Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

De Vacca. cap. 109.

THe Cowe is called Vacca, and hath that name, as it were Boacta, as Isi∣dore saith libro. 12. And is an incresing beast: for Aristotle saieth libro. 6. The Cowe is moued to the deede of kind af∣ter one yeare, and perchaunce after eight months, and the Cowe goeth with calfe nine months, and calueth in the tenthe month. If they range without a Heard, they wexe wilde, so that Heardes maye not tame them: and the desire of Kine is knowen, by swellyng of the twists, and by their continuall lowing: for Kine lowe when they be a Bulling, and leape on Buls and follow them, & stand with them. Also in codem he sayth in ye end: Men meane, that a Cow goeth ten mo∣neths, & if the calueth before that time, the Calfe liueth not, nor his clées be not full complete, and commonly she calueth one Calfe, and perchaunce twaine: and the female lyueth commonly xv. yeares, and the males also: and when they bee gelded they be the more strong, and may liue xx. yeare. And the Cowe hath good milke after the caluing, and no milk be∣fore, and if they haue any milke it is li∣tle worth, or nothing of value: and when a Cowes milke is first crudded, it is made as it were tough, and that falleth, when it is medled with waters and a yeareling Cow commeth seldome with a Bull: and when the Kine toe often calue and haue many Calues, it is a to∣ken as men meane, that in winter shall be much raine: and Kine lyue in com∣panye, and be ofte lost, if they goe out of companye, for then wilde beasts eate them. Also among all beasts, the males haue more stronger and greater voyce, except Kine, that haue more greater voyce than Bulls.

Also he saith, that ye Cow hath more Page  [unnumbered] stronger hornes, and more knottie than the male, but they are not so great: But and they be heated, they maye be bowed toward each side, and when they haue sore féete, it is medicine therefore to an∣noynt them betweene the hornes with oyle and pitch, and other medicines. Al∣so he saith, that Kine loue to drink cléere water, and drinke vneth or neuer, trou∣bly water & thicke: and haue the Po∣dagre, and die of that euill, and the to∣ken thereof is, when they beare downe their eares and eate not, as he saith.

The fat Cowe shunneth the yoake, that she was vsed to beate last, or she was fat: she lyeth in hir owne dirte, & wex∣eth fat, and the more she is forborne and spared of trauaile, the more slow she is: and when she is stong with a great flie,* then she reeseth vp hir taile in a won∣derfull wise, & stertleth, as she wer mad, about fields and plaines.

(*The Cowe hide is not so good for shooe soale leather, as is the Oxe.)