camell is leane. And Camells milke is more thin then milke of other beasts, and lesse vnctuous, and lesse nou∣rishing, and more heating and opening & departing. And milke is nought else but bloud, oft sodde, and therefore Camelles milke is fall in sauour and sharpe, & tem∣pereth therefore those humours & maketh them thin. And cow milke is contrarye thereto, & is thicke & vnctuous, & nourish∣eth much. Looke other properties within de Dronedatio.