Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.
Page  270


AFter that by Gods grace and his helpe, this booke & treatise is now ended, in which is openly shewed ye propertyes of those things that be endered in the earth within, as of precious stones and mettall, and other things that be gende∣red in veines of the earth: Now we shal shortly speake and treate of such things as grow vpon the earth by the helpe of God. As of ye properties of trées, hearbs, fruits, and seeds, & of mores & rootes. But first we shall speake onelye of trées and hearbs, of whō mention is made by name in holy writ, in Text or in Glose, after the forme of the A. B. C.

Of a Tree. chap. 1.

A Trée is called Arbor, and hath that name of Aruis, fieldes. For it clea∣ueth to the earth, and roots be fast there∣in, as an hearbe doth, as Isidor. sayth li. 16. ca. 5. A tree & an hearb commeth foorth in one manner, & after one way. For of one commeth the other. For if thou so∣west the séede of a tree, first it sheweth & wringeth forth as an hearbe, and is then confect, and riseth and tourneth into the kinde of a trée. And in space of short time, that ye seemed an hearb, turneth in∣to a tender and young Trée, and is then called Arbusta, as it were the shafte of a tree. For the place wherein trées grow is called Arbustum, and where Wil∣lowes growe is called Salictum, as Isi∣dore sayth.* In libro. de Vegitabilibus Arist. setteth these propertyes of trées and of plants, and sayth that in Trées, and in plants is lyfe and vertue, lyke as in beasts; but diuerslye. For in plantes life is hidden, and in beastes it is open∣ly knowne, perfect and complete.

For trées mooue not from place to place. as beastes doe, nor chaunge appetite and liking, nor seeieth sorrowe, though some philosophers meane other trise, as Ana∣agoras & other, that Aristotle reprooueth. In plants is life vegitatiue, and thereby humour is drawne to saue and to ad the trée or plant, but therin is no soule of fée∣ling, and so it sorroweth not when it is bewen or cut, nor hath any seeling when it is nourished & fed, nor it waketh not, nor sleepeth, nor it breedeth not in nor out, nor hath other conditions, that be∣long to the soule of feeling. Nor a Tree gendereth not, nor is gendered by med∣ling of male and female. But a tree hath vertue of it selfe of seeding, and maye thereby bring forth another like it selfe in kinde. But this might and vertue worketh not in deede, but by some out∣ward help: as by help of times of ye yere. Winter needeth to gather together ye se∣minal humour: Springing time needeth to bring out the humour. For then is not great colde, freesing nor thrusting out∣ward, neither strong heat burning ye seed, nor corrupting it. Also the Sun needeth to resolue & temper the parts therof, that were before congealed by cold. And heat cōmeth in & departeth ye humour seminal from ye humour yt nourisheth & scedeth. Also earth is more needfull to trees and hearbs, then to other things ye gender: for yt well of feeding of a tree is of earth, as the Sun is well of generation therof, as of the cause that worketh Therfore in li. de Plantis Aristotle sayth that the earth is mother, and the Sun father of trees and of hearbes. For the earth fredeth, as the mother, and the Sunne worketh as the father. In Trees and Plantes, some men take beede of generation, of feeding and nourishing, of increasing, and of the rootes, yearelye renoua∣tion, Page  [unnumbered] and séene no purgation by vrine nor by dirt, suppose therefore that trées bée more perfect then beasts. But Aristotle reprooueth this, and saith, That a trée is bound to the earth, and hath no moouing of it selfe, nor of the whole, nor of partes thereof: Neither hath any determinate shape in the partes thereof, so that the partes thereof be diuerse, and ordeined to diuerse offices and dooing by diuerse formes and shapes: as the eie of a beast for to see, & the care for to heare, nor hath a perfect soule, but a part of a parte of a soule, that is a soule vegitatiue. But a beast hath mo workings and more noble then a plant.

A trée is diuers in substance, in vertue, and in working. For as Aristotle saith, lib. de Vegitabilibus. cap. 2. Some trées haue Gum, and Rosen, and the cause is, for passing much humour is not all defi∣ed of heate, neither touneth all into fée∣ding of the trée, but it is put outwarde, and is there cooled with cold aire that is thereabout. Also some trées haue knots, by meanes of which the partes gende∣red some after some, be bound togethers. Also they haue veines, that is chinkes: in the which kinde moisture is kepte, and passeth thereby from the earth into all the partes about. And haue also Pith in them, in the which the humour is sodde and defiaed before that it passe into the substaunce of leaues, of fruite, boughes, and twigges, as he saith. And hath rindes without to defend the trées within. For as the skinne doth in the body of a beast, so the rinde doth to the body of a trée, as Isidore saith. Also generally, as Aristotle saith, a trée taketh soone fire and light: and hath the name Lignum, as Isid. saith; for it taketh soone fire and light. And is called Lychius, a wéeke, for it giueth light to them that be present. Also the shafte of a trée that stretcheth from the roote vp to the toppe, is properly called Lignum, and hath somewhat within, as the pith, and thereof kinde hath succone when moy∣sture of féeding and nourishing fayleth without, as it fareth in feeding of a beast, when féeding and nourishing faileth in the members, then kinde hath succour of the bloud that is in the veines, as sayth expresly Auicen and Isidore also. Also a Trée hath, somewhat that belongeth thereto outwarde, as the rinde, boughes, leaues, twigges, blossomes, flowres, and fruite, and the toppe aboue, as Aristotle sayth there. A trée hath the rinde to saue and to kéepe all that is within, boughes, and twigs to spread vp and about, leaues to saue and to defend fruite, that is ten∣der, from harme and griefes, and hath fruite to saue and multiplye the kinde, and hath a round toppe in complement thereof. And hath figure and shape as a piller commonly all rounde, and that is, as Albumasar saith, for euen spreading of humour into all the partes about, and for euen working of heate, that ma∣keth digestion in all the partes about, and yet euery trée and plant hath a roote, and in the root many manner knots and strings, and the roote is in stéede of the mouth. By the roote humour is drawen so féed all the trée, and knots and strings be in stéede of sinewes, and binde toge∣ther the parts that be conteined.

Also a trée hath super fluitie of parts, that be not kinde partes of office, nor néedfull to the being of the trée: but such partes be in a trée, as haire and nayles in the body. And therefore leaues & fruit tall of trées, by reason of withdrawing of humour, as haire falleth of beasts. For when the humour of féeding is scarce, then kinde withdraweth it from ye parts that be not néedfull, for it should not faile in the partes that bée néedfull. There∣fore generally leaues fall off Trées in winter time, yet neuerthelesse they abide in some trées, as in bore, & such other, ey∣ther for plenty of humour, or gleaminesse of humour, or for sadnesse and soundnes of the trée, for Trées with thinne sub∣staunce and not harde, but full of hoales and pores, loose their liues, namely, when the humour of féeding is thinne and scarce.

Also trées be diuers in multitude of parts, and in greatnesse and in smalnesse, and in strength and in féeblenesse. And the cause is, for in some great trées, humour is milkie, as it fareth in figge trées. And such humour is able to spread himselfe in length & in breadth. In some trées the Page  271 humour is gleamie, and may not spread himselfe, for the partes cleene together, as it fareth in Pech Trées. And this is the cause of witnesse & scarcitie of parts of Trées, hearbes, and grasse. But such gleaming is not cause of féeblenesse in Trees, hearbes, & grasse, but of ye humour be too scarce, or the heate vnsufficient and vnperfect. Also in some Trées the hu∣mour, is sharpe and of hot and of drye complection, and yt is 〈…〉 of strength and of might: hot things is lyght & sub∣till, and chirleth, and therefore such hu∣mour spredeth, & the trée ••••th in great quantity. Also in partes of Trées, men take hée of coutinesse in quantity, & lyke∣nesse, for a qualitie in 〈…〉 and lyke∣nesse in shape, commeth of plein••y of mat∣ter, with euennesse of heare ye worketh: and ye〈…〉 of contrary cause. In the same wise, men take hee in trees of softnesse and adnesse, the softnes com∣meth of head yt is not sufficient to make the humour hard and sadde. Also Trées, hearbes, & grasse, bée aduerse in the man∣ner of fruit bering: for some trées, as Aristotle saith. Ware fruit aboue ye leaues, and yt is for strength of the fruite, and néedeth of heat of the Sunne to make di∣gestion in ye humour therof. Some beare fruit vnder the leaues, and that for fée∣blenesse of the fruite, least the fruite bée corrupt with greate heate or colde. And some fruite hangeth by a stalke, and the cause thereof is, by reason of vnmightye humour, and ••lmightie heate, yt maye no holde the fruit outwarde. And ge∣nerally euerye Trée hath a moyst roote, yt is meane betwéene the Trée and the earth, of which earth the Trée hath fée∣ding and nourishing. Therefore the Gréekes call the roote the life of the trée. For it bringeth lyfe thereto, and hath a stocke or a shafte yt stretcheth vpwarde, by helpe of the roote. And yt is needfull, as Albumasar sayth, to susteine the body thereof. Therefore it is lykened to the stature of the bodie of a beast that bea∣reth all the limmes and members. And so that stocke is a steadfast foundament of the Trée, and holdeth vp the boughes and fruites thereof. Also in a harde Tree is softe pith. And Aristotle sayeth, some men call the pith the mother of the Tree. For therein the seminall humour of the Tree is fed, as a childe in the mother. And some men cast it the guts of the tree, saw therein the pured féeding is depar∣ted from the vnpure as in the guts of a beast. And some men call it the heart of the Tree: For thereof commeth moo∣uing of life, as life of feeling commeth of the heart of euery beast. Also euery Trée hath a rind to make it steadfast and sad, and the rind beareth off small humour, drawen outwarde and dried with heate of the aire, as the Teée within breedeth of great humour and drie essencially, and moist accidentally, as Aristotle saith, and Albumasar also.

And some Trees and hearbes growe in Croftes and in Gardeines, and bee ame. Trees and hearbs. And some grow elsewhere, and be called wilde Trées & hearbs. And Trées & hearbes of gardeins should be wild, if they were not kept and hared and shred, as Aristotle saith. And some such Trées beare doth fruite and Oyles because of vrictuous human and yrle that is sufficient, and some beare none for default of such humour. And in some trees ye leaues fall soone, by rea∣son of thin humour and not farlye ye bri∣eth soone: In some is the contrarye, for the cause is contrary. Also as Trees and hearbes be diuerse in quantitye, so they be in fairnesse and soulenesse. For they be both fayre for euennesse of matter, and for faire ordeining and setting of partes, and for sufficient heate yt worketh, and stretcheth in right and due disposition of kind. Foulenesse commeth of the contra∣ry, both in Trées and in hearbs. Also they be diuerse in fruit, good and euill: and yt is for more or lesse sweetnesse of kinde humour, or for the heate yt worketh hath lesse or more due proportion to the mat∣ter, and to the humour materiall.

Also Aristotle sayth there, that wilde Trées and plants beare more fruit then Trees & hearbes of gardeins: and Albu∣masar saith, that that is for more plentye of humour that is little fattye and glea∣mie, and soone diuided and departed, and springeth out and tourneth into kinde of fruits. But fruit of gardeins is better Page  [unnumbered] then fruit of wild trées, as Arist. sayeth. Albumasar saith, that the cause is plenty of more humour, fattie airie, and swéet, yt is perfect in the matter of fruit of gar∣deins. Also Trées and hearbes be diues by diuersitie of places that they growe in. For some growe in drye place, and they be losse in quantity for defeit of hu∣mour, & some in moist place amōg riuers and ponds, and by the sea side; and ofte such be great in quantitye. But Trées yt grow by strond of salt, water, growe not fast, for much sand and grauell and dry∣nesse of ye humour that is drawne. But beside the red sea this sayleth, as Ari∣stotle sayth, where be great Trées, and that is by reason of much humour and greate heate, as Albumasar sayeth. Also they be diuers in leaues and in variation of flowres: for some haue sharpe leaues & yt is by reason of mastry of earth & of dri∣nes, & some haue smooth leaues, for euen∣nesse of moisture of water, & due proporti∣on of heat, some haue clouen and ragged leaues & broad, as the vine, and yt is for mastry of earth, & priuation of gleamye matter, & vneuennes of heat, yt stretcheth not the matter euenlye all about. For in such plants the fatty humour & gleamye passeth into the matter of fruit, & watrye humour and earthie into the matter of leaues, as Albumasar saith. Also Trées & hearbs be diuerse in figure & shape of the vttermost partes. For in some the vt∣termost partes be shapen toppewise, or prickewise and sharpe. As it sareth in thornes, therein heate draweth the most thinne humour swiftly to the vttermost parts, & drieth it, and maketh it sharpe, & ioyneth it with the stock and the roote, as Albumasar sayth: a contrary shape com∣meth of contrary cause. And this same is séene in fruit of Trées, as Arist. sayth. For fruite is of diuerse shape, and is not all cornered, neither all straight on a straight line, but some fruit is round for euennesse of matter of humour, & for euen working of the vertue yt worketh, & of heate, by the which working the partes of matter is euen stretched and spread from ye middle to the roundnesse about, & cornered shape commeth of contrarye cause. Also they be diuers in coulour and how for both fruit and flowers boughs, and twigges be diuerse in trées s Ari∣stotle saith. Of cold humour, earthie, and melancholike, cōmeth blacknesse in fruit, and foule coulour, and of hot humour commeth red colour, & so of other, as Al∣bumasar sayth. In all the foresayde doo∣ing diuersitie of sauour is gendred in di∣uersitie of humour, that hath the ma∣stry, and of heat that worketh digestion and disposition in the substaunce. Also trées and hearbes be diuerse in riping of fruit. For in some trées & hearbes fruite ripeth soone, as Aristotle saith: as Mul∣beries and Cheries, and other such, and that is for the heate is strong and migh∣tie to woorke in the moysture, & in make the fruit ripe swiftly and soone. For ye hu∣mour is obedient, & letteth not the wor∣king of heat that maketh digestion, and some fruit ripeth late for groseness of hu∣mour, watrie, & vnobedienth and for un∣might of heate that worketh digestion. And that falleth most in wilde Trees. And for ye same cause some trée burgen soone, and some saie. And leaues spring soone by reason of much watrye humour vndigested, and not fattie, that breaketh out soone is the vtter parts of trées or of hearbes: And of contrary cause commeth the contrarie.

Of Arbore aromatica. Chap. 2.

A Trée of good sauour hath sometime the good smell in the rinde; and some∣time in the flowre, and sometime in the fruite, as it saueth in Sinamom, that is a rinde, and the Mare is the flowre, and the Nutmeg is the fruite. And Al∣bumasar sayeth, that the cause of good smell is dry and earthie, and subtill, med∣led with subtill watrye matter, and as yt mastrie hath more or lesse in one part of the Trée, that parte smelleth better then another, & some Trée smelleth well in euerye part thereof, as it foreth of the Trée Balsamus. All the partes thereof hath good sauour, as it shall be shewed héereafter among trées and hearbes with good sauour. Some growe and haue in themselues matter seminall, and come Page  272 forth by ouenable medling of elements. And some bée multiplied by planting, and of more and rootes, or stocke, and séedes. And some haue multiplication by grafting of stockes, as Albumasar sayth. Among all graffing of Trées, the best is, when the graffe and the stocke be lyke, as Aristotle saith, and this hath double vnderstanding, eyther plantes of one ile kinde, as if a figge graffe be graf∣ted on a Figge trée, and Wine on Wine stocke, or else of those trées that haue hu∣mious proportionall and according ey∣ther to other, so that the humour of that one be according to nourish, and to féde that other, as when a Peare is graf∣fed on an Apple trée, and againe warde. And it is to wit, that a graffe that is gras∣sed on a stocke, tourneth and chaungeth the vertue and qualitie of the stocke into his•• whe vertue and qualitie. And if an Oliue be graffed on a stocke of Bete, the vertue of the Oliue commeth downe in the stocke of Bete, & maketh it hard, and maketh it dure a certeine time. And at last it draweth the humour to himselfe, & tourneth and chaungeth the stocke into his owne likenesse and kinde, as Albu∣masar saith; super finem primi lib. And he saith there, yt lightlye good trées come not of euill séede, nor of good séede, or of a good root euill trées: though the contrary be oft séene among beastes. Albumasar sayth, that that is, for a trée is a fast in the earth, and taketh nourishing of the earth in one wise, and beasts doe not so, for di∣uerse complection and contrary appetite. Therefore it is otherwise to beasts then in hearbes and in trées. Also it is so of all kinde of trées that by tilling and crafte wilde trées may be turned and chaunged into the kinde of trées of gardeines. And Aristotle setteth ensample therof, & saith, that by crafte of tilling, bitter Almonde trees bée made swéete and sauoury, and so a Pomgranard is made mene sowre. Also be sayth, that a trée with thick rinde is made soone barren, and that is for de∣fault of fattie humour, that is the matter of fruite, or else for the hardnesse of the rinde, that letteth the euaporation of that humour, that is noyful in a trée, and he sayth, that if a roote of a tree be slitted and cloue, and a stone put in the cliffe, the tree shall beare fruite againe. And Albu∣masar telleth the cause, and saith, yt at this sleft, the said noifull humour passeth out, and then heat of the Sunne and of ye aire about, commeth and wasteth the corrupt humour.

Also there it is said, ye Almondes and pomgranards leaue their malice by craft of tilling. For Pomgranards amende, if they be dunged with swines dirt, & wa∣tred with fresh water. And Albumasar telleth ye cause, and sayth, ye heat and dry∣nesse of such dung, abateth superfluity of water in Pomgranards, but teast passing heats and drinesse, turneth the fruite into bitternesse, it is good to put thereto fresh water, to temper the mastry of heat & of drinesse.

Also if nailes be pight in an Almond tree, graines of gum come thereof, and that long time, and superfluity of water that letteth the breeding of vntuous hu∣mour that is the matter of fruit. And so thereby ye tree is altered from his malice as Albumasar saith: And there it is said, yt by tilling, wilde trees and hearbes ta∣keth kind of trees and of hearbs of gar∣deines, and beare well fruite. To make a wild tree change from his mallice into goodnesse, place and trauaile in tilling hel∣peth most, and namely time of the yeare, in the which it is set and planted, as A∣ristotle saith, and he setteth ensample of Baleno, that is Henbane seede,* for that that groweth in Persia is venimous: & it is good to eat, if it be brought and set in Aegypt, or in Ierusalem. And ye com∣meth, as Albumasar saith, for ye tēperate place bringeth it out of vntemperatnes, & maketh it good to eate. Also time helpeth much such a chaunging. For Aristotle saith, trees yt neede to be set, be most set in springing time, and yt for temperate heate and moysture, ye comforteth heate and moisture in trees and in hearbes. In winter be few set, and yt for passing colde the moysture; and also in Haruest for colde and drynesse, and least in Sum∣mer at the rising of the Starre Cani∣cula, and that for passing heate and drynesse that consumeth and washeth kinde moysture in hearbes and in trees, Page  [unnumbered] and namely in the roote.

In Aegipt trées be set once in a yere, when the drinesse of the land is tempred with flowing of the riuer Nilus, as A∣ristotle saith, and Albumasar, also. Also there it is sayde, that in Trées growe di∣uerse twigges and braunches. For some spring of the roote, and some of the stock, and some by the grounde, and some in the boughes on high at the toppe, and some in the middle. And the cause of this diuerse springing, is diuers humour watrye and light, thinne, and not vrt∣ous, that is the matter of leaues, and is not like plenteous in all Trées, and heat worketh diuersly in Trées. And therfore of that humour springeth diuerse twigs and braunches. Also some beareth fruite once a yeare, and some ofter. But the last fruite ripeth not, but abideth rawe and greene, & not ripe, for heate may not ripe such fruit because that winter is nigh. The common vse is most to beare fruit perfectly once a yeere, for once a yere feed is gathered, and once heate maye spread humour to the vtter partes of the Trée, and tourne it into fruit, and maketh the fruit perfect and ripe.

Also some Trées bée fertile long time, for much heate and fattye humour, as it fareth in the figge Trée, and some bea∣reth one yere, and rest another, as the O∣liue. The cause therof is, for in the second yeere ye tree is nourished, and the hu∣mour restored. For in the first yéere so much humour tourneth into kinde of fruit, yt the seconde yeare néedeth to re∣store the humour, though it beare many boughs in restoring time, yet it beareth but little fruit yt time. Also some Trées bée more fruitfull in youth then in age, for they haue more heate and humour in youth then in age. Some againewarde beare more fruit in age then in youth. And ye reason héereof is, as Albumasar saith, for in youth is more moisture ther∣in, then kinde heate may defie, and so it is inobedient vnto heate: but in age is lesse, and so it is obedient to the heate di∣gestiue, as it fareth in Almonds, in pires and in Peares, as Aristotle laieth an en∣sample there.

Also Aristotle saith, that both wilde Trées and Trées of gardeins he diuers, for some bée male, and some bée female. For the male Trée is more thick, hard, sadde, and drye, and hath ones boughes then the female and the fruite therof is more shorte and ripeth better, and the leaues hée diuerse, and the grasses also and the cause of all this, as Albumasar saith; is, for in the male Trées is more heate and drynesse, then i the female, that bindeth the partes of the male trées fast and sadly together, and maketh the Trée more thicke and sadde. As strong heate multiplyeth humours and stretch∣eth and spreadeth into manye partes, and maketh the Trée more thicke of boughs, so greate drinesse wasteth moisture; and maketh the Trée more drye.

Also in a male trée sad veines & straight letteth much humour to passe to one place of the Trée, that may tourne into sub∣staunce of fruite. Therefore the fruite of a male Trée is short. Also the leaues of male and female be diuerse, for the leaues of the male be short; & lesse in quantitye, & more narrowe for mastrie of drinesse, also ye male hath harder grasses then the female, & the reason of that is, for in the female is more moisture then in ye male. And Aristotle saith, that if leaues or the pouder of leaues, or the rinde of a male Palme be put to the leaues of the female, so yt they cleane togethers, the fruite of the female shall be the sooner ripe. For it letteth the falling of the leaues, and of fruit, vntil the digestion be complete and the reason héereof is, as Album. sayeth, because the male Palme increaseth heate in the female, & that by meane of the aire that cōmeth from ye male to the female, & thereby ye heate of the female is excited to worke digestion, the which Aristotle calleth Pepensim. lib. 4. Metheororum. And Aristotle saith, that ye male and fe∣male be knowen by burgening & spring∣ing. For the male burgeneth and spring∣eth sooner and swifter then the female, & that is by reason of most perfect heate, and they bée knowen by smell, for the male smelleth more then the female: for more small and subtill smoak is resolued of the male then of the female. Also A∣ristotle saith, that the wind beareth smel Page  273 of the male to the female, and so the fruit ripeth the sooner together, for the partes of the fruit of the female cleane together til it be ripe, when the leaues of the male be taken in the female. Albertus saith, yt if the leaues of the male Palme bée put to the leaues of the female, they cleane so together, that vnneth they maye be de∣parted a sunder, without cutting or car∣ning.

Also Aristotle saith, that wild figtrées helpe figge trées of gardeines if they bee set right afore them. For the wilde bée more hot & dry then the other, and there∣fore they excite heate, and comfort those of gardeins. Also the humour of a wilde figge trée, resolued and laid to the root of a figge trée of gardeines, comforteth and helpeth the fig trée of the gardeine. And Arist. saith, that the Pomegranard help∣eth and comforteth Oliues, if it be plan∣ted therewith. These properties of trées we take of Aristotles words, lib. primo de Vegitabilibus, and of Albertus Glo. that translated and expounded the same. Libr. 18. de Animalibus Aristotle saith, that all trées that beare fruit euery yere, be made flowe. All trées (he sayth) that beare too much fruit, be soone dry, when ye féeding turneth into séed, that is, when ye humour that shuld nourish and féed tur∣neth into matter seminal. Other notable and noble properties of trées & of hearbs, we may take out of the wordes of Ari∣stotle & of Albertus, li. 2. Vegitabilium, where it is said, that a trée hath thrée ver∣tues. For it hath fastening of the earth, and ioyning and onng of the water, and steadfastnesse of partes together, and sad∣nesse of the fire, and stretching and sprea∣ding and bearing & riping of fruit, of ayre & of fire. For a watry thing is not fast∣ned, neither holden togethers without heate of fire, and it is shewed there in A∣ristotles ensample.

For burnt tile is not ioyned nor fastned to holde together without fire, the wast∣eth the watrye partes, and ioyneth and hardneth the earthly parts. A trée hath softnesse and poores of Aire, of Water, and fire together, and might to grow and to waxe of the water. For a thing yt is vtterlye harde and sadde, may not waxe more and more, as Aristotle saith there. Therefore the greatest trée sinketh not in water, though it be heauie: where a little golde and small stones sinke anon. And that is for a trée with many hoales and pores hath much aire within the pores: And therefore it fléeteth aboue the water. But trées that be most sad and fast, as Ebenus, and such other like, sink∣eth in water sodeinly to the grounde, as Aristotle sayth there. It is also sayde, that the ayre is passed out of the blacke Ebenus, and therefore it sinketh in wa∣ter. The other that is pory and vnctuous séteth aboue the water, for it hath much aire. And the water beareth it vp by kinde, as it fareth of leaues & feathers & of all vnctuous things. For as Aristotle sayth, it is the propertie of the water to beare vp substaunce of ayre, and to lette heauy things sinke. Therfore things that be softe and full of holes, to take in aire, fléete on the water. And things that bée sound and sad, sink down to the ground. Also earthie vapours and watry, fastned and congealed with heate of the Sunne by matter of hearbes and of trées, which being medled with hot things and fixye, and by vertue of the starres, taketh per∣fect shape & forme of hearbs and of trées touching séed and fruit. Also heate closed in the humour, that is coagulate, draw∣eth fresh water to féeding and nourishing of the trée. And the vtter heat of the Sun helpeth thereto.

For working of vtter heat of it selfe maketh digestion in the kinde humour in the same place, and turneth it into a trée, and so as Aristotle sayth, in mountains for the ground is so swéete, and concey∣ueth swéete humours, therefore therein trées springeth, and fruit ripeth soone. For mountaines draweth to them swéet humours. And the small and cléere ayre helpeth both in drawing and in digesti∣on, and the humour tourneth soone into substaunce of a trée, as Aristotle sayeth. And there it is sayd, that sometime colde aire driueth the heat into the earth, and then the partes thereof be gathered with moisture of water. And by the heat that is driuen into the earth by cold, the va∣pour that is so coagulat turneth into the Page  [unnumbered]〈1 page duplicate〉Page  273〈1 page duplicate〉Page  [unnumbered] substaunce of a Trée, and by strength of heat the place cleaueth & chinneth, and so thereout springeth ye hearbs or trées. Al∣so sometime aire medled with water and wt earth in ye bottome of water, runneth together and is sad, and by doing of ter∣minate heate, & digesting ye mixed thing consused, the plant is gendered. As it fareth in ye hearbe yt is called Heniphar,* and in other small hearbes and grasse, yt are wont to growe in water. And the leaues therof couereth ye water, & though these hearbes and grasse grow and spred not full wide, yet they growe vpwarde, for small aire and fresh water yt beareth them vpward, and for sadnesse of ye earth and grounde yt susteineth the rootes. And of the grounde the hearbe hath gréene∣nesse in the roote, and susteining of ye stalke in the rearing thereof.

And Aristotle sayth; yt in places essen∣tially cold, and accidentally hot, as those in which hot water runneth oft times, springeth a plant. For heate of ye wa∣ter draweth ye colde humour vpwarde aboue ye earth to the place of meddeling. And so of ye aire and of the earthlye va∣pour, with watrye humour, by ye heate of ye water and of the starres, the sub∣stannce of a plant is gendered. But yt falleth not, but in long time, as Aristo∣tle sayth, by reason of accidentall heate, yt is not according to the gendring of such a plant. And Aristotle sayth there, that hearbes that men eate, growe better in plaine places and in high, & in hot places, then in cōtrary places therto, for in plain places and euen is much moysture, and namely when the ayre is swéete and temperate. And so it is in right high pla∣ces, for there is cleane and pure aire, and much swéete humour, and yt is by rea∣son of spoungings and holes yt draweth and receiueth the swéete humour. And therefore oft in mountaines groweth more fe•••e & better then in valleys. For in valleys is harde m•••ing of the ayre. And so of concussion of the aire, thicke vapour rotteth fall soone, and so there is euill digestion. And thereof it commeth, yt there is found salt humours, as Alber∣tus saith. And salt water is more heauie then fresh, as it is shewed in Aristotle. Ensample, where he saith, yt an Egge sin∣keth anon in fresh water, and swimmeth in salt water. For salt water is earthie, & thicke, and beareth vp ye heauinesse and weight of ye Egge. Therefore fresh wa∣ter is more easilye drawen to high pla∣ces then salt water. For fresh water is pure, thinne, light, and cléere: and Ari∣stotle saith, that in fast claye and tough, and fattye, plantes growe soone. For such claye is soone chaunged and made fattye, as Albumasar sayth: and farther, if a plant shall be durable, it néedeth yt it haue humour well digested & fattie. For plants yt haue humour not well digested, wither soone in greate cold: and so a Canstock dureth not ouer thrée yere, but if men grasse theron a plant, and ye kinde of ye graffe goeth into ye stalke, and there∣of is made good digestion, & turneth into ye kinde of yt grasse, it dureth long time: also somtime an hearb groweth out of an hard stone, as Ari. saith, for aire closed in a stone, busieth to passe vpward, but whē it findeth no frée passage for hardnesse of ye stone, then it mooueth to ye partes of ye stone, and of his owne stirring it war∣meth, & when it is once hot, it draweth vpwarde the humour that remayneth in ye stone, and vapour with ye humour, with a litle resolution of partes of the stone goeth out: and of yt vapour and hu∣mour issued out of ye stone, sometime springeth an hearbe by helpe of heat of ye Sunne, and helpeth ye aire yt was before hot, and maketh digestion of ye humour yt issued out of ye stone, and turneth it in∣to ye kinde and substaunce of an hearbe or a Trée, but such an hearbe or a trée du∣reth not long, but it be closed wt earth, or watred with fresh water, and comfor∣ted with temperate aire, and that for scarcitie of humour.

And Aristotle saith, yt a plant springeth the sooner if it be nigh the Sunne, that is to vnderstand, towarde the East, and that is because of sufficient heate, and springeth later toward the West, & that is, for it is farre from heate. And Albu∣masar saith there, that euery hearb or trée is kept by temperate weather. For ouer much moisture stoppeth the pores and wayes, by the which féeding and nou∣rishing Page  274 shoulde come vpwarde to make the trée stretch and spread. Also to much driues maketh the poores shrinke, so that nourishing may not passe to féede & no∣rish the trée. And Aristotle saith, that e∣uery hearb and trée néedeth foure things. Certaine seede, perfect and ripe in his owne kinde, and saued without rotting, and couenable ground to the generation of the plant, and moderate water, that is to vnderstand temperate humour, and meanly temperate aire. For as Albu∣masar saieth, if the aire be too hot, than kinde heate passeth away by the poores, which be opened: and if the aire be too colde, it shall stiffle the plant. The first twaine néede to generation of the plant, and the other twaine to féeding and pre∣seruation thereof. Also medicinall spice∣rie and plants that grow in mountains, be lesse liking to eating and their fruits is more harde to digesting, and that is for the vehement coagulation by ye heat that worketh in the moysture: & there∣fore such fruite nourisheth not much as Aristotle saith. For Albumasar sayeth, the more medicinable a plant is, ye lesse it nourisheth.

Also in places that be farre from the Sunne, grow not many plants, nor ther is no great bréeding of beastes in such places as Aristotle saith: And the cause is as Album. saith, for they yt be straight vnder the euen North starre, haue conti∣nually halfe the year daye, and halfe the yeare night. Therefore plantes and beastes breede there but seldome: for if may not be in Summer for continuall heate, neither in Winter for continuall colde. Therefore as Aristotle saith: a plant that springeth there, hath no ver∣tue, nor leaues, nor fruite, and that is, for default of heate in one time of the yeare, and for too much colde, in another time of ye yere. And Aristotle saith, that a plant with many prickes, hath much fattie humour, and when it moueth it selfe by his owne heate, with helpe of heate of the starres, it is defied and tour∣ned into substaunce of the graffe that is graffed therein: and heate of life in the plant maketh that digestion with tem∣perate vtter heat, and the plant groweth small & stretcheth vpward, & so a plant with many prickes hath this propertie, that a graffe of other kind may be graf∣fed therein: and yt is as Albuma. saith, for it hath much vnctuous humour dra∣wen by outward heate, and so fastened togethers, and put out by inward heate, in many places, so that the ouer part of that humor is small, and thin, and pear∣cing, when it commeth vpward in the stock, wherby it may open many waies and pores in the grasse, and enter therin and incorporate and consolidate ye graffe to the neather stocke: and a graffe yt is graffed in ye nether stock, changeth & tur∣neth the stock into ye kinde of ye graffe, and not againward. And the cause is, as Albuma. saith, for the stocke comforteth the graffe with the humour, & heate that ascendeth thereto, & then the graffe defi∣eth the humour and tourneth it into his owne kinde, and after sendeth his owne vertue into the nether stocke, and altreth the stocke, yt it is graffed in, and conuer∣teth the stocke into his owne vertue and kinde. Also as Ari. saith, in fiue maner of wise, a plant is gēdred & commeth forth: of séede, of rooting, of humour of water, of planting, and of graffes of one into a∣nother.

Also Aristotle sayth, some hearbes & trées beare fruite rather than leaues, as those trées that haue much fattie humor that is matter of fruite: and when the humour is defied with kinde heate and with heat of the Sunne, it turneth into fruite and ripeth anone: and the abun∣daunce of fattie humour letteth the wa∣trye humour, that is the matter of leaues, that it may not breake out into leaues in such a trée before ye fruite: & some trées bring forth leaues before fruit and that is for default & scarcitie of fat∣tie humour, and for plentie of watrie humour that is matter of leaues, & heate of the Sunne draweth the humour soo∣ner to ye place of springing of leaues, thā the fattie humour so the place of spring∣ing of fruite. Therefore riping & fattie humour, that is the matter of fruite, is taried, and the leaues first breaketh out and springeth. Also some leaues & fruite spring at once, as in those yt haue the Page  [unnumbered] foresaid humour according, and the inner heate euen working with the heate of the Sunne, in the aire, neither humour, and putteth out the watry humour into leaues, and the fattie humour into fruit. Also Aristotle saieth, that men in olde time meaned, that fruite and leaues are all in one kind, and they said that leaues be not, but by cause of fruite, and they be not diuers in maner, but by more di∣gestion or lesse of watrye and rawe hu∣mour: for watry humour and thinne is soone drawen by heate of the Sunne, and turneth into leaues: and the humour that is more fattie and digest tourneth into matter of fruite.

Also Aristotle saith, that though some trées be full of prickes, that commeth not of the intention of kinde, that ge∣dereth the substaunce of the trée: but it hapneth of thinnesse of the trée, whereby ther colde humour, that is but little sod, and issuing out by ye thinnesse of ye trée, is gathered into a pricke or a thorne by heate of the Sunne, and is great by the stalke or stocke, and sharpe at the e••s: for subtill humour, that is the humour materiall of thornes and prickes, passeth from the tree some and some, and stret∣cheth in length and in sharpnesse, and so doe all such trées, that be with parts sha∣pen in manner of a top. Also generally all trées be gréene without, and white within: for the matter of the inner parts draweth to white coulour, and the vtter parts draw to greene coulour. For the matter that is drawen inwarde, and is driuen outwarde into the barks, is somwhat digested & turned into gréene, for gréene is the middle colour betweene red, that commeth of the action and wor∣king of the perfect and complete heate: & betwéene white, that commeth of im∣perfect.

Also Aristotle saith, that trées be di∣uers in figure & shape: for some stretch vpward, and some downward, and some aside, and some holde the meane: & those that haue small and thinne humour in their pith, the which humour is moued and drawen vpward by heate, be shaped or haue the forme of light of fire, that moueth in common vertue of fire.

And such that haue in their pith thicke vertue of humour and watrye, growe downeward and be small: and so those parts moue downward by their owne heauinesse; and be great and lowe by the ground. In those that haue meane hu∣mour and are temperate betwéene thicke and thin, some moue vpward, & is cause of mouing vp of the trée, and some moue downward, & is cause of greatnesse ther∣of: and so as that humour is more or lesse digested in the roote and in the pith, the trée is more or lesse in figure & shape, for the first digestion is néedefull in the roote to the growing of the trée, and the second digestion is néedefull in the pith, for perfection, riping, dilatation, and con∣seruation. This double digestion, suffi∣ceth the perfection of trées and of herbs, and the third is found onely in beastes, as Aristotle saith, and as Albumasar expoundeth.

Also trées be diuers in boughes, & in leaues, as the humour is more or lesse: and as strength of heat is more or lesse: for if the heate be strong with much hu∣mour, then spring manye boughes and leaues, and againward: and if the hu∣mour be small and thin, and able to bée wasted and foredryed, than the boughes doe wither and the leaues fall, & the trée abideth all bare without any leaues: & the contrarye falleth in the contrarye cause.

Also Aristotle saith, that not alonely shornes and prickes in trées, be shapen in manner of topwise, but also the shape is found in fruit and in leaues: for if the wayes in a trée be first wide and large, and full thin in the beginning of the hu∣mour, and afterward be made narrowe by coldnesse and drinesse: then the fruit and leaues be great and large in the ne∣ther ende, and small and sharpe in the o∣ner ende, and that is for drawing of the more light part of the humour to the o∣uer ende by strength of heate, and put∣ting of the heauie humour towarde the nether ende. But full ofte it happeneth, that fruite and leaues be sharpe in the endes, and shapen in manner of a toppe, when by the vertue of heats and by the thin and small humour the ouer part is Page  275 made light, and the neather end is made sharpe, the humour in the middle stret∣ching and spreading and so the substance of the fruite and leaues be made small and sharpe at each of the endes by ma∣strie of firie vertue: and great large in the middle, after the manner of a top with two sharpe endes. Also Aristotle saith there, that some trées and hearbes bloome, and the blossome, commeth out of small humour, and specially pure, that is in the pith: and is not all hardened nor digested and disposed into the ast perfection of fruite: But it is dispo∣sed to bring forth fruite•••. And for gleymie humor some trées haue no blos∣somes because of fatnesse, that humour may not be made smal and thin to spred out blossomes, as appeareth in the figge trée, that hath no blossome, for the cause aforesaid: and some haue no blossomes, for the humour is too thin, and may not be made thicke, as it néedeth to the sub∣staunce of blossomes, as it fareth in plants, and in other such, as Aristotle saith.

And so as the matter in diuers in the which heate worketh, so colours are di∣uers as well in floures, as in hearbes & trées: but it belongeth not to this mat∣ter to pursue all this: and for noyance I holde it good to cease off at this time. Neuerthelesse, Aristotle putteth too di∣uers properties in the ende of the second booke, and I holde them not to be despi∣sed, there he saith, that a trée that hath great barke, is full high and broad, and that is by reason of stretching of humor and for putting of heate, for the thicke rinde, that receiueth and taketh the hu∣mour, suffereth it not to shed: and also the thicknesse of the rinde suffereth not the heate to open the poores to passe out, and so the trée must néedes stretch and spread, as it fareth in the Pine apple & in the Palme and in other such, as Ari∣stotle saith.

Also there he saith, that trées with milke haue great fatnesse, & strong heate in the barke, and therefore the humours are resolued, and commeth to the vtter parts of the tree, and breedeth g••• som∣time thin fléeting, and sometime conica∣ted and fastned with colde aire without, and sometime hard as stones or shelles, and that commeth sometime of cold that fasteneth the parts together and some∣time of heate that commeth and com∣meth and wasteth the softe partes and bindeth togethers the great partes, as Albumasar saith.

Also as Albumasar sayth, some trées chaunge as the time of the yeare chan∣geth, & for they be goldene in Summer, & pale in Winter, and yet their leaues fall not, for they haue strong heate incorpo∣rate within, and so the heate draweth into the inner parts of the trée, and of the leaues and wood, and flyeth the cold aire of the Winter, and therefore the vtter parts be pale and yeolow: but ye leaues fall not for cleauing humours, and for strong heate: And there it is sayde, yt trées beare first bitter fruite, when they bee new set and then bitternesse hath ma∣sterie in their fruite or bitter sowrenes: and the cause is, for the first digestion is sower, for the humour that is draw∣en in, is thicke and earthie for scarsitie & féeblenesse of the heate that worketh di∣gestion. Therefore such fruite is gende∣red without swéetnesse, for their humor abideth raw & vndigested, but afterward when the heate is cōforted, & the humor is augmented & mored more pure, then the heate worketh and maketh the hu∣mour swéet and sauoury. For so Aristo. saieth, that a thing waxeth swéete in the fire: and that is, as Albumasar sayeth, for the chaunging that it voydeth of the fire, that maketh the digestion. And there it is said, that in sowre places, colde, and drye, sometime groweth swéete fruit; for kind heat cōmeth into the sowre humour and is cold therein, and is holpen by the heat of the Sun, and defieth the sowre∣nesse, & tourneth it into swéetnesse. And fruit is swéet though ye leaues be sowre: and so it fareth in other partes, in the which is not so greate digestion, and working of heate, as it is in the fruite. But somtime it happineth, yt for super∣fluitie of great heat yt commeth thereto, and also for burning, that such fruite, as was before swéete, tourneth into bitter∣nesse, by reason of superfluitie and ouer Page  [unnumbered] much heate and scarcitie of the other hu∣mour, and there it is sayde, that in cer∣taine temperate places, fruite ripeth swiftly before springing time, and that is for sufficient heate and temprate aire without.

Also there it is sayd, that some trées beare first swéete fruite, & be afterward bitter and sower, as trées of Mirabola∣nes, and the cause is, as it is sayde there, for the fruite of such trées is full therin the houre of digestion, & when the waies are great and large, there is sufficient heate, that disposeth the humour materi∣all to fruite, and ripeth the fruite: and so in the beginning of digestion the fruit is swéet: but afterwarde the heate passeth out & wasteth the humour in the veynes and pores, and bréedeth drinesse, that ma∣keth the wayes and pores straight & na∣rowe, so that neither heate nor humour may come to the place of fruite: & colde and drinesse ouercommeth the heate; and the humour before the fruite chaungeth and is sower, for all passage of kind heat and the humor be let by straight waies, that be made straight by drinesse, and so colde hath mastrie in the fruite, for de∣fault of heate; and then is great sowre∣nesse, for mastrie of drinesse and of colde. But at the last, heate is holpen and area∣red to the place of fruite, and strengthe∣ned by heate of the Sunne, and so heate ouercommeth againe coldnesse, and gen∣dereth strong heate and drinesse, and so the fruite is bitter.

Also trées be diuers in setting and in planting: for Trées that be set right in the full of the Moone, or in the newe, or in the changing, they thriue ful euill, if they thriue, their fruite is full little, & is full of wormes, & fruite of such trées, rotteth full soone: and trées that are fel in such time be soone fret with wormes, and durenot long, as Isidore saith. Looke the cause before lib. 8. de Effectibus Lu∣nae.

Also betwéene the trée and his fruite, is a stalke, whereby the fruite cleaneth and hangeth on the trée, as the childe to the nauell cleueth to the mother, as Isi. saith, & the stalk is first féeble & lethie, & that is for default of hard humor. Ther∣fore in yt time fruite falleth with little shaking, as wt a strong blast or puffe of winde: But afterward heate hardeneth that humor by little & little, & the vertue setteth fast & falleth not so soone: but at the last when the fruite is ripe and full growen, that stalke for drieth or rotteth, and the fruite falleth soone, and the more déepe the roote is in the ground, the more humour it draweth, & if it beareth fruit, it beareth the more plentie of boughes, of leaues and of fruite. If water boughs and superfluitie be pared off, the trée bea∣reth the better and the more fruite, for then the humour passeth into fruite, that should els passe into superfluitie. And this of kinde and properties of trées in generall, shall suffice at this time.

Of an Almond Tree. Chap. 3.

AN Almond trée is called Amigdalus, and is a trée that blometh timely. And the Tree is called Hec Amigdalus, and the fruit is called Hic Amigdalus. And so one sayth in this manner. Sunt matu∣ra mora, pira, ficus, amigdala mora.

That is to say, Beries, Peares, Figges, and Almonds be soone ripe: But in some place of holy writ, Hec Amigdala, le, is taken for the fruit. Num. 17. For (as S. Hierome sayth) The lawe and the Go∣spell may not be subiect to the rules of Grammer. And as Isid. sayth, li. 17. A∣migdala is Gréeke, and is to say, a long Nut And some call it Nucida, as it were the lesse not. Therefore Virgil speaketh in this maner, when many nuts in woods be closed with blossome. This Tree blo∣meth first of all trees, and beareth fruite before other Trees. Hue vsque Isido∣rus, in libr. de Plantis. Aristotle sayeth, that Almond Trees need much tilling, and namely when they be olde. And if they be beared with nailes, Cum com∣meth out of them, and humour is pured in the pith yt is ye matter of fruit. There∣fore if they be well tilled, Almonds trees beare more fruit, when they be old, then when they be young. And an Almonde Tree beareth double fruite, sweete, and bitter, as it is said in Plat.

Page  276Swéete Almonds be good to meate, and bitter Almonds to medicine, for they bee hot and dry.* And Dioscorides saith that the swéete Almond helpeth the stomack if it be eaten new with the skinne, but it grieueth ye head, & norisheth dimnes, & kindleth the seruice of Venus, and brée∣deth sléepe, and latteth dronkennesse. Also he saith there, that if a Foxe eateth Al∣monds, he shall dye.* Ofte ye thing that is wholesome and good for men, is poy∣son to other beasts, and againward. Also he saith, that nigh all the trée that bea∣reth bitter Almonds is medicinable: for the roote thereof sod and brayed, clean∣seth the face and doth awaye speckles, & abateth head ach if it be layd to the for∣head, and cleanseth, and helpeth rotted wounds, if it be medled with honie. Also the barke and leaues cleanseth and hea∣leth: and oyle of Almonds slaieth long wormes in the wombe, and exciteth and purgeth menstruall bloud, and helpeth effectually against deafenesse, and clean∣seth and purgeth matter of ye eares, if it be luke hot dropped therein, as Diosco. saith. Also floures thereof sod in oyle, a∣waketh them that haue the Litargie, the sléeping euill, and the floures therof brai∣ed with honny, healeth biting of hounds and botches. Gumme of Almonde trées,* mingled with a drinke, helpeth him that casteth bloud, and so little or nought is in the Almond trée, that accordeth not to medicine, as Diosc. saith.

(*The eating of sixe or eight bitter Almonds fasting, is sayd to staye a man frō dronkennesse that day. Dodoneus.)

¶Of Firre. cap. 4.

FIrre is a trée and is called Abies, and hath that name of Eundo, going or passing, for it passeth more farther, and stretcheth more high than other trées, as Isid. saith lib. 17. The kinde thereof hath no earthly humour, and therefore it is able and light timber, and other things that he made of this trée, be called Abiegna, and he that maketh any thing thereof, is called Abietarius, as Isi. saith. Arist. saith that Firre is a trée, yt stret∣cheth in length vpward, and hath much rarenesse in substaunce, and small and thin moysture, and therefore kind heate thereof with helpe of heate of the Sun, reareth and beareth vpwarde that moy∣sture, and turneth it into substaunce of trees, and so maketh the trée growe full high. This trée is wonderfull high, and little or nought crooked, and that is, for vertue of heate, and euennesse of humor that is obedient to the working of heat. Therefore it stretcheth vpright with∣out any crookednesse: and though the trée be gendered and commeth of lyght humour and subtill, yet kinde dry∣ueth the superfluitie of that humour outwarde, and bringeth it betwéene the Tree and the rinde, and there by heate of the Sunne it is made clammye, and turned into kinde of sweet smelling Rosen.

Also for gleamie fatnesse yt is incorpo∣rate to this trée, this trée Abies kindleth full soone & burneth light. Also this Trée Abies helpeth to diuers manner buil∣dings, and namely for euennesse & length & shape that is stéeple wise, more smal vp∣ward then downward, therof is good ship timber made and shapen.

(*Abies, is the Firre trée, whose fruit is smaller and longer then of the Pine trée, with the Timber is made Masts for ships, and the boordes and rest timber is reserued for many vses, the wood is tight and well smelling. The olde Firre trée yéeldeth a white Gumme, yt is solde for Frankensence: but that which runneth forth of the young trées is called Tere∣binthina Veneta, and is solde for the right Turpentine, which we call Tur∣pentine of Venice. Dodoneus.)

Of Aloa. chap. 5.

ALoes is a Trée with good sauour, and bréedeth in Inde, as Papias sayeth, And it is a Trée with most swéete smell. And sometime a parte thereof was set a fire on the Alter in the stéed of insence, and hath the name therefore, as it is sup∣posed. Of the Trée of Aloes it is sayde in Platearius, that it is an hot Tree and drye, and is founde in the greate riuer of Babylon, that ioyneth with a Riuer of Page  [unnumbered] Paradise. Therfore many men suppose, that the foresaide Trée groweth among the trees of Paradise, and commeth out of Paradise by some hap or drifte into the riuer of Inde. Men that dwell by that riuer, take this trée out of the water with nets, and kéepe it to the vse of me∣dicine, for it is a good medicinall trée.

There be three manner kinds of the trée Aloes, as Const. saith in lib. gradioni. The first is full heauie with knots and that is with good smell, and with some deale bitter sauour, and browne red cou∣lor & letteth not chewing: and he saith, when it is chewed, anone a good sauour goeth out of the braine & filleth it some-deale. The second is lesse heauie, & smel∣leth not so well, neither is it so bitter. The third kinde is some deale white & full light, and hath no sauour nor smell, but little, except it be arayed with other things.

The trée of Aloes is fained, with a trée that is like thereto in waight and in knots, and some deale in smell, and some men account the Trée of Aloes Siluestris, as it were a wilde trée. This trée is froted with lead to chaunge ye co∣lour, & eare waxe is put thereto, to make it some deale bitter and red. Then it is put into licour that the best Aloes was sod in, with Muste to make it haue good smell: and is so made, that vnneth it is knowen from the best, but yet it is kno∣wen, for it is full hard and maye in no wise be chewed, and whiles men champ thereon, the bitter sauour within is not felt. The trée of Aloes comforteth the stomacke, and maketh good digestion, & helpeth against féeblenesse of the heart, & the braine, and against sownding, and namely against the Cardiacle passion.

And when Aloes is sod in wine, it help∣eth against all euills and passions of the heart, and féeblenesse of the heart, yt com∣meth of colde: but it maketh the wine bitter, he should doe but little therin, & for delicate men temper the wine with rose water, and such wine may be kept long time, for it is much amended by ye trée. The smoake thereof taken in at the nose, heateth the braine if it be cold, and comforteth it, if it be féeble.

And for to conclude the praising thereof in short words, it helpeth and introureth in all féeblenesse of the bodie, if one ran vse it in due manner. Huc vsque Platea.

Of three sortes of the tree of A∣loes, forth of the 20. chapt. of L. Vertomannus nauigations.

YOu shall vnderstand,* that there is no great plentie of true Aloes or Luser∣pitium brought vnto vs, because it is brought higher from the farthest partes of the world. Understand furthermore, there are thrée kindes or sorts of Aloes, greatly differing in goodnesse. The first they call Calampat, that growes not in the Ile Sumatra, but is brought from the Citie of Sarnau. There is another kind of Aloes named Iuba or Luba. The third kinde is named Bochor. Prouided, that none of the Aloe Calampat, is brought vnto vs, because it commeth from the kingdomes of Cathay, Chini, Macyni, Sarnau and Granay, Countreyes much richer than ours, haue much greater a∣bundance of golde, and kings of grea∣ter power and riches than are ours, and also that the said kings take great plea∣sure in such kinde of swéete sauours, & vse them much more than our Princes doe. So that by this meanes, the true kinde of Aloes, is worth in the Citie of Sarnau, ten crownes the pound waight.

¶Of Aloe, chap. 6.

ALoe is the fruite of a certaine hearb, that is called Aloe.*

Aloe is a lowe tree, of whose gum very seldome commeth anye into this part of the world.

This hearbe is found in India and Persia, and in many other places. The iuyce thereof is wrong out and sod on the fire, and afterward dried in the Sun as Platea sayth. Also of Aloe be thrée kindes, Citrinum, Epaticum, and Cabal∣linum, as Plat. sayth. And these thrée ma∣ner kindes be diuers in goodnesse: For Caballinum, is good, Epaticum is better, and Citrinum is best.

Page  277And they be knowen by citrine colour, and some deale reddish, and namely if it be broken, the pouder thereof, séemeth as it were pouder of Saffron, and the sub∣staunce thereof is most cléere, when it is broken into little péeces, and that that is broken into little péeces, is lesse stink∣ing, & lesse bitter. The Aloe yt is called Epaticum, is like to the lyuer in colour, and is browne reddish, as the lyuer is, and hath holes as it were mouthes of veynes, and is dimme, and not cléere, & is more bitter than is Citrinum. The Aloe that is called Caballinū, is blacke, dimme and drastie, and most bitter in sauour, and most horrible in smell. This Aloe Caballinum, if it be distinguished with pouder of Saffron and vineger, & if it be ten times plunged therein, and dryed, then it taketh new disposition, and changeth color & smell, so that it séemeth Epaticum or Citrinum, but yet this is knowen: for if it be broken, and froted with fingers, anon it is found most stin∣king and most bitter, and so fareth not Epaticum nor Citrinum. All manner of Aloe, the lesse stinking it is, and the lesse bitter, the better it is. Though Aloe be bitter by kind, yet it is wonderful profi∣table and wholesome: for it purgeth fleu∣mie cholar and melancholy, and comfor∣teth sinewy members, and clenseth and purgeth the stomack of gleymie humors and noyfull, & reléeueth head ache, when fumositie of ye stomacke gréeueth ye head, and maketh it ake. Aloe cleanseth the sight, and vnstoppeth the splene and the lyuer, and prouoketh menstruall bloud, and maketh good colour in a bodye that is discouloured & kéepeth from the drop∣sie, and ureth the Dropsie at the begin∣ning. Powder thereof taken with hony, slayeth long wormes in the wombe, and maketh haue abide and not fall, and hel∣peth goutie men, and healeth botches of the priuie members, and easeth itch∣ing of eyen, and cleanseth rotting and matter of the gums, & of the mouth, and healeth, soudreth, clenseth & drieth gréene wounds, & is bitter to ye mouth, & sweete to ye stomack: for it cōforteth ye cold sto∣mack & feeble, & helpeth digestion. Al this is taken of Diosc. of Plat. and of Auice.

(*Aloe the iuice of an hearbe con∣iealed like a gum, and is vsed commonly in purgatiue medicines, because it is cō∣fortable to the stomacke.)

¶Of a reede. chap. 7.

A Réede is called Arundo, & is meane betwéene a trée and an hearbe, and more brittle and féeble than a trée, and more hard and boystous than an hearb, and is smooth without and hollow with in, and is norished in marreys, and wag∣geth with the winde, & hurteth ye hande soone with splinters. Isid. li. 16. speaketh of the réede and saith, it is called Arun∣do, and hath that name of Aresco, dri∣eng, for it drieth soone. In pondes of In∣de groweth a réede, and out of the roots thereof they wring full swéete sauour and licour, which they drinke. There∣fore Varro saith, yt a réed of Inde grow∣eth to a small trée, and humor is wrong out of the roote thereof, and no swéete ho∣ny may striue with that wose & lycour.

(*There are diuers sorts or kinds of réede, the long poale réede or cane in the Ilands of Canare: of the which the peo∣ple vse as staues and speares, for theyr straigth and hardnesse. There is also the Sugar réede, verye long, within the which groweth the iuice, whereof com∣meth Sugar. The common great: reeds grow in marish grounds, as do ye small, with the which are made quilles for Weauers, fishing rods, &c.)

¶Of Amomo. cap. 8.

AMomum hath that name for it smel∣leth as Cannell doeth, that is called Cinamom, as Isidore saith libr. 17.

Amomum groweth in Siria, and in Ar∣menia. The trée thereof séedeth in clu∣sters cleauing togethers, & hath a white flower like to the violet, & leaues like to Brione, and maketh swéete sléepes with the good smell thereof. Amomum is an hearbe with good sauour, as Dioscorides sayeth, and is some deale redde with leaues ioyned, and with much séede, and with white flowers, as the Uy∣olet.

Page  [unnumbered]Of Amomum be thrée maner of kinds, for one is of Armenia, and is called Ar∣menicum, and that is best of all, and is reddish, & best of smell, and most of ver∣tue and of valew. Another kinde grow∣eth in moyst places and watrye, and is softe to handling, and hath good sauour. The third is called Ponticum, and is red and not long. The best is that that is new and white and full of séed spred vp∣pon red braunches most sauouring and heauie in waight, and biteth the tongue with a manner of sharpnesse when it is chewed, and hath colour not diuers, as Auicen sayth and Dioscorides also.

These Authors meane, that all manner Amomum hath vertue to heate and to drye, and to heale smiting of Scorpions: and the water that it is sod in, comfort∣eth the eyen, and reléeueth them of sore ache. And Amomum hath vertue to as∣swage wombe ache, and to destroy ven∣tositie, and to excite menstruall bloud, & the lycour that it is sod in, helpeth and succoureth frentike men & Epatike, that be sicke in the liuer, and them that haue Podagre also. Also in all good receipts & medicines, Amomum is oft put, though some men vse ofte to take in stéede of that, another hearbe, that is called, Amo∣nides, and is like thereto in colour and hiew, and is all vnlike thereto in vertue and in smell, as Auicen saith.

(*Amomum a little shrub growing in Armania, round together like a clu∣ster of Grapes, hauing a flower lyke a white Uiolet, and leaues lyke Wyth∣winde, or white Uine: some ignoraunt Apothecaries, vse Petroselium Macedo∣nicum, and call it Amomum, which is the verye true parseley of Macedonye, whereas it groweth most plentifullye. D. Rembert Dodoneus. fo. 608.)

¶Of Aneto. cap. 9.

ANetum is an hearbe, and the séed of it may be kept thrée yeare in great ver∣tue, as Discorides saith: but it is bet∣ter that it be renewed euery yeare. The roote thereof is somwhat worth while it is gréene, and of no valewe, when it is drye, as he sayth.

And hath vertue to heate and to tem∣per hard matter, and to make it softe and open, and to diuide and depart, and to destroy ventositie and swellyng, and to abate ache and gnawing of the guts, & of the wombe, and to breake the stone, to excite menstruall bloud, and to open the vrine veynes, and to abate the yere, that commeth of fulnesse, to make one sléepe well, and to temper hard gathring in the body if it be sod with oyle, and layd thereto in plaister wise: and the flower thereof sodde with Wine doeth away head ache, if the head be baulmed therewith: and ashes thereof layd to the dropping priuie chose of a woman, dri∣eth it, and stauncheth the dropping: and Anetum sod with oyle, releaseth shrink∣ing and stonieng of sinewes, and helpeth in many other passions, as he affirmeth and saith.

(*Anetum is hot and dry in ye thirde degrée, it cureth the bloudie flixe, mixed with the cups of Akornes, and so dronk in ale or wine, the waight of halfe an ounce with halfe a pint. It is called, Dill.)

¶Of Aniso. cap. 10.

ANise hath the same vertue that Ane∣tum hath, and is more swéet in sauor, & the séed therof is more small & round, & many men call it Dulcinium, as it is said in Plat. And hath vertue to temper & to make soft, to consume and to wast & destroy ventositie, & to comfort digesti∣on, and to open the stopping of the liuer, and of ye splene, & to break the stone, and to excite menstruall bloud, and to open and to amend all the inner wayes, and so though the séed be small in quantitie, yet it is full good and profitable in ver∣tue, and full healthfull and wholsome.

(*Anisum, Anise séed is ye only vitall to Aqua vitae, it is good, ye pouder dronk in wine against poyson.)

¶Of Allio. chap. 11.

GArlike is called Allium, and hath that name of Olendo smelling, for it smelleth strongly, as Isid. saith li. 16.

Page  278The smell thereof is so strong, yt it pas∣seth and ouercommeth all other strong smells: and therefore men yt must néeds passe by stinking places, or make cleane vncleanly rotten places, arme and defend themselues with strong sauce of Gar∣like, as Diosco. saith. Garlike hath ma∣ny vertues and properties both good and euill: for it is compouned of diuers ver∣tues, as he saith. Garlike disturbeth the wombe and the stomacke, and bréedeth thirst, and bréedeth whelkes & wounds in the body, if it be layd thereto: and if cholaricke men eate too much thereof, it maketh the body too hot, & bréedeth Le∣pra, and is cause of madnes and of fren∣sie and grieueth the sight and maketh it dimme. Therefore it noyeth cholaricke men by kinde, for it bréedeth red cholar, and increaseth burnt cholar, and helpeth well steumaticke men and colde. Of Garlike is double maner of kinde, wilde and tame. The wilde is called Scorde∣on, among Phisitions. The floure ther∣of shall be gathered & put in medicines, and it worketh not violentlye, as tame Garlike doth. Of tame Garlike we vse most the heads. In the kinde thereof be many manner vertues found, for therin is vertue to dissolue, and to temper, to consume and waste, to put out venyme, and all venimous things. Therefore it was not without cause called Triacle of churles, among Authours in old time, as Diosc. saith. It helpeth best against the biting and venime of a mad dogge, if it be eaten with salt and nuts, & with rew: stampe these foure togethers, and giue ofte thereof to the Patient, in the quan∣titie of a great nut, and that with wine, and laye the same confection to the sore without, for it helpeth the wound, and draweth out venime and wasteth it, and kéepeth and saueth and deliuereth of pe∣rill, as effectually as Triacle. And Gar∣like hath vertue to open, and to temper, and to diuide and to depart, to cut and wast great humours and thicke, & ther∣fore it helpeth them that haue the stone, and them that may not well pisse, and exciteth menstruall bloud, and cleanseth the wombe, and slayeth long wormes, & other wormes in the wombe, if it be ta∣ken as it were sauce with pepper & iuice of mint and vineger: and Garlike aba∣teth the ache of the guts & of the reynes also, if it be cleansed and stamped, & sod with oyle, and layd as a plaister to the sore place, and it helpeth also against the Morphea, that is the Leprosie of ye skin, if the place of the Morphea be garsed & froted with Garlyke, and stamped ther∣to as a plaister should. Also it helpeth a∣gainst the biting of an Adder, if it bée stamped and layd thereto with Oyle of Bay, as Dios. saith. Also it helpeth them that haue the dropsie, for it wasteth and dryeth the humour betwéene the skinne and the flesh, and swageth swellyng, & cleanseth and healeth great and fowle bloudie wounds, and soundeth them, if pouder of Garlike burned be laid therto: and Garlicke sodde with Well water, doth away all sore and ach of the place, and swelling also, but it néedeth to be∣ware, that it be not taken in meates, for it grieueth the eyen, and so meane these verses.

Allia, Vina, Venus, Pulius, Ventus, Faba, Fumus:*

Ista nocent oculis, sed vigilare magis.

The meaning is this, Garlike, Wine, and Venus, Pouder, Winde, & Beanes, and smoke, grieue the eyen, but waking doth more. In lib. de plant. Arist. sayth, that Garlike is like to the Lily, & accor∣deth therwith in disposition of the head, and in the cloues hath vertue seminall, in the cloues of ye roote, & is the greines of the top of the stalke: and of ye cloue of the nether head of the garlike, com∣meth a plant of garlyke, and so doth like wise of the séede that groweth in ye top of the stalke, and of a cloue of the ouer head commeth also both plant and séede. And therefore a cloue of Garlike, set in the earth, bringeth forth a plant, and so likewise doth the séede, and hath manye pilles and leaues stéeple wise, and a hol∣low poorie stalke. Also garlike as the Li∣ly, first hath séede on his stalke, the greines clustered together within a small thin leafe: but the Onyon doeth not cluster his greynes together, but no∣risheth and sendeth them out on small feete.

Page  [unnumbered]And Garlike hath hairie rootes, lyke as a Lily, and Saffron and other such: But in this the roots of Garlike & Lilies dif∣fer, for the roote of Garlike spreadeth not in boughes, as the Lily doth: and as the Garlike reneweth his leaues, so it re∣neweth his rootes, and seedeth but once in the second yeare after that it is sow∣en. Therefore garlike hath many cloues spreading, that those cloues may be féed∣ing and nourishing to the second rootes, and to the second leaues, and to the stalk thereof. For when the seconde leaues grow and the stalk, then the cloues ther∣of vanisheth away in the earth: and so it fareth in Onions. In this Garlike & Onions be diuers, for of euery cloue of Garlike set commeth a plant, and so it fareth of the Lily, that of a cloue plan∣ted in the earth, sendeth out a stalk, and that commeth, for in euerie cloue of the Lily and of Garlike is seminall vertue. And it fareth not so in the Onion, for there commeth not of euery cloue of the Onion, an Onion, though it be set, but of the whole head springeth a plant, if it be set: for the seminall vertue is not in euery cloue of the Onion, but in the whole head. And Garlike and the Lily be diuers, for the stalke in ye spire of gar∣like springeth out of the one ende of the cloue, & the spire of ye Lily springeth out of the side of the cloue, & not of the end. Huc vs{que} Anst. de plan. secund. nouam translationem.

(*There be 3. sorts of Garlike, Alli∣um satiuum, Garden garlike, Crow gar∣like, and Beare garlyke, called Ram∣sons.)

¶Of Wormwood. chap. 12.

ABseynthium, Wormwood, is a full sharpe hearbe, hot and drye, full sow∣rish and bitter, as Dioscorides saith, ther of is two manner kindes, that one is gréene in colour, and sower and bit∣ter in sauour, that other is some deale hoarishe, and lesse bitter, and lesse vertuous, and is gathered in the end of springing time, and dried in shadow, and kept all a yeare in great might & ver∣tue, and hath contrary vertues, as Plate. saith, for it laxeth and bindeth: it bind∣eth by thicke substaunce and sowrnes, & laxeth by heate and bitternes, & so when it is taken into the body, if it find thick matter and hard, by sowrenes and thick∣nesse of his substance, maketh it the more thicke and hard, & so it is cause of more binding: and if the matter be able and digested, it tempreth and softneth it with heate, and beareth it downe with sowre∣nesse, and putteth it out of the body: and sirop made of wormwood helpeth the ly∣uer, and comforteth the stomacke, & exci∣teth appetite, and withstandeth dronken∣nesse, and healeth the iaundes, & amend∣eth and chaungeth the colour. The iuice thereof with pouder sod, vnstoppeth the splene, and solueth and abateth ache of the stomacke, and wombe ache, that com∣meth of ventositie: and iuyce thereof dropped into ye eares, drieth vp moysture that runneth from the eares. Worme∣wood stamped with a Bulls lyuer, and put into the eares, distroyeth tincklyng, and ringing that is therein, and comfor∣teth and amendeth the hearing. Iuyce thereof swageth head ache that commeth of fumositie of ye stomacke. Wormwood with pouder of Commin and hony doth away moles and speckles, and ache that commeth of smiting, if it be layd thereto in a playster wise. Iuice thereof slayeth long wormes of the wombe, & wormes of the eares, if it be dropped therein.

Iuice thereof dronke, cleereth the sight, & doth away rednesse and webs of eyen, if it be ofte put therein. And Wormwood keepeth and saueth bookes and cloathes from fretting of mice and of wormes, if it be layd therewith in chestes or Cof∣fers, as Macrobius saith, and helpeth a∣gainst biting of Wesells & of Dragons, and healeth it if it be dronke, and the li∣cour that it is sodde in, swageth ven∣tositie and swelling of the wombe, if it be dronke, as Diosc. saith. And hath ouer these vertues, some conditions & proper∣ties that bée not full good: for it infect∣eth the tast with sowrenesse and bit∣ternesse, & grieueth the smel with strong odour, & maketh milke and wine bitter, and al other swéet thing, that it is med∣led with.

Page  279Therefore Bées yt vse floure of worme¦woode, make the hony bitter, as Diosco. sayth. Plinius saith, that wormwood shal not be giuen to them that haue feauers. Wormwood letteth wambling in ye sea, if it be first dronke, and exciteth sleepe, if it be laid vnwittingly vnder the head, and withstandeth mothes and wormes, if it be layd among clothes, and maketh blacke haire, if ye haire be anoynted with oyntment made of the iuice thereof, and oyle of roses.

*There are thrée sorts of Worme∣wood, the first Absynthium Latifolium, common wormwood: the second Seri∣phium sea wormwood: the third Pon∣ticum, wormwood gentle or Romane. It is said in Dodoneus, that there are sixe kindes. Inke being made with the iuice of wormwood, kéepeth writings long frō being eaten with mice or rats.)

¶Of Apio. chap. 13.

MErch is called Apium, & is a com∣mon hearb, known nigh to all men: and hath that name, for somtime victors had garlands of it, as Isid. saith libro. 17 Hercules made him first garlandes of this hearbe. Rootes thereof withstandeth mightely venime, as Isi. saith, but of A∣pium is many maner of kinds as he sai∣eth. One is called Petrosum, & hath that name, for it is most lyke to Apium in leaues, and Apium of the Gréekes is called Silenum, and groweth in stonye places, and in mountaines, and rockes: and therefore Latines call Petrocilium Perseley, Petrapium, as Isid. saith. Of Merch and Apium, is another manner kinde, as Dioscorid. saith, as Apium of frogs, Apium of laughing, Apium of Emeroydes:*Apium of frogs hath that name, for it is ofte founde in watry pla∣ces, where frogs be in, and if this Api∣um be sod with wine, & layd in a play∣ster wise to the wombe, and if it be laid to the reynes, it helpeth and abateth the ache thereof. Apium osus of laughing, hath the name of working and doing: for it purgeth melancholike humour, for of superfluitie of such humour commeth eegnesse and discomfort: and be tel∣leth, that if it be eaten or dronke in great quantitie, it slayeth a man with laugh∣ing, and helpeth also against the stone, & against difficultie of pissing, if men pisse often and little, and exciteth menstruall bloud, if it be sod in water or in wine, & the nether parts of the body washed and bathed therewith.

Apium of Embroydes hath yt name, for pouder therof laid thereto fordrieth the bleeding. Commune Apium, cōmon Merch, vnstoppeth & openeth ye splene, & breaketh the stone, and destroyeth the Iaundes, and helpeth against the drop∣sie, & against frensie, if ye Patients head, be ofte anoynted with the iuyce thereof medled with oyle of roses, and with vi∣neger. The roote thereof succoureth a∣gainst venymous biting, and withstand∣eth venime, as Diosc. sayth. And all A∣pium grieueth & noyeth them that haue the falling euill, for it dissolueth and sof∣teneth the matter, and moueth vpward, and it grieueth children also, because of much moisture and feeblenesse of vertue, & straightnesse of members, & of waies, that age is disposed to that euill. Ther∣fore a nourice that féedeth a child, shall spare Apium, least the childe take that euill, as Diosc. sayth, and Plat. also.

¶Of Aristologia. cap. 14.

ARistologia is a full medicinable hearb though it be bitter, & thereof is two manner of kindes, long and round, and either is hotte and drye, and the roote is more medicinable, than the leaues, and shall be gathered in Haruest, and is kept two yeare, & hath vertue to dis∣solue and put out, and to wast venyme, and maketh good breath, and softeneth the hard splene, and openeth the stopping thereof, & doth away ache of the wombe and of the side, & helpeth them that haue the Podagre and the falling euill, and men with lims and sinewes shronken. Powder therof with the iuyce of mints helpeth against venemous biting, and pouder thereof fretteth dead flesh, easely and softly in setter and the wound. The roote of this hearbe putteth a dead child out of ye wombe, if it be sod with wine Hactenus Dioscorides de Aristologia.Page  [unnumbered]Plinius saith, and Isid. li. 17. That it is best for women with child: for if it be dronke with pepper and wine, it clean∣seth the filth of them yt trauayle of child, and purgeth the mother, and exciteth and purgeth menstruall bloud.

(*Aristolochia longa, Rotunda Cle∣matitis, Pistolochia, Saracenica. These foure kindes are set foorth in Dodone∣us, called in English, Aristologia, and of some Birthwort, and Hartwort. The se∣cond is called rounde Aristologia. The third is called braunched. The fourth, long Aristologia: an hearbe good against poyson, and against the stinging and bi∣ting of venemous beasts. Aristolochia rotunda, doth beautifie, cleanse, and fast∣en the téeth, if they be often froted or rub∣bed with the pouder thereof.

¶Of Agno Casto. chap. 15.

AGnus Castus is an hearbe hot & drie, and hath vertue to keéepe men & wo∣men chast, as Plin. saith. Therefore the women of Rome, vsed to beare with them the fruite of this hearbe in Dirige and seruice of dead men, when they must néedes lyue chast, for common honestie. This hearbe is alway gréene, as Dio∣scor. saith, and Plat. also: and the flower thereof is called Agnus castus, for with smell & vse thereof, it maketh men chast as a Lambe. And Diosc. sayth and Plat. also, that it maketh chast, opening the poores, and drawing out, and wasting the humour and moysture seminall: and hée saith, that the broath thereof helpeth a∣gainst colde and white dropsie, if it bée sod with fenel séede, and a lyttle Esu∣la. And there it is sayd, that the broth of that hearbe foredrieth superfluityes of the mother, and maketh the mouth ther∣of narrow & straight, and exciteth men∣struall bloud, and doth away Litargia, the sléeping euill, if it be sod in salt wa∣ter with Apium and Sage, and the hin∣der part of ye head strongly washed ther¦with, as Dioscor. saith.

(*Agnus castus is a singular reme∣die, for such as would lyue chast: for it withstandeth all vncleannesse, or the fil∣thie desire to lecherie: it consumeth and drieth vp ye séede of generation, in what∣soeuer it be taken, whether in pouder, or in decoction, or the leaues alone leade on the bed to sleepe vppon, and therefore it was called Castus, that is to saye, chast, cleane and pure.)

¶Of Artemisia. chap. 16.

ARtemisia,* is called mother of hearbe, and was sometime hallowed by men of nations to the Goddesse Diana, that was called Arthemis in Gréeke, as Isi. saith. li. 17. And is an hot hearb and dry, and the rootes & leaues thereof accord to medicine, & is good namely against bar∣rennesse, that commeth of moysture, and is nought worthie in hot cause and dry, as Diosco. saith. It exciteth menstraull bloud, and cleanseth and comforteth the Mother, and abateth head ache, if it bée sod in wine or in water: and bringeth out a dead childe, and the bagge that it is in, and breaketh the stone of ye reynes and of the bladder, and driueth awaye fiends, as Plin. sayeth, and withstandeth euill thoughts, and abateth féete ach that commeth of trauell of going, and thereof is many manner kinde, and it said, that the Goddesse Diana, founde out the ver∣tues thereof, and taught them to man∣kinde, as Plinius saith and Dioscorides also. And Auicen telleth other vertues thereof.

(*This hearbe is called, Mater her∣barum, and Mugwort, whereof are foure kindes, especially in a idle huswife, and brawling wife, a proud dame, and a dis∣honest woman.)

¶Of Oates. chap. 17.

AVena an Oate, is an hearbe, and the seede thereof accordeth to the profite of men and of horses, and hath that name Auena, for that it commeth and groweth soone after that it is sowen, as Isidore saith, and hath vertue to relaxe, and against swelling, and to relaxe noy∣full hardnesse, and to cleanse off vn∣cleannesse of the face, as it is sayde in Platearius.

Page  280(*In the spire of the Oate is a rare se∣cret, which being put into water, turneth straungely, so that it be vnderstoode the manner of the setting: Oat bread is not agreeable for mankinde.)

Of Balsamo. chap. 18.

BAlsamum is a trée or a shrub, that ne∣uer groweth passing the height and quantitie of two cubites, as Isido. sayth, and to lyke to a vine, & lyke in leaues to Rue: But the leaues bee more white, & chaunge alway, & fall neuer. And the tree is called Balsamum, and the stocke Ori∣lo Balsamum, and the fruit or the seede Carpobalsamum, and the iuyce Opobal∣samum. For if the rinde of the stocke be smitten with yron combs, then droppeth thereof noble Opobalsamum. The iuyce thereof droppeth out of the hoales of the rinde, as it were out of dens. A denne in English, in Gréeke is called Opo, and it faineth droppes by meddeling of Cypres or of honie. But such as is feined by ho∣nie is knowen, for if a drop therof be put in milke, it renneth as cruddes, and if it be meddeled with water, it fléeteth aboue the water as it were Oile, yt is feined with Oile. And if it is feined and put in fresh water, anon it sinketh to ye ground, and defileth not a cleane cloth that it toucheth. Pure and very Balme or Bal∣samum may not bee suffered in ye hand, if the Sunne commeth thereto. Huc vs∣que Isidorus, Plinius libr. 12. cap. 17. sai∣eth in this manner: Balsamum is set before all other smells, and was some∣time graunted to one lande among all lands, that it is to wit, Iudea. And was not had nor found but in two gardeins of the Kings. The greater Gardein was of twentye dayes earth or earing: But afterwarde when the Romanes were Lordes, those fields of Balsamum spred into many mountaines and hilles. This tree is more lyke to a vine then to Mir∣cus, and filleth the mountains and sprea∣deth as a Uine, without railing and vn∣dersetting of boughes. For the boughes thereof beareth themselues, and the height thereof is within two cubites. It needeth beware that the Trée bée not cut within with yron, and so it needeth that caruing with yron passe not the rind in∣warde into the Tree. For if the Tree be hurt within, then all is lost. The Tree is all medicinable. The chiefe grace there∣of and first, is in the iuyce, the second in the seede, the third in the rinde, and the last in the stock. The best of these is swee∣test smell, in the greatest seede and most heauie, biting in tast, and feruent in the mouth, and redde in coulour. Huc vs∣que Plinius. lib. 12. cap. 27. Diolcorides sayeth, that there is a manner kinde of Balsamum that groweth about Baby∣lonia, where the seauen wells bée, and if that manner Balsamum be set in ano∣ther place, then it beareth neither flowre nor fruit. In Summer time the boughes bée softly cut with a knife of boane, or with shéeres that be not sharpe, least the Trée were hurt within, and so perish. Under the rinde that is thirled bée set violls of glasse to gather therein ye drops that fall. If one drop be done to the roufe of the mouth, it heateth the braine that it séemeth on fire. It hath vertue to dis∣solue & temper, and to consume & wast, and keepe & saue dead bodies without rotting, forasmuch as it dissolueth and wasteth, as it is saide in Plateario. And exciteth menstruall bloud, and bringeth a dead childe out of the wombe, and the Mola out of the Mother, and out of the wombe: and breaketh the stone in ye blad∣der and in the reines, and doth awaye the Illiaca passion, and all euills of the head, if it be taken in due manner: And helpeth in feauers quotidian & quartane, and withstandeth venimous biting, and hath these vertues, and many other noble vertues: yt were full long to recken them héere all arow: But these shall suffice for this time.

(*Balsamita, an hearbe of length and bignesse of a Lilly, with a lease lyke rue, growing onelye in Iudea and Ae∣gypt, of whose iuyce commeth the preci∣ous Balme Oyntment.)

Of Bidellio. chap. 19.

Page  [unnumbered]AS Plinius saith, lib. 12. capitulo. 10. Bidellium is a Trée, most named Couth, and is a blacke trée, most lyke to the Oliue in leaues and in might. The gumme thereof is most found in vse of medicine. For the gum thereof is bright and bitter in tast, and wel smelling. And smelleth the more if it be wet in Wine. Also in the Glose Super Genesis. 2. It is sayd, that there Bidellium is found, and the stone Omchenus. It groweth (as Pli∣nius saith) in ye countries of the East, as in Arabia, India and Chaldea. Libr. 17. Isidore sayth, that Bidellium is a Trée of Inde, and of Arabia, and the Gunune of the tree of Arabia is best, & smelleth well, and is bright, somewhat white and light, not heauie. And is fat and lyke to ware, and is soone made softe, and is bit∣ter with good sauour, and not meddeled with trée, nor with earth. And the Gum of the trée is foule and blacke, and coun∣terfeited with Gumme, which is not so bitter in tast, from whence so euer it com∣meth. The substaunce thereof is glea∣mie, and stoppeth and draweth. Therfore as Diocorides sayth, & Plat. also. It is contrary to the bloudie fluxe, which com∣meth of sharpe matter, & is good for them that haue the fluxe, which is ingendered and commeth because of strong drougs. And also is good against Postumes with∣in and without: if they be anointed due∣ly therwith: and breaketh the stone, and abateth the cough, and withstandeth ve∣nim of creeping wormes and beasts, and easeth ath of the guts, as Platea, sayth: And bealeth them at the best, that bée limme broiten, so that the guss falleth in the bagge of the Genitours, and soudreth well the inner partes. With Gumme of Bidellio, accordeth Vetnix, which is cal∣led Bernix also. And yt is called a maner Gum: and men saye, that it is Gum of a trée hauing vertue to souder, to clarifie and to saue. Therefore. Painters occupye it most, for it bindeth; as Bidellium doth: but it is of another kinde: For it is cold and dry in the seconde degrée: and Bi∣dellium is hot and moist, as it is said in Platearios.

(*Edellium. Pli. A Trée growing in A∣rabia: also the Gum of the same trée, lyke to Waxe, swéet of sauour, and in tast bit∣ter. D. Copper.)

Of Buxo. chap. 20.

BOxe is called Buxus, and is a name of Gréeke, somwhat corrupt among La∣tines, as Isidore saith, lib. 17. For among the Greeks it is called Pixos. And this tree is alway greene: and for smoothnesse of matter it is able to receiue writing of letters and figures to be made on. For a Table of Bore which is wel planed re∣ceiueth white colour, & thervpon diuerse letters, and diuerse figures and shapes be written and made, & afterward maye be put away easily and soone, as Isidore sayth. All the vtter Trée is called Hec Buxus, and the inner stock, Hoc Buxum. Therefore one said on this manner.

Hec buxus crescit, hoc buxum crescere nescit. It appeareth that he woulde meane, that this tree is called Buxus, while it groweth, and is called Buxum, when it groweth not. And is a Trée of sad matter of fast. And the nutrimen∣tall humour thereof is full gleamie, and cleauing togethers, as Albumasar sayeth in lib. Vegil. Therefore the stocke therof is hard, sad, and heauie, & sinketh in wa∣ter, as Hebenus doth, and that is because of sadnesse & fastnesse of the stock, which hath no pores where aire might enter, by the which entering it might fleete a∣boue the water, as Albumasar sayeth. And therefore the leaues therof be long, gréeue, & fall not soone, but some & some. And when one falleth, another commeth in his steed. And hath many smal leaues and thicke, and little fruit or none. The shauing of Boxe, for it is colde and drie, stauncheth the Fluxe, if it be sod in pit water, as Dioscorides saith. And dyeth haire, yt is oft washed in the broth ther∣of. The sauour therof is bitter, as Plinius saith. lib. 17. cap. 17. The smell is heauie, & though it grieue the tast with sauour, yet it comforteth the sight. For it is al∣way, greene, & namely in Summer. In Winter ye leaues therof waxe some deale pale, but they fall not, as Albumasar sai∣eth. And the cause is of gleamy humour, Page  281 that is therein, and much fleeting moy∣sture that is in the roote, and therefore the leaues fall not. When heat commeth the humour is drawen outward, & then by working of heat the leaues be gréene. And when colde commeth, the humour is suittest inward, and then is great dri∣nosses; & so the coulour is yeolow or pale. And Boxe groweth in hot places & sto∣ny, and is therefore hard and sadly war∣red; but the trée within is smooth, & coue∣nable to bée planed: And holdeth long time shapes and figures, which be made therein: So thereof bée made fayre I∣mage & and long during. Also of Bore be bores ordeined and made to kéepe in Muske, & other manner of spicery, and is good to many manner of other vses, and necessities, which were ouer noyous and greath letting of time to rehearse them héere-all arowe. But such as wée haue rehearsed bée now sufficient, as for this slute.

(*The lennes of Boxe is hot and dry, and not vsed to medicine, and is verye hurtfull for the braine.)

Of Balauftias chap. 21.

BAlaustia is the flowre that falleth of the Pomegranard, for when the Trée shal beare fruit, the flowers cleaue toge∣thers in a cluster, & fall off the trée some∣time. Aud Phisitions take and occupye them so the vsage of medicines: and then may be kept and preserued in great ver∣tue all the winter long. And Dioscori∣des sayth, this flowre Balaustia is colde and drye, and hath vertue to binde & so fordrie humours Therefore it helpeth & is medicinable against the bloudy fluxe, & helpeth also against menstruall bloud, and, hath also vertue to staunch spuing and, admiting if it bée sodden in Uine get, and layde with a sunng to the breast pit. Also pouder thereof healeth and clo∣seth and sendreth wounde, and Pouder thereof healeth the game, and cleanseth and date away the rottings therof: & fast∣neth and maketh stedfast the roots of the saith, & also healeth welks of ye lips. And Pisidra, the rind of the same trée, doth all the same things, and namely the fruit & apple of the same trée: and the apple shall be taken when it is ripe.

(*Balaustium, the flowre of a Pome∣granard, very africtiue and binding.)

Of Beta. chap. 22.

BEta is a cōmon a hearb of gardeins, as Diosc, saith and therof is double kind, blacke & white, & of either the iuyce drop∣ped into ye nosethrils, purgeth the head, & abateth ach of the eares and amendeth & doth away nits, & other vncleannesse of ye head, & speckles & moles of the face, and restoreth & saueth haire: and the leaues therof shoare & laid to, quencheth ye euill, which is called Sacerignis, the holy fire, & swageth gréene wounds, & nourisheth euill humours, if it be oft vsed, as Diosc. saith. Aristotle speaketh of Beta & sayeth, & men may graffe on a Bete stocke, as men doth on a Caustocke, & then ye Bete stock taketh strength, & turneth into a trée, as it is saide before, de natura Plan∣tarum.

(*Beta candida, Beta nigra, Beta nigra Romana. Beetes are hot & drie, & abster∣tiue especially the white Béete, yt which is of a more cleansing nature.)

Of Ceder chap. 23.

CEdrus is a Trée, and the Gréekes call it Cedros, as it were Ceomones Dri∣sticon, that is to vnderstand, humour of a burning trée. The leaues therof an∣swereth to lykenesse of Cipressus, as I∣sidore sayth. li. 17. And he sayth ther, that Cedery is a Trée with merrye smell, and indureth and abideth long time, and is neuer destroyed with mought, ney∣ther with: Terredo, that is the Tree worme. And for the Ceder indureth al∣waye, thereof bée Rastees and other Timber made, belonging to places of kings, and to Temples also. The Gumme of this Trée is called Cedri∣na, and is most necessarye, and kéepeth and saueth Bookes. For Bookes which bée vermissed with that Gumme, bée not fret with Wormes; neither age in time.

This trée groweth in Affrica, and in Page  [unnumbered]Siria, & namely in mount Libany. Then the Ceder trée is a most high trée, Lady and quéene of all other Trées, as Raba∣nus sayth super Psalt. and is most fayre in sight, & alway gréene with good smell, & the smell of it driueth away Serpents and al manner of veniuous wormes, as he saith: and it is most swéete in fruite. And the Apples of Ceder be great & long, and bée of eitrine or else of yeolowe cou∣lour, with & wonderfull smell and most pleasaunt sauour, and hath thrée manner of sauores: for in the middle about the graines, the Apples be chrine and sowre, and without swéete by the rinde, and meane betwéene swéet and sowre in the pith of the fruit within. Then the Ce∣der is of many diuerse and great dooing and vertues, and also full medicinable & wholsome For the gum therof is shaped some what in manner lyke to a top, and is sharp and seruent. And it burneth and drieth, as Dioscorides saith: and it wi∣peth and cleanseth away dimnesse of the eien. And it slaieth & destroieth ye wormes of the eares, and it helpeth agaynst the ach of the féeth, and it helpeth against the biting of Serpents. And also it doth a∣waye tingling and ringing in the eares, with the iuyce of Hisop. And swageth & abateth the swelling in the iawes, & hea∣leth certaine wounds in the lungs. And kéepeth & laueth soft flesh from rotting. The Ceder trée anointed with his owne gumme, kéepeth and saueth dead bodyes from rosting that be saide therein. Also the seede of Ceder abateth the cough, and exciteth menstruall bloud and bringeth out Secundinas, bagges that children Bée wrapped in, in the mothers wombe: and cleanseth and purgeth the Mother, and softeneth and slaketh sinewes that bée shrunke with the Crampe, and maketh one to pisse, and cleanseth awaie the gra∣uell in the reines and in the bladder: And Dioscoride, setteth many other vertues of Ceder, and of the iuyce and fruit there∣of. And Plinius speaketh of a maner Ce∣der in this wise: A certaine trée is called Modica, & is first brought out of ye lande of Medes, and the Gréekes call that Trée Agedia or Cedronilla. And hath ye name for it séemeth, that the apples thereof fol∣low the vertue of Ceder, and the sauour also, as Isidore saith, lib. 17. And Apples of the same Trée be contrary to venim, as Plinius sayth, and he sayth, that this Tree is full of fruite nigh alwayes: And some fruit thereof is ripe, and some greene and sowre, and some in blossome. And that is seldome seene in other trees. And many men call this tree Assyria, as he sayth.

(*There are two forts of Ceder, great and small. The small fruit is also of two fortes, the one with sharp prickly leaues like Ioniper, the other are not prickly at all The Ceder is hot and dry in the third degree. Read Dodoneus.)

Of Cipresso. cap. 24.

CIpressus is called Ciparistus in Greeke, as Isidorus saith, lib. 17. For the head thereof ariseth round and sharpe vpwarde as a toppe, or a Pineapple with the point vpward. And such a point is called Conon, as it were another roundnesse. And the fruite thereof is of such a manner disposition, and hath this name therefore, and is called Conus. And to Cipresses are names and called Consete. This foresaid Cipres trée hath vertue much lyke vnto the Ceder tree, And is formable and necessarye to edist∣eng and building of Towres and Tem∣ples, and for other greate and pompeous coifices. And for because it may not not, efayleth neuer, but abideth and duteth and lasteth alwayes in the first estate and condition: and hath a right good sa∣uour A most swéetest smelling. Therfore in olde time men vsed for to make fire and fume of the braunches and twigges thereof, for to destroye and put awaye the stench and loathsome sauoure of dead carrions, and other daungerous and conlagious ayres. Huc vsque Isi∣dorus.

The Cipres Tree is hot in the first degree, and it is also drie in the seconde degree. The Apples of ye sayd Tree, and ye stocke and leaues, be according and right necessary to medicine, as Platearius say∣eth. For they be sowre and healing, and sendereth and fasteneth. Therefore they Page  282〈…〉 for to helpe against ye flures of the wombe, which commeth for de∣falt of the vertue retenlers; if it be made in pouder, and then receiued in meat or in drink and is medicinable, and helpeth against the sicknesse, & the passion Illiaca: and helpeth against the disease and ach of the loynes, if it be prepared and fodde its pit water. And Wine watered with the foresaid water & leaues of Cipres, clean∣seth, purgeth, and putteth away the cor∣ruption and filth of new woundes, and cureth and healeth the: euill, which is called Sacer agnis, called in English, the holy fire: and purgeth and cleanseth snée∣ueling nosethrills. And doth alwaye the stench, and stauncheth bléeding. The séeds of the sayd Cipres trée with drie figges, tempereth the hardnesse of the Reume, of stauncheth the fluxe: and helpeth against the venimous and deadly Postume, that is called Antrax, and beareth downe the mallice thereof, & letteth the spreading thereof, and withstandeth venimous bi∣ting. Dioscorides rehearseth al these ver∣tues of Cypres and many moe. Plinius lib. 17. cap. 33. sayeth, that the Cypres is a trée with many boughs and hath voire knappes in stéede of fruit, and hath bit∣ter leaues, and a violent smell, and gra∣cious shadow. Of Cipres is double man∣ner kind, male and female. The female is barren and faire in sight, ye boughs ther∣of be thicke at the top, and wound toge∣thers. The boughs of the male dée more thin, and if they be cut, they burgen as gaine.

(*The fruit of Cypres taken into the body, stoppeth the laske and blondy flixe: it is good against he spitting of blond, the decoction made with water hath the same vertue.)

Of Cipio. cap. 25.

OF Ciprus it is written Can. 4. Ci∣pricum nardo, &c. Li. 12. ca. 26. Pli∣nius saith, yt the Cipre is a trée in Ae∣gypt lyke to Oliue in leaues, but the leaues bee more gréene and more fatte, with blacke flowres and white séede, swéete smelling. And if the seede be sod or confect with Oile, out therof in wrong an ointment for kings, which smelleth wel, and is most delicious, and is called Ciprus. Also Isidore, lib. 17. & the Glose Super Can. and Plinius meaneth, that the best of the kinde of this Trée grow∣eth in Aegypt vpon the riuer Nilus, in the region of Canopia: and the second in Alcalone, and the third in Ciprus. And thereof the smell is wonderfully swéete. And as the sayeth, to this Trée another Trées is like, which is called Aspalatos, and is lyke to the Rose in flowre. And of the root & flowre thereof is made a no∣table ointment. Also he saith, that in eue∣ry schrub, where the Rainebowe shineth straight thereon, is the same swéetnesse of sauour and smell, all the while that the Bowe shineth there, and if the bowe shineth on the same Tree, it maketh the smell & fairenesse of it increase more then we man tell, & is like to a white thorne and hauing the colour of fire, or is redde, & smelleth some deale as Castorium: and some men call it Elizeus Scyepter, as hée saith there. Héereto Diosc. saith, that Ci∣prus is a medicinable Trée, of couenable and giuing vertue. The leaues thereof shewed abateth swelling of the mouth. The broth thereof flaieth wormes of the head, & infedeth the haire, if it bée washed there with. The flowre thereof sod with vineger, doth away head ach, as he saith. Ciprus is a trée yt is called Lentiscus by another name. Looke the vertue thereof in littera L.

(*Cuparisos, sorth of the Lentiske tree commeth the excellent gum or Ro∣seu called Masticke, it is in smal grains, as big as wheat cornes, & it is brought from ye Ile cyo, it is fayre, cleere, white, brittle, and of a sweet sauour.)

Of Cinamonio, chap. 26.

CAnel is called cinamum, thereof it is written Ecc. 1. and Exod. 30. And as the Glose saith there, it is a shrubbe that groweth in Inde, & in Aethiopia, & pas∣seth not two cubits in quātity, & is called Cinamum, for it hath small stalkes ben∣ded with coulour of ashes or of blacke colour: and of them when they be broke, commeth breath that is seene. The more Page  [unnumbered] subtill and small canell is, the more déere it is, and the more greate it is, the lesse worth it is held. And lib. 17. Isido mea∣neld, that Canell hath that name Cina∣moro, for the rinde thereof is small and round, as a Cane, & groweth on a shore stocke with small braunches, and when it is broke, thereof commeth a breath as it were a mist smelling most I wéetly. Su∣per Ecc. 5. cap. 24. the Glose sayth ye Ca∣uell is a short trée with good smell and swéete, with coulour of Ashes: and is twice so good in medicine as the Pipe. Also lib. 12. ca. 21. Plinius speaketh of Ca∣nell, and sayth. That of Canel of Cas∣sia men tolde Fables in olde time, that it is found in Birds neaste, and special∣ly in the Phoenix neast. And may not be founde, but what falleth by his owne weight, or is smitten downe with Lead Arrowes: But these men doe segine to make things déere and of greate price: but as the truth meaneth, Canell grow∣eth among the Troglodites in the lydela Aethiopia, and commeth by long space of the sea in Ships to the hauen of Gel∣lenites. And is a short Trée of two en∣bites long at the most, and a span long at the least, and hath a stocke of foure as sixe inches greate, and smelleth not but when it dryeth. For drynesse is lyking thereto, & is most fructuous in Winter, contrary to the kinde of other trées. And groweth among briers & most thick bu∣shes, therefore it is not gathered without great trauel and difficultie. And no man hath leaue to gather thereof before ye Sun∣rising, nor after the Sun going downe. And when it is gathered, the Priest by measure dealeth the braunches, & taketh thereof a parte, and so by space of time merchaunts buye that other deale. The chiefe goodnesse thereof is in the most thickest and smallest braunch, & that that is in the middle of the flocke, is of little dame or of nothing for there is but lyt∣tle of the rinde. In the rinde is the most vertue and grace of Canell. Therfore the tops and the ouer partes be best of good∣nesse. For in them is much rinde. The Trée within is little or naught worth in comparison to the rinde. Huc vsque Pli∣nlus. li. 12 Dioscorides and Pla. meane, that Canell is hee in the third degree, and dry in the second degree. And of Canell i double manner kind, yt is to wit, smal and great. The great is lesse worth then the small, and leaue in vornitiue me∣dicines. And the small is better and more néedfull in other vadirines. The best is shinne and small, with sharpe biting sa∣uour, medled with swéetnesse, with some deale red coulour and with much good smell. And the Canell that is some deale white, is lesse worth. By good smell Canel hath vertue to comfort the braine, and hath vermedy softnesse of parts to souder and to fasten. Canell hath manye manner vertues, as Dioscori, sayth. For it abateth the cough, that commeth of thicke moisture. Pouder thereof medled with vineger, doth away scabs, and dry∣eth moisture of the ein meddled with Colirium, an ointment of the eien. And swageth the swelling of the reines, and eureth this dropsie, and healeth biting of créeping Wormes, and comforteth the appetite, & exciteth menstruall bloud, and openeth stopping, and defieth meale and drinke, and dissolueth, vndeeth, and de∣stroyeth Postumes. And Canell dronke with Wine, bringeth out Secundinas, bagges that children bée in, in the mo∣thers wombe. And wipeth away dim∣nese of eyen, and succoureth and help∣eth in sounding, and in the Cardiacle passion.

(*The Trée of Cinamon is not much vnlyke a Bay trée, especially the leaues, it beareth Barries as doth the Baye trée, but lesse, and white. It is doubtlesse therefore, home other then barke of a Tree, and is gathered in this manner, Euery third yeare they cut the branches of the tree, of this is great plentie in the Iland of Zaylon. When it is first gathe∣red, it is not yet so swéete, but a moneth after when it waxeth drie. The Barke is the onelye spice, and the wood is lyke Firre tree very light.)

Of Casia. chap. 27.

OF Casia is mention made in Exod. 80. And is a certeine kinde of spice∣ry, with good smell and molde, and grow∣eth Page  283 in Arabia, as Isidore saleth. And is a rod with a strong rinde and red Purple leaues, as the rind of Pepper, and is lyke to Canell in vertue, but not so mighty in effect and déed. Therof in medicines dou∣ble weight is taken in stéed of Canell, as Isidore sayth. The Glose super Exod. 30 meaneth: that Casia bréedeth in watrye places, and groweth strongly, and giueth good smell, Leb. 12. ca. 21. Plinius speaketh of Casia, and sayth, that the trée of Casia groweth fast by Cinamum in fields, and is three cubites long, and his braunch is greatet then the braunch of Canell, and hath thrée colours. For the first is white, and then redde, and then blacke, and that parte is best, and the white is lesse worth, for it is soone eaten with wormes and holed, and that for it is soft in sub∣taunce, and for lesse bitternesse and ver∣tue of the rinde. Casia is proued when it is new, by smelling, sauour, and cou∣lour. For the noble Casia is some deale swéete and biting, sharpe of sauour, and swéete and merrye of smell, and browns as Pepper of coulour, and heauye of weight. And that casia is best that brea∣keth not soone, but bendeth and foldeth. And another manner of kinde of Casses is lyke to Balsamus of Saba in smell, but it is bitter. And therefore the first, that is blacke, with some deale sweete and biting in sauour, and with good smell, is more praysed among Phisiti∣ons. Huc vseq Plinius. ibidem.

Platea and Dioscorides meane and speake of two manner Casia. The one is called casia sestula, and the other Ca∣sia lienea, that is the rinde of a lyttle trée, that groweth nigh the marches of Babylonia. And threof is diuerse man∣ner of kinde. One is like to Canell, and is some deale redde and round and sadds in substaunce, and foldeth not when it is broken or beaten, but with standeth, and hath a sharpe sauour, and some deale sweete. And vnneth Phisitions vse this manner kinde. The other manner kinds is same deale bitter with some deale di∣uerse colours, & Phisitions vse this man∣ner kinde.

And that is best that breaketh not seene, but bendeth and foldeth, and hath sharpe sauour meddeled with swéetnesse with good smell, and hath when it is bro∣ken somwhat white coulours distingui∣shed within, withred medled among, and is sometime teined with medling of the rinde of Capar, but is knowen for it is some deale bitter of sauour, & hath ver∣tue diuisitiue of his subtil substance. Also Casia hath a vertue to temper, to diuide & depart, and hath of his owne qualities vertue to consume and to wast. And hath by good smell vertue of comforte, and cureth the rumes and colde causes, and helpeth them that haue the falling euill, and comforteth the braine, and purgeth the reines and the bladder, and ripeth & healeth Postumes, and vnstoppeth the liuer and the splerie and the remes, and hideth and doth awaye the stinke of the mouth, if it be chewed, and exciteth men∣struall bloud, and comforteth and help∣eth against fowning and failing of the heart, if a stroppe bée made of the pouder thereof, and of roses, and of he boane of in Hart. Huc vsque Dioscorides & plat.

(*Casia, a sweete shrob or hearbe, bea∣ring a spice like Cynamon.)

Of Casia fistula. cap. 28.

GAsia fistula is the fruit of a certeine Trée, that beareth long séede, that waxeth in passing of time greate of thicke without, by working of heate of the Sunne, and the iuyre within is black and moist and swéet, and is medled with certeine white graines within, & diuided with small holes, as it were in the holes of is hurry combe.

The best is the greatest & most heauy, for therein is much moisture. And that that is light, and maketh noise when it is moued, shal be forsaken. For that betoke∣neth veronesse & emptinesse. Casia fistula hath vertue to make slipper and soft, and to cleanse and to abate wonderfully the sitteth of blow, and so cleanse and pure Chotera and bloud, and to dissolue and destroye Postumes of the throate, and is good for the guties, and profitable and helpeth against euills of the breast, and bringeth forth new menstrual bloud, that Page  [unnumbered] commeth of fat humour, & doth away the swelling of the ropes and guts, if it hée dronke Huc vs{que} Dios. And though men vse to write, & to sound Casia with dou∣ble S. yet it should be written & sounded with one single s. & so it should be writ∣ten and sounded Casia, and not Cassia, as Authors tell.

(*Casia fistularis, the common Bur∣gation.) And so meaneth Quidiusais Methamo;

Quo simul ac Casias & Nardi leuis aristas, &c. And to saith Plinius vhio; & other also.

Of Calamo. cap. 29.

*A Certaine cane is called Calamus A∣romaticus, thereof it is written Exo. 30. & hath yt for likenes of common cane∣as Isidore sayth,*lib. 18. and groweth in Inde, with knots in many places, with swéete smell, and smelleth wonderfullye swéete. And if it be broke or cut in many parts, it is like to Casta in sauour, with a little sharpe biting sauour, as Isidore saith Bapias meaneth, that it hath a ser∣uent vertue. In Glosa super Exod. 30. it is sayde, that Calamus Aromaticus is a manner of kinde of spicerie ye grow∣eth beside mount Libani, but where so euer it groweth, it is a manner kinde of spicery, that is hot and dry in the second degree, as Dioscorides, Dlat, and Plinius meane, and is the root of a certaine small trée or wéede, verye lyke to a cane, and hath a great smell, and is hollowe with∣in, as a cane, and in the holownesse a stick is found that shoulde be taken out, for it is of no value, but sometime it is lefte therin for to haue the more weight. And the same Authors meane & speake of dou∣ble manner of kinde of such Canes. The one is of Persia, and is citrine in colour, and the other is of Inde, & is some deale while, and turneth not very soone to pou∣der when it is broke, & hath a wonder∣full vertue of comforting, and so it com∣forteth the stomack, & helpeth digestion, namely, if it be tempered with wormes wood, our helpeth against the Cardiacle passion, and against sowning and failing of the heart, with water of Roses. And Plina, saith, that the smelling Cane is of Inde, & is best when it is somewhat red, full of knots and thick, & when it is bro∣ken in many parts, that he full drie, and is medicinable almost as Basta, or Ca∣nell Looke the vertues of them before. It exciteth menstruall bloud.

(*Calamus is altogether vnknowne in shops, for that which they vse to sell for Calamus Aromaticus, is no réede, nor no roote of a réede, but in the root of a certein hearb like vnto the yeolow stagge; or ba∣stard Acorus, called (Spanish ranes.) the which roofe is taken for the right Aco∣rus. The Cane réed is hot and day, the A∣romaticall and swéete Cane, is also hot and drie in the second degrée. Dodo∣neus.)

Of Calamo vsuali. cap. 30.

STrawe, is called Calamus vsualis, as Isidore sayth, and hath that name of Calco, es, for it heateth somedeale when men blow therein. And properly it is the middle stalk of corne betwéene the root & the care. And in the care the corne and seede is conteined, & hath another name, and is called Culmus, as Isidore saith, & is hollow within, and round and smooth without, with some knots, strengthened, and clothed with many leaues, and hi∣dells, thereby the care profiteth and ta∣keth feedíng and nourishing, and if this stalke or strawe faileth, the ears is de∣stroied and lost with a little, blast of winds. This stalke moueth hether & the∣ther, and breaketh full soone, if it be mo∣ued and wagged: and beareth downe∣ward, and is vnneth reared or regarelled againe.

(*With the strawe of Wheat they thatch houses, and with i•• straw they commonly make strawen hate because it is a tough strawe and will bende pli∣ant.)

Of Calamo scripturali. ca. 31

A Writing penne is called Calamus scripturalis, thereof it is sayde in psalme, Lingua mea calamus scribe, Ve∣locuer scibentis.* My tongue is the Page  284 pen of the writer. And it is called a réed, for in olde time men vsed to write with reede, ere vse of feathers were founde. For as Plimus saith, lib. 16. cap. 34. A reede is good to many manner vses. And among water shrubbes réede is chiefe, and is néedfull in peace and in warre. For in the North Countrie men thetch their houses well with réede, and hang the réede in their dens ost to make them faire and gay, and pleasant. In the East Countries men warre and make them dartes of Reede, and be so long in many Countries that men vse them in stéed of Speares. And Reede hath a quicke roote, and so if the Reed be cut,* then groweth other new, more plentuons. And some Réed is full of pith within, and some are all hollow within, which are very méete to make pipes off, but pithie Réeds yt are thick & knotty, accord more to warriours and to fighting men. And there in small réed, that groweth in places that be lesse watrie, and hath thinne stalkes, and bée full hard, and they haue no pith in man∣ner within, & are smooth and cléere with∣out,* and not full of knottes, & such Réede is good to write with. And the fore part thereof is cut and sharped, and made a∣ble to write, & is somewhat clouen for to giue Inke the better. And the right side of the cleft is somewhat longer then the left side. There is other réed full of swéet pith, and is shredded small, and sod with softe fire in a Cauoron, vntill it bee thicke, and first it séemeth all tourned to foame and to skumme, but after that it hath rested, the most best and thicke sal∣leth to the grounde, and the foame abi∣deth aboue, & some is feined & is know∣en, for the good sprankleth in the mouth, and is full sweete. And the euill doth not so, but vanisheth, as it is saide in Plate.

Of Capari. cap. 32.

OF Caparis is mention made Eccle∣siast vltimo, and is a weede that groweth in the East, & the rinde, leaues, and flowres thereof accordeth to medi∣cine, and namely the rinde that is in the roote, as Plinius sayth, libro. 13. cap. 23. and the same Isidore sayeth. And as Isidore sayth, libro. 17. the Greekes call it Capparis, for it hath small rounde heads in the toppe. And Dioscorides speaketh of Capparis and saith, that it is an hearbe or athornie shrubbe spread on the grounde, and is full of vnction, and helpeth against the hardnesse of the splene aboue all other medicines, and groweth in harde places and drye, and namely in olde walls, and softneth the wombe: if it be eaten, it exciteth vrine, and shéedeth menstruall bloud, and abateth tooth ach, and iuyce thereof dropped in the Eares, slayeth Wormes thereof, and hath ma∣ny rootes good for the sayde things. In Platearius it is sayde, that as some men meane, Capparis is an hearbe, that shall be gathered in the beginning of spring∣ing time, and dryed and kept seauen yeere in great vertue, and is good and noble, and falleth not to pouder, when it is bro∣ken, and is some deale bitter in sauour, & some deale red in colour. The flowres thereof be hot while they bée closed, and of no value when they be spread. They be salted, and so kepte to good vse: and haue vertue to excite appetite, and to de∣fie humour in the mouth of the stomack: and be both meate and medicine. This wéede helpeth against deafness, if it be sod in Oyle, and put in the sore care. And pouder thereof helpeth against woundes that be feslured.

(*Capparis, the fruit Capers, which is vsed in Sallet with Mutton, a kinde of sengreene, colde and dry in the third de∣gree, and not farre different from purse∣lane: a help against grose fleame, but let, that sound and whole bodies féed therof, for it hindereth generation.)

Of Cardamomo. cap. 33.

OF Cardamomum is mention made super Eze. And is the séede of a cer∣taine trée, that seedeth in springing time, as Dioscorides sayeth, and beareth knoppes hanging togethers as it were clusters of vines, and therein the seede is contained. And Cardomomum is double, lesse and more, & the more is called tame, Page  [unnumbered] and the lesse is called wilde. The first is called the better, for it fauoureth better, & the better is some deale réd with sharp sauour medled with swéetnesse, and hath vertue to comfort and to wast, & helpeth therefore against the Cardiacle passion, & against wamblings and indignation of the stomacke, and exciteth appetite, and abateth spuing, and comforteth féeble braine, as Dioscorides and Platearius say.

(*Cardamomum a spice comming out of Inde, in stéede whereof Apothecaryes now vse graines. The right Cardamo∣mum is of the coulour of graines, but as bigge as Pepper.)

Of Calamento. cap. 34.

CAlament is an hearbe lyke mint, thereof holy men in Glosa make sometime mention, and is double, as Dioscorides sayth and Platearius al∣so. One groweth in mountaines, and is the better of the twaine, and the other is as it were tame, and not so drye as the first. And hath vertue to fasten and to wast, for it is harde and drye in the third degrée, as he sayeth, and helpeth a∣gainst the cough, and against euills of the breast that commeth of colde, as doth Diacalamentum, which is a confection made of flowres and Pouder of that hearbe, and of other things, and healeth the euill and ach of the stomacke and of the guttes, and it helpeth against the reume and other colde euills, and hea∣leth biting of créeping wormes & beasts, and draweth outward the venimme. The iuyce therof done in ye ears helpeth the sores, and slayeth the Wormes, and it chastiseth lecherie, and helpeth against Lepra, and letteth it, and tarrieth and wasteth, and destroyeth superflui∣tie and moisture of the mother, as he sai∣eth, and hath manye other vertues, as Arthemesia: but this is sufficient at this time.

(*There hée thrée fortes of Cala∣myne, each of them hauing a seuerall name and difference, Cornemint, or wilde Peniriall, Catmynt, & mountaine Calamynte. Read Dodoneus. fol. 247.

Of Carice. chap. 35.

CArix, Sedge, is an hearbe most harde and sharpe, as it is said, and the stalke therof is three cornered, & cutteth and car∣ueth the hand that it holdeth, if it be hard drawen there through. And hath leaues that cutteth in either side, & be long sha∣pen as a swoord, and hutteth neuer man, but he toucheth it. And it groweth in a marreis place & soft, and yet it sheweth that the substance therof is hath & kéene, and is accounted among kind of rushes, as Plin. saith, & he calleth it a thrée edged rush, and speaketh therof & sayth, that the root of a thrée edged rush is of good smell, and of good vertue, as the root of Calamus Aromaticus, but I vnderstande this is not generall, but speciall, as he maketh mention, lib. 12. Of Carix commeth this name Caretum, the place that sedge gro∣weth in, & the place that Wilows grow in is called Salictum, a salice, as Isidore sayth.

(*Carex, Segges or sheregrasse, wher∣of is made mats and Hassocks to sit and knéele vpon, with the said Segs is made Hambroughs for the necks of horses, in stéed of Lether harnesse, & for other car∣lage and plough.)

Of Carduo. chap. 36.

CArduus is Gréeke,* as Isidore sayeth, and is a manner hearbe or wéed with prickes. The kinde thereof is beting and cruell. Therefore the iuyce thereof cureth the falling of the haire. Dio∣scorides speaketh of this hearbs and say∣eth. That the roote therof fodde in wa∣ter, giueth appetite to drinkers, and is most profitable to the mother, and there∣fore it is no wonder though women de∣sire it. For it helpeth the conception of male children, as he sayth.

And Carduus is a male hearbe full of prickes, and in the toppe hath heads with prickes in stalkes. In the which heads the séed is conteined, that is black without and white within. The pith and the séede is of vertue of departing, and dealing, and helpeth agaynst Page  285 the stone both in the bladder and in the reines, and groweth in a desolate place, and is eaten of Asses, and troden of beasts, as it is sayde. 3. Regum. 14. ca∣pitulo.

*Carduus Libani misit ad Cedrum qui est Libano, dicens, Da filiam tuam, filio meo vxorem. Transieruntque be∣stiae saltus, quae sunt in Libano, & con∣culcauerunt Carduum, &c. A Thistle that is in Libanō sēt to the Ceder tree, that is in Libanus, sayeng: Giue thy daughter to my sonne to wife, and the wilde beasts that was in Libanon, went the trode downe the Thistle, &c.

And li. 20. ca. 16. Plinius speaketh of Carduus and sateth, that Carduus hath leaues with prickes and pricking heads thereon: and the seed and the root may bée eaten. And there is one manner Carduus blometh all the Summer continually, & when one falleth, another springeth, and when the leaues be drie, the pricks leaue to prick and sting. Ther is another man∣ner Carduus, that is enimy to corne, that groweth in earth, as he saieth, and hath much seede, and may vnneth therfore bée destroyed where it once groweth, but the weathers busily drawe vp the moore and rootes. And in drawing vp of Car∣duus, mennes fingers be oft gréeued with prickes, by these properties it séemeth, that Cardui bée Thistles greate and small.

(*Of the kindes of Cardus, Thistles, are diuerse, Carduus Ramptarius, our Ladies Thistle, the leaues gréene, and the daines of the leaues white. Spina pere∣grins, the Gloabe Thistle, or the Oate Thistle. Acanthium, the common fielde Thistle or Cotton Thistle. Leucacan∣tha Carlina, white carroline Thistle. Spina Arabica, the Arabian Thistle. Carlina syluestra, wilde woode Thistle or Saffion bastard, or Carthamus, Car∣dus Benedictus, ye blessed Thistle, whose operation is hot and drye. Cardus syl∣uestris, whereof are thrée kindes also. Last of all are two sortes of Thistles, called Artechokes, which béeing eaten rawe and young doe choake the heart, by bréeding rawe iuyce and Cholera, but sodden, and with Uineger and Pepper seasoned, and a good quantitie of swéete Butter, the pith so eaten hurteth verye seldome those, who beeing pampered with daintye fare, haue eaten too much alreadie, of small nourishment, and yet as some write, they stirre by lecherye in women, and diminish the same in men. Whatsoeuer is else written of ye Arthi∣choke of late is fabulous, yet too good for those that regard no truth. Reade D. Turner. Aetius writeth, that the roote of the Arthichocke sodden in Wine and dronke, driueth foorth stinking vrine. Galen sayth they haue a naughtye iuyce, and maketh euill iuyce in the bodie. Pli∣nie. Hesyodus, &c. Reade Dodone∣us. fol. 523.)

Of Carica. chap. 37.

CArica is a drye Figge Trée, and hath that name of plentie. For euery yeere it beareth fruite three or foure times, as Isidore sayeth, whie one ripeth, ano∣ther springeth and commeth in the stead, and it is sayde, that if olde men eate oft such Figs, they doe away theyr ri∣uells, as he sayeth. Dioscorides sayeth, that among fruite drie Figges be swée∣test, and be good in meates and in medi∣cines, and nourish much, and fatteth and bréed much grose bloud, and comforteth feeble men, and cleanseth the breast, and abateth the cough, and cleereth the voice, and swageth the swelling of the iawes, and purgeth the reines, the bladder, and the mother, as Phisick mea∣neth.

And such Figges sodde in Wine with Wormewood, cureth the dropsie, and purgeth the itching of the Eares, if they be stamped or grounde with*Sey∣neuey, but and they be too much vsed in meate, they breede swelling ventositye, and Lice also, as Dioscorides sayeth. Looke other vertues heereafter de Fi∣cu.

(*Carice is a kinde of Figge which groweth onely in Syria, there is the gar∣dein Figge with the wild Figge, whose operation are after the soile whereon they grow.)

Page  [unnumbered]

Of Cimino. chap. 38.

COmin is called Ciminum, and is a séede with good smell, and with pale coulour, as Dioscorides and Macrobius say, therefore Persius saith in this man∣ner.

Rugosum piper est, pallentis grana ci∣mini.

His meaning is, that Pepper is ri∣ueled, and the graine of Comin is pale: and is hot and drye in the second degrée, and hath vertue to temper, and to de∣part, and to distribute, and to abate thick∣nesse of fumositie, and to comfort dige∣stion, and to abate ventositie and ach of the stomacke: and to do away smelling, and to staunch the flixe of the wombe, if it bée dipped in Uineger, and first per∣ched and blowen into the nosethrilles, that it may make a man sneese, and it stauncheth bleeding at the nose, and swa∣geth and healeth swelling and ach of the iawes, and with Bayes of the Laurell trée, it helpeth colde reume, and dissol∣ueth and doth awaye bloudye reume in the eie, if it be well meddeled with cléere Waxe, and layde oft thereto. Pouder thereof well meddeled with Waxe, doth alwaye wanne coulour, that commeth of smiting, or otherwise, if it bee layde ofte therto: but by oft vse thereof. the face shall be discouloured. Huc vsque Dioscorides, and Plat.

And Plinius sayeth nigh the same, libro. 20 capitulo. 16. where hée sayeth, that some Comin is tame, and some is wilde, and hée sayth, it accordeth to ma∣ny medicines and remedyes, and namely of the stomacke: for it doth away swel∣ling and blowing thereof, and destroy∣eth ach, and gnawing of guttes and roayes.

(*Cumminum, called Seseli, as Dio∣scorides writeth, is of thrée sorts, the first is called Seseli Masilience: the seconde, Seseli Aethiopium: the third Seseli Pe∣loponnense. The séede and roote are hot and drye in the second degrée. The séede dronke with wine comforteth the heart, helpeth digestion, driueth awaye gnaw∣ing and griping in the bellye, it prouo∣keth vrine, expulseth the dead childe, and setteleth the Matrixe, and is sayde to bée good in curing the falling Euill, so that the disease haue not continued long.)

Of Coriandro. chap. 39.

OF Coriander is mention made Ex∣odus, verse. 31. and is a smelling séed: and the Gréekes call it Corlon, as Isi∣dore sayth, libro. 17. The séede thereof taken in swéete milke, maketh men the more prest to serue Venus. But yet it néedeth to beware. For without doubt, if men take too much thereof, it bréedeth woodnesse and léesing of wit, and if a ve∣nimous hearbe to boundes, for it slayeth them, if they eate thereof, as Isidore say∣eth, and Papias. And he sayeth further∣more, that Coriander taken in meate, heateth and constraineth and hardneth, and bréedeth sleepe. And Authors meane, that it hath compounded vertue. Of the hearb Coriander Macer saith in his booke thus.

Frigida vis herbe Coriandri dicitur es∣se,
Austeraeque simul quiddam virtutis ha∣bere.

That is to say: The hearbe Corian∣der is colde, and hath somewhat of cruell vertue.

Galen sayth, that by this hearbe oft men destroy moughts, and putteth long Wormes out of the wombe, if it bee ground and dronke with wine, or med∣led with vineger. And this hearbe hath a good smell in it selfe while it is whole and sounde, and stinketh, if it be froted with handes, the seede thereof is white and small.

(*This hearbe of some is called Ca∣liander, and is colde drye, and a daun∣gerous seede, if it be eaten rawe or vn∣prepared, it killeth the bodie.)

Of coloquintida. chap. 40.

Page  286OF Coloquintida mention is made 4. Regum quarto, & is a maner hearb, that is most bitter, and is called Cucur∣bita agrestis, as it were a manner wilde wéede, for the spraye thereof bréedeth by the grounde, and is like to the common gourde, & hath round fruite. This hearb stretcheth and spreadeth in hedges, as a vine doeth, and hath much small fruite and rounde, as Isidorus sayeth, li∣bro. 17.

Dioscor. sayeth, that Coloquintida, that is called Cucurbita Alexandrina, is sometime found alone, and then it is deadly and venemous, as is the hearbe that is called Squilla, id est, Cepamarina and griueth not all thing so much, when it is found with many other, and hath pith, rinde and séede. The pith is best in medicine, and the séede is secondarie, and the rinde is little or nothing woorthe in vertue: and so the pith that is white, is good, in which the séede is well pight: & of that that maketh much noyse when it is smitten, is little force, and also if it fal soone to pouder. It hath vertue to dis∣solue and to wast, and of his bitternesse, hath also vertue to depart and to deale, and to thirle, and by subtiltie of his sub∣staunce, it purgeth sleume and melancho∣ly, & it is said that it helpeth the quoti∣dian and quartane, and against scabs, if it be giuen in due manner to the Pati∣ent, and healeth tooth ache, and bringeth out wormes of the wombe.

Pouder thereof staieth wormes of the eares, and openeth the hardnesse of the splene and of the liuer, if the iuyce ther∣of be dronke with Fenell. The broathe thereof, openeth the Emoroydes, and veynes of bloud, and bringeth out men∣struall bloud, and hath these vertues, and manye other moe, as Dioscorides sayeth, and Pltea, and Plinius al∣so.

(*Coloquintida, is hot and dry in the thirds degrée. Without discréete vsage, it is excéeding hurtfull to the heart, the stomacke and lyuer.)

Of Coccus the most fruitefull tree in Calicut, and of all the worlde.

COccus groweth in the West India,* whose fruitefulnesse and sweetenesse, Passeth all the trees of the world. It bea∣reth certaine fruites, like vnto great Dates or Nuttes, and generally bring∣eth foorth ten commodities: for it bea∣reth wood most apte to kindle fire, and Nuttes very pleasaunt to be eaten, also cordes or ropes, which maye well serue for saylers. Likewise verye fine cloathe is made of a kinde of gosse lyke wooll, which when it is couloured, sheweth lyke Silke. The woode is the best that maye be fonnde to make coales. It yeel∣deth from the saype, wine, and oditerous water: forth of the which trée also, as a kinde of Turpentine or Gumme, pro∣ceedeth a moysture lyquide as Oyle, and a brittle iuyce, as Sugar hardeneth, and is verie pleasant. One tree heareth ma∣nye of these fruites, whereof the grea∣test are as bigge as a mans fist, suppo∣sed the Nux Indica. The cut braunches will droppe as the Uine, A pleasaunt drinke. Taking awaye the first rinde or barke, they put it in ye fire, where it bus∣neth quickly and with great flame.

The seconde fruite vnder the same first rine or rime, is much lyke vnto Bom∣bace or Silke; and is not vnlike to bea∣ten or wrought Flaxe. Of the flowers, they make a certaine kinde of cloathe, not vnlyke Silke: of the course sowe, or refuse, they make cordes: and of the finer, tacklyng for shippes: so that what serueth not for cloath, serueth for cords: within the Nut is a lycour swéete, whi∣tish and fattie.

This straunge Trée beareth fruite continuallye. They are so greatly estée∣med that in their greatest discordes or warre, it is not lawfull for anye man to hurte them, euen in the landes of their Enemyes. They lyue but the age of fiue and twentie yeares.

Page  [unnumbered]

¶Of Croco. cap. 41.

OF Saffron is mention made. Eccl. 4 & Tren. vlt. And Saffron is called Crocus, and is an hearbe, and hath that name Crocus of the Citie Coricius, for there is most aboundaunce thereof, as Isidore sayeth libro. 17. And the hearbe with the Flower, hath that name Crocus, but the flower in the which is the most vertue, is called Crocum. And the freshest and newest is best, yt is with good smell, long & little, som what white, whole, and not broken in gobbets & in péeces, and smelleth well, and couloureth the hands that toucheth it, and is lyght and sharp, and if it be not such, it is kno∣wen that it is olde or wet, and is some∣time counterfaited with a thing that is called Crocomagina, for to increase the waight with foyle of siluer ground, but it is espied, if it be slow to grinding, or if it chaungeth his owne smell, when it is sod. Crocomagina is called the super∣fluitie of spicerie, of the which Saffron Oyntment is made. Huc. vs{que} Isid.

Dioscorides meaneth and speaketh of two manner Saffrons. One is called Hortensis, and hath that name of Gar∣dens, for it groweth therein. The other is called Orientalis, and hath also the name of the place that it groweth in, & is best, and shall not be put in vomitiue medicines, and it beareth a purple flow∣er with a head as a violet, & in the mid∣dle thereof thrée flowers or foure, & the best thereof be somwhat red, or all red, and the whitest shall be forsaken. Saf∣fron may be kept ten yeare, and is hot & drye in the first degrée, and temperate in his qualitie, and therefore it is comfor∣tatiue, and so it helpeth much against the féeblenesse of the stomack, and fayling of heart, and doth away rednesse of eyen, which commeth of bloud, or of defflyng, if it be ground with roses and the white of an Egge, and laid to the eye, as Dio. saith and Pla. also.

And Saffron hath another property, that it is gréene all the Winter long in leaues, be the Winter neuer so colde: & in Summer the leaues of it falleth and fadeth, and withereth altogether, & grow∣eth againe after the middle of Haruest, & then the floures breaketh out of small stalkes, and as Arist. sayth in li. vegita. Saffron is much lyke to an Onion, and to Ascolonia in roote, neuerthelesse it is diuers and varieth from either: For the roote of Saffron is continued to the body, and séedeth not as Ascolonia doth, but all the seminall vertue is in ye roote, and all the cloues of Saffron be leane, & the cloues thereof springeth not out at one side, as it fareth in Ascolonia, and in an Onion of Gardeines: but the cloues of Saffron springeth out of the place of generation of veynes of cloues.

And Saffron hath this propertie, as Arist. saith, it hath very rootes, and clea∣neth thereby to the earth, and sucketh nourishing and féeding, as Onions and Garlike and other such, & when the head of Saffron is great and ripe, it begin∣neth to be departed and to be dealed, and multiplyed in manye heades, with theyr fell and skins and rootes: and of euerye each groweth a plant, and thereby it is knowen, that in the head or roote is the vertue seminall, and the vertue of mul∣tiplication and preseruation of the kind therof. Plin. li. 20. sayth, that Saffron is not soone tempered with honye nor with swéete lycour: but it is tempred soonest with wine or with water, and it is best in medicine: for it destroyeth all swel∣lyng and boyling, and sore ache of the eyen, namely if it be medled with wine, and is best for the stomacke and lyuer.

He that drinketh Saffron first shall not be dronken, & garlands thereof letteth dronkennes, & letteth a man yt he may not be dronken, it causeth sléepe, & moueth the head, and exciteth Venus.

The flower thereof, done to the euill that is called the holy fire, helpeth and cureth it. Of Saffron is made an oynt∣ment, that is citrine or yeolow, which is called Clogomagon in Gréeke, and help∣eth against running of eyen. The best di∣eth the téeth and the spettle, and pour∣geth botches of the head, and abateth swelling: and cureth the biting of ser∣pents and of Spiders, and stinging of Scorpions. Huc vsque Plinius.

Page  287(*Crocus Hortensis, and Crocus Sa∣racenicus. The English Saffron is most best, both for colour and medicine.)

¶Of Cepa. chap. 42.

AN Onion is called Cepa or Cepe, & is all hearbe, that hath all his vertue, in the roote and in the seede, and is ther∣fore called Cepe, as Isidore saith, for it hath naught but a head. In lib. de plan∣tes Aristotle speaketh of the alon and sayeth, that the Onion and Ascolo∣ina beareth leaues twice in one yeare, and the Onion hath a stalke and beareth séede thereon, and hath a roote be clypped, with many cloues, and hath ther vnder, other rootes, as though it were hayrie.

And thereby the great roote taketh nou∣rishing and féeding, and radicall humor is sent into all thé hearbe. And in ye first yere this hearb profiteth not in the roote, but in the second yeare after that it is solved, nor séedeth commonly before the second yeare, nor beareth séed in one skin as Garlike doth and other such, but in the top of the stalke the seede springeth & spreadeth on small stalkes.

Of Onions is double kinde, tame & wilde, that Aristotle calleth Canina, as it were an Hounds Onion. This Oni∣on Canina hath white flowers towarde heauen, and somwhat gréene toward the earth; and such an onion helpeth against postlimes. And the tame Onion hath an hollow stalke without knots, and rene∣weth both ioynts and leaues, as Aristo. saith in libr. predicto. And Dioscorides saith, that the tame Onion is good & pro∣fitable both in meate & in medicine, & is gleymie and colde of kinde, and namelye that that is ruen long, and the red more than the white, and more the drye than the new, and more rawe than sodde. And doth away griefes of the wombe, and a∣bateth stinch of the mouth, and softneth the wombe and maketh meate sauourie. And the iuyce thereof helpeth them that haue the Litargio that is the sléeping e∣uill, and abaseth ofte ache of the éares, if it be with womans milke dropped there∣in. If it be eaten couenably, it foreker∣neth and departeth gleymie humours, & openeth the mouthes of the veynes, and exciteth vrine and menstruall bloud, and bringeth out venime, and quencheth bi∣ting of a mad dog, and helpeth in other venimes by bitings, and clarifieth the skinne and openeth the poores, and exci∣teth therefore sweate, & maketh it break out and giueth to ye body no nourishing, when it is eaten rawe: and it grieueth cholericke men, and accordeth to fleama∣tike men, & bréedeth thirst and swelling: & noieth & grieueth the head with sharp∣nesse, and to eate too much of them, brée∣deth madnesse and woodnes, and maketh dreadfull dreames, & namely if men that be new recouered of sicknesse, eate too much thereof. Onions when yée eate them maketh the eien watrye, and grie∣ueth the light only with sauour. Huc vs∣que Dioscorides.

(*There be diuers sorts of Onions, some white, some red, some rounde, some great, some small, but all of one fauour & propertie, sauing that the one is some∣what stronger in working, then an o∣ther, &c.)

Of Sepe Canino. cap. 34.

CEpe caninum, as it were an hounds Onion is called Squilla also, and is found by the sea side. Therefore Platear. calleth it Sepe marina, as it were a Sea Onion, and is sometime found alone, and is then venimous if it be eaten, except the venimme thereof be quenched. Men vse to depart it in manye partes, and plant them in closed Gardeins, and so quench the venimme thereof. And the mallice thereof quencheth, if it bée done a little space in Wine or in Oyle, and so it is put in medicine. This Onion shall bée cut: and the inner part and the vtter shal be throwen away. For the vtter part is venimous for too much heate, and the in∣ner for too much drinesse: but the middle part is full temporate and according to medicine.

Libro. 20. cap. 17. Plinius speaketh of Onions & saith, that among the Gréekes is many manner kinde of Onions, & all their smell maketh eien watrie, and the most round are best, and the sharpe and Page  [unnumbered] red are more bitter than the white, and more raw than sod, and is both set and sowen, and beareth no seede before the second yeare when it is sowen. It bea∣reth seede, and then the head is corrupt & destroyed. The head commeth of corrup∣tion of the seede that is sowen, and seed∣ing is corruption of the seede that is so∣wen, & seeding is corruption of the head. Onion seede will be sowen in land that is dolue and cleansed of rootes and other hearbes: the seede thereof is cut and ga∣thered when it beginneth to were black or it be all ripe. Onions be best kepte in straw, and to keep them without rotting, they must be washed with luke warme hot salt water, and so they dure the lon∣ger, and be the better to eate: but to set and to sowe, they be better kept in sacks. And many men hang Onions and Gar∣like in smoke ouer the ••re, & be so kept, for they should not spire and grow. Ofte Onions and Garlike spireth, though they be not in earth, but it be let by craft and cunning. Also li 20. ca 7. he saith, yt wild Onions be not full wholsome nor full good to eate, but they be ful medicinable, and healeth dimnesse with the smell, and exciteth most with vnction, and healeth boiches, and cureth hounds biting, with honie and with wine, and helpeth against biting of Serpents, and healeth tingling of eares and deafnesse, and helpeth ach of the reines, with Goose greace or with ho∣nie, and pourgeth and healeth woundes, meddeled with honnie. Huc vsque Pli∣nius.

(*Squilla, the sea Onion, the white field Onion, and Bulbus, which some call Liltes of Alexander: temperate in heat and drinesse.)

¶Of Cucumere. chap. 44.

CVcumer, cucumeris, is an hearbe of whom Isid. speaketh, lib. 17. & saith, that those hearbes Cucumers haue that name, for they be bitter sometime, & may not growe swéete, but if ye seed ther∣of be put in swéete milke medled with honie. And Dioscorides saith, yt the kind of this hearbe is colde, and slaketh the wombe, and helpeth the stomacke, and succoureth faint heartes with smell, for leaues therof stamped is medicinable for biting of hounds, & the séede thereof bru∣sed and dronke with swéete wine helpeth the sore bladder. Lib. 12. cap. 2. & 3. Pli∣nius saith, that some Cucumer is tame, & some wilde, and the roote therof is white and grose, & of the iuice thereof, is made an Electparie, that is néedfull in manye medicines.

(*Cucumbers are colde and moyst, in the second degrée.)

¶Of Cucurbita. chap. 45.

CVcurbita is a name of Gréeke, and the originall thereof is vncertaine to Latines, as Isi. sayth li. 1. and Plin. saith the same, that there be many kinds ther∣of. And some Cucurbita is tame, & some wilde. The tame spreadeth in boughes, and braunches, and leaues, as a Uine do∣eth, and bindeth it selfe with certaine fa∣stenings and bindings as a vine doth, & beareth somewhat white flowers, which spring out thereof: namely against night, it bloometh and beareth blossom without vndersetling, but the fruite thereof fay∣leth and rotteth, without that it be reared vp from the ground, & rayled with logs, and rods: as it were a vine. Platea saith: that Cucurbita is colde & moyst of com∣plection, and temperate in qualities, and is most found in hot countries & lands. Of the séede thereof sowen, commeth an hearbe, and thereof commeth white flo∣wers, and fruite at the last, full of séede & of pith, and the rinde therof is first soft, and then hard as a trée, when it is ripe. The fruite thereof when it is newe, ac∣cordeth to meate, and the séede to medi∣cine. The seede thereof hath vertue to depart, and to shed hard matter: for the substaunce thereof is subtill, and helpeth therefore against the stopping of the liuer and reynes and bladder, and is to such, as haue the Feauer ague, both meate & medicine, rosted or fried, for it purgeth the matter by vrine, and lareth and aba∣teth the heate, and comforteth the sicke. The seede thereof is gathered when it is ripe, and washed, & dried in the Sun, that it be not corrupt by superfluitie of Page  288 moysture, and is kept thrée yeare in a drie place. Huc vs{que} Plat.

And Plinlus saith, that the iuyce of this hearbe, helpeth against the euill that is called the holy fire, & against ye swel∣ling of eyen, & abateth ache of the eares, if it be milke hot put therein, and pow∣der of the séede thereof, filleth vp hollowe wounds: and ashes of the rinde helpeth against burning. Li. 20. cap. 4. Plin. saith, there is a wilde Cucurbita, as great as a finger, and groweth in stonie places, & the iuyce thereof helpeth much the sto∣macke & guts, & the palsie of the loynes & reynes. The pith thereof with worme∣wood and salt, doth away tooth ache: iuyce thereof heat with vineger, fasteneth téeth that wag. The substaunce thereof with∣out séede, healeth postumes of the féete: wine heat therewith, doth away réeses of the eyen: leaues thereof sod and stam∣ped, helpeth wounds: seede therof dronk with wine, ouercommeth venime, & shall not be eaten, for it bréedeth swelling. Li. 17. Isid. saith, that wild Cucurbita is the same ye Coloquintida is, a maner With∣winde, a well bitter hearb, and springeth in braunches toward the ground, as Cu∣curbita doth, and hath great leaues with heauie smell, as Cucurbita hath, as Isid. saith there. Looke before De natura Col∣loquintide. It seemeth, that the first ma∣ner Cucurbita beareth gourds, & that the worst maner cucumer bereth Pinopins.

(*The Gourd is colde and moyst in the seconde degrée, whereof two kindes are called Pompeons.)

¶Of Celidonia. cap. 46.

CElidonia is an hearbe with yeolowe floures, the fruite staineth them that it toucheth, and is called Celidonia, for it springeth or bloometh in the comming of Swallowes, as Isid. saith lib. 17. For a Swallow is called Celidon in Gréeke. Or els as Isidore saith, it is called Celi∣donia, because it helpeth Swallowes birdes if their eyen be hurt or blind. And Plinius rehearseth the same, & saith, that by the iuyce of Celidonia, Swallowes eyes turneth againe to the first state, if they be hurt or put out, and hath ver∣tues that be noble and good, and dissol∣ueth, draweth and wasieth, as Dioscori∣des saith, and abateth ache, and purgeth the head, and menstruall bloude, and cleanseth the Mother, and cure the F∣ster and Canker of the mouth, as Plinius saieth, and Dioscorides, and Plateari∣us also.

(*Selidoniae, Salendine, it is called, Fig-wort, and Marsh Marigolde. The two Selandines are hot and drie in the third degree. The Marsh Marigolde is not vsed in Phisicke.)

¶Of Centauria. cap. 47.

CEntauria is a right bitter hearbe, hot and drye in the third degree, & is called therfore the gall of the earth, as Isidore sayeth: for one that was cal∣led. Acheronecentaurus found & knewe first the vertue thereof, as Isidore sayth, lib. 17. And thereof is two maner kinds, the more & the lesse: the first hath more greater blossomes and f•••tes, and is of more vertue than the lesse, as it is sayde in Platearius.

And Constant. saith there, that it is said, that the roote of the more is hot and drie in the second degree, and hath some bitternesse with sweetenesse, & hath the∣fore vertue of fastening together, and of the bitternesse it hath vertue of tempring and of dealing, and the leaues & floures haue more vertue in medicine, than other things thereof. This hearbe abateth wombe ache, and cléereth sight, and vn∣stoppeth the splene and the reines, and cureth the pally, and slaieth wormes of the wombe medled with hony, the roote thereof closeth and helpeth wounds, as Plinius saith, and Dioscorides, and Pla∣tearius also.

(*Centorie, the hearbe is bitter, and of two kinds, the greate, hot and drie in the third degrée, the lesse hot and drie in the second.)

Of Daphni. cap. 48.

THe Laurel trée is called Daphnis in Gréeke, and Laurus in Latine, as Isi∣dore saith, li. 17. and this hath the name Page  [unnumbered]Laurus of Lau, praising: for in great worship and praising Conquerors were sometime crowned with Garlandes of boughes of the Laurell trée. In old time it was called Laudea, but afterward D. was changed into R. and the Tree was called Laurus, as sometime ye vndertide, was called Medidies, as Isi. saith. And ye Gréekes call this trée Daphnes, for it is alway gréene winter & sūmer. Therfore ••ctors were speciallye crowned there∣with, as Isidore sayth: and saieth there∣to, that the common fame is, that onelye this tree is not smit with Lightening, therefore it was hallowed to Apollo, by olde time.

Of this trée speaketh the Maister in history, super illud verbum, Consiluit I∣saac Dominum, super Gen. 17. and saith: that Rebecca for trembling of Nations that she had séene in them that perished, she laid a manner Laurell trée that she called Tripodem, vnder hir head, & sate hir vpon boughes of an hearbe that was called Agnus castus, for to vse very Re∣uelations and sights, and not fantasies.

Lib. 16. cap. 30. Pliny speaketh of the Laurell trée and saieth, that this Tree is properly hallowed to triumphal worship of Conquerours, and is had in houses of Emperours and of Bishops, for it wor∣shippeth the house, and maketh it faire. And there is two kindes, one is called Delphica, and the other Ciprica: With the Laurell Delphica, the Delphes were first crowned, when they were first Uic∣tors. And afterwarde with the Laurell Ciprica the Romanes crowned their vic∣tors. And now is manye manner kinde of Laurell trée, but they be diuers in gréene colour and in greatnesse of leaues, and in likenesse of Bayes: and is a trée of many manner kinde. And Plin. rec∣koneth thirteene manner kindes of the same tree, among whom he reckoneth one manner kinde, that was hallowed to the great Iupiter, and to Appollo Delphi∣cus. Therefore the lande that beareth Laurell trée, is safe from lightening both in field and in house, and Appollo vsed not to giue answeres, but in presence of Laurell trees.

And some men supposed, that this trée was according to the seruice and wor∣ship of God, and for that cause it was had in worship in Triumphes and victorie. And it was not lawful to defile ye Lau∣rell trée in vnhonest and vnlawful vses, for it should be offered and set vpon Al∣tars to please the Gods therewith.

The Emperour Tiberius Caesar, in thundering and lightening, vsed a Gar∣land of Laurell trée on his head, against dread of lightening, as it is sayde. Also ther Plinius telleth a wonderous thing, that the Emperour sate by Drucilla the Empresse in a certaine gardeine, and an Eagle threwe from a right high place, a wonderful white Hen into the Empresse lappe whole and sound, and the Hen held in hir bill a bough of Laurell trée full of Bayes, and Diuinors tooke heeds to the Hen, and sowed the Bayes, & kept them wisely, and of them came a Woode, that was called Silua Triumphans, as it wer the Wood of worship, for victorie & ma∣sterie: for afterward the Emperour bare Laurell trée in his hand, and a garlande thereof on his head. And afterward other Emperors in ye same wise shuld be crow∣ned with Laurell trée of the same wood, when they had victory. Huc vsque Plin. And Diosco. telleth more of the Laurel trée and sayth, that it is a trée of séemly shape and of great smell, and is good and of wonderfull vertue, for ye gréene leaues thereof, that smell full well, if they bée stamped, healeth stinging of Bées and of Waspes, and doth away all swellings, and keepeth bookes and cloathes that it is among, from mothes & other wormes, and saueth them from frétling and gna∣wing. The fruite of Laurell trée are cal∣led Bayes, and be browne or red with∣out, and white within and vnctuous.

They be round in shape, hot in complec∣tion, and drye in the second degrée, with subtill substaunce and vertue of pourg∣ing and comforting, therfore they be pro∣fitable to be put in many medicines. Of Bayes is made precious oyle, that help∣eth against many euills & colde passions.

(*The Bay trée is of some taken for the Lauriell: notwithstanding they are two seuerall trées, & yet the Lauriell is rather an hearb than a trée. Read Dod.)

Page  289

¶Of Diptanno. chap. 49.

DIptannus is a medicinable hearbe, & the roote thereof accordeth most to medicines. And the substaunce thereof shall be whole and not pearsed, and fal∣leth not to pouder when it is broke, and hath vertue to dissolue and temper, to drawe and wast venime, and venemous biting, if it be dronk & laid to the wound, as Dioscorides saith and Platea also.

And it is sayd, that it hath the vertue of riacle in many things, with few things put thereto, & exciteth menstruall bloud, and bringeth out the Secundine, the bag that ye childe is in, in ye mothers womb, and bringeth out a dead childe of ye mo∣thers womb, and helpeth them that haue the falling euill & the palsie, with iuyce of rewe, as he saith.

In Pli. li. 26. ca. 8 it is said, that a Hinde taught first the vertue of Diptannus, for she eateth this hearb, that she may calue easelyer and sooner: if she be hurte with an arrow, she seeketh this hearbe, and ca∣teth it, which putteth the yron out of the wound, as Basilius saith in Exameron, and Ambrosius and the Expositor super ca. where he speaketh of Hinde calues. Isidore saith, that this hearb groweth in manye places, but that that groweth in fat fields, is little worth, and that that groweth in drie places & stonie is best, and a little thereof tasted, heateth the mouth, as he saith. And libr. 17. Isidore saith in this manner, Diptannus is a mount in Creta now called Candie, and thereof this hearbe Diptannus hath the name. Virgil sayth, that a Hinde woun∣ded, goeth about in the landes and see∣keth this hearbe Diptannus. This hearb is of so great vertue, that it driueth and putteth yron out of the bedre: therefore beasts smitten with arrowes, eate there∣of, and driue the yron out of the body, for this hearbe hath a maner might of war, to driue out arrowes, and darts, and qua∣rells, as Isidore sayth.

(*Dictani of Candie, wherof are thrée sorts: the right Dictani is hot & drye like Heneroyall, but it is of subtiller partes, the other not so good.)

¶Of Draguntea. ca. 50.

DRaguntea is an hearbe and hath that name, sea the stalke thereof is 〈…〉∣keled as an Adder, and hath the lykenes of an Adder, or of a Dragon, as Isi saith, lib. 17. Many men call this hearbe Ser∣pentaria or Colubrina, for it hath a red floure departed and shaped as the mouth of a Serpent, & out of the middle thereof springeth as it were an Adders tongue, sharpe, blacke and round, and in the mid∣dle of the floure thereof riseth as it were an head with great seede and round first gréene, and then red when it beginneth to ripe. This hearbe hath great vertue & might, as Diosc. saith, for the roote there∣of dried and made to pouder with water of Roses ianseth the face, and maketh it cleere and of good colour, & healeth the Fester with French sope, and dryeth it vp, & maketh the mouth thereof so wide, that the bone that is within broken or rotten may be drawen and taken out at the full, and helpeth the Canker with vi∣neger and hot lime. Leaues thereof sod in wine, ripeth Postumes and botches. Iuyce thereof helpeth hearing, that is hurt and grieued by cold, and cleereth the sight, and exciteth menstruall bloud, and destroyeth the Emoroides, and drieth the nether veynes that run full of bloud.

The iuice thereof dronke, maketh a wo∣man haue childe before hir time, & dri∣ueth and chaseth away serpents with the smell, and a beast that is baulmed with the iuyce thereof, shall not be hurte of a serpent. Huc vs{que} Diosc. and Platea.

(*Dragons are of thrée sortes, Ma∣ior, Minor, & Palustris. Their rootes and fruite are hot and drye in the thirde de∣gree.)

Of Draganto. cap. 51.

DRagantum as Plat. & Auicen meane, is a manner gum of a certaine tree, of the which tree the kinde humour is har∣dened by norishing of heat, or by streng∣thening of cold, & thereof is treble kinde, for some is white, pure, and cleere, & that is best. And some is some deale red and Page  [unnumbered] citrine, & that is not so good as ye white, that hath no earth medled therewith.

The white accordeth to cold medicines, and the red and the citrine to hot, & may be saued and kept fortie yeare, and hath vertue of cooling, of moysting, & of clean∣sing, and that it hath of colde & of moy∣sture: and hath vertue of fastning things together, of the vertue of gum, and help∣eth against the euills of the breast, in E∣lectuaries and sirops, for it moysteth the drie breast, and restoreth humour that is lost, and abateth the rough, and bealeth chipped thins and whelkes of the lyppes and of the mouth, and cleanseth the face, and maketh it white, and helpeth them that haue gowles, and against the blou∣die fluxe, as it is said in Platearius.

¶Of Ebeno. chap. 52.

EBenus is a trée growing in Aethio∣pia, with blacke colour, & is a plaine trée, and smooth in groping and handling, and is hard and heauie, and so for strait∣nesse of pores, it sinketh anone in water downe to the ground, as it is said in lib. Vegitabilium, & is somwhat sower and biting in sauour, and taketh fire anone, if it commeth nigh therto, & maketh a loft & swéet smoke and smel, and sheweth redde colour, if it be froted on the r••de, & hath vertue to purge, and to comfort, and ther∣fore it is put in Collirijs, as Plin. sayth & Diosc. also. Coilirium is an oyntment, that helpeth eyen. Lib. 17. Isi. speaketh of this trée Ebenus and saith, that it grow∣eth in Inde and in Aethiopia, and tour∣neth into stone, if it be long beaten. And the trée thereof is blacke, and the rinde is smooth, as the rinde of a Laurell trée, with diuers speckes: but that that hath no speckes is best, if it be light & smooth as an horne. It is oft set by cradels, for blacke sights should not feare the chil∣dren, as Isid. and Virgil say. Plini. prai∣seth this trée Ebenus li. 12. ca. 5. and saith, that Hebenus is the most precious tree, and therefore the Aethiopes offered this trée Ebenus, with golde & yuorie to Em∣perors, in stéed of tribute: & so it is read, that ye Quéene of Saba, gaue such things to Salomon the King. 3. Reg. 10.

(*Hebenus a trée whereof the woode is black as iente within, and beareth nei∣ther leaues nor fruite. First booke of kings, and tenth chapter, after Geneua translation.)

¶Of Edera. chap. 53.

IUie is called Edera,* and hath that name, for it cleaueth to trées, as Isi. saith: or it hath the name of Edus, a Kid, for it multiplieth milke in Goates, that eate thereof, & with that milke Kids be fed and nourished. The roote thereof pearceth things that be full hard, and is colde of kinde, and betokeneth, that the ground is of colde kinde, that it groweth in, and is long gréene, and hath sower & biting sauour. And 16. li. ca. 33. Plin. meu∣neth, that of Iuie is double kinde, white and blacke, male and female. The male is harder in leaues, and more fat & greater. The white Iuie hath white fruite, & the blacke hath blacke.

Ofte Poets are crowned with Iuie, in token of noble wit and sharpe, for the Iuie is alwaye gréene. And they went crowned with Iuie, that serued in the temple of Liber pater, that called Bac∣chus also, and so this trée was hallowed to Bacchus God of wine, and to Mars.

Also therefore the great Alexander crow∣ned his Knights with Iuie, when they had the victory of Inde, as Plinius sayth, by ensample of Liber pater, that dressed the Basnets of his men, with stalkes of Iuie. And is a trée that stretcheth much vpward, while it findeth a trée or Wall, wheron it may créepe vpward, and hath boughs and braintches and berries, but they be bitter. The shadow thereof is noi∣full and grieuous, and strong enemie so cold, & most loued of serpents, & breaketh walls & graues: therfore wonder it is, yt it was in worship amōg men in old time. The leaues thereof be cloue wt corners, & heauy smell, plaine & bitter, & worntes larke vnder ye shadow therof. Also ca. 34. the kinde of Iuie is full wonderfull in knowledge and assaieng of wine: for it is certain, yt if wine medled with water, be in a vessel of Iuie, ye wine fléeteth ouer ye brink, & the water abideth. Huc vs{que} Pli. Page  290 Dioscorides saith, Iuie is medicinable, though it be bitter, and is strayning, and healeth the bloudie flix. Iuyce of it drop∣ped in the nose, purgeth the head and a∣bateth the ache of it. Iuyce thereof heat with oyle put in ye eares, helpeth against deasenesse. Also Iuie is compounded of contraries, and worketh in contrarie causes: And therefore, it hath ver∣tue of riping, of drawing and of clean∣sing and of easing: and therefore oft the leaues thereof be layed to sores. The Gumme therof dissolueth and tempreth, and helpeth against the stone. A Goate bucke fed with Iuie leaues, maketh the more sharpe bloud to breake the stone in the bladder and in the reines. And ther is a manner Iuie, and deaw falleth on the leaues thereof, and wereth gleymie, & turneth to glewe: the vertue thereof is great, and assayed by Phisicke, for smoke thereof exciteth menstruall bloud, and bringeth out the Secundines, the bag that the childe is in, in the Mother, and aba∣teth the reume, and comforteth the head and the wit, and helpeth agaynst the Cough & against the stixe of the wombe, and is profitable to be put in medicines.

(*Iule is medicinable for manye cau∣ses: The gumme of Iuie killeth lice and nits, and béeing layd too, it taketh awaye haire. It is vnwholesome to sléepe vn∣der the Iuie, or in an Iuie bush. It ma∣keth the head light and dizzie.)

Of Elitropio. cap. 54.

*ELitropium is a drye hearbe, & hath that name, for it bloometh in the stin∣ting of the Sunne in Summer, when the daye is longest or els for it beareth and turneth the leafe about with the mo∣uling of the Sunne. This is the Rood∣wort, and is called. Solsequium in latin, as Isidore saith lib.〈…〉. For the flower thereof vncloseth when the Sunne ari∣seth, and closeth againe when the Sunne goeth downe. And this hearbe is called V••ruca, for it destroyeth and doth away waries, if it be dronke or laide 〈…〉 pluister wise, as Isi. saith. And Plat. saith, that this hear be Solsequium, is called the Suniles spouse, and is a colde heard and moyst in the second degrée, and the iuice thereof dronke, helpeth against venime that is eaten or dronken, & helpeth also against biting of houndes and other ve∣nimous biting, if it be brused and laied to the wound. Also it helpeth much a∣gainst chasing and stopping of the liuer.

(*There are of two sorts, the great & the lesse, called Tornesol, hot & dry in the third degrée, both kindes of great opera∣tion. Dodoneus.)

¶Of Eleboro. cap. 55.

ELeborus hath the name of the Riuer Eleborus,* for there groweth much thereof, as Isi. sayeth. And the Romanes call this hearbe Veratrum, for it bring∣eth wit that is moued, into good dispositi∣on and health, if it be eaten or dronke: and thereof is two maner kindes, white and black, and is called white Eleborus, for it hath white rootes, & cleanseth and pourgeth white and fleumatick humors: & the blacke hath black rootes, and clean∣seth blacke and melancholike humours. Dioscorides and other Authours meane, that it is a full violent hearbe, and shall be taken readely and warely, for it grie∣ueth sore and slayeth soone, if it be vnrea∣dely taken of any person, and helpeth ne∣uerthelesse against manye euills, if it be taken in due manner, as Dioscori, saith. For it destroieth the feauer quartane, & Anieth wormes of the eares, & els where, and pouder thereof helpeth them yt haue the falling euil, & them that haue the Li∣turgie, the sléeping euill, if it be meddeled with bread, and flayeth mice if they eate thereof, as Diosc. saith and Plat. also. Of the two manner kinds of this hearb, the white Eleborus is the better, & is hot and drie of complection in the fourth degree, and groweth in mountaines & in moyst places, & hath leaues like to the leaues of plant ••ne, but they be more long & more sharpe in the ende, and the stalke is a cu∣bite long or more, and the roote thereof laxeth both vpward & downwards. And we shall neuer vse Eleborus, but ye mas∣ter be digested and made readye before hand, & yet then fall wiselye. Therefore Hippocrates saith, if thou wilt take Ele∣borus,Page  [unnumbered] moue thy body, least that thou o∣uer sléepe: and hath vertue to resolue moyst matter, and to tourne it to vento∣sitie, and thereof commeth stopping of spirites, and death, as Dioscor. saith, and Platea also. And the blacke Eleborus, is much more perilloua.

(*Read Fuchsius, Mattheolus, Tur∣dar, or Dodoneus. This is a daūgerous hearbe, to cause a deadly sléepe, whereof are two kindes, blacke and white.)

¶Of Esula. chap. 56.

*ESula is a trée that is hot in the third degrée, as Phisitions meane, and drye also, as Diosc. saith, and the roote thereof is best in medicine, and of this hearbe is many manner kindes. And the vertue therof is now in milke, and now in hu∣mour, now in séede, and now in the roote. Therefore it is sayd, Lac Anabula parit, Cacaputis semine gaudet: that is to say, Anabula bringeth forth milke, and Ca∣taputia séede: and Esula helpeth by the rinde of the roote. And so the vertue of the first is in milke, and the scoud in the séede, and of the third in the rinds of the roote. This roote Esula hath plain leaues, and of this hearbe commeth humor that fretteth and gnaweth, & maketh whelks arise in the flesh and skinne, and pour∣geth flumatike humours, and helpeth a∣gainst the Dropsie, and other passions & euills that come of fleumatike humors.

(*Pityusa Maior, great Ezula, Spurge Giant, and Pine spurge, of two kindes.)

¶Of Eruca, chap. 57.

ERuca is a white hearb, somtime foone, and somtime wilde, hot & moyst, and softning and opening, and comforteth the reynes, and cureth and healeth the Pal∣sie, and exciteth vrine, & purgeth the blad∣der and reynes and is good in meate, and in medicine: and Bées loueth and haun∣teth the floures thereof, as Plin. saith.

(*Of this hearbe, is found 2. kindes: the one same, which is ye common Roc∣kat most vsed, the other wilde.)

¶Of Enula. chap. 58.

ENula is an hèarbe, and is oft called E∣nula Campana, and thereof is double kinde, the one groweth in gardens, & the other in fields, and hath more vertue in the roote, for the roote shall be gathered in the beginning of Summer, and dryed in the Sunne, that it be not corrupt with moysture, and hath vertue to plaine and smooth, and to cleanse and purge, and to comfort the sinewes, and to consuins and moyst gleymie humour, & helpeth won∣derfully against colde cough that is coo∣led, and against colde passions and euills of the spirituall members. Thereof it is written in Macers booke:

Enula Campana reddit precordia sana.

The meaning is, that this hearb ma∣keth ye breast & spiritual membes whole and sound.

(*Inula, and Enula Campana, of some Elecampane, Scabwort, & Horse-héele,)

¶Of Epithimo. ca. 59.

EPithimum is the floure of Thime, that is a hearbè, and all the vertue thereof is in the floure: For onely the the floure thereof is put in medicines, as Dioscorides sayth, and Platearius also.

And hath vertue to purge flumatike hu∣mour and melancholike passions and hel∣peth against the Quartane and Quoti∣dian, & also against difficultie of passing, as Constantine sayth, and against Stran∣guria, that is a lyttle pissing and ofte, and agaynst stopping of the liuer, and of the splene.

(*Thime is named of the auncient Gréekes and Arabians, Ephithymum, Time.)

¶Of Ebulo. cap. 60.

EBolus is a Wéede, most lyke to E∣lerna Trée, both in leeues, and in stalkes & rootes and rindes, in flowers and braunches, and are good in medi∣cines, and haue vertue to temper and dissolue, to consume & wast great steame, thicke and gleymie humoures. And the iuyce of Ebulus helpeth against goutes, and shrinking of sinnewes of féete and handes, and agaynst the Dropsis that commeth of fleumaticke cause, & of cold. Page  291 And helpeth also against swellyngs and gatherings of euill humors betweene the skinue and the flesh in euerye place of the bodye, whereof and in what place it be gathered. And Ebulus helpeth best a∣gainst ache and sores, that commeth of stroakes, beating and fallyng: for if the patient be oft washed with broth therof, it abateth both ach and swelling, and gi∣ueth might and vertue to the sinewes, & ioynis of boanes. This hearbe Ebulus stinketh in smell, & is not kind in sauor, but in working and in vertue. In medi∣cine, it was accounted best among men of olde time, as Dioscorides, Plinius, and Platea meane.

(*This hearbe is called Walwort, or Dane wort, and is verye lyke vnto the Elder trée toppes: of some called, Dane weede.)

¶Of Ficu. cap. 61.

THE Figge trée is called Ficus, and hath that name of fruitefulnesse, for it is more fruitful, than other trees, for it beareth fruite thrée or foure times in one yeare, & while one ripeth, another spring∣eth anone or soone. And & Figge trée of Aegypt is more fructuous holden, and the stocke thereof done in water, sinketh anone to the ground, and riseth and com∣meth vp aboue the water, after that it hath lyen in the mudde, against the com∣mon course of kinde, for when it is wet, it should by waight of the moysture, a∣bide vnder the water. Before Pithago∣ras time, Hawkes were sed with figges, and after he brought them to the vse of flesh, that is the stronger meate. It is said, that figs doe away the shriueling of the skinne of the face, or wrinkles on the hands of olde men, if they eate ther∣of among theyr meate: and telleth that full cruell Bulls become milde anone, if they be tied to a fig trée. And he telleth that the figge trée may be made to beare well fruite, by remedy of a trée, that is called Capriticus. Huc vs{que} Isido. lib. 7. cap. 7.

In libra vegitab. Arist. saith, that the humour of the rinde of a tree, that is as is were bloud in beastes, is white, & mil∣kie in some trée, as in a fig tree, and in a Mulbery trée, that is called Morus, but the milke of the figge tree hath vertue of running together, to make chéese, as the floure of Corde casealis. The humour thereof is full vnctuous, therefore the fig tree beareth much fruite, for what is vnc∣tuous tourneth into fruite, and what is thin and watrye, tourneth into leanes, which be broad, and clouen, and sharp in the endes. It is sayd if the genitals be baulined with the iuyce thereof, they be moued to lecherie. And such mouing is spoken of in the Glose sup. Gen. 3. Ibi. Fécerunt sibi de folijs sicus perisumata. Arist. saith, that it happeneth that the fig trée wereth barren sometime for default of humour, and sometime for superfluitie of humour: and in either case needeth medicine. In default of humour, ye Gar∣deiner doth thereto couenable dounge & fresh water. And if it be for superfluitie of humour, then he pearceth ye tree with nailes, & voydeth the superfluitie of hu∣mour, as it is sayd before, De arborum medicina lib. 14. ca. 8. Plinius speaketh al that is before rehearsed of Isid. and saith, that ye fig trée of Aegypt beareth most, and is like the trée Morus in quantitie, to leaues, and in sight: and beareth fruit foure times in the Summer, but the first springeth and is not ripe: and héerto the fig tree of Cipris is like, and burgeneth and bringeth fruite foure times, but the burgening thereof ripeth not, except they be first carued and cut, that the superflu∣itie of milke may passe out thereof. And knops thereof commeth foorth without leaues in the ende of boughs, and is like to Populer in the roote, and to Oliue in leaues, and lyke thereto in greatnesse of the trée. And the fig trée is a tender trée, & feeble, and is therefore soone grieued with strength of colde, & namely when it be∣ginneth to burgen or spring.

Also libr. 12. ca. 6. Plin. saith the same: and he saith, that there is a figge tree of Inde, that beareth certaine small apples, and hath many boughs and thicke, that bend so to ye groūd by their own weight, that they sticke in the ground, & of them spring new branches about ye old stock, and maketh so great a shaddowe, that Page  [unnumbered] heards come and abide there vnder for succour against heate, winde, and wea∣ther. And the ouermost boughes of this trée, stretch vpward full high, & the side voughes spread wide about the olde trée, as it were growen, and make a great shadow, and the leaues thereof are full broad, and shaped somewhat lyke to a shield, and beareth many apples, but they be small, & passe vnneth the bignesse of a Beane, & be so riped among the leaues with heate of the Sunne, that they are so swéete, that it is accounted a miracle. Héereto lib. 15. cap. 19. Plin. saith: That there is a trée, that is called a wilde fig trée, and hath another name, and is called Caprificus, & ripeth neuer, but it giueth to other, that that it hath not of it selfe: for often Gardeiners make cliftes in the rinde and roote of a fig trée, & graffe ther∣on graffes of the Caprificus, and by co∣uenable graffing thereof, the roote is dis∣posed, and receiueth new aire, and good humour, and also might and vertue and gréene colour. And so white humor, that is matter of figs, passeth into nourishing thereof, as it is rehearsed before, in ye tre∣tise De causa fructificationis arbonim &c herbarum. Also he saith, that some trées shall be set nigh Trées that beare well fruit, that blasts of winde may be borne therefrom to the figge trée: and thereto the Southerne winde is better than the Northerne winde, for the Northerne winde grieueth the fig trée more than thé Southerne winde. Therefore fig trées thriue the lesse in the North Countrey: for the white humor thereof is some wa∣sted and remoued, where such wind hath the masterie. Of the effect and doing of the fig trée, touching the rootes, leaues, & rinde, and fruite: looke before In tarcta∣tu de Carica, in litera C. There it is o∣penly contained.

(*Ficus satiua, and Ficus Siluestris. Figges pound with Salt, Rue, and Nut∣megs, withstandeth all poyson, and cor∣ruption of the aire: and this was a se∣cret Preseruatiue, which Mithridates King of Pontus, vsed against all venime and poyson.)

¶Of Fraxino. ca. 62.

THE Ash is called Fraxinus, and is a trée that groweth in rough places & in mountaines, as Isid. saith, and thereof be made shaftes, and speares. Therefore Ouidius saith, Et Fraxinus vtilis hastis, that is to say: Ash is good for shaftes & speares. Lib. 16. ca. 13. Pliny saith, that a∣mong trées, kinde hath gendered the Ash right profitable, and is a high trée, round and euen, and sharpe vpward in lease, & is made noble by praising of Homerus, and the speare of Achilles, and is in some place so lyke to the Cedar trée, that it be∣guileth the buyers, if the rinde be away. The leaues thereof helpeth against ve∣nime, and the iuyce thereof wrong and dronke, helpeth best against Serpentes. And Ash hath so great vertue, that Ser∣pents come not in shadow thereof in the morning nor at euen: and if a Serpent be set betwéene a fire and Ash leaues, he will flye into the fire sooner than into the leaues. In Greece ye leaues thereof is poi∣son to beasts, & grieueth not other beasts that chewe their cudde, and grieueth not beasts in Italy. It bloometh first or twigs spring therof, and leaueth not the leaues or it beare flowers. And thereof is dou∣ble kinde, as the Gréekes tell: the one is long and not knottie, the other is more in leaues, and more hards, and lyke to a Laurell trée. Other men put difference of the Ash, by diuers place that it grow∣eth in. That Ash that groweth in fields, hath more crispe leaues: and Ash that groweth in mountaines hath more thick leaues, and of the leaues some be better than some. Huc vsque Plinius. And Pla∣tea saith, that Ashe is a trée hot and drye in the second degrée. The rinde & leaues thereof, with Anise and Mushrumpes that groweth thereon, accordeth to me∣dicine, for it stauncheth the flire of the wombe and spewing also, if they be sod in raine water and vinegar, and layd to the stomacke.

(*The lye that is made with ye ashes of the barke of the Ash trée, cureth the white scurffe: séeth in the saide lye, the Bramble leaues.

¶Of Fago. cap. 63.

Page  292*A Béeth is called Fagus, and is a trée, & the matter therof is néedful in ma∣ny things. And lib. 17. Isidore sayth, that the Béeth is a Tree that beareth mast, and hath name Fagus, for sometime men liued by the fruit thereof, and tooke meate théreof. For Fage is Gréeke, and that is to say eate, as Isidore saith, libro 17. cap. 7. And he sayeth, that the mast of the Béech is cornered, closed in a smooth skin, and is lyke to a Nut kernell, but the rind is more soft. The marrow therof is derest to mise, and fatteth Glires, that séemeth Mise, and be somewhat more in quantitie. And this fruit accordeth with Culuours and Turtles, and feedeth and nourisheth them. The rind of this trée is full profitable, and namelye among the north Picts, for therof is made vessel, ser∣uing to diuerse vses and dooing, as hee saith, cap. 10. Also there it is sayde, that mast therof is ful swéet, and nourishing, and féeding. And flesh of beasts that bee fedde therewith is full profitable, and may bo sodde and is light. The Trée is not full sadde and fast in substaunce, but pory and full of hoales, and dureth there∣fore not ful long, as he saith, neuerthéles the substaunce therof accordeth to many things, as to make shingles, and other things that belongeth to building. And substance of Béech that is cleane & pure, & not eaten with wormes, is most néedful to Glasiers craft, for of ashes therof with other things, & with blast of fire, glasse is craftely arayed, and lyttle fuell is founde that accordeth so wel in euery manner to so wonderfull a work. The trée is smooth with many pores, & is soone eaten with wormes, and rotteth soone. And is soone cloue and set on fire, as Plinius mea∣neth. And Béech beareth some flowres, as the Trée Tilia doth, but not so well smelling. Neuerthelesse Bées haunt the flowres therof, & gather wilde honnie in hollownesse of trées.

(*Men doe not gather these Nuts of the Béech for mans vse, yet Béech is sweete and good for to cat, and almost as good in medicine, as is the kernell of the Pine apple.)

Of Faba. chap. 64.

THe Beane is called Faba, & hath that name of Ethimology of Gréeke, as I∣sid. saith, lib. 17. And is a manner Cod∣warr, & serueth to Potage, & in olde time men vsed to eat therof. And héer of is dou∣ble kind. One is called a Beane of Ae∣gypt, & the other is the common Beane, which is sometime called Fresa, for men gren oft when they grind and breake it, as he saith. And Dios. saith, yt Beanes bée sowen both in gardens & in fieldes. The stalke therof ariseth with edges and cor∣ners, & is great and hollow with knots, with a leafe or leaues in euery knop: and the leaues be broad & plaine, & sound, and narrow in the endes: and Beanes beare white flowres, with red or black specks aboue in the ends, with good smell. And Bées haunt much the flowres of beanes. And in the stalke bée many coddes, that be think and long, and distinguished with in, as it were many dens and chambers, in which the beanes be set in theyr own place, departed each from other: And the coddes be first gréene without, and white within and softe, and hardneth lit∣tle and little by heate of the Sunne, and is blacke at the last, and that is token of ripenesse.

Dioscorides and Platearius meane, that the Beane is colde and dry, except it be greene, and is then moyst in the first degrée, and nourisheth but lyttle, if it be eaten gréene, and bréedeth thick hu∣mours and swelling in the ouer parte of the wombe, & greeneth therefore the sto∣macke, & bréedeth thicke bloud & melan∣cholike, & also thick smoak, & greeueth the braine therwith. And beanes cause vaine dreaines and dreadfull. By séething and roasting thereof, swelling ventositye is abated, but not all destroied.

He ye eateth Beanes continually, both ach and gnawing in the guttes and in the roapes. Beanes stop the splene, and make harde the wombe. Beanes eaten with the hulles be harde to defie, and bréed much swelling, but the cleane beane when the hull is away cleanseth, and so the cleansing therof purgeth the face, and Page  [unnumbered] cleanseth the lungs if it dronke, and bea∣leth postumes of the teates and pappes, & doth away wormes and blearinesse of eien medled with roses, & stencheth hu∣mours that fall and come to the eien, if it be chewed & layd to the Temples, and stauncheth the bloud that runneth, if it be slit and laide to a beine that is cut, and stancheth milke that runneth out of breasts, and helpeth them that haue the Podagre and Goutes, if it be sod with shéeps Lallowe, and laid to the sore, and smiteth against swellinges and gathe∣rings and Postumes, if it bée sodde in Uineger, and layde thereto in the begin∣ning.

Libro. 18. cap. 12. Plinius speaketh of the property and kind of the Beane, and sayth, that among poulse that groweth in roddes, Beanes is called the best. And many meddle Beanes with bread corne, to make ye bread yt more heauie. Beanes bée dampned by Pithagoras sentence: for it is sayd, that by oft vse therof, the wits be dulled, and cause many dreames. Or else as other men meane, for dead mens soules be therein. Therefore Vatro say∣eth, that the Bishoppe shoulde not eate. Beanes. Among corne onely the Beane springeth with leaues, and is full in wath∣ing of the Moone. And is not sod in sea water, nor in other salt water: & is sowen before the going downe of the seauen stars, that be called Pliades, and is ripe & gathered before winter. And loueth most water while it blometh, and drought when it is blossomed, and amendeth the land yt it groweth in, in stéed of doung. Therefore in Thessalia fields ye Beanes grow in, be eared when the Beanes bloome. In many places Beanes growe without trauaile of tilling, and namely, in Mauritonia, and in the landes of the North Occean: but they be so hard, that vnneth they may be sod. Beanes growe in Aegypt with sharpe prickes, therfore Crocodiles flye from them, and dreade least their eyen should bée hurt with the sharp prickes of them. Such a Beane is x. cubites long, with a head as a Popie, and therein Beanes be closed, and that head is red as a Rose: and those Beanes growe not on stalks nor in coddes. The Genicolatus and stalke therof ha••en∣ches and lare leaues. And the 〈…〉 is somewhat bitter. The root thereof is ea∣ten rawe and sod. And is like in quantity to the rootes of the Réed. Rue vsque Pli∣nius, lib. 18. cap. 12. And he saith the same chap. 17.

Virgillus inquit, intro et amurta fabam profundentibus, grandesiere cam promittit.

And one sayth, that Beanes grow the sooner, and thriue the better if they be wa∣tred in pisse thrée daies, ere they be sow∣en. Hue vsque Plin.

(*Gréene Beanes before they be ripe, are colde and moist: but when they bée drie they haue power to binde. The wild field Beane serueth to no vse for man, that is wholesome, nor scarce good pro∣uender for a horse, except with Wheate bran well baked and hard.)

Of Frumento. chap. 65.

WHeate is called Frumentum, & hath that name of Fruendo, vsing in ea∣ting: and thereof corne hath his name Fruges, as Isidore sayth. And so the ouer part of the roote is called Frumen, and the sauour of the meate is principallye knowen. It is a propertie of Wheate to haue eyles on high in the eare, & graines and corne in hollowe hoales. For in all manner Wheate the stalke springeth out of the roote, and the eare of the stalke in∣uironed with small holes, in the which the graines of corne bée closed. And a∣bout the eare groweth small cyles and sharpe, as it were dartes, and thereof the eare hath his name Spica, for dartes bée called Spicula. And these eyles defend the eare, as it were dartes, for small Birds shoulde not bite the eare, and take awaie the graines of Wheate, nor other small beasts. And the stalke is compassed with leaues, and bulles succoured therewith, for it should not bend to the grounde by weight & heauinesse of the corne in the eare. The stalke is called Stipula, as it were Vstipula, and hath that name of Vsto, burnt. For when it is gathered, some of the strawe is burnt to helpe & to amende the lande. And some is kepte to Page  293 fodder of beasts, and is called Palea: for it is the first meate yt is laid before beasts, namely in some countreies, as in Tus∣can. And the kinde thereof is colde, that it suffereth not Snowe that falleth to shodde, and is so hot that it compelleth Apples for to ripe. Huc vsque Isidorus, lib. 17.

Many manner corne is called Fen∣mencum, as Isidore sayth, and Pli. also lib. 18. as Wheate, Barly, Rye, & Meale, and other such, of whome it shall be spo∣ken afterward, each in his owne place: But in all corne that is called Frumen∣tum, generally men shall take héed of the ground that it is sowen in, and of the qualitie of the grounde: for some Corne thriueth in one ground, and faileth in a∣nother, and fordryeth, as Plinius sayeth. And so it is to be vnderstoode, of other corne and lande. Also manner and time of sowing must be regarded. For some corne is soone sowen, and some late, for Winter séede is soone, sowen, and Sum∣mer séede is late sowen. And some is so∣wen vnder sorrow, and some aboue, And some Wheat is sowen in certaine man∣ner, and in time certaine: and Bar∣ly in other manner and time, and so is Meale and Commin, as Hieronimus sai∣eth expresly super Esay. And man take most héede of couenable time, both in sowing and in gathering of Corne. For Plinius sayth, libro. 18. That it is done better in one time then in another, for Corne gathered in the full of the Moone is saued from corruption. Also of fayre weather and time. Sowe, is Serere in Latine, and commeth of Sereno coelo, as Isidore sayeth. And Serenum coelum is cléere Skye in this manner speach. And then men shall sowe, and not in greate Raine and Stormes, as Virgil say∣eth. And Plinius sayeth there, cap. 13. If the winde bée too strong corne is apay∣red, and that in three times, and state of the corne. When Corne bloometh, and when the blossome falleth, and when it ripeth. By anye euill blast the eare fa∣deth and is destroyed, and looseth the fruit and corne. Also too much raine gréeueth: for then all is lost by colde humour, or else it turneth vnkindly into other hearbs and superfluitie of leaues.

Also sodeine and immoderate heate gréeueth, that is closed in a Clowde, for while the humour is drawen into the in∣ner parts of the roote by strong heat, then of hot humour and gleamie, Wormes bréede about the roote. And by fretting & gnawing of such wormes, the substance of the corne is wasted. Also in Corne and graines wormes bréed about the Jeaues, and destroye the graines of the Corne, when the eares in rainye weather after passing heate bée corrupt and rotten. Al∣so in passing drinesse Corne lacketh hu∣mour, and is so lost for default of nou∣rishing and féeding, or else greene Flyes bréede therein, that he called Canthari∣des,* and fret all the thrift of the Corne: And sometime many long Flies more & lesse bréed therein, & destroy euery deale. Also in the séede corne néedeth cleannesse and purenesse. For as Plinius saith ther, cap. 17. If the séeds be touched with Lallowe, or with grease, it is spilte and lost. Also in Corne that groweth, néedeth busily husbandrie, for it néedeth ye Corne be cleane wéeded & cleansed of superflui∣tie of euill weeds. For as he saith there, a∣mong the best Wheats sometime growe euill wéeds and venimous, as Carle and Rey, & other such there commeth for cor∣ruption and mallice of the humour that is drawen, or of might of the heate that worketh not sufficiently in all the mat∣ter. Also there it is said, of corrupt dewe, that cleaueth to the leaues, commeth cor∣ruption in corne, and maketh it as it wer¦red or rustie. And among all manner corne, wheat beareth the price, & to man∣kinde nothing is more friendly, nothing more nourishing. But héer of séeke in lit∣tera S. and séeke de Messe & Segete.

(*The first and best kinde of wheate, after the opinion of Columella, is redde wheat the second is the Spie wheate, & the third is called ye pound wheat, or Sū∣mer wheat: Rawe wheat chewed in the mouth is good for to be laid to, against & biting of a mad dog. Wheat is most no∣rishing séede for man.)

Of Farie. cap. 66.

FAr is a manner corne, and hath that name, for sometime it was broken in Page  [unnumbered] a morter, before men had the vse & craft of Mills. Of that commeth Farrago, as Isidore sayth, and is an hearbe that is of Barly kind, yet gréene, and the fruit ther∣of breaketh not to ripping.

(*Zea, far, Spelt is of two sortes, the one hath commonly two cornes or séede ioyned togethers, whereof each graine is in his owne skinne, or chaffe couering. The other is single, and hath but one graine. Spelt is of nature lyke to wheat, but somewhat colder, drawing néere to the nature of Barly, and somewhat dry∣eng. The bread thereof is not much infe∣riour to that is made of Wheate, but it nourisheth lesse. Of this graine is none vsed in England, but in Almaine and Germanie, fol. 131, Turner.)

Of Farina, chap. 67.

MEale is called Farina, and is the matter of bread, and hath that name Farina, of Far. For of Far or corne bro∣ken betwéene Mill stones commeth meale. Or else that name commeth of Farciendo, filling for whē meale is made in bread it filleth ye womb. Or else meale is properly called Farina, when the corne is well ground betwéene Mill stones, & flowre and bran meddeled and not depar∣ted. And the stowre of the meale when it is boulted and departed from the bran is called Simila, & Similago. Also it hath another name, & is called Pollen, & Pol∣lis, and thereof commeth Haec Polenta, and Hoc Pulmentum commeth of Pul∣tes, as Isidore sayth, libr. 20. cap. 7. But some men meane that Polenta is a man∣ner Potage made of the most best and pured stowre,* and hath that name Pol∣lenta of Polline, that is delicate meale, that flyeth from the mill stone in ye mill. And is called Amolum by another name, for it is throwne from ye mill stone for the lightnesse therof as the stowre is that is called Simila, smal without great∣nesse or weight: but Polenta hath other significations, as it is said in Glosa super Iosue. 5.* They shall eate polenta of the same yeare. And Haec Polenta is corne sod, pilled, and hulled, and shalled with froting of handes, as though it were pil∣led, hulled, and shalled, with beating and stamping in a Morier. And it is called Polenta, as it were Pilenta, pilled & shal∣led in a Morter: but what name so euer it hath, meale is good both in meate and in medicines. Thereof bread is made by meddeling of water and baking of fire. Sometime thereof is meate made for seruaunts, and is called Cibarius, and is not full delicate meate, and sometime sowre bread medled with sowre dough, and some bake vnder ashes, and some is baked, and turned and wend at the fire, and is called Focacius, a Cake: and some is baked in an Duen, and is called Cli∣banarius. In this manner of wise & many other by baking crafte, bread is made of meale, as Isidore sayth, li. 20. And all this manner bread comforteth and nourish∣eth, and pleaseth mans heart, and resto∣reth that that is lost, and giueth vertue and strength to them that trauaile: but passing all other, fresh bread and cleane made of wheat, is most friend and accor∣ine to kinde: as Constantine sayeth in Dietis. Meale is ground at a Mill, and sisted with a Siue, and medled with hot water with sowre dough, & to haue ye bet∣ter sauour, and knead and mould to shape of loues, & baked afterwarde. And at last after many trauailes mans lyfe is fedde and susteined therewith. Also meale is good in medicines when it is medled in ••e manner with other things, that are according: for meale meddeled with ho∣ny, healeth and cleanseth the face of scabs and of whelltes, as Dioscorides sayeth. Also meale of Wheate or of Rie sodde with Wine & with grease laid to breasts and teats, healeth and softneth the hard∣nesse that commeth in of tunning of milke, as he saith, and ripeth Postumes and gathering of euill humours, and sla∣keth sinewes which be ouercome, & spilt as it were with the crampe, or shranke, as he sayth.

(*Many wayes serueth the vse of flowre, for Wafers, Egg-pies, Flawnes or Custards, for the Summerset shiere Whitpot, and the Kentish Pudding, for Pancakes and Friters, and the dainfye Fartes of Portingale, Suger plate, Bis∣kets, Comfits, and Carawes, and last of Page  294 all, the most euilly bestowed in making starch to vlase ruffes for fondlings to flie withall, many wayes besides serueth the vse of flowre néedefull and profita∣ble.)

Of Fermento. cap. 68.

SOwre dough is called Fermentum, for it maketh paast feruent, & ma∣keth it also arise, as Isidore sayth, libro. 20. cap. 1. Sowre dough is compounded of diuerse vertues, and hath substaunce and vertue lyke, therefore it hath vertue to heaue paast and bread, and to change and amende the sauour thereof, and to turne into his lykenesse all matter that it is meddeled with, and hath vertue to drawe soone euill humours out of the bo∣die, as Dioscorides sayth, and to ripe and to open Postumes and Botches, if it be meddeled with Salt: and openeth the pores of the body by his subtilty, and dis∣solueth & tempereth humours, & is called Fermentum in Latine, & Zima in Gréek. And so paast made onely of meale and of water is called Asima, as it were Sima, without sowre dough, and Sima, sowre dough reareth paast and bread that is meddeled therewith, and chaungeth the sauour, and thirleth & distributeth partes thereof, as it is sayde super Epistolam. 1. Cor. 5.

(*With Gran also called Curgings, and the dragges of Ale is made the fa∣mous potage in Deuen-shéere, called Drouson.)

Of Fumo terre. cap. 69.

FVmus tarre is an hearbe hot and dry in the first degree, & hath that name, for it springeth and groweth out of the earth in great quantitie, as smoak doth, or fumositie that commeth of the earth, as it is sayd in Placeari. And the more gréene the hearbe is, the better it is. And is of no vertue when it is dry: and is an hearb with horrible sauour & heauy smel, and is neuerthelesse most of vertue: for it cleanseth & purgeth Melancholia, sleme, and Cholera, and helpeth against ye scabs and dropsie that commeth of colde cause, and helpeth them that haue the Poda∣gre, and stopping of the liuer and at the splene: But this hearbe hath a vice, for it bréedeth swelling and ventositie, ther∣fore the ventositie thereof shall bée aba∣ted with Fenell, that it bréede not sret∣ting and gnawing, as Platearius say∣eth.

(*Capnos fumoria, Fumeterre, is of two sortes, & of the common sort it is cal∣led Fenistorye, hot and dry almost in the second degrée.)

Of Feniculo. cap. 70.

FEnel is a common hearb, & is of great vertue and might, and is hot and drie in the seconde degrée, and hath vertue to temper and to shed, & to open, & to carue and to cut. And that by subtill cause and qualities thereof, as it is said in Pla. The séede, roote, and leaues thereof accorde to medicine. Therof Isidore speaketh, lib. 17 cap. vlt. and sayth, that Latines call Fe∣nell, Feniculum: for the iuyce of the stalk & of the roote thereof sharpeth the sight: and it is said, that Serpents tast thereof, and doth away the age of their yeares: and ye Gréeks cal this hearbe Maratrum. Isidore taketh this for certeine spéech of Plinius. li. 20. cap. 14. Serpents (he saith) maketh the Fenell noble, and they do a∣way age by tast thereof, and restore the sight, and maketh it sharpe with iuyce thereof, and sayth, that vnderstanding of inwit is arraied therwith, and dimnesse put off. And of the iuyce thereof full good Collirium is made agaynst dim∣nesse of eyen. Of Fenell is double man∣ner kinde, wilde and tame. The seede therof dronke with wine, helpeth against biting of serpents, and stinging of Scor∣pions. The iuyce thereof dropped into the eares, slayeth Wormes. And the iuyce thereof comforteth and strengthneth, and hardneth the stomack, & abateth wambe∣ling, and breketh the stone, and multipli∣eth milke in the brests. The roote thereof purgeth the reines, and helpeth the drop∣sie, if it be sodde in Wine, and healeth biting of hounds. Lame Fenell doth all this, but Ipomaratum, wilde Fenell Page  [unnumbered] worketh more stronglye, and doth all those foresayde things, as Dioscorides sayth.

(*Fenell is a most wholesome hearbe, the iuyce mixed with honaye clarified, vnstoppeth the lungs, and cleanseth the liuer, &c.)

Of Ferula. chap. 71.

FErula is an hearb, and the iuyce ther∣of is called Galbanum, as Isidore say∣eth, libro. 17. Thereof is mention made Eccle. 24. where is mention made of Sto∣rax and Galbanum. There the Glose sayth, that Plini. sayth, that Galbanum groweth in Syria, in a certein hill, where plentie is of Ferula. And out therof Gal∣banum runneth, as it were Rosen. And libro. 20. cap. 24. Plinius saith, that the seede of Ferula is lyke to Annet, and the leaues and the boughes thereof sodde in Oyle and eaten with honnie, accorteth to the stomacke: but it maketh the head ake if men eate thereof too much. And a pennie weight of the roote thereof dronk in two Cyates of Wine, helpeth against the biting of Serpents. Iuyce thereof dronke in ye quantitie of a Beane, sayeth the wombe. The gréene pith thereof doth away silth of the fare. The séede there∣of dronken in Wine stauncheth bloud, and helpeth them which haue the fal∣ling euill. And the iuyce thereof helpeth cleerenesse of the eyen. Huc vsque Pla∣teanus.

(*Of this Ferula, read Dodoneus. 2. bo. cap. 110. fol. 301.)

Of Feno. chap. 72.

GEye is called Fenum, and hath that name, for it is fedde and nourished with flowres. A flowre is called Flamma in some manner language, as Isid. saith, lib. 17. All hearbes and grasse which bée ripe, or mowed and dried, may be called Fenum: and namely if it accorde to féede young beasts or olde beasts, for Heye is properly and right conuenient meate to beasts. The Glose super Esay. 40. speak∣eth of heye and sayeth, that in growing hey is gréene and faire, and then heareth flowres: and afterwarde is dryed with heate of the Dunne, and brought to pou∣der at last, and so lykewise man looseth fairnesse by passing and drawing toward age, and after draweth to his death, and tourneth at last into pouder. For heye while it is gréene and springeth, clotheth and maketh faire, downes and medowes, and maketh men and beasts haue liking to looke thereon: and comforteth the eien with gréene grasie and hearbes, and with flowers: and for tender substance therof, the moysture is soone wasted in the hot Sunne. And the hearbe, which sooned as it laughed while it bare flowres, is at ye last spoiled and depriued of fairenesse and liking: For it fayleth & drieth as it wer sodeinly, for hey that springeth & grow∣eth this daye, and is gréene, is the next morrowe dead and dry, and put into an Duen, as it is sayde in lykenesse of the wicked man in Psalmo. Bée he as heye that groweth vpon a house. Where the Glose saith. The more higher hey grow∣eth, the lesse déeper bée the moores and rootes, and groweth the lesse, and the soo∣ner dryeth and fayleth. And so Heye is mowed, when it is full growen, & is put in the Sunne to dry the better, and is oft raised, tourned, and wended with pikes, forks, & raltes, for it should not by super∣fluity of moisture appaire by the ground. And is then laden, gathered, and made of heapes into cockes, and at last lead home in cartes and in waines, and brought in∣to Barnes for diuerse vses and néedes: And hey that groweth in somwhat high places, and meanely drye, smelleth best, and is more better to beasts then other heye that groweth in low medowes, in marreis, and in watrye places, as Pli∣nius sayeth. For in such high places and drye, the humour that nourisheth is more digested then in lowe places and watrye.

Of Flagello. chap. 73.

THE highest parts of Trées bée called Flagella, & haue that name, for they suffer oft blasts and windes, as Isidore saith, li. 17. And some men call the leaues there of Trées haire, and some call them Page  295Folia, as it were Fila thréeds for Foli∣••o in Gréeks, is Filuru in Latine and threed in English. And that is because in leaues is some veines stretching out in their substance as it were the ends. There∣fore among Latines leaues he called Fo∣lia, as it were in likenesse of threed. And the knots out of the which spring leaues & braunches, he called Oculi, as it were euen. For aru humour and third, that hath but little vnquositie, is drawenē as reared by heabe from the roote vp to the houghs, & breaketh, out in diuerse places by sharpnesse therof. And commeth as it were out at so many euen. And is ther by working of the inner heat, & of the aire yt is without, tourned into substaunce of leaues, as it is said in Commento super librum, Vegitabilium Aristotelis.

And after the quality of the humour, that hath yt in astry & the night for féeblenesse of heate which worketh in the humour, leaues, be diuers in diuers manner wise, as it is said before hayd in & same booke V•• aitu de diyes 〈…〉quoad figura arian, soliorum. Looke before in a same booke in littera.

Leaues make faire the Trée and they defend the tender blossome flowres and fruit, that it taketh us wrong of strong blastes and stormes of winds & of wea∣ther and showres of raine. Leaues re∣ceiue the driefts of haile and blasts, and shouing of wind & showres, and strokes of raine as it were a shielde, and defen∣deth the blossomes and fruit. And leaues moue about with a little Winde, for then he light and thinne. But they fall not soone for plentye of gleamie humour till the fruit be ripe that is his vnder the leaues. Therefore leaues spring and hee greene in springing time & in Summer, and fade and wither in haruest time, and fall some and some against winter time and rot on the grounde at last.

Also leaues accord to medicines, and be meate so many beastes, as Iuyce leanes, which windes and Goates eate most gladly, as Isidore sayth. Séek other propertyes of leaues before in the same booke, chap. 16.

Flowres (as Isidore sayth, lib. 18.) he called Flores, as it were flowres flée∣ting and passing, for they fall soone, and bée soone wasted and consumed. Neuer∣thelesse in leaues be many manner ver∣tues and gra••• of smel of sauour, of co∣lour, of smoothenesse, of vertue and of might, for then l••se and comfort the spirites with smell and the tast with sa∣uour, and the sight with colour, and the handling and tongue with softnesse and smoothnesse. And haue many manner vertues, for they cure manye manner euills, and bréed with western wind, and •••le in the Southerne winde, as Isidore saieth. Leaues beautifie trées, hearbes, fieldes, gardens, and woods, with fayre∣nesse and make them pleasing and lyke∣ing with swéetenesse that they conceiue of the dow of heauen. Therefore Bées that gather house visite and haunt flo∣wers because of gathering of hony when sowres spring, they betoken chaunge of time, and make men haue hoe of fruite that springeth thereafter. For flowres come, a〈…〉fore the fruite, & are wont to leaue behinde them a hope that fruite shall followe; flowres come and spring and breake out of pure cleane vnctuous humour of the stalke of the yard, and de∣fleth not the yard, but beautifieth it, and maketh it wonderfully faire. Also oft flo∣wers open themselues in the Sunne ri∣sing & close themselues in the Sun going downe. Many flowres for scarce and thin humour, fall & wither by strong heat that wasteth the moisture therein. Also flow∣ers somtime turne toward the Sun, and open themselues, & spread more & more as ye Sun riseth higher & higher, as it sa∣yeth in the hearbe Helicropia, yt is called Solsequium also, or Turmolt. And many call it Cicoria,* as it is said afore C. And shewes ye spring too late and in vntime, bode & token sailing of fruit that should come thereafter. For such flowres bee some corrupt by sodeine cold, or with cor∣rupt aire, or if they spring to nigh winter or haruest, then they ripe not for efalt of but beats as Plinius saith libro. 20. ca. 5. And among flowres bée setteth the Lilly, Rose, and Violet, before other, to beautifie crowns of noble 〈…〉 of whom it shal be shewed héereafter Flos campi,* is a speciall flowre, & hath that name, for Page  [unnumbered] it groweth by it selfe in places that be not •••ed neither eased with a shade, nor for dunged with dirt. And is a little flowre with a small stalk, & the flowre is redish bloud. Commonly in ye flowre he contei∣ned & distinguished 〈…〉 leaues, & neither mo nor lesse; the vertue therof is lyke so the vertue of Centaures, but it is not so bitter of complection.* And though it be lesse in leaues & stalk then Centaure, yet was it déemed of wise men in old time, no lesse worth in medicine then Cen∣taurea. Centaure is a less bitter hearb, & is therefore called Serene. And thereof is double kinde, the more and the lesse, and hath sweetnesse in the roote, with a man∣ner bitternesse. The iuyce thereof med∣led with honnie, cléereth the sight, and a∣bateth swelling, and healeth venimous biting, and helpeth against the deadlye Postume, that is called Alitrax, and beateth downe the ma••ice of the 〈…〉 thereof, and letteth the wildnesse of the matter, that it may not passe and sp•••d into the inner partes of the most noble members. Huc vsque Plinius, vi••∣pre.

Of Frctu. chap. 74.

FRuit is called Fructus, & hath yt name of Frumen, as Isidore saith. For Fru∣men is the ouer part of the throate, and there through meale passeth when it is chewed, as Isidore sayth, li. 17. And ther∣of commeth this name Fruges. Corne & fruit of trées and of fields that wée vse & eate, is properly called Fructus, though wée speake vnproperly sometime, and cal the broode of the beastes, fruit. Also it is generally knowen, that the most noble & vnctuous part of trées and hearbes,* both in pith and in root, is often kindly drawn by heat, that blossomes and flowres may passe out and spring in their time, and dis∣pose the springing of fruit, that matter of fruit may be gendered of the foresay be noble part, that is so drawen out of the pith and roote, and that the master maye be nourished and fed with goodnesse of humour and of heate, and defended with couering of leaues,* and be made perfect by heat of the Sun, and influence of the vertue of 〈…〉 that the fruite may bee taken to ye vse of meat, whē it is ripe at ••st. Greene fruit and raw, and not dige∣sted, 〈…〉 bodyes and make them swel and ••mely bodyes of children & of fée∣blesome, and bréede in the wombe long wormes; & other wormes also. And nou∣rish and feed euill humours and corrupt, and appaire kinde tast and sauour, as it fareth in women with colde, that wile most greene fruit that is for ripe, as Pli∣nius sayth. But good fruite and ripe af∣forde both to meate and to medicine, so that euery manner fruit be taken in due manner according, & drink be taken ther∣after in couenable and due time, as it is more plainly taught in li. Dietarum. Ge∣nerally fruit is first gréene & vndigest, & sowre or bitter, but ye vtter heat comfor∣teth the inner heate, & maketh digestion in ye sowre humour, & dissolueth it, & the earthy matter therof. And the néerer ripe the fruit is, ye more swéet sauour & plea∣sing it taketh. And fruite that groweth most high in the tops of boughs, and that is most straight afore the Sunne ripeth most hastely. Token of ripenes is chan∣ging of gréene colour or earthie and pale colour, red, or yeolow, and chaunging of bitter sauour or sowre into sweet & plea∣sing sauour, and liking to the tast. First, fruit springeth gréene, & when it ripeth, heat hath mastry therein, and then fruite chaungeth both colour and sauour. And ye more hardnesse of earthy mater 〈…〉∣ked & softned by might & vertue of heat, and the more mastry moysture of water or of aire hath therin, ye neerer ripe is ye fruit. Therfore ripenesse of fruit is assai∣ed, not onely by sight and colour, nor by fast and sauour: but by groping & bru∣sing, if the finger bruteth in thereto, and findeth it soft, as Isaac sayth in Dieti. And fruit of trées that growe in moun∣taines be more pure, more sauourye, and more wholsome the fruit of trees yt grow in valleys & in low places. And that is for more swéete and more pure, & more temperate féeding & nourishing, that is in mountaines, then in valleys, as Ari. sayth. Looke before de diuersiete at bo∣rū quoad fructus circā sinem. And some fruit is first sweet and sauoury, and af∣terward Page  296 bitter and sowre, as Mirabola∣ni, as Aristotle saith. Though such fruit be not of himselfe good to eate, yet with other they be good and medicinable. And sweete fruit, as Isaac sayth, is most tem∣perate in foure qualityes, and bée more temperate, and more moist and hot and more softning then other. And colde fruit that is sowre and hard, stoppeth and con∣straineth. Neuertheles it comforteth the stomacke, and exciteth the appetite, speci∣ally if it be eaten fasting: but & it be ea∣ten after meat, it comforteth ye mouth of the stomacke, and thrusseth togethers & showeth downward the meat, and layeth and maketh soft the wombe. And if the fruit be sowre and compounded of watry matter and earthie, then it quencheth sharpnesse of Cholera, and comforteth ye stomack, and dissolueth & departeth thick humours and colde, and sharpeth swéet humours, and giueth to them vertue and might to thirle and to passe into all the body. Unsauery fruite, in which watrye moisture hath mastry, is lesse worth then other fruit, and helpeth not the stomack, but bréedeth abhomination & wambling. And if fruite bée perfect ripe, it hath good sauour and merrie smell, if it be not rot∣ten, neither worme eaten, nor infected with euill humours, nor with corrupt aire. And such fruit is best kepte, and du∣reth longest in a cleane place and dry, & namely in bey or straw. And rotteth soone in a moist place or lowe by the ground. Also ripe fruite falleth sooner then the graine, and sooner by night then by daie: for they be more heauie when they bee wet with the night dew, and fall the soo∣ner. Of speaking of fruit this sufficeth at this time, for much is shewed of fruit be∣fore in ye same booke, in tractatu de arbo∣ribus in generali. Looke there in A.

Of Germine. chap. 75.

BUdding is call Germen, and Germen is taken for a budding graffe, as I∣sidore sayth, and hath that name Ger∣men, of Gerundo, bearing, and thereof commeth Germinacio, for in budding breedeth the humour of nourishing, and the humour and the vertue seminall.

And also kinde heate thriueth and wor∣keth therein, and is of most vertue and might in effect and working, though it be of little qualitye in substaunce. For the vertue of the roote is drawen, and passeth and turneth into the substaunce of budding. Therefore hearbes accorde best to medicine, while they budde and spring, and haue plenty of humour that commeth from the roote. And so bud∣ding is called that that first breaketh out of the roote of an hearbe, or of a Trée. For when kinde heate is comforted, that is closed in the pith of the roote, then the roote draweth to it selfe humour, that is néedfull therto, and that is reared and borne vpwarde by heate that is closed therin, and dried by aire that is without, and turned into the matter of budding. And for drawing ceaseth not in the roote, increasing and springing ceaseth not in budding, before there bée due perfection, and complement therin. Also heat of hea∣uen thirleth and commeth to the pith of the root, and draweth to it selfe the parts of the pith that bée most cléere and thin, and most vnctuous and pure, and faste∣neth them together, and bringeth them in by priuie pores of the earth, & ceaseth not to turne them into substance of budding, as the Commentour sayth super librum Vogit. And budding taketh and draweth gréene coulour, that is meane betwéene red and blacke by mastry of euen partes that be firie and earthie, for springing & budding of earthie humour and thicke & vncleane, but by medling of parts of aire and of fire, the colour thereof is greene, yt is accounted meane colour betwéene red & blacke. Of budding commeth the stalk, blossome, flowres, and fruit. First spring many flowres, twigs, & braunches, clip∣ped togethers, and kinde maketh them to kéepe and saue kinde heate and the sub∣staunce of budding, for the tender sub∣staunce thereof might soone bée hurt and gréeued, but it were defended and succou∣red from outward noyances by twigs & spraies. It is soone gréeued with cold aire, as hayle, raine, and with euill infectiue dewe. And so against such griefes it is defended & succoured with manye leaues and spraies knit together, as it wer with Page  [unnumbered] many garments. And this beginning of buddings is fairenesse of earth, for all gréene things, ye spring of the earth come of budding, and is signe & token of chan∣ging of time, & of comming of noueltye of springing time, and warneth that win∣ter goeth, & Summer commeth with no∣ueltie of fairenesse. And sometime bud∣ding of buds be gnawen & fret with flies great and small, and with other worms, and then is no hope of fruit.

Of Gramine. cap. 76.

GRamen is a field hearbe, and hath that name, for it buddeth, as Isid. saith, all hearbs be gendered of humour of ye earth by goodnesse of heate, for the heat of hea∣uen commeth within the earth, & gathe∣reth the most subtill parts thereof, & tur∣neth them into kind of roots, which pight in the ground, closet heate within them∣selues, and draweth by vertue therof hu∣mour of the ground about to increasing & nourishing of the same roote, and turneth what is like thereto into kind of it selfe, & sendeth the superfluitie to generation of leaues & of branches. And for roots be many fold, that come of the humour, that is drawne by reason of moisture of the matter, therefore many hearbs & diuers spring of the budding, & grow together, & heale all the ground about, and aray it with gréene colour, & with flowres. And the deeper the rootes of hearbes be in the ground, the wider about stalks & leaues of hearbes spring and spread. In the be∣ginning of springing of hearbes, they multiply themselues right fast, if they bée not pared and ropt, and helde lowe: and if they be suffered in the beginning to grow too fast, then they spire and séed too soone, and leese: too soone their fairenesse & gréene coulour, as Plinius sayeth. And hearbes take diuers qualitie and vertues of the grounde that they growe in, and of qualitie of the humour that they be fed and nourished with, as Plinius, Isaac, and other Authors meane. Therefore of humours with contrarye complections, sometime hearbes and grasse and all that springeth of the earth taketh varieng and diuerse working and vertue, as Plinius, Const. Isaac, and others Authors meane. Therefore as the same Authors meane, hearbes of mountaynes and of high pla∣ces, be thinner and shorter then hearbes of Ualleys and of Medes, but these bée good and according to shéepe, for they bée swéete and wholesome, and meanely drye. And those that growe in marreys, and in moores bée more fat and large. But hearbes that growe in mountaines and high plates bée best of all. For as I∣saac and Constantine saye, hearbes of moores and marreys feed and nourish not best, for they brade watry bloud, and dis∣solue themselues soone from the mem∣bers, and bréede swelling and gnawing and curling in the guts: But in contra∣ryes be contrary doings. It is a rule as Isaac saith, ye rule is this. Among hearbs if the roote nourisheth, the séede thereof nourisheth not. And if the séede of an hearbe nourisheth, the roote thereof nou∣risheth not. And grasse commeth of the graine, and is pleasing in sight, and liking to beasts in pasture and meate, & comfor∣teth the sicke in doing, for as in roots, so in hearbes and grasse be many manner vertues, as Palla, saith. Hearbes & grasse loue sterne wether, raine, & great showrs, for heate and colour of hearbs néed much moisture. Hearbs & grasse grow & spread in wilde places, & fade without in strong cold, & in North wind, and fordry & faile, as Beda saith. And Dioscorides sayeth, a certaine hearb, and specially that that is called Gramen, hath knots and braun∣ches spreading on the ground, and broad leaues, and some deale sharp, and the roote thereof is knottie and sweete Oxen and other beasts eate gladly of the hearb, and the vertue thereof bindeth, and also hea∣leth and closeth wounds, and bindeth and stoppeth the wombe, and healeth sores of the bladder and reines, and abateth ach of the splene. Hounds know this hearb, and eate it to purge themselues, but they doe it so priuely, that vnneth men spie it.

(*Gramen Arundinaceum, the redde grasse. Gramen Marmum, our Ladyes quishion. Gramen Parnassi, grasse of Parnassus. Read Dodoneus. fol. 510.)

Page  297

Of Galbano. cap. 77.

GAlbanus is an hearbe, and the iuyce thereof is called Galbanum, and is like in branches to ye hearb Ferula: and as Varro sayth, Galbanus is the iuyce of ye hearb Ferula, as Isid. saith, li. 18. This hearb is cut in Summer, & iuyce cōmeth out thereof, yt is gathered & dried. Also ye best Galbanum is most cleane with ma∣ny drops, & is like to Thus in colour, wt smooth grains, & the graines therof is not too dry, as Pli. & Dios. meane, & is dried in Sūmer about ye stalk. The vertue therof is firy & hot in the third degrée, & moist in the first degrée. And is feined with pou∣der of Colophonie, that is called Pitis in Gréeke, & with Beanes shalled & broken, & the shalles throwen away, & then that pouder & the leaues medled with ye best Galbanum is softned and tempred. Uery Galbanum and pure may be kept long time, & hath vertue to dissolue & tempet, to swage, to drawe, to make smooth, and to laxe. Smoake thereof awaketh them that haue the sléeping euill, and helpeth ach & stopping of the splene with vine∣ger, & bringeth a dead child out of ye mo∣thers wombe, & cleanseth & purgeth the mother, with hony the pouder of Galba∣num slaieth long wormes in the womb, smoake thereof constraineth menstruall bloud, and driueth away Serpents & ve∣nimous beasts, & wormes, & abateth tooth ach, as Diosc. & Plini. meane, & Plat. also. And there it is sayde, that if Galbanum shall be put into medicine, it shall first be purged of superfluitie, & shal first be molt in a shell on the fire, and then put in water, then the pure Galbanum shall fléete aboue, and the filth, as rind & gra∣uell shall sinke to the bottome. But Di∣oscorides saith, that Galbanum shall bée put in scalding hot water, & what sink∣eth shall be gathered, & what fléeteth shal be throwne away.

(*Galbanum is also a gum or liquor drawen forth of a kind of Ferula in Sy∣ria, called Metopium, griffly or crispe, not moist, nor too drie. Galbanum grow∣eth vpon the mountaine Amanus in Sy∣ria.

Of Gutta. cap. 78.

GVtta right as Galbanum, is the drop∣ping of a certaine trée or hearb, & hath another name, and is called Armonia∣cum. Twigges and braunches of this trée or hearbe, men of the country cut in Summer time, and the dropping thereof is called Gutta, and Armoniacum also a∣mong Phisitions, as Isidore sayth, and Plinius also, the best kinde of this Gutta is most cleane & pure, without medling of earthie matter, and shall be white and fat as Thus, and séemeth if it be broke, shining within and gummie, as Diosc. & Plin. meane, & smelleth like Castorium. Bitter & sowre Gutta is hot in the third degrée, and drye in the second degrée, and hath vertue to dissolue, temper, & to laxe, as it is said in Plat. A scruple of it dronk with Oximel, healeth euils of the splene, and abateth and purgeth smarting, vn∣cleannesse, and filth of the eien, & slayeth long wormes of the wombe medled with iuyce of wormwood, & helpeth againe the gouts medled with hard pitch, & exciteth pisse, and purgeth menstruall bloud, and abateth all swelling and bolning, as the Glose saith super illum locum, Mirra & gutta, &c.

Of Gariophilo. cap. 79.

CLoues bé called Gariophili, and bée perfect fruit with sharpe sauour, and somewhat blacke in coulour, hot and dry in working, and moyst inwardly in doo∣ing, & be lesse strong then other in their qualities, & be the fruit of a certeine trée in Inde. gathered in Summer time whē they be ripe, & be kept fiue yere in great vertue and might: and they shall be kept in a place that is neither too drie, neither too moist, for they rot in a place that is too moist, & for drie in a place that is too dry, and bée somewhat plaine without, with sharpe sauour and swéete smell, and wose some moysture, if ye nayle be thru∣sted therein. And sonie be ioyned with Pouder of good Cloues, meddled with Vineger and Wine with good smell, and thereof they take moysture, and bée Page  [unnumbered] vnneth knowen, for they be more sharpe without then the other be, therefore that sharpnesse is more without then within. But these yt be feined may not bée kept passing 20. daies. Good cloues haue ver∣tue to comfort by the good sauour of thē, & to temper and to wast by the qualities of them, & they comfort the braine & the vertue of féeling, and helpeth against fai∣ling of the heart, and comfort well the spirituall vertue, and helpe also agaynst indignation and ach of the stomacke, that commeth of colde ventositie, for they helpe the naturall vertue, Huc vs{que} Di∣oscorides.

(*Cloues hath vertue to comfort the sinewes, also to consume and dissolue su∣perfluous humours, they be hot and drie in the third degrée: sodden with milke, it comforteth the debilitie of nature. Sir T. Eliot. 2. boo. cha. 17. Gariopillus is the cloue Bilowflowre, and Garlophyllata is Hearbe Bennet, whose roote smelleth as the Cloue.)

Of Genesta. chap. 80.

GEnesta, Broome, hath that name of bitternesse, for it is full bitter to mans tast, & is a shrub that groweth in a place that is forsaken, stony, & vntilled. Presence therof is witnesse, yt the ground is barren and drie, that it groweth in. And hath many braunches knottye and hard, that be gréene in Winter, and yeo∣low flowres in Summer, thick wrapped with heauie smell and bitter sauour, and be neuerthelesse most of vertue, as Dio∣scorides sayth. For the broth of ye leaues thereof abateth swelling of the splene, and helpeth against the tooth ach, & strai∣neth menstruall bloud, and stauncheth the bloudie flire. And the iuyce thereof slayeth lice and nits, and the féede thereof is bitter and blacke, and is in long cods and blacke growen, as it were cods of Fetches of Pesen, and is good to the fore∣said things.

(*Genista, Broome, whereof Besomes are made to swéepe houses: Broome flo∣wers mixed with Swines grease, swa∣geth the paine of the gout, béeing applied thereto.)

Of Grano. chap. 81.

A Graine is the least parte both of the seede and of the Trée, dealed and de∣parted and distinguished in substaunce. In euery graine is both pith and rinde, in the which pith abideth the cause and reason seminall, that a plant may spring thereof, to multiply things of that kinde, and to saue them in kinde béeing. And so a graine is full lyttle of substaunce, of pith, and rinde, and is neuerthelesse long and mightie in effect and vertue seminal. And as graines be diuerse in kinde, so they be diuerse in figure & shape, in place and disposition. Héereof Aristo. speaketh libro primo de Plantis, and sayeth, That some graine and séede is gendered in plants or cods, as it fareth in Annes séed, and in Feuell séede, or other such. And some is gendered in cods and hulls: as it fareth in Beanes, and in other cod ware. And some beare séede in hath shalls, and in cappes without aboue the shalles, as Nuts and Oliues. And some graines be ordeined in hard cores within the fruite, as it fareth in Apples and in Peares. Graines, yt be ordeined in cods & in hulls be diuerse in many manner wise in place, for some be multiplyed in coddes, as it fareth in Celidonye, which is a good hearbe for the eien, & some séede is inclo∣sed in the cod and hull, as the Erane and the Pease. And some in hull not closed, as Wheate and other such. And some graine is neither in cod neither in hull, as Early, but the graine is conteined to the Strawe. And some is double with∣out Interclose, as it fareth in Celidonie, and some is double with Interclose, as the graine of Nasturcium, Cresses, or towne Cars. And some is double or tre∣ble in diuers cells in the cod, as it fareth in Mirtus. In the fruit thereof bée thrée celles, and in euery cell thrée graynes or foure ioyned without Interclose, and thicke betwéene the graines, as in Casia fistula, and sometime thicke and softe Interclose, as in Cucumer, & Cucurbita. And sometime graines haue the Inter∣close of diuerse substaunce, and of diuers kinde, as in Pomegranardes. Therein Page  298 betwéene the greynes, there is some in∣terclose sad and thicke, and some small & thin. But as greynes be diuers in subs∣taunce, so they be diuers in figure and shape: for some be round, and some sha∣pen topwise, and some euenlong, and thrée cornered with many sides, as it fareth in Ciceris, Cherries. The euen-long greynes séemeth as though they were cloue in one side, as it fareth in wheate, and in other such like Greynes be war∣ded and succoured with rindes, skinnes, or hulls and cods, for to saue the inner pith, and kinde heate. Huc vs{que} Arist.

¶Of Gith. chap. 82.

*GIth is a manner pulse much lyke to commin, and is put in bread to make it swéete, and is of blacke colour, as the Glose saith super Esa. 28. And Platea A∣ristotle, and Dioscorid, meane, that Gith is an hearbe hot and drye in the seconde degrée, and groweth among corne, with small séede, and blacke, as it were thrée cornered. And the séed is tempering and softening, and some deale bitter, and hath vertus to dissolue and consume, to waste and to open the stopping of the splene, & to swage ventoutie, and to abate the swelling of Emeroydes, and to staunche the bléeding thereof, and to slaye long wormes of the wombs with honie.

And some meane, that this hearb is Ni∣gella, & the broth thereof slaieth wormes of ye eares, if it be luke warme hot drop∣ped therein, if it be sod in vineger, & bre∣keth postumes if it be sod in wine, bran, and line séede, and Culuer doung, and so layd therto in a plaister wise: and is ac∣coūted good against Lepra, if it be laid too with Radish sod in wine, and a litle salt, and exciteth menstruall bloud, and pro∣cureth hastie bearing of childe, if the wo∣man be smoaked therewith. If Nigella lye in wine all night, that wine dronke, helpeth against the euill Seranguria, that is small pissing, and ofte against the pas∣sion Illiaca, and shall not be sod, least it be too violent: for as Constantine sayth, Nigella slayeth, if it be taken in great quantitie.

(*Some learned men, suppose this Nigella, to be wilde Commin, it is hot and drye, in the third degrée, take héed of this hearbe, if ye goe beyond measure, it breedeth death.) D. Turner.

¶Of Ilice. cap. 83.

ILex, Ilicis, is a manner Oke, a trée that beareth maste, & hath that name of Eligo, gis, to choose. For as Isid. saith lib. 24. First men found & those the fruits of this trée to their meate and foode, be∣fore vse of corne, men liued by such mast in olde time. Among trées that beare mast, this maner Oke Ilex, is accounted most worthy and noble. The fruite therof fée∣deth many Nations, as Plin. saith li. 16. And Ilex is a trée with a great roote & déepe in the ground, and most surest and saddest stocke, and hath most hardest and thickest rinde, with some manner riuels, and with many boughes and braunches, and by reason of many faire leaues and broad, it causeth pleasaunt shadow, and beareth great plentie of fruite and of maste. The trée thereof is durable and strong, & nigh vnable to roote, for stockes thereof layd vnder water, turneth as it were to hardnes of stone, and the longer time they be in such moystie places, the more hard they be. Therefore such tim∣ber is able to buylding of Temples of Gods, and of Palaices of kings. And so for hard and durable matter and kinde of such trée misbeléeued men, made thereof Images and mawmets of false Gods, as Plinius saith.

(*Ilex, a trée called of some Holme One kinde of it beareth the graine, of A∣pothecaries called Kirmes.)

¶Of Iunipero. chap. 84.

IVniperus is a trée, as Isidore sayth, & hath that name among the Gréekes, for it groweth broad and wide beneath, and narrow aboue, as fire ariseth. For if it take fire, it kéepeth and holdeth it long time, so that if coales be raked in the a∣shes thereof, it quencheth not within a yeare, as it is sayd. Fire is called ir, in gréeke, therfore this trée is called Iuniper'Page  [unnumbered] as it were bréeding fire. And some Iuni∣perus is great, and some is little & small, as Isidor. speaketh lib. 17. And either is a rough trée with prickes, and many small leaues and sharpe: and either beareth, but the lesse beareth more fruite than the more, and beareth many graynes small & round, and be first gréene, and after pur∣ple, or as it were some deale redde, when they be ripe at full. Unneth this trée léeseth gréene colour, either fruite or leaues, and is hot and drye in the thirde degrée, as Dioscorides saith.

The fruit therof is gathered in sprin∣ging time, and is kept two yeare, & hath vertue to dissolue, to consume & to wast. The broath thereof if it be sod in rayne waler, helpeth against the sixe ye cōmeth of sharpnes and strength of medicine, if the patient he bathed therein. Of Iuni∣perus is made. Oleum Iuniperū, which is most effectiue against the Quartane, if the patient take euery daye thereof, the waight of a drain in meat or otherwise, and helpeth agaynst the passion Illiaca, if the place be anoynted therewith, and helpeth them that haue the fallyng euil, and, breaketh the slone, if it be put into the bladder, with an instrument, that is called Siringa. Siringa is a smal pipe, by the which the medicine is put into the bladder.

Wine in the which fruite of Iuni∣perus is sod, with drie figges, pourgeth the breast, and doth away the cough. Huc vsque Plutearius & Dioscorides. Iuni∣perus groweth in stonie places, that is not illed, and in wildernes. Serpents fly the shadow thereof, as Plinius saith.

Therefore men suppose that the fruit ther of helpeth against venime.

*The gum that woseth foorth of the Iuniper trée, is called Vernix. The ope∣ration héere of the whole trée, is hot and drye.)

¶Of Isope. chap. 85.

ISopus is a lyttle shorte hearbe, and groweth among stoanes, and clea∣neth by the roote to the harde stoanes, as Cassiodorus meaneth super Psal∣mum.

Dioscorides saith that this hearbe is hot and drye in the third degrée. The ver∣tue thereof is in floures and in leaues, more than in the stalke or roote. And in summer when it bereth floures, ye must gather them, and drye them in a cleane place and darke that is not smoakie, and they haue vertue to dissolue, to temper, to consume, to waste, and to cleanse the lunges, and cleanseth and purgeth the breast of all manner euils that commeth of colde, if it be sodde in wine with drye figs, and the wine giuen to the Patient to drinke: and doth aware ache of the stomacke and of the guts: washing & ba∣thing with the broth and water that it is sod in, purgeth and cleanseth the mo∣ther of superfluitie of humours.

This hearbe Isope heated in a shell, and laid on the head, abateth cold rume. Volam codentem reprimit, and doth a∣way ache that commeth of ventositie, & is called Haec Isopus, and Hoc Isopum, also. And Authours meane, that ye mid∣dle sillable thereof is shorte, and some saye, that it is long. It is sayde in Aurora.

Est humilis petrae{que} suis, radicibus haerens,
Et vitijs Isopus, pectoris herba me∣dens.

These two verses meane, that Isope is a lowe hearbe, & cleaueth to the stone by rootes, and is medicinable for euils of the breast, and who that can scan a verse may know, that the middle sillable stan∣deth for a short sillable in the seconds verse. And in Anticlaudiano, Alanus maketh it long, and is made long in thrée verses that follow.

Se celum terrae conformat Cedrus Isopo.
And againe another saith.
Pectoris herba cauas rupes incedit Isopus.
Yet followeth another verse.
Ad Pulmonis opus confert medica∣men Isopus.

So it is long in all these thrée vear∣ses, that be heéere set for ensample therof. And Plinius saith, though that this hearb be little, yet it was of so great authori∣tie among men in olde time, that they Page  299 supposed, that they might not be clean∣sed in their Temples without sprinckling with this hearbe. Also among the He∣brewes, they that should be cleansed and purified, should be purified with a bundel of Isope, as mention is made. Exo. 12. & Leuit. 12.*& Num. 15.* Also the powder thereof helpeth against the dropsie,* as Dioscorides saith,* and cleanseth the body of wan colour,* and causeth full faire co∣lour in the face, and abateth tooth ache,* & tingling of cares, & slayeth long wormes in the wombe, as he sayth.

(*Hissope, is of two kindes, & it is hot & dry in the third dergée. Read Dodoneus.)

Of Iaceros.

*THere is in Calicot a fruite, which they name Iaceros, the bodye of the trée, is of the bignesse of a peare trée: the fruite is of the length of two handfulls, and as bigge as the thigh of a man. The fruite groweth out of the bodie of ye trée, vnder the braunches, and some in the midst of the tree,and some lower. The colour is greene, the fruite not vnlike the Pineapple: but with a more finer order of scales: when it is ripe it turneth black. It is gathered in December, it hath the fast of a swéete Gourd, and of a peach, & beareth the relish of many fruites, as re∣porteth Lewes Vertomannus in fol. 393 cap. 14. lib. 2.

¶Of Iacincto. cap. 86.

IAcinctus is an hearbe with a pur∣ple floure, and hath that name of a noble childe that was found dead among purple floures. And the hearbe hath that name of the hap of the dead childe, and is also lyke to a Uiolet in floure and roote, as Isid. saith li. 17. Also there is a preci∣ous stone both of the same name and of the same coulour, which is accounted a∣mong the twelue precious stones in the Apocalips. Iacinctus is also the name of a man, of a stone, and of a flower: The proper coulour thereof is the coulour of aire or of heauen. Purple hath coulour of bloud or of fire, and Byssas of snow. With these twelue coulours, bestments of Priests were arayed in the olde Te∣stament.

¶Of Iusquiamo. cap. 87.

IVsquiamus in Gréeke, is in English called Henbane,* and Canicularis in La∣tine, and hath that name Canicularis, for in either side of the stalke thereof grow∣eth as it were Crabs heads, as it faeth in Pomegranards, as Isidore saith li. 17

The mouthes thereof be departed & clouen, and haue diuers séedes lyke to Poppie séede This hearbe is called Is∣na, mad; for the vse thereof is perillous: for if it be eate or dronke, it breedeth madnesse, or slow lykenesse of sléepe.

Therefore this hearb is called common∣ly Mirilidium, for it taketh awaye wit and reason. Isidore sayth, that this is a venemous hearbe, and hath blacke séede, red or white, as linius saith and Dio∣scorides: the blacke is worst and vene∣mous, the red is lesse euill, and the white is least euill. Therefore the vse thereof accordeth most to medicine. & hath vertue to constraine and binde, and also to breed sléepe: and those that haue blacke seede, haue blacke leaues, and rough and hard, with Purple floures, with hard leaues, thicke and sad. Those that haue reddest seeds, haue white floures, and also butter floures, and leaues softer. And those that haue white seed, haue white floures & fat leaues & ful of iuyce: the hearb is cold in ye third degrée, & dry in the second degree. Therfore it abateth swelling, & bindeth the wombe, and stauncheth bloud, and healeth tooth ache that commeth of heat, and abateth hot reume. Huc vs{que} Diosc. and Plinius.

And Aristotle in libro vegitabilium speaketh of Henbane seede and sayeth, that the seede of the Henbane is poyson, and slayeth among the Parthians, and is eaten at Ierusalem: and so by good ground or euill, where it groweth, the mallice thereof and venime abateth or increaseth. Magister in historia sup. Ex∣odum saith. That in the Crowne of the chiefe Bishop, sloode a floure lyke to an hearbe that the Greeks call Iusquiams. And vnder that floure in the vtter side Page  [unnumbered] of the Crowne or Miter was a Circle of gold about the forhead, and the noll and the circle was distinguished in treble or∣der, and vpon the circle stoode golden flo∣wers like to Plantayne, from the Tem∣ple to the Temple. And so in that these hearbes were priuiledged, that the lyke∣nesse of them were worthy to be set in tokening and figure in the crowne and Myter of the chiefe Priest.

(*Hiosciamus, blacke, yeolowe, and white: the blacke is most hurtfull.)

¶Of Castanea. cap. 88.

CAstanea, the Casteyne trée, is a great trée and an high, and is called Castenea among the Gréekes as Isidore saith: for the fruite thereof is double in the lyke∣nesse of Ginetall closed in an huske, and be taken out of the shale, as it were by manner gelding. Therefore such Trées are called Castanie in Gréeke, and haue that name of Castrando, gelding. If this trée is felde,* there springeth as it were a woode in the place all about, as Isidore saith. This trée is full profitable, for the stocke thereof is good to building and fuell, and the rinde and the leaues to me∣dicine. And though the fruite on ye trée, be hid in a vile rinde, rough and harde, yet when it is taken out thereof, it is found swéete, & namely if it be sod or ro∣sted. Isaac in Dietis saith, that this fruit is hot in the middle of the first degrée, & drye in the second, and is swéete because of heate, and sourish because of drinesse. But Casteynes bréede swelling, if men eate too many thereof, and breedeth also head ach because of fumositie, that is clo∣sed therein: but to purge & cleanse this fruite, it must be rosted or sod in water, that the earthy matter may be wasted by the fire, and the fruite made lesse harde, and lesse fast, or els that it maye be tem∣pered with softnesse & moystnesse of the fresh water, and then it nourisheth well, and bréedeth good humour, and tempreth drinesse of the body and the breast, and namely if it be eaten with Sugar Acata secundum alium librum. And of chola∣ricke and fleumaticke men it shal be ea∣ten with hony, and is good by medicine, for it restraineth wambling and spew∣ing, and comforteth the gut that is called Ieiuniū. Also a Casteyne tempered with a lyttle honnie, healeth at best biting of a mad dogge, or mans biting. Also this fruite made in a Plaister, with Barley meale and vineger, healeth effectuallye swellyng of breasts and of teares. Also the rindes and leaues burnt and made to powder, tempered with vinegar, and layed to a young mans head in a Play∣ster wise, maketh haire increase, and kéepeth haire from fallyng. Huc vsque Isa∣ac in dictis.

(*Amongst all kinde of wilde fruites, the Chesnut is best, and méetest to be ea∣ten: for they nourish reasonable well, yet they be hard of digestion. Well rost, and dipped in butter, they nourish best.)

¶Of Lauro. chap. 89.

THe Laurell trée is called Laurus, and is a trée of victory,and is worthy to be praised in many maner wise. For sin∣gular excellencie of grace and of vertue, sometime Conquerours were crowned, with garlands of Laurel trée, when they had the victorie. And the Gréekes call the trée Daphnis. Singular properties of this trée we haue set before in this same booke, in litera A. Séeke there, and thou shalt finde.

Of Lentisco. chap. 90.

LEntiscus is a lowe and a medicinall trée,* and is called Scinus among the Gréeks and Hebrewes by another name, as the Glose saieth super Dan. 13. The iuyce of the leaues thereof healeth lyps, and chinnes and whelkes, as it is sayde there. And is called Lentiscus, for the pricke thereof is blunt and softe and fol∣ding, for we vse to call a thing that is softe and plyant Lentus, as Isidore saith lib. 17. Of the fruit of this trée commeth Oyle, and of the rinde commeth Resina, that is called Masticke. And the best brée∣deth in the Iland Chio, as Isidore saith lib. 16. Dioscorides, Platea, and Plinius meane, that the leaues of this trée be full hot and drye, and so is all the trée, & haue Page  300 vertue to binde and to fasten, and to com∣fort, and helpeth therefore against spew∣ing, and all manner running of bloud, & of other humour. And the •••m thereof that is to say, Mistix, hath such lyke ver∣tues. And this gumme hath the name of Mistgand of the wing, for with chew∣ing it is made tough and cleansing, and harde as waxe among ye feeth: & to chew∣ed, it cleanseth and purgeth the gums of rotted humours, and fasteneth wagging and rocking téeth; & maketh them white and cleane, and strengtheneth and com∣forteth the rootes thereof, and cleanseth & amendeth euill breath. This Masticke is gathered in this wise. I••the ende of springing time the rindes of this Trée Tenultus, be cut and flie, and the ground is made cleane, and cloathes be spred ther on, least the lycour that falleth shuld fall into the ground: and then the lycor that is faire and cléere, and cleane is best: that that is dim and medled with earth, is nought worth. Mastike cleanseth & purgeth the brain, and causeth to spit much, and comforted the vertue of digestion, & destroyeth ventositie and windes, & sow∣dreth and ioyneth together in a wonder∣full manner all broken things, as preci∣ous stones, and other things that be bro∣ken, if it be molten on an hot tile or flate. And Plinius and Dioscor. meane, that Lenticas is a trée wt many pricks, and with déepe roote in the grounde, and clouen and diuided in many parts. The fruite thereof is lyke to Myrtus, but the greynes is lesse, and reared within when it is ripe, and within is a manner rough wooll, and the iuyce of that wooll, staun∣theth the running and dropping of wo∣men.

(*Of the Masticke trée commeth, the gumme Masticke, which is in cleere and small greynes, of the quantitie of wheat cornes.)

¶Of Lilio. chap. 91.

THe Lily is an hearbe with a white flower and though the leaues of the floure be white: yet within shineth the likenesse of golde. Dioscorides and Plat. speake of the Lily and say, that it is hot and moyst. And some Lily is wilde, and some is same, and some beareth a purple floure or yeolowe, and some beareth a white pure, and that is most mightie in working.

The vertue of the Lily ripeth dotch∣es and sores, and therefore it helpeth a∣gainst Pastumes and botches, if it bée stamped with Auxungia Grece. Also the vertue thereof tempereth and fasteneth matter. Therefore it helpeth against hard∣nesse of the splene, if the place of ye splene and the side about the splene be annoyn∣ted with iuyce of Lilyes well meddeled and incorporate with olde Oyle. And vertue thereof cleanseth and purgeth, if ponder thereof be medled with Roses, & the, face washed therewith: and vertue thereof easeth sores, therefore leaues sod and layd to a sore that is burnt, healeth the sore, & the roote therof doth the same, if it be brused with oyle, and layd therto, and vertue thereof tempreth and softe∣neth hard matter, therefore it bringeth out menstruall purga••on: and vertue thereof abateth swellyng, and helpeth a∣gainst postumes that come of swellyng ventositie, if the roote thereof be stamped with oyle, and ofte said thereto. Huc vs∣que Dioscorides. And Plin. saith, that the Lily roote maketh the floure therof wor∣thie and noble in many manner wise: for the roote thereof dronke with wine, hea∣teth biting of serpents, & helpeth against ye mallice and venime of frogs. And this roote sod in wine, and medled with oyle, helpeth Podagre, and knots of the féete, and maketh hayre growe in places that be sealded and burnt. Also this roote sod in wine and medled with honie, helpeth veynes that he cut. Leaues thereof sod in wine, healeth sore wounds: & séede there∣of brayed, is layd to the holy fire: and floures and leaues heale sore hotches. Huc vs{que} plin. li. 20. ca. 19. Item in cod. lib. cap. 5. The Lily is next to the Rose in worthines & noblenes, & in a certayne gathering of oyntment thereof, is made a noble oyntment and oyle, that is called Oleum Liliorum, as Oleum Rosaceum, is ofte made of Roses. Of the root therof springeth a stalke of thrée cubits long, & in the top of the stalke hangeth a floure Page  [unnumbered] downward, that is narrow by the stalk, and wexeth in bredth wider and wider, shapen as a bell, & she floure hath with in as it here small threddes that con∣taine the séede. In the middle standeth chiues of saffro, and so nothing is more gracious than the Lily in fairnes of co∣sent in swéetnesse of smell, and in effect of working and vertue. The coulour thereof is treble, white, redde, and pur∣ple. Huc vsque Plinius libro.0. capi∣tulo. 5.

The roofe of the Lilye hath, manye cloues, as the roote of Garlike, as Arist. sayth in lib. vegitab. and in euery cloue, is vertue feminall, and of each springeth a plant when it is set alone. Séeke more héereof before, in the same, De Allio in litera A. And héereto Arist. saith that the stalke of the Lily hath many knots, and if the stalke be bended and layd downe, and couered with earth, while the roote is in the grounde, and ere the séed bread, out and vnclose, then within few dayes, thou shalt finde of euerye knot, a small cloue sprong, as it were out of the roote, and that is wonder. Also there it is said, that Lily floures be first gréene, and af∣terward white, and if the stalke be cut, all from the roote, for all the kinde humor of the stalke is closed in the pith, the kind heate that is in the pith, tourneth so the ouer part of the stalke, and maketh dige∣stion in the matter of the floure, and then the floure spreadeth and is white, when the humour is full digested. Therefore it is sayd that Uersifiers likened the Li∣ly to wans in wit, that is busie at last to things that euer shall last. And there it is sayd that the Lily hath not the vertue seminall in séed and in roote: and in that the Lily is diuers, & varieth from Léekes and Garlik, and other that haue seminal vertue in diuers places. Héereof loke be∣fore, in the chapter of Garlike and Oni∣ons in litera A. & C.

Also the Lily stalks with floures new cut, put in a clodde of claye, keepeth the floures fresh long time. The Lilye flo∣wer smelleth full swéete, white it is whole and not broken, and stinketh full sowle, if it be broken and froted with handes.

And the Lily hath onely the, flower with the seede in sleepe of fruite, and all the vertue that the Lily hath is stalk & in roote in shewed in the head in the flo∣wer and in the seede, and the more high∣er the floure is on the stalke, the more the head bendeth downward: and the flower thereof is plaine and smooth with out, and softe to touch and to handle, ound in shape, and liking in sight, with goldish greynes contained within ye hol∣lownesse of the floure: the which greines dye and colour more than saffron: and these dieng greynes be borne on with vi. stalkes. And the Lily floure is compou∣ned of vi. full white leaues that hée full nigh togethers. And is beautified, with seauen golden greynes: in the middle whereof is the seede in stéede of fruite, & is wonderfully white, & is closed about with benefice of leaues of the flower, that the seede maye be kepte and saued from grieuing of the colde aire that is without.

(*Lilium candidum, there is also the Orenge coulour, and red purple Lilyes, the wilde Lily called Martagon and A∣matilis Hispanorum. Read Matthe∣olus, &c.)

¶Of Lactuca. ca. 92.

LEctuce is called Lactuca, & hath that name of plentie of humour, as Isido. saith, or els for it maketh ofte milke in women, that nourish and féede children. And in men this heard ye withstandeth mo∣uing of Venus, & thereof is double kinde, wilde and tame. The wilde we call Sera∣lia, for the backe thereof hath sharpe prickes and séeth as it were a sawe, lyke as Isid. speaketh in his seuentéenth booke and the last chapter.

Isaac in Dietis. speketh of this hearb and saith that this hearbe wild Lettuce, is lyke in shape to the tame, but it hath longer braunches smaller and sharper, & lesse gréene for scarsitie of moysture: and therefore it is much more bitter and dri∣er. Therefore many men meane, that it exciteth menstruall bloud, and putteth out rawe humoures, as Dioscorides saith.

Page  301And the tame Lettuce is cold and moyst, and temperate, that it passeth not mea∣sure in neither qualytie. Therefore vse thereof accordeth both to meate and to medicine, and is subtill of substance, and namely when it is fresh, and is therfore soone digested, and abateth gnawing and burning that commeth of Cholera ru∣bea, and cooleth heate & boyling of bloud, and exciteth sleepe, and healeth head ach, that commeth of cholaricke humour and sumositie, and multiplyeth milke in wo∣men, and Semen in men, and this is by reason of good bloud that it bréedeth in perfect quantitie and qualitie: but when it is olde it is hard, and moysture thereof wihtdraweth, and the hearbe is bitter, & then vse thereof bréedeth bloud at worst, and appaireth the sight, and maketh it fayle, and slayeth the feelyng, for it stif∣feleth naturall féeling with sowrenesse thereof. Such Lettuce is most grieuous to such as will get childrē, for it runneth and consealeth the seminall matter, and namely the séede thereof, if it be ofte ta∣ken in meate or in drinke. Huc vs{que} Isa. in Dietis. Lib. 20. cap. 8. Plinius speak∣eth of Lettuce and sayeth, that a manner kinde of lettuce groweth of it selfe with∣out tillyng, and that manner Lettuce is called Caprina, for if it be throwen into the sea, flayeth all the fish that is nigh thereabout. Milke thereof with vineger, water and wine healeth the Dropsie. The hearbe with the leaues stamped & sprong with salt, healeth sinewes that are forecut.

Another manner Lettuce groweth in fields, and leaues therof stamped healeth botches, if it be laid to them with medle. And among ye Gréekes, this maner Let∣tuce is called Isopum, or Esoperum.

The third manner Lettuce groweth in woodes, and is called Stancio. Leaues thereof grounde with meale and floure, healeth wounds, and stauncheth bloud, & healeth rotted wounds. The roote and the leaues abateth the euill, which is called, the holy life.

Another manner Lettuce with round leaues & shorte, is called Heracia among many men. Hawkes scrape this hearbe, and take out the iuyce thereof, & touche and heale theyr eyen therewith, and doe away dimnesse and blindnesse when they be olde. The iuyce healeth all the euills of the eyen, and namelye if a womans milke be medled therewith. And it hea∣leth biting of Serpents, and stinging of Scorpions, if the iuyce thereof be dronk in Wine, and the leaues stamped, and layed to the wounde, in a plaister wise, swageth and healeth all manner swel∣lyng.

Also the séede of all manner Lettuce, wilde & tame, chasteth in sléepe, dreames of lecherie, and suffereth not the body to be polluted neither desiled, if it be oft ta∣ken in meate: but ofte vse thereof, and too much thereof eaten, grieueth ye cléer∣nesse of the eyen. Plinius thereto giueth many other praisings in the same chap∣ter, but this shall suffice at this time.

¶Of Lappa. chap. 93.

LAppa, the Clee, is an hearbe with broad leaues, and thicke about the ground, and hath in the tops of the stalke knots with crooked prickes, that oft clea∣ueth to mans clothes. Lib. 17. Isid. spea∣keth héereof and saith, that this hearb is called Lappa, because it hath great leaues disposed by the ground: & is called Phi∣lantropos among the Gréekes, for it is rough and cleaueth to mans clothes and groweth by olde walls, & is called Phi∣lantropos, as it were louing mankinde, for it cleaueth to mans clothes, by a ma∣ner affection and loue, as it séemeth.

Thereof is double kinde, sharp & round, disposed to the lykenesse of an horse foote, therefore many men call it Vngula Ca∣balina, an horse hoofe: and either hath leaues with heauie and mightie sauour and smell, as Dioscorides saith. And li. 20. cap. 22. Plinius saieth, that this name Lappa, is the name of manye manner hearbes, for it is the name of all manner Dockes, and be all medicinable, for they healé smiting of scorpions, nor they smite not a man, that is baulnied with ye iuice thereof.

The broath thereof helpeth and also comforteth the téeth, if it be luke warme hot helde in the mouth. The séede there, Page  [unnumbered] of 〈…〉 of the stomack, and helpeth them much east blond, and them also that haue the blondie flixe for the roote thereof wih wiar bindeth the wombe, but the leaues medled with salte laxeth the wombe. The seede dronke, hea∣leth them which haue the stone. All the hearbe stamped with Auxungia grece, helpeth against the botch in the breast. Huc vs{que} vlinius.

And Plato. meaneth, ye Lappa, which is called Lappatum also, is an hot hearb and a drye, and hath vertue to dissolue, and to temper and to laxe, and to open, & to kindle, and helpeth therefore against it∣ching, and also against scabs wet and dry, and against the shingles, and wasteth the humours betweene the flesh & the skin. And softneth and abateth hardnesse and swelling of Postumes, & helpeth against the cold dropsie, & against stopping of the splene: and the iuyce therof medled with the iuyce of Rewe, purgeth the braine of superfluitie of fleme, if it be dropped in∣to the nosethrilles in a bath, or in a hot aire.

(*Lapathum, there are fiue kindes, Dockes and Sorrell, Patience, as Ru∣mex, Oxilapathum, stiuum, &c. Reade Dod. fol. 557.

Of Lappate. cap. 64.

LAppates is a manner meate made, compowned and confect of certaine hearbs of gardens, as ye glose saith super Iud. ca. 15. And Alexander Nequam spe∣keth thereof, & saith, that Lappates cibus est, et olus componet eundom. The me∣ning is, yt Lappates is a meate made of hearbs. And other meaneth yt it is a man∣ner kind of hearbs & of worts, wt broade leaues, as a Clete, but the leaues of Lap∣pates be soft, & fat, & plaine, & wonderful∣ly wralled & lapped, & cleauing togethers with a short caulstock, knotty without, & full of pith within. This hearb accordeth to meate & to medicine, & thereof is good meate made, that may be kept long time, if it be busily compounded and sod with vineger, smapie séed, and hony. And such meat is commonly called Compositum, and hath a singular vertue to withstand dronkennesse, as Plinius saith, lib. 10. 20. For if it be eaten before meat, it kapeth from dronkennesse: and if it be taken af∣ter meate in dronkennesse, it maketh it passe away. And the doctrine & teaching of Rasis meaneth, yt there is nothing better for broken bones, & is good to ye stomack & to the sinewes. Therefore he comman∣deth & biddeth, that this hearb be giuen to them that haue quaking, & the paste, and to them that spit bloud, and to children: and bréedeth plenty of milke. The iuyce therof helpeth against venim and smiting of Serpents; and namely the séed thereof helpeth against biting of hounds, as Isid. saith, lib. 17.

Of Legumine. cap. 65.

LEgumina, Codware yt serueth to po∣tage, hath this name Legumina of Legendo, choosing, as it were chose. For men in old time chose the best codware, & made them meat therof: and graines that be some deale more, & greater & thicker then graines of Wheale or Baily, be properly called Legumina, & be not gen∣dered in hulls, as wheat, but in code: and be closed therin, as it fareth in pesen, fet∣ches, & beans. And Legumina, codware, is diuers in quantitie, in colour, in figure, shape, and sauour. For among such Cod∣ware, Lupines & beanes be greatest, and pesen & fetches be meane, filles & vaches be smallest in quantity: and be diuerse in coulour. For some be white, and some blacke, and some red, and some meddeled with diuers coulours. In shape they bée diuers, for some be round, and some bée euenlong, & some thrée cornered, & some plaine. In sauour they differ, for some bée sowre and hard, and made soft, and good to eating and séething. And some bée bitter of themselues, as Lupines, and bée made swéet and sauoury, with good wa∣tring.

And Codware shall be gathered when they begin to ripe. For they will fall soone out of the coddes, and be not well séene when they be shed: as it areth of Lupines, as Plinius sayth, libro. 18. And such codware is in substance, thicke, fast, colde, and drye, and harde to defie, and Page  302 is hard to séething, for fast and hard sub∣staunce, and may not well be sod in pitte water: but to seeth such Codware well, needeth running water of a well or of a streame Oft of Codware boystōus meat is made, which accordeth to strong men of complection and of kinde: for Cod∣ware of it selfe, is hard to digest, and nourisheth much, and comforteth when it is digested: but it bréedeth swelling and ventositie, but the ventositie is aba∣ted thereof by medling of things that de∣stroy ventositie, as Comin and Anete, & other such, as Dioscorides saith and affir∣meth.

(*Codware bréedeth swelling, and is to be vsed of them that can kéepe good dyet, for beanes and pease of all sortes, doe breede winde, &c.)

¶Of Lente. cap. 96.

LEns, lentis, is a manner of Codware, and is seruisable to Potage, as Isido. saith lib 17 and hath that name, for it is moyst and softe, and namely in grasse: & of Lens; lentis, commeth Lencicula, the diminutiue thereof, and is writ with c, for difference of Lens, lendis, that is a nit, a little head worme, & is writ with d, in the Genitiue case, and in all the o∣ther, except the Nomnatiue case. Therof one speaketh in this manner.

Lens lendis capiti, Lens lentis con∣uenit oi.

That is to say, that Lens lendis, is the nit in the head, and Lens lentis, is the titl, and accordeth to the mouth.

The till is colde and drye, and compow∣ned of contraries, as Isaac saith: for one vertue thereof is in the rinde, and ano∣ther in the pith and the meale: For it hath in the rinde a manner sharpnesse, by the which it lareth the wombe: but the pith and the meale is sowrish, and comforteth the stomacke, and constrai∣neth and bindeth, and gendreth thicke & melancholike bloud, and filleth the brain, with thicke smoke, and is therfore cause of horrible and dreadfull dreames, and grieueth the stomacke with ventositie & swelling and stoppeth all the passages & veynes of the bodye, and dryeth the sub∣staunce of sinewes and of skinnes of the braine, and is most grieuous to the skins of the eyen, for it distempereth the moy∣sture thereof and fordrieth. And he say∣eth, that it greueth whole eyen, and then much more it grieueth sore eyen, because that it fordrieth. Oft vse of this, breedeth in the body most wicked euils and passi∣ons, and namely if that it be eaten with the skin and hulles, and if the bodye bée drye of complection. But somtime it hel∣peth them that be hot & moyst. And hel∣peth them that haue the dropsie, if it bée eaten without the skin, for it gendreth much swelling and stretching of guts, and of skins. Till that is most great & fresh and easie to seething, is best, & that both to meate and to medicine. The ma∣lice of Till is tempered if the skinne be put away, and the pith sod in fresh wa∣ter, and then oyle put thereto, & pepper, Comin, and other such things Huc vsq Isaac in Dietis. Plin. saith, lib. 17. cap. 12. that the till loneth leane land more then fat, and dry wether and aire, & all Cod∣ware loueth water before the blossome, and drinesse after the blooming.

(*Lentills, not common, and is hard of digestion, & causeth dreadfull dreames, it bréedeth cankers, leprosie, and mad∣nesse, yet it is medicinable.)

¶Of Lino. chap. 97.

BOth Flexe and séede is called Linum,* & hath that name, for it is both softe and smooth, and full liking, as Isid. saith li. 19. Li. 12. ca. 2. Plin saith, that flaxe is sowen in grauelly places and plaine, and that in springing time and is gathered in Summer. Flaxe groweth in euen stalks, and be yeolow floures or blew and after commeth hoppes, and therein is the seede, and when the hoppe beginneth to were, then the flaxe is drawen vp and gathe∣red all whole, and is then lyned, and af∣terward made to knots and lyttle bun∣dells, and so laid in water, and lyeth ther long time, and then it is taken out of the water, and layed abroad, till it be dryed, and turned and woond in the Sunne, and then bound in pretie nitches & bundles, and afterward knocked, beaten and brai∣ed, Page  [unnumbered] and carfled, rudded and gnodded, rib∣bed and heckled, and at the last sponne. Then the thred is sod and bleaked, and bucked and ofte layed drieng, wetted, and washed, and sprinkled with water, vntill that it be white, after diuers wor∣king and crauayle. And there be manye manner Flexes, but the fairest of all, groweth in Aegypt, for thereof is Bislus made right faire, and white as snowe, as Plin. saith li. 19. ca. 12. This flaxe is not most strong, but thereof commeth most winning, for thereof be kinde vestments made for Priests. Flaxe is néedfull to di∣uers vses. For thereof is made clothing to weare, and sayles to sayle, and nets to fish and to hunt, and thred to sew, ropes to binde, and strings to shoote, bondes to binde, lines to meate and to measure, and shéetes to rest in, and sackes, bagges, and purses, to put and kéepe things in: and so not hearbe is so néedfull, to so manye di∣uers vses to mankinde, as is the flaxe.

And the séede thereof is hot and moyst, or els temperate betwéene moyst & drie, and so thereof is oyle made, that is more needfull to other vse than to meate. For Isaac saith, Line seede nourisheth but lyt∣tle, and is harde to digest, and grieueth the stomacke, and bréedeth much swel∣lyng, but it tempereth and softeneth if it be parched, and is the better if it be ta∣ken with honie. It helpeth against the cough, and exciteth Venus, and moueth to loue, if it be eaten with honie and pep∣per, and is good for postumes, for it ripeth them, and swageth and easeth, and ma∣keth thicke humour cléere and thin, and so it dissolueth & destroyeth postumes of the mother, if the patient be ofte nouri∣shed with the broth therof, as Isaac saith in Dietis.

(*Of Lin commeth the Linséed, wher of is made Painters oyle, besides sun∣dry other vses.)

¶Of Malo. chap. 98.

MAlus, the apple trée, is a Trée, that beareth apples, and is a greate trée in it selfe, but it is lesse and more short then other trées of the woods, with knots & riueled rind, and maketh shadow with thicke boughs & branches, & is faire with diuers blossomes, & flowres, & is liking with good fruit and noble, & is gracious in sight and in tast, & vertuous in medi∣cine, and the apple is called Malum, mali, but the trée is called Hec malis, & Hec pomus also: and hath that name, for that the fruit thereof is round. And so apples that be most round be called Mala, as I∣sidore saith, li. 17. For Malum in Gréek, is Rotundum in Latine, and rounde in English.

The apple trée is diuers and varieng from other trées of woods: for the apple trée, and namely the tame apple trée, is of double kinde, for the stocke thereof, springeth on the ground, and the graffe thereof springeth of another trée, and is graffed on the stocke, and is so oned by graffing, that of twaine is one compow∣ned, and the graffe so graffed, tourneth al the vertue of the stocke into his owne kinde and qualitie, as Affredus saith, su∣per finem primi li. vegitab. Looke before in the same booke in the treatise of graf∣fing of trées, about the beginning.

The apple trée waxeth barren, excepte it be pared and shredde, and discharged of water boughs, & of superfluity, as he sai∣eth. For ye humour which is drawen frō the root, sufficeth not to bring forth fruit, if it passeth into nourishing and séeding, of barren boughs & branches. Looke be∣fore de fructificatione arborum, et causa ciusdem.

Of Apples trees is diuerse kindes, for some beareth sowrish fruit & hard, & some right sowre, & some right swéete, with a good sauour and pleasaunt. And this diuersity cōmeth of diuers qualities, of the humours, & of more féeble or more strong working of heate that is in the root, as it is touched before in the begin∣ning.

Of Malo granato. ca. 99.

MAlus Granatus in the Trée that beareth Pomegranardes,* and the Trée is the Feminine gender, and the fruite the Neuter gender, and is called Malum Granatum: For it containeth many greynes within the rinde, and the Page  303 roundnesse, as Isi saith li. 18. and the rind thereof is called Psidia, and the flower, Balaustia, & some of the floures be white, and some purple; and some red as a rose. And these Pomegarnards be called Ma∣la punica, for they came first out of the Countrey of Punica, as Isidore saith.

The trée is full hard with many knots, and boughes, and braunches, and grow∣eth more in bredth than in length, and may not well awaye with colde, and so the floures thereof be soone lost in hoare frost. And Arist. sayth, that this tree lea∣ueth his mallice, and chaungeth out ther of by craft of tilling. Looke before in this booke, De arborum culture.

And Plinius saith, that of this tree is many manner of kindes, but wée shall speake now of two manner at this time. For as Dioscorides saieth, and Isaac in Dietis, Of Pomegranards is two man∣ner kindes: One Pomegranarde Trée beareth swéete apples, hot and moyst, & some beareth sower apples, colde & drye, and may be kept longer than other: but the swéete accordeth more to medicine, for all the trée is medicinall, & the fruite thereof accordeth but lyttle to meat, and so Isid. meaneth lib. 17. where he sayeth, That Phisitions denie, that bodies shuld be nourished with meate of Pomegra∣nards, but they suppose that it accordeth more to medicine than to feeding of the body. And all the trée, and namelye the fruite thereof, hath vertue to constraine & to binde, to comfort and to fasten, and to harden and dry thin humours & fléeting, and to staunche cholaricke spewing, and to staunch bloud, as Isaac teacheth open∣ly, and Dioscor. and Plat. also. If it be ta∣ken in couenable manner and due order, it helpeth against all passions of the bo∣dy, both within and without: but ye swéet breedeth more ventositie and swelling, & they doe lesse quench their thirst, that be diseased with feauers, and therefore they agrée worse with them that haue the A∣goe, than the sower doe. And of ye ioyce of the sower is a drinke made, yt is cal∣led Exizacra, that abateth the heate of fe∣uers, and defieth and chaungeth the matter of feuers, and exciteth appetite, & restoreth wonderfully, and repaireth and comforteth kinde that fayleth by reason of too great heat, and helpeth against cha∣sing of the lyner, and against the Cardi∣acle passion, and failing of the hart. Flo∣wers, fruite and rinde thereof slaieth old wormes in the wombe, if it be made in∣to powder and dronke, and most effectu∣ally comforteth and purgeth both téeth & gumbes, and helpeth against many other euills as Dioscorides and Isaac meane. Pomegranards helpe in all the aforesaid things most effectually, and though they be yeolow and discoloured and sowrish, wearish, and drye without in the rinde, yet neuerthelesse wtin they be red, moyst, softe and sauorie, and the greynes be or∣deined in their owne celles, by passing wonderfull craft, as Isaac saith.

(*The rinde or séed of Pomegranets in powder giuen in ale, is good to stoppe the flixe.)

¶Of Moro. cap. 100.

MOrus is a trée, which beareth beries,* and the fruite of the same Trée, is called Morum, a berrie, as Isid. saith lib. 18. The Gréekes call this trée Moron, & the Latines call it Rubum, for the fruit thereof is red. Thereof is double kinde, tame and wilde, and heards in desart eat the fruite of the wild berry trée, & leaues thereof slayeth serpents, if they be thro∣wen or layd vpon them, and Ambrose super Mat. 17. sayth, that the fruite of this trée is first white in the floure, and then gréene, and then red, and blacke or browne at last, and the more ripe it is the more blacke it is, and dyeth & smor∣cheth his hands & téeth yt eateth thereof. Plinius and Dioscor. meane, that Morus is a trée, and the séed thereof laxeth the wombe, and the iuyce therof wrong and dryed at the fire, or in the Sun, constray∣neth and bindeth the wombe, and healeth whelkes and sores of the mouth, & swa∣geth and abateth swelling of the lyps. The rinde of the roote sod and dronke, laxeth the wombe, and slayeth broade wormes therein, the leaues thereof stamped and layed in Oyle healeth bur∣nings. The leaues sod in raine water, maketh blacke haire, & healeth the biting Page  [unnumbered] of Phalngie,* and of Attercops, and ea∣seth the tooth ach, and cleanseth rottings, and matter of the iawes. The berries thereof before they be ripe, be colde, and bindeth and comforteth the stomacke, and the more they were ripe, the more hot they were, and also the more sweete and moystie, and many thereof eaten af∣ter meate, turneth into corruption, and grieue soone both head and stomacke, and be well digested, if then be eaten fasting, and nourisheth but full little. Leaues of high Mulberie trées be great and broad, and are grieued with Palshrags & flyes, and gladly wormes eate thereof, and so silke wormes he best fed and nourished with such leaues. All the trée is medici∣nall, and namely the rinde, fruite, leaues, and rootes: for if the roote thereof be slit, thereout commeth gum, that helpeth in diuers passions and euilles, for is laxeth the wombe, and healeth tooth ache. Huc vs{que} Diosc. & Plin. Of Mulberies is no∣ble drinke made, that we call commonlye Moretum, Elephants drinke therof, and be the more bolde and hardie, as Raba∣nus saith, super li. 2. Mach. 5. ca. And ther∣of is a Lectuarie made, that is called Di∣ameron, that helpeth against the Squi∣nancie and euills of the iawes & throte, as Plat. saith.

(*The Mulberie trée is knowen, as for the vertue of the berries, if they be ripe, they hurt not greatly the stomacke, &c.)

¶Of Mirto. cap. 101.

MIrtus is a litle trée, & is so called, be∣cause oft it groweth in ye sea cliues, as Isid. sayth. Virgill speketh of ye broad cloues of Myrtus, and of the louers of the cloues of Myrtha, and the Gréekes call it Mirecie. And Phisitions write in their bookes, that this trée accordeth to many néedfull vses of women. Huc vs{que} Isid. And Plin. and Diosc. meane, That Mirtus is a litle trée as it wer a shrub, and groweth namely by the sea side.

And fruite, flowers and braunches there∣of, accordeth to medicine, and the fruite thereof is better than the floures, & ma∣ny be kept longer time, & better in heate of the Sunne than in shadow place, and the more fresh the fruite is, the better it is. And all the substauncialls of this trée haue vertue of sowrnesse and of binding; and of his swéet smell hath vertue com∣fortatiue, & restoreth superfluitie of run∣ning and dropping, by proper kinde ther∣of. And helpeth the vertue retentiue, to hold in the body, and so helpeth agaynst the reume that falleth to the spirituall members, if they be sod in raine water, & the breast washed therwith, and stanch∣eth spewing, if ae braunch thereof be sod with vineger, and laied to the stomacke. Pouder of this trée healeth wounds ea∣sely and softe. And Plin. sayth, that some Mirtus is white, and some is blacke, and either is binding, but the blacke ye more, and is therefore profitably taken against bléeding, and it moueth vrine, and helpeth against venime, and against stinging of Scorpions, if it be dronke, broath thereof helpeth against the euill Allopicia, and fallyng of hayre, and helpeth agaynst swellyng of eyen, medled with wheate meale.

Oleum Myrtum is made of the leaues and bayes thereof, the which oyle easeth, cleanseth, helpeth and healeth in all the foresayd things, and clenseth mat∣terie eares, if it be luke warme dropped therein. Huc vs{que} Plin, Super Esa. ca. 41. Iero. saith, that Mirtus hath good smell, & rotteth not, and Mirtus fastneth and re∣storeth and comforteth wearie members and lyms, & therfore it betokeneth com∣forters of holy Church, and hath vertue to swage, ease, temper and to coole, as he saith Super Esa. cap. 60.

(*The Mirtle trée groweth in Spaine and Italy about Naples. The berryes of this trée is good to be giuen to them that spet bloud or pisse bloud.)

¶Of Myrra. cap. 102.

MIrra is a trée in Arabia, fiue cubites high, and is lyke to a thorne called, Achantum, the dropping therof is gréene with great smell, and is bitter, and hath therefore the name Myrra, as Isidore sayeth libro. 16. The dropping that commeth thereof by it selfe is best, and Page  304 dropping that commeth out at chins and slits that bée made therein, is accounted lesse worth.* The Arabians make fire of shredding thereof, & thereof is full grie∣uous smoake, but if it be withstood with other smell of Storaye. For els of such smoake, men should take vncurable sick∣nesse and euills. Best Mirra and most pure is gathered among Troglodites in Arabia, as Isi. saith, & Plinius. li. 12. cap. 17. where it is saide, that Mirra is a tree of fiue cubites high, and groweth in woodes of Arabia. The leaues thereof bée lyke to the leaues of Oliue, but they bee more cripse, and haue more prickes, & is like in boughes to Iuniperus. Boughes thereof be carued and cut and slit in two times, but it droppeth before it be slit; & that dropping is called Stacten, & is best of all manner Mirra, & is called: Mirra electa, Mirre chosen. And of Mirra is se∣uen manner kindes, as he saith, cap. 17. Oncées called Trogoditica, & that is wel chosen. The second is called Gelbanitica. The third is called Diantrides. The fourth Colaticia. The fift Pracena, and is called also Salbana, and is more thin then other Mirres. The sixt is called Dura∣tim & Odonferam, and is more white then the other. And is feined with Gum & clods of Lentiseus. The seuenth is cal∣led Indica, and this is the worst of them all. And there with other manner Mirres be feined. Huc vs{que} Plinius.

And Dioscorid. saith, that Mirra is dropping of a trée hardened about the boughs by heat of the Sun, and the best is citrine and red within, and some deale bright, and héereof some is small, and some is great, and is called Trogoditica, and hath that name of an Ilande, which it groweth in. And this Trogoditica is hot and dry, and hath vertue to comfort, and that in gathering and increasing partes together by his vertue of good sa∣uour and smell, and dissolueth and depar∣teth and consumeth and wasteth euenly the qualityes thereof. And so dead bo∣dies be kept safe and sounde when they be balmed with confections of Mirre. And Mirra is kept in his vertue nigh an hundred yéeres, and helpeth against all causes fleumatike, and against all inor∣dinate running and dropping, and com∣forteth digestion, and purgeth gleamye humours, and namelye in the spirituall members, and it amendeth stinch, and smell of the mouth, and healeth & dryeth all euills of the gummes, and healeth and destroyeth & wasteth whelks of the lips, and comforteth the braine, and comfor∣teth strongly, and strengtheneth the mo∣ther, and fordrieth and wasteth all super∣fluitie thereof, and helpeth conception, & slayeth wormes in the eares, and fretteth dead flesh, and bréedeth & saueth quicke flesh at best.

(*Mirrha is also the name of an hearbe, which we call Kixe, with a long and hollowe stalke. Reade Dodoneus. fol. 616.)

Of Mirro. chap. 103.

MIrrum is an oyntment made of Mirra, and of other spicery. By ver∣tue thereof sinewes and other members of féeling be comforted, and humours in the ioynts and toes be wasted. By the good smell thereof spirits of féeling be re∣stored & comforted, & slaieth with bitter∣nesse lice and wormes, & letteth breeding thereof, & abateth stinking sweats, & kée∣peth & saueth bodyes whole and sounde, that they rot not.

Of Mandragora. cap. 104.

MAndragora hath that name, for it beareth apples with great sauour of the greatnesse of the Apples of Macian, and is called Malum terre among La∣tines. And Poets call it Antropomoros, for the root therof is some deale shapen as a man:* the rinde therof medled wt Wine is giuen to them to drinke yt shall be cut in the body, for they shuld sléepe and not feele ye sore cutting. Héereof is two man∣ner of kindes, the one is female, and is lyke in leaues to Letuse, and beareth ap∣ples. That other is male, & hath leaues lyke to the Béete, as Isidore sayeth, li∣bro. 17.

And Diosco. saith, that MandragoraPage  [unnumbered] is a sléeping hearbe, and the leaues there∣of spread on the grounde, and hath two rootes or thrée cleauing togethers, blacke without and white within, with a thick skinne. The male hath white leaues and thinne, and roote like to the other. And apples grow on ye leaues, as galls grow on Oken leaues, and be yeolow & swéet of smell, but with manner heauinesse, & be fresh in fauour, and accord not there∣fore to meat, but onely to medicine. For rindes thereof sod in Wine, cause sléepe, & abateth all maner sorenesse: and so that time a man feeleth vnneth, though he bée cut. But yet Mandragora must be wa∣rily vsed: for it flayeth if men take much therof, as he sayth. For in Plat. it is said, that it cooleth, and some deale slayeth, and maketh to sleepe stronglye, therefore the iuyce thereof with womans milke laide to the temples, maketh to sléepe, yea, though it were in the most hot ague: and for that the hearbe is colde in substance, it is sayd, that the fruit thereof quench∣eth the euill that is called holy fire, and abateth the réese of Cholera, and fluxe of the wombe. Huc vsque Plat. But there it is sayde, that by kinde no shape of man nor of woman is in the roote thereof, but it is rather so feined of Churles or of Witches. It is sayd, that it maketh wo∣men conceiue, but it seemeth Saint Au∣sten sayth nay super Gen. 2. cap. 19. He sayth there, that because of Rachel, that desired Madragora, he looked bookes of Philosophers that treate of vertues of hearbes, & found no such things in their bookes in that time. But sauing the au∣thoritie of Saint. Austen, many authors meane, that Mandragora hath this ver∣tue, and so Const. Dioscorides, Plinius, and Plat. meane, that Mandragora taken in due manner, disposeth the mothers to conceiuing, the which mothers and ma∣trices of conception were let by to much heat & drinesse. And so Mandragora dis∣poseth hot women & moist to concepti∣on and to conceiue. For Mandragora is colde and dry, as it is said in Platearius, and that in disposition, but it letteth wo∣men that be kindly colde and dry of such disposition.

Mandragora hath many other ver∣tues, & smiteth off & destroieth swelling of the bodye, as Dioscorides saith, and withstandeth venimous biting, and stan∣cheth all droppigns and running aboue and beneath.

All that is set before is sayd in Plini∣us booke. libro. 35. capit. 16. And there it is sayde, that of Mandragora bée two kindes, &c. And after it followeth in this manner.

They that digge Mandragora, be bu∣sie to beware of contrary windes, while they digge, and make thrée circles about with a swoord, & abide with the digging vntill the Sunne going downe, and sup∣pose so to haue the hearbe with the chiefe vertues. The nyre thereof is gathered and dried in the Sunne, the apples ther∣of be dried in the shadow. The smel of the apples is heuy, & bréedeth sléep only with smell, as he saith.

(*Mandrake of two sorts blacke, and whitish yeolow, they cause sléepe to bée inwardly receiued, verye daungerous. There is another kinde called Mala in∣sana, raging apples, or apples of loue. Read Dodo. fol. 439.)

Of Milio. cap. 105.

MIlium, Mile, is an hearbe with a long stalk and knottie, as the Reed, and the seede thereof is full small, colde, and dry, as Isaac saith in Dietis. And that witnesseth lightnesse and hollow∣nesse thereof, and absence of gleaminesse and of vnctdositie, and nourisheth but little, but it comforteth the stomacke by drynesse thereof, and bindeth the wombe. And as Dioscorides sayeth, is diuritike and assate, and swageth ach of the helly, and gendereth not good bloud, but it s••∣leth and dryeth the stomacke, as it is said in Dietis.

Of Menta. chap. 106.

MEnta is an hearbe with good smell hot and drye, and comforteth the stomacke, & thereof is double kind, wilde and tame, one groweth in gardens, & the other in woodes and in mountaines: and this heateth more then the first: and this Page  306 hearbe is called Colocasia in Gréeke, and Nepta, or Calamentum in Latine, as I∣sidore sayth, libro. 17. cap. penul. This hearbe is full medicinable. Other man∣ner Mintes grow in moores & in medes, and be not so mightie in vertue or in heate, but they haue more heauie smell and sauour then Mint of gardens, that is an hearbe that multiplyeth it selfe, and springeth soone out of the ground. And if the stalke therof be bended downe to the ground, and heeled with earth, it turneth into a roote, & bringeth forth anon a new Mint.

Mint of Gardeines is full vertuous, both gréene and drye. And dissolueth and tempereth and wasteth by proper qualy∣ties thereof. And comforteth and exciteth appetite by odour and good smell, and by sharpnesse therof. If it be sod in vinegar, it both away stinch of the mouth: and cleanseth and purgeth corrupt and rotted gums. And abateth with vineger perbra∣king and casting, that commeth of féeble∣nesse of the vertue retentiue. And help∣eth by sauour and smell against sown∣ding and féeblenesse of spirites, and com∣forteth & cleanseth superfluitie of the mo∣ther. And abateth if it be sodde in wine, ach of the guts and of the reines. If it be sod with Wine and with Oyle, and laid too, it cureth and healeth hardnesse of breasts, and teates that come of running and crudding of milke. The iuyce there∣of withstandeth venim, and slayeth if it dronken wormes of the wombe, and of the cares also. And Mint sodde in Wine and in Oyle, dissolueth and healeth colde Postumes, and healeth the cough. Huc vsque Dioscorides & Pla. And also Isaac sayth the same, libro. 2. in Dietes. That it taketh away abhomination of wamb∣ling, and abateth the yoring. And clean∣seth & smootheth the tongue, if it be froted therewith, and exciteth Venus.

(*There are sixe kindes of Mintes, Curd mint, crispe mint, Baliac, Spere mint, Hart mint, horse mint, and water mint. Read Dodo. fol. 245.)

Of Malua. cap. 107.

MAlua the Hocke is a soft hearb, and hath that name Malua of Mollien∣do aluum, Softning the wombe, as Isi∣dore saith, libr. 17. And he saith, and Pli∣nius also, that he that is balmed with the iuyce thereof meddeled with Oyle, may not be greeued with stinging of Bées. Also members balmed with the iuyce of Hockes, bée not bitten of Spiders, nor stong of Scorpions, as Plinius sayeth. Of Hocke is double kinde, the lesse and the more, that is called Altea. And ey∣ther hearbe is moist and temperate be∣twéene hot and colde, as it is sayd in Di∣etis. And that is knowen by vertue and working thereof. For it tempereth and ripeth Postumes, & namely the roote and séed thereof.

The broath thereof helpeth against flure of bloud, & hath somewhat of glea∣minesse: and tempereth thicke humour of the reines, if it be dronke with wine, and breaketh the stone, and softneth hardnesse of the splene.

The broath therof maketh sléep, if the face be washed therewith, and the vtter parts of the body. The broth of the séede thereof helpeth Tisicke men: and helpeth against the cough. The seed therof sod in Oile, tempereth hardnesse, and softneth, & cleanseth, and ripeth, as it is sayde in Plateario.

(*The holy hocke, or gardeine mal∣low, also the wild Mallow, and the small Mallowe. There is also Althea, ye marsh Mallow. Of their properties reade Ma∣theolus, D. Turnar, and Dodoneus.)

Of Nuce. chap. 108.

THe Nut trée is called Nux, and so is called the Nut also. It hath that name Nux, for dropping of the leaues thereof gréeueth and noieth other trees a∣bout, that be nigh théreto. And many La∣tines call this trée Iouelans by another name. For this trée was somtime hallo∣wed to Iupiter. The fruit thereof hath so greate vertue, that if it be put among frogge stooles and venumous meates, it spilleth & destroieth and quencheth al the venim that is therein, as Isidore sayeth libro. 17. The fruit thereof hath a harde Page  [unnumbered] rinde without and bitter, and a swéete kernell within. And all manner Apples that be closed in an hard skinne, rind, or shale be called Nuts, as Pince, Castanie, and Auellane, and other such, as he saith, and the Nut trée is high and long, with large boughs and knots, and with broad leaues and sinewy, euen long, and sharp in the ends with euill smell and sauour. The shadow therof grieueth them that sléepe there vnder, & bréedeth diuerse sick∣nesses and euills, but the fruite thereof, leaues and rinde, accorde to medicines. For as Dioscorides saith, the iuyce of ye roote and of the rinde, of the more Nut trée, dronke to the quantitie of one Oxa∣gum, helpeth against the difficultye of pissing, and is contrarie to Feauers that come with shiuering and colde, if it bée dronke with vineger. And sayth also fur∣thermore, that it dieth & cleanseth haire, and letteth falling thereof, and hath ma∣ny vertues and might. The fruit thereof accordeth both to meate and medicine: And there be many manner of nuts, but we speake most touching meate and me∣dicine of the more nuts, that be French Nuts, and of the lesse that be Auelanes. The common Nut is called Gallica a∣mong many men, and is diuerse in sub∣staunce, vertue, and shape. For as Isaac sayth in Dietis. The Nut in substaunce is gréene, or new, or ripe. In the first dis∣position the skinne and the rinde is greene and sowre, and vitter, and smorch∣eth his hand that handleth it hard. And there within is a shell or a shale, ye wax∣eth harder and harder, and there within is the nut kernell, that is sauourye and full swéete, and the kernell that is with∣in the shale is closed in the skinne, to saue the tender kernell from colde and hardnesse of the shale. And therefore that skinne is more softe then the shale, and more hard then the kernell, and more bitter founde of them that haue assayed. And the néerer ripe the nut is, the sooner the skinne forsaketh the shale, & cleaueth the faster to the kernel, so that vnneth the kernell may be departed therefrom, but by hot water, or by some other craft, that tempereth that skinne, and maketh it softe. And the gréene Nut is kindly lesse hot and drie then the olde, aud gréeueth therefore the lesse. And is enimye to all venim, if it be with Rew eaten fasting. And Isaac saith, some Nuts bée fresh and new, and some be old, and some be meane betwéene both. In the fresh is most moi∣sture, and the meane be more drye, and in the olde moisture is wasted by work∣ing of heate that maketh digestion in the humours.

And the olde be generally more vnc∣tuous. Therefore many thereof caten, turneth soone into chularike humours, & namelye men with hotte complection, if they eate thereof many and oft. For in them it bréedeth head ach, and maketh them turne giddy, but they bée couenable nourishing to them that eate them tem∣peratly, and be of temperate complecti∣on. For so they be defied well inough. The vertue thereof is knowne by effect of medicine, for generally they keepe and saue the body against venimous things. For by his ventositie it stoppeth ye veins, in the body, and suffereth not venim to passe to the spirituall members.

Also Nuts euenly led with salt, rew, garlike, and honie medled helpeth in the viting of a wood hound, if some be swal∣lowed, and some layde to the fore with∣out, for it draweth out the venim migh∣tely, and wasteth it also. And nuts stam∣ped and medled with honnye, tempereth wonderfully, and dissolueth cholarik po∣stumes and flematike also. Also Nultes stamped and laid as a plaister to the na∣uell, destroieth postumes that bréed with∣in, as Isaac, saith in Dietis.

(*Walenuts are of two sorts, the big∣ger and the lesse, and according to the soile whereon they grow, so is their good∣nesse. The thinnest rinded or shelled nuts, are commonly best and very whol∣some, to eate against poisen, eaten before greate drinking, staieth the head from lightnesse.)

And Nuts be diuersly shapen. For some be round, and some euenlong, and some plaine and continued within, as it fareth in Auclane, and in Nutmegges. And some haue cleftes in the sides, and be distinguished in the toppe, as it were with the shape of a Triangle: as it fa∣reth Page  306 in great French nuts, in the which generally the shape of the crosse is prin∣ted within, as they know well that take bred thereto.

(*Of late forth of the Indies hath bene brought diuers sorts of Nuts, whose na∣tural properties are not perfectly know∣en, as Nux Indica, Coecus, some in husks, lyke Beanes, some like kidncies of a browne coulour, some round, some square, and some shape: which nuties I haue, but as yet no proper name to giue them.)

Of Auellana. chap. 109.

AVellana is a field nut, and a wood nut in comparison to the French Nut. For without craft of Gardeners, it gro∣weth on Haselles, that be Trées that grow in groaues, as Isidore sayeth. And for they grow in common places, wheras men passe therby, & pull and gather ther∣of, they haue worthely the name Auella∣na. And Auellana, as Isaac saith, be lesse hot in substaunce then other Nuts, and store sowre, and more fast in substance & vnctuous. And be therefore hards to de∣fie, and the more slowe to passe out of the body: but when they be defied, they nou∣rish much the bodye, and they ingender much veutosity,* if they be eaten with the small skins. Therefore to take away the griefe, it is goo to blaunch them in hot water: and helpeth well then against ma∣ny passions and euills. The skinne ther∣of medled with hony, helpeth against fal∣ling of haire, and maketh haire growe in the body, as Isaac sayth, and Constan∣tine also. There is also many diuersities of Nuts, that accord to medicine, as Nux Muscata, Mude Indica, & Nux Vomica, and other such. Nux Muscata, the Nut∣meg; is the fruite of a Trée that groweth in Inde, in a shale that is hard, and coue∣red with a skinne, as Auellana. And the inde thereof is called Macis, and is right medicinable. And comforteth namely the heart, and purgeth the spirit of féeling in the Maine: and he heateth the colde sto∣macke, and comforteth appetite, and this inde is somewhat bitter. And the barke thereof is yeolow, & hath a sharp fauour, and somewhat bitter: & that that is black or earthy, and hath not a sharp sauour, is to be forsaken: and the Nutmegge ta∣ken out of thē rinde and of the shale, is inuironed with a thin skinne & plaine. And the more heauy the Nutmeg is in weight, and the more swéet in smell, and sharpe in sauour, the better it is. And so the best is heauie and sound within, and séemeth reddy in coulour, and falleth not to Pouder when it is broken, and hath a strong sauour and swéete, and it hath vertue to comfort & to heat the stomack: and to consume and wast venositie: and to heale head ach that commeth of cold. The Nutmeg held to the nose, comfort∣eth the braine and the spirituall mem∣bers, as Plinius, Dioscorides, and Plate∣arius meane.

(*The Filbert is better then the ba∣sell nut, and inferiour to the Almonde nut, being new ripe they are best to bée eaten, especially with bread.)

Of Nardo. chap. 110.

NArdus is a little hearbe with pricks, and is hot, and smelleth well. And so among the Gréekes, Nardus spica is called Nardostartes, as Isidore sayth li∣bro .17. And thereof is treble manner kinde, Indica, Sinaca, and Celtica, but none groweth in Siria, but in a land ha∣uing many mountaines, that stretcheth to Siria in one side, and to Indie in the other side. The best is smooth and light, browne, and plaine, with small ciles, and dryeth the tongue when it is chewed. And Nardus Celtica hath that name of the Countrye of Gallia, for it groweth therein, & is lyke to Nardus, or to Spicis Nard, but it is more white, and com∣forteth by good smell, as Dioscorides & Platearius meane. And helpeth against swowning and sayling of the heart, and also agaynst féeblenesse of the sto∣macke.

(*Nardus, after Doctour Turnar, is called Spickenarde, which as he say∣eth, groweth in the Indie, and smel∣leth lyke vnto Cyperus: of the which hearbe, it appeareth, the greatest Doc∣toures are in doubte, it is rare Page  [unnumbered] and no common hearbe, some will haue it a roote, others the toppe like vnto our common Spike Lauender. Read more of this at large in the second booke of D. Turnar. fo. 62. b.)

And it comforteth the braine, if it bée held to the nose. And abateth colde rume, and helpeth against deafnesse & postumes of the eares, and doth awaye oft euill smell of the mouth, & purgeth the gums, and openeth the stopping of the lyuer and of the splene. And exciteth menstru∣all bloud, and cleanseth the mother, and helpeth conception, & breaketh the stone both in the bladder and reines. This hearb tempereth and softneth, and depar∣teth hard matter, and thirleth and passeth into the inner partes. And helpeth a∣gainst Palsie of the tongue, and comfor∣teth the sinewes, and wasteth humours that let the tongue. Also it is sayde, that it helpeth against the falling euill, if it be ministred in due manner to the pati∣ent: and is ful good to many other things. And out thereof woseth the Oile that is called Oleum Nardinum, and is most ne∣cessarie to all the foresaid things, and to many other.

(*In Dod. is set foorth thrée sortes of hearbes, called Nardus, which is called in English, Ualerian, & hath a sharpe leafe, the second, hearbe Benet, the third Asa∣rabecca, yet suppose I none of these thrée to be the true Nardus.)

Of Olea. chap. 111.

OLea is a trée, and the fruit thereof is called Oliua, and the iuyce Oleum, as Isidore sayth, lib. 17. But this trée is oft called Oliua, and is a worthy trée, and a tree of peace, as he sayth. For the story of the Remanes meane, yt without bran∣ches of Oliue no messengers were sent to Rome to get peace, nor to proser peace to other men. Remigius sayth, that the worthinesse of this trée is knowen, for in token of reconciliation & peace made be∣tweene God and man, the Doue came to the windowe of Noes shippe with a to∣ken in her mouth, that was a braunch of Oliue, and of none other trée.

And libro. 15. Plinius sayth, that a∣mong the Athenienses, vidours were crowned with Oliue. And afterwarde the Gréekes ordeined, that theyr victours should be crowned with Olaster, as hée sayth. And the Oliue is a faire Trée in croppe, in gréene colour, and in multitude of boughs and braunches, with whitish braunches. And this trée is gréene all the Summer and Winter long, & hath smal leaues with good smell, and harde rinde, and bitter roote, and fat fruit, sauoury and swéete. For as Isidore sayth, the Oliue springeth of a bitter roote, that is nouri∣shing of light, medicine of wounds, & fée∣ding of the hungrye. For Oyle is put in Lampes to susteine and to nourish the fire, to sore members, them for to heale, and in meate, men for to féede. And also to make meat liking and sauourie, as hée sayth. And Oyle is nourishing of fire & of lyght, remedie of euills and fores, and maketh meate most sauourie and swéet, as Isidore sayeth. Then the Oliue bea∣reth fruite, and is medicinall. And leaues and rinde and fruite thereof accordeth to medicine. The Trée thereof is most sadde and fast, and pure and cleane with∣out rotting. And though it bée ryght harde without, yet neuerthelesse with∣in the pith, is much humour and fat∣nesse.

Libro. 15. Plinius speaketh of Oleis, & of Oliues and sayth, that many manner Oliue trées that beare fruit, thrine not in Countries that be too colde or too hot, but in Countries that drawe more to heate then to colde. Therefore as Plinius say∣eth, Cato woulde haue Oliues set in hot ground, that is not too fat nor too leane. For heauen comforteth them well, and they loue much the dew of heuen, & faire weather. And if there be much Rayne when they be ripe, then the Oyle is ap∣paired & wasted, but if faire wether, come soone after to temper the thicknesse of the Oyle and liquor.

And Plinius sayth, cap. 3. That the Oliue Trée needeth not to be pared nor shred with hooke nor with Bill, as vines be, but it is betaken to the Sun, and to the dew of heauen: and is glad in spring∣ing time, & beginneth thē to bloome. And fruite therof is first gathered about win∣ter, Page  307 and when the fruite is gathered, the tillers of Oliues vse to open the earth about the roote, and to pare away proper∣ly the bompes or knobs, and naughtye small sprayes of the rootes. And some I∣talians vse to call such superfluity about the roote, the goutes of the Oliue trée: and so when such superfluite is alwaye, the Oliue thriueth the better, and beareth fruit, and is wonderfully amended. And the Oliue will not bée harde beaten with stones & powles to gather the fruit therof, as some men do that be vntedy & vnwife. For such beating tourneth to harme of the tree, & to damage of the next yeare: For it beareth the worse if it bée beaten, as Plinius saith.

Of this trée is many manner kinde. And each is known by diuersity of fruit. And Isidore sayeth, that this name O∣liua is the name of the fruite of the trée Ole: And thereof is many manner di∣uersity sound, as Isaac sayth. For some Olives be tame, & some grow in woods. The some beareth fruit, sometime ripe, and somtime not ripe, & somtime the ant betweene. And among these fruits of the Oliue, the first be earthy, fowre & gréene. And the second reddish, or Iacinctuous, as Dioscorides sayth, and the last séemeth black: and ye more black they be without, the more ripe they be within, & the more fat and able to yéeld Oyle. And Aristo∣tle saith, that it ripeth neuer perfectly on ye trée, though it hang on it many a yere: but to make the perfectly ripe, they must be layd on a heape together, & they must lye so long time, yt by pressing the heat & may be comforted, & come into the in∣ner partes thereof, and ripe the fruit at full. And Isaac in Die. sayth, that Oliue beryes, if they be red, and not full ripe, nor right la, they comfort well the sto∣macke, and bée binding, and excite appē∣tite, also namely if they be artied with vineger or with sauce. Neuerthelesse they be hard to defie: and nourish lesse then other. And the blacke that bée as it were ••pe, be froste and temperate, be∣tweene moyst and drye. And nourish much, and seemeth the wombe. For by fatnesse thereof they ••eee in the fro∣melle, and come not downewarde into the place of digestion. And they tourne soone into corruption of humours, and be the lesse worthy to meat. But they be good in medicine For if they be stamped and layde to a place that is burnt with fire, or sealded with water, they kéepe, that blaines shall not arise, and do beare them downe, if they be risen, and ope∣neth the pores, and maketh the fumosity to passe but that is closed in the skinne, of blaines and swelling. Huc vs{que} Isaac in Dietis.

Libro. 15. cap. 3. Plinius sayth, that verses of Oliue appaire not while they be on ye trée. For they be the better: for they gather alwase vertues now & newe, and hang and fit the faster. The Be∣ry thereof is compounded as he saith, of the fieruell, flesh, Oile, & drast yt is called Amurca, and is bitter: and is neuerthe∣lesse profitable in medicine. And ye shales when ye Oile is wrong out, with leaues, be good to nourish fire, and make swine a, as it is said.

(*The Garden Oliues are better then the wilde Oliues: being gréene, they strengthen the stomack, & prouoke appe∣tite to eate.)

Of Oleo. chap. 112.

OYle is the iuyce of hearbs of Oliue, as Isidore sayth. And the more fresh it is, the more noble it is, and the more stilye it commeth out of the hulls: the better it is, and the more noble, as Plinius sayth, libro. 17. cap. 2. There it is sayd, that Oyle appayreth by age. Also there it is sayd, that it cōmeth the better and the cleaner out of the drasse in the wringing and pressing, if the Be∣ryes be before hande well, stamped or grounde with a mill stone, and scalding hot water throwen theron. Buy such hot water the fatnesse, is departed the bet∣ter from the brasts: Hulles and drasse ••eere aboue the water, and bée craftelye departed from the water at last.

As hee sayth, the switter the Oyle runneth out of the presse or of the wrin∣ging, the better it is accounted. For what that is lesse meddeled with, cat∣••ye substaunce, the more fat and swéet Page  [unnumbered] it is. Héereto Papias sayth, that if a man be vnder water with Oile in his mouth, and spouteth out that Oyle there in the water, all that is in the bottome and hid by the ground is the more cleere, and the more cléerly séene of him (put all ye oile as∣cend against his eyea,* by the force of the water, and so he shall see neuer a whit)

Kinde, of Dise maketh good sauour in meate, and nourisheth light and easeth, refresheth, and comforteth weary bodies and lns, and softneth and slaketh harde sinewes, that be shronke or spilt with the crampe. And softeneth and ripeth Po∣stinnes that he harde, and namely Ly∣ny Oile, of Linne seede. Many diuerse Oiles he pressed out of manye diuerse things. And some oyle is simple, as oyle of Oliue, oyle of Nuts, oyle of Popy, oile of Almonds, of Raphens oile, of Linne séede Oile, of Hempe, and of other such. And some oile is medled and compouned, and thereof some is cold, and some is hot, some is binding, & some is constraining, and some laxing. For composition of hot things,* is hotte Oyles and of colde, colde oile: and of buiding things, binding Otle: and of laratiue, laratine oyle: ther∣fore for diuerse causes of euills, diuerse Oyles shall be taken: as in cold causes and matter, Oyle de Bay, Oleum Lau∣rinum, Nardinom, and Puloguim, shalbe taken and in hot causes oyle of Roses, and oyle of Uiolets shall be taken, are other such. Oile may be so hot, that it shall breede the ••cauers, if the pulse veines, and 〈…〉 and the pawme of the hands and the sales of the feete be hamd therewith, as oyle in the which Lyons flesh is sod, as it is sayd in Com∣pendeo Saernitant. Also oyle may be so colde, that it shal ••ony, the member that is ha••ied therewith and stay it, so that it shal haue no feeling, as it fereth of oile of Mandragota, that is made of oyle, in the which Apples of Mandragota bee soone, or kepte long in. But among Oyles that bee so compounded, the tem∣perate Oyles he best and most medici∣nable.

And of simple Oyles, Oyle of O∣liue is best both in meat and medicine, and then of nuts and of Almonds, & then Oile of popie: But that Oyle is more colde then the other foresaide Oiles, and more dry also, and is most made of black Popie seede, and breedeth sleepe, and hel∣peth against hot Postumes in the begin∣ning, and against chasing of the liuer, as Platearius sayeth. And other Oyles be lesse according to meate, for heauy smell and strong sauour, and be good and pro∣fitable to medicine, as Isaac sayth in Di∣etis. And generally in all Oyle is much aire and lightnesse Therefore •• fleeteth aboue al other liquors, and hath disdaine to be vnder other liquors. Oyle seaketh and spreadeth it selfe. And is therefore better kept in glasen vessell then in tréen vessell, or in vessell with many holes and pores. Oyle spotteth and inciteth clo∣thes that it toucheth, and maketh them smell thereof alway. Oyle shed in wa∣ter, fleeteth aboue in rounde drops, and then the water cannot be made all cleane of the fatnesse and sauour of the Oyle. Oyle with sharpe sauour and strong, weddeled with Amusca, or with the dragges, is not good so meats. For such greiteth vomiting and spewing, and cor∣rumpeth the mouth of the stomack. And Oyle slayeth Eres, and footlesse beasles with long and plyaunt bodyes, if it bee shed vpon them, as Aristotle sayth. And vineger turnesh them againe to life, if it be shed vpon them. And cleane Oyle hee∣peth bright won from rusting, if the yron be nonted therewith. If the Oyle be cor∣rupt or watrye 〈…〉••sddled with Oile drasts, 〈…〉 it destroieth & corrumpeth the yron that is nointed therewith as Plinius saith.

Of Olcastio. cap. 113.

OLeaster, is a wild Oliue tree & hath that name for it is like to the Oliue tree but the leause thereof be somwhat smaller then Oliue leaues. And this tree is barren and bitter, and not filled. And if a graffe of Oliue he graffed thereon it chaungeth the qualitie thereof, and turneth it into his owne analytie as I∣sidore sayth libro. 1. This Tree hath double dropping. The one is like to Gumme without anye biting qualitye: Page  308 and the other is bitter, and lyke to gum Ammonicum, as Isidore saith. Though this trée Oliaster be a wilde tree, yet the rinds, gums, and branches therof accord to medicine, for the leaues therof be bin∣dium, sowre, & bitter, & healeth botches of the head & of the mouth with hony. The iuyce of the rind & of the branches ther∣of, is sowre & binding, & stauncheth all flure & running of humours & of bloud, as he saith. And the gum thereof is good to many things, & namely yt that is most biting. For it cleanseth & healeth woūds, & helpeth the gums that be gnawen and corrupted & strengthneth and comforreth the teeth, and putteth of and healeth the euil that is called Erisipila, and the holy fire, that commeth of wood Cholera, and gnaweth & fretteth flesh & bone. And hel∣peth against falling of haire, and dyeth haire, and hideth or tarrieth hoarenesse of haire, as he saith.

(*Oliues, condise in salt liquor, taken at the beginning of a meale, doth che∣rish the stomacke, stirreth appetite, and looseth the belly, béeing eaten with vine∣ger. They which be ripe are temperatly hot; they which be greene, are colder and drie. Sir Tho. Eliot.)

Of Olere. chap. 114.

*COle is called Olus, and hath that name of Olendo, smelling, for as Isid. sayth. First men eate Colles ere they had corne & flesh to ease, be sore the floud men eate apples, coles, and hearbes, as beasts eate grasse & hearbs, as Isi. saith, libro. 13. And though all ye heart is yt grow in the earth be able to be sod, and according to mans meat be generally called Olus in the sin∣gular, & Olera in the plural, yet most cō∣monly cole is called Olus in ye singular, & Olera in the plurall. The stalke & leaues therof grow swifte & then stalks or leaues of other hearbs, as he sayth. And ye ouer∣most croppe thereof is called time, as it were Come: & the natural vertue of this hearb is namely in the crop therof. And therefore ye effect, & might of medicine as well of this hearbs as of other is most in the crop, as he saith. The hearb is cold & dry, & breede to thicke bloud & troubly, & horrible smell, as Isaac saith in Die. & some cole is Summer cole, and some is Winter cole. And this hearbe is com∣pounded of contraries, for the substance is great and hard to defie.

The wose thereof & iuyce is running and sometime cleansing and drieng, and sometime moisting and laring in the wombe: But the substaunce without the iuyce, is stopping and binding. The mallice thereof is withdrawen, if it bee sod or boyled in water, and that water throwne awaye, and the cole then sod∣den in other water with good fatnesse & sauoury, as it is sayde in Dietis. This hearbe thriueth by setting and planting. For this hearbe is sowen and groweth first in one place, and if it be then taken by and set in better land, it groweth fast, & thriueth both in quantitie, quality, and in vertue. In Summer the tender leaues thereof be eaten with small shags, and with other wormes. And be constrained in Winter with grea frost and small, and be so made the more tender to sée∣thing, & the better to eating. For when the heate commeth into the inner parts of the leaues, the substance therof is the better defied, and be the more soft.

And li. 20. cap. 10. Plin. praiseth strongly the Colewoort touching the vse of medi∣cine, and sayth, that there is thrée man∣ner kindes of coles: some with crispe leaues and good for the stomacke, and some softneth some deale the wombe. And another with broade leaues and thicke, and is lesse woorth in medi∣cine.

The third with thin leaues and sim∣ple, and is more better then the other, and better in medicine. Leaues therof brused and laid too two daies, healeth wounds of hounds, both new and olde, and that wonderfully. Cole little sod, laxeth, and bindeth, if it be much & greatly sodden. Cole withstandeth wine & dronkennesse, and comforteth the sinewes: and is ther∣fore good for the Palūe, and for trem∣bling and quaking. And causeth aboun∣dance of milke for children in their nur∣ses breasts, and the iuyce therof helpeth against venim, and also against biting of a woode hound, as he saith there, and Page  [unnumbered] Serpents flye the smell of cole sod. And he reckoneth vp many other vertues, the which & passe ouer at this time for noy∣full tarrieng. And he sayth, that Bractea, the wilde cole, groweth without tilling, and hath stronger vertues and work∣ing.

(*Colewortes béeing giuen to kine, causeth them to yéelde aboundaunce of milke, and fattneth them in short time: but being in good plight they must be kil∣led, or els they grow to the rot.)

Of Ordeo. cap. 115.

BArly is called Ordeum, & hath that name,* for it is soone drie, as Isidore saith: or it hath that name of Ordo, for it hath sometime in the yéere sixe orders & rules of graines. This corne we call winter beare, and so both Barly & beare be called Ordeum. And this beare féedeth more better beasts then wheat, & is more wholsome to men then euill Wheate or Rie, as Isid. saith. There is another kind of Barly that hath two rowes of grains in the eare. The third manner Ordeum is called Trimense. For it ripeth in the space of thrée moneths after yt it is sow∣en, as he sayth.

Plinius speaketh of Barly or beare, li. 18. ca. 7. Among corne beare is first fow∣en, and among many nations right good & noble bread is made of beare or of bar∣ly. And among the Gréeks is a manner meat made therof which is called Polen∣ca, and they do wet first this corne with water, & then dry it, & grind it in a mill, & depart the meale from the bran. And Italians grind Barly smal without bea∣ting before or watring. Of all fruit bar∣ly is most noble in meale, & will not be sowen but in sad land, & dryeth & ripeth soone and fast, for the substance therof is soft: and no séed séemeth in lesse daunger of corruption. For it groweth swiftlye, and is ripe before Wheate, and gathe∣red ere corruption or rotting fall vpon it, and hath foulest strawe among all corne, and vnworthiest stubble. But within is much meale when it is ar∣rayed in due manner, as Plinius say∣eth.

And Isaac sayth in Dietis, that Or∣deum is colde and drie, and driueth and cleanseth, and hath lyttle ventositye in regarde of the Beane, but the Beane nourisheth teste then Ordeum, though the Beane bréedeth ventositie by kind, and such things as make the womb rise and stretch, nourish not alwaye best, as Plinius saith. And he sayth that manye men vse Barlye more in medicine then in meate, but thereof is made both meat and drinke, that nourisheth the body, and comforteth the spirituall members. And of Barly shealed and sodde in water is medicinable drinke made, that Phisiti∣ons call a Thisane. And this drinke quencheth thirst, and kéepeth and saueth health, and chaungeth feuerous heate. But of Thisane looke innermore in lit∣tera T.

(*This Hordeum hath thrée sortes, Politicum, Dystichum, Nudum, of the which is brued good drinke & wholsome, whereof some so well like of the tast, that they drinke thrée all-outs: the drink out of the pot, the wit out of the head, and all their moneye forth of theyr purse.)

Of Palma. chap. 116.

PAlma is a Trée of victorye, and hath that name, as Isidore saith, libro. 17. for therwith the victore hand is ornated, or els for boughes thereof be shaped as the palme of the hand, and is a tree no∣ble and famous alwayes faire & gréene, & long time beautified with branches & leaues both in Winter and Summer. And for it indureth and is gréene many a day, & long time, therefore by likenesse of the Birde Phoenix that lineth long time, the Palme is called Phoenix a∣mong the Gréekes. And is a Trée that beareth fruite, that is farre and lyke∣ing, but the frute thereof ripeth not in euery place, where that it groweth: But in Syria and in Aegypt, often the fruite thereof is called Dactylus, and hath that name for lykenesse of fin∣gers, and the names thereof bée di∣uerse.

For some is called Palmule, & be like to Page  309Mirabolanes in shape and disposition, and all diuers in sauour. For these haue sa∣uour most swéete and pleasant, & M••s∣solim haue horrible and bitter sauour. And some bée called The bace & Nichola∣us, and some Mutales, that the Gréekes call Canathos. Hue vsque Isid. And the Glose super Psalmum toucheth, ye palme is a full high trée, but not to high as the Ceber. The roote thereof is rough and round, and full fast & déepe in ye ground; the stocke therof is sad and hard, and vn∣reth without rotting. The ind therof a∣bout the stocke is hard and rough, & som∣what pricking, and namely towarde the ground. Therefore it is harde to climbe therevpon, and to come to the fruit ther∣of. The leaues thereof so long, shapen as a swoord. And though the Palme be hard and sharpe about the stocke, yet in the crop it is pleasing and liking for mans fight in fairenesse and liking of boughs. And Palme beareth the fruit on high in the crop of the boughes, and not in the middle of the leaues, as Plinius sayeth libro. 13. And the neerer the fruit thereof is to the Sunne be arises, the more fruc∣tuous it is, and also the more swéet and sauourie. The Palme groweth in many Countryes and lands. And beareth fruit no where else so well, as it doth in hotte countries and landes, that are alway in heate of the Sunne, and in grounde that is milde and sandie, and not full of great stones. And therefore Iudea, Iurie, is rich of Palmes, as Plinius sayth, lib. 13. cap.. And hée setteth double kinde of Palmes, male and female: and the male bloometh first, and after the female buddeth and bloometh. And the female beareth not fruit, but if she be so nigh the male, that the smell of the male may come with the winde to the female.

In libro Vegitabilium Aristo. saith, when the séede thereof is sowen or se it néedeth that the séede of the male and female be sowen or set together, the seede shall be set twaine and twaine together, and then of each springeth a plant, and thereof springeth foure planes, and clearie together as it were a net and be ioyned each to other by a wounderfull craft of kinde.

And the female groweth not wel, nor beareth fruit with the male. And if the male be feld, then is the female barren after two dayes out. If leaues and flo∣wers of the male be put aboue the rootes of the female, then by comfort of the male, as it were by comfort of the worke of generation, ye female taketh oft vertue and strength. And such trées loueth not moistye places, nor fat and smoakie, but they loue Salt places and sandie. There∣fore it néedeth too sowe and spring. Salt there as no Salt place is, and not fast by the roote, but somewhat nigh thereto is wast the superfluitie of the humour of the grounde, as Plinius sayth. In the South Countrie is a manner Palme, that is alone in that kinde, & none other springeth nor commeth thereof: but when this Palme is so olde, that is sayieth all for age: then oft it quickneth and spring∣eth again of it selfe. Therefore men sup∣pose, that Phoenix, that is a bird of Ara∣bia, hath the name of this Palme in Ara∣bia. For he dieth and quickneth, and li∣ueth oft, as the foresayd Palme doth as Plinius sayth there. And he sayth there, that in Aethiopia be mane manner Palmes and diuerse, and be not more wonderfull, for they be not wide know∣en, then they bée for lyking and swéete∣nesse. Among the which the best be cal∣led Cariace, and be best of iuyce and of meat. For the fruit thereof is most plen∣tie of iuyce, and so out thereof is noble Wine wrong. Hue vsque Plinius, li. 18. cap. 5.

Then the Palme is a singular trée, with a small stocke, & rough in comparison to the ground that it groweth in, and sayre and liking in boughes and toppe. The leaues thereof be long and plaine, thicke & according to diuers vses, as to make whéeles and cups, as Hierom saith. But yet the side corners be some deale sharpe. Boughs of palme be called Elate, & reare themselues vpward, & be alway greene, & neuer bend downward: And ye middle st∣iable of this worde Elate is long as in Cant. 5. Come we elate palmarū. Elate or Elates in Greek, is called Ablea in la∣tine; & after that maketh the middle stia∣ble short.

Page  [unnumbered]And it séemeth that another letter mea∣neth the same wise. Cant. 5. Crines eiurs sicut Abietis. And so the middle stiable is made short, and not long. The fruite of Palme is diuerse both in shape and ver∣tue, and that by diuersitie of the trée that it groweth on, and also of the grounde, in the which the trée groweth, and by di∣uerse receiuing of the heate of heauen, that smiteth diuerslye on the toppes of Palmes, as Plinius meaneth, lib. 13. The first is, for such Palmes beare fruit seld or neuer: and this is for euill dispositi∣on or vnsufficient heate, as it sareth in Palmes of Italy, that beareth fruit seld or neuer, and if they beare fruit, the fruit is neuer perfectly ripe, as Plinius sayth. And the second is proued by the foresaid things. For in ground that is cold or too moist, too fatte, or too famous, Palmes thriue not, but sayle of perfect thrifte without remedye, as he sayth.

And the thirde is true, for in sha∣dowy places that bée not shined with the Sunne beames, Palme may not grow. And if it happeneth that it groweth some where in such a place, yet it maye not beare fruit, and come to worthinesse of Palmes. This is it that Isaac touch∣eth in Dietis, and sayth, that Dactila the fruit of Palme is hot and moyst in the second degrée, and hath diuerse workings by qualities of Countries and lands that it groweth in. For it groweth in colde Countries that is not soone hot, and some in hot countries soone, and some in mene countryes and temperate betwéene these twaine. And Dactilus the fruit of Palme that groweth in some hot country, where the Sunne is alway, is most swéet and sauourye, and somewhat vnctuous for a manner gleaminesse, and though it be full swéete and sauourie, and some deale vnctuous, yet it may somtime grieue bo∣dies that eate thereof too oft & too much, for it bréedeth boming and swelling, and sore ach of the mouth of the stomacke, and of the head, and stoppeth the wayes of the liuer and of the splene, and so it is not good to vse continuallye all swéete things, for they grieue oft both body and soule. And fruit of Palme that groweth in colde countries, that is not full hotte, is not perfectly ripe. And is therefore so∣wer and drye, and as it were rawe, and nourisheth not soone the bodys, but grie∣ueth it full sore, for such fruit is harde to defie, though it comforteth somewhat the stomacke, and bréedeth oft fretting and gnawing, as hée sayth. And though fruit that groweth in meane hot Coun∣tryes be ripe, yet in them is much super∣fluitye of watrye moysture, that it maye not bée kept ripe, and so it filleth bodyes with rawe humour. That is matter of long during seauers, as Isaac saith in Dietis.

Fruit of Palme is compowned of soft substaunce, as it were fleshie, and of an hard kernell, as it were stony: In ye mid∣dest therof seed is conteined. But in Siria and in Aegypt is some Dactilus, fruite of Palme sound all without kernel: and such fruit of Palme is called Spado, for in the substaunce thereof is no reason se∣minall, as Plinius sayth. The more noble and olde the Palme is, ye better the fruit thereof is. And the Palme beareth no fruit before an hundred yeres, and then it hath the first perfect and compleate ver∣tue.

And Dioscorid. affirmeth and sayth, that the fruit of the Palme Tree is good and necessarye in medicine, and maketh smooth the roughnesse of Arteries, and it clarifieth and maketh cléere the voyce, & most namely when they bée right ripe. For the fruit of palme is ful sowre while it is gréene. And Plinius sayth, some of Alexanders knightes were choked with gréene fruit of Palme. And so this fruite accordeth not to meate while it is all greene, but onely to medicine, & helpeth against the flixe also if it be ordeined in due manner.

(*Palma, a Palme or date trée, of the braunches were garlonds made for con∣querours, or those that ouercame. The Date trée groweth in Affrica, Arabia, India, & Siria, Iudea, & all the countries of the East or orient, the fruit is hot & dry, almost in the second degrée, eaten rawe, they stop the belly, but sodden, they com∣fort & restrore ye liuer and melt, the fruit in shops is called Dactylus.)

Of Palmes. chap. 117.

Page  310PAlmes, is properlye a bough, or a braunch of a vine. Thereof Isidore libro. 17. speaketh and saith, that Palmes is the softe matter of a vine, and spring∣eth out in new armes, and the braunches beare the fruite that groweth therein. The leafe thereof is called Pampinus, by the leafe the branch is defended and suc∣coured against colde & heate, and against all wrongs of frost and snow, and other hard weathers that fall. And in some place the leaues be plucked away, for the Sunne should come to the fruite, & ripe it spéedely, and to doe away the shadowe, yt letteth ye riping, as he saith. The vine draweth all vertue & norishing yt it hath from the roote, and draweth strongly, be∣cause that it hath strong heate, that is closed therein in pores thereof, & draw∣eth much humour that passeth into sub∣staunce of braunches, and the other deale tourneth into matter of knops, of bur∣gening of buds, of floures, and of fruite, as Plinus sayth lib. 13. Such as the hu∣mour of nourishing is in the roote, such it is shewed in braunches: and so Com∣pendium Salerni, teacheth to make grapes of diuers colours in ye same vine, while a vine is graffed on thrée braunch∣es, that springeth out of one stock of the same vine, & with one graffe slit, in time of graffing is done red colour, & with the other blew colour, & with ye third yelow colour. Then each of the graffes sprin∣ging of the braunches of such coulour, shall beare Grapes lyke to that yt was done therewith in the slit of graffing. But seldome in this Countrey is one vine graffed on another vine, though sometime vines be graffed on stockes or on trées. Therefore ofte fruite is chaun∣ged in this manner: In March, when the humour beginneth to passe vpwarde from the roote, the rinde of the Uine is warely opened, and when it is open, the colour is put in about the roote, betwéene the trée and the rinde, and is then busily kept, that the humour that commeth vp∣ward from the roote, passe not at the slit: and so the humour that the braunch dra∣weth by lyttle and lyttle from the roote, is chaunged, passing by the colour. And some thereof is vnctuous, and turneth in∣to the fruit, and the likenesse thereof, leaueth in the fruite.

By the same trafte euery plant may be tourned and chaunged in colour and in sauour, and some trees, which lundlye binde, by crafte be made kindly to laxe: and so of the contrary as he saith. And Alfredus saith the same, super l. quinto plantarum. And that as diuers maner of kinde of trées be craftely graffed in the graffing time. Isidore speaketh & sayth, that of the sprayes and braunches of the vine, springeth small and little crookes, & by those smal crookes, the braunches and sprayes beclyppeth and compasseth the trée round about, and is kept and helde vp thereby, and withstandeth by ye helpe thereof, diuers & many maner of windes and stormes, and wethers, that the bran∣ches be not shaked and hurled with the winde, and to saue the fruite from perill of fallyng. The braunches springeth and spreadeth wide about, and for the branch is full tender and brittle in the begin∣ning, such holding is néedefull, till it bee strong by venefice of the Sunne. Euerye yeare the braunches néedeth cutting and paring, and discharging of superfluitie, to spring and beare fruite the better. The vine that is not cut, spreadeth full wide, and passeth out of kinde, and tourneth into kinde of a wilde vine. The noble vine is knowen by thicke or thinne sette knots: for as Plinius saith li. 20 ca. 15. for thinne setting of knots and sorre a∣sunder, is a token of barren vine: and thick setting of knots, is token of a good vine and bearing. Looke inner De na∣tura vitis.

¶Of Propagine. ca. 118.

PRopago, propaginis, is a young braunch of a vine, that springeth of a slip of a vine that is new set in ye ground, as Isidore saith. The highest braunches of a vine are called Flagella, for they bee wagging with blastes of winde, and be set and pight in the ground to make the vine to spread, or to multiplye newe vines.

Page  [unnumbered]And thereof springeth new plantes and branches of Uines, and these braunches be called Propagines, for Propaginate, is to vnderstand, to ses and plant vines, and put new branches in the ground, that new vines may spring thereof, to make the Uineyard spred wide and large: for Propagate is to say, spred and spring, as Isidore saith.

Also Uine branches bent downe in∣to a grippe of earth, and hid with earth, conceiueth vertue of generation, and bea∣reth new braunches, and so the vertue of generation leaf is aboue in the braun∣ches, breaketh out some and some, by ver∣tue of hence that turneth outwarde into the braunches. And some of that vertue, is bene downe to the ground, & is med∣led with earth, and tourneth into rootes, and therof springeth new braunches, and draweth nourishing and séeding of the same rootes, and turneth all into rootes at the lae, feedeth continually the veynes that spring, & ye mother feedeth ye daugh∣ter r•••• that that so tooke first feeding & nourishing is by crafte tourned & chaun∣ged into the kinde of a nourse: For the braunch that first tooke feeding of ye roote, is nowe, chaunged and become a roote, and nourisheth and féedeth all the bran∣ches that spring thereof, as the mother nourisheth the daughter, as Gregorye sayeth.

¶Of Platano. cap. 119.

*PLatanus is a tree and hath that name so the leaues therof no plaine, broad, and large for plaine is Plantes in Gréek, as Isidore sayth libro. 17. Holye Writ speaketh of the vertues therof, and saith, As a Plane arcared Eccl. 14. The leaues thereof is softe and tender, and lyke to vine leaues, as Dioscorides saith. And he ••eth that the plane is a colde tree and dre〈…〉 the leaues thereof healeth in hot co〈…〉 for it destroyeth reume, and hotte 〈…〉olling of the oyen. And the decoction both of rindes and leaues, healeth ach of the teeth, and other bones, as it is said, & hath vertue to heale sharpe and sower euills. And so it is said, that it helpeth to ease scalding & burning if it be laid ther∣to, with other things that easeth. Broath thereof if it be sodde in wine helpeth a∣gainst venime. Plinius libro. 12. cap. 3. praiseth it.

(*Plaine trée, is called the Marris El∣der, Oyle, or dwarffe plane trée, the flow∣ers white, the berries red shining. Also Platanus is of another sorte, whereof some grow in England. The fruite of this trée dronke with wine, helpeth them that are bitten of Serpents, the fruit is round, rough, and woolly, of the quanti∣tie of a Filbert.)

¶Of Populo. cap. 120.

POpulus is a trée, and hath that name of multitude, for of the crop and roote thereof, springeth many boughes, twigs, and braunches, as Isidore sayth libr. 17. Thereof is double kinde, blacke & white. The white hath leaues on the one side, and gréene on the other, and so there be two coulours, as it were tokens of daye and of night, for it chaungeth cou∣lour in one manner in the Sunne rising, and another wise in the Sunne going downe, as he sayth. Also out of this trée, droppeth Rosen in Italy and in Syria, and Diosco. and other account this Ro∣sen medicinable to staunch bloud, & cea∣seth sweates and other runnings & drop∣pings Ote of the crop thereof is Oynt∣ment made, that is colde and stopping, & swaging heate, and exciteth sléepe, and a∣mong Phisitions, the Oyntment is cal∣led Populeon, and is accounted néedefull in many colde passions and euills. And also Isidore sayth, that Popular & Plane and Withie be softe of kinde, and able to graue and write in, and when suche trees be shred and pared, they spring and spred both in length and in bredth.

(*The Popler trée is of thrée sorts, the one white, the other blacke, and the third is called Aspe. The Oyntment that is made of the buds, is good against all inflamations, and against all brusings, squattes, and falles, and against swel∣ling.)

¶Of Pino. chap. 121.

Page  311THe Pine apple trée is called both Pi∣nus and Picea, and hath that name Pinus, of sharpnesse of leaues, for in old time, men called Pinus sharpe. And this trée is called Picea, for out thereof swea∣teth and woseth pitch, as Isidore sayeth libro. 17. In the Ilandes of Germania, of ye Pine apple trée commeth dropping and wosing, which is made harde with coldnesse or with heate, and so tourneth into a precious stone, that is called Elec∣trum, as Isidore sayeth there. And this Electrum hath another name, and is cal∣led Succus, for it is the iuyce of a Tree, and is there named and called Pinus.

Also this trée is good to all thing, that is kept and continued there-vnder: as the Figge tree gréeueth and noyeth all things that is there-vnder, as Isidore sayeth.

The Pine trée is an high trée, euen and light, with many small hoales, & is right strong, for therein be many knots, & for the Pine apple trée is right strong, oftentimes thereof be mastes made for ships, and is right good timber for edifi∣eng and buylding: but this trée taketh right soone fire, and burneth if it com∣meth nigh the fire, & that is, for because of the plenteous fatnesse, which is ther∣in, for out thereof commeth pitche. The rinde of this trée, is hard and rough with out, but the humour within is fat and gleymie, but this humour is drawen out in Summer by the heate of the Sunne, and chaungeth and tourneth into Rosin, and this Rosin is first white, and is right blacke when it is sodde and pitch made thereof, and sauoureth full well, and so doth the smoake thereof: also by great séething the sauour thereof abateth.

This trée beareth many leaues, but they be small and sharpe: and this trée is of gréene colour, both in winter and also in Summer. And though this trée be most fattest, yet it groweth in mountaines, & in right drye places, and also stony: & though this trée be of great springing, yet the more it is pared and shred towarde the grounde, the more it springeth and spreadeth vpward toward heauen: and groweth slowly, because of gleimie hu∣muor and thicke, that is soone deffed and digested. This trée is spoyled of ye rinds, for it should dry the better. Betwéene the rinde and the Trée, wormes bréede, when the trée beginneth to drie, & these wormes fret and gnaw the trée, & ther∣fore to saue the trée and kéepe it, it is ac∣counted a chiefe medicine to take-off the rinde, that wormes bréed not of corrupt humo•• that is in the rinde, & betwéene the tree and the rinde.

Also lib. 16. Plinius saith, that ye Pine tree and Alloren trée, healed with earth orye vnder the ground, dure & last long time. Pipes and conduiles made of pine trée, and laid deepe vnder the earth dure many yeares, and rotteth and corrupt∣eth soone, if it lye aboue the earth in moyst places, which altogether hid vn∣der the grounde, by running of water that runneth thereon, it wexeth hard, & dureth in an house long time, & rotteth not soone, neither is worme eaten, but if it be corrupt with dropping of raine, but déepe vnder the earth, it cureth and abi∣deth full long time safe & sound without any corruption, and the contrarye is of the Ver, that rotteth anone vnder earth, and dureth best within the house & kept drye, as Plin. saith li. 21. ca. 10.

(*Of Pine trées ther are fiue kinds, as appeareth in Dudoneus Herball, and beareth a kinde of wooden apples, with∣in the which is Rosen: these serue for diuers purposes. folio. 770.)

Of Pines. cap. 122.

PInea the Pine apple, is the fruite of the Pine trée, as Plini. sayth. And is great and round by the stalke, and sharp at the ende, and first gréene, and more full when it is ripe, with coulour, as it were the colour of a Castane. The pine apple is the most greatest nut, and con∣ceiueth in it selfe in stéede of fruite ma∣ny kernells, closed in full hard shales, & be ioyned together in a certaine order, & neuertheles, for none shuld touch other, they be distinguished and departed asun∣der with skins of the shales, as it were by certaine walls, as it were by won∣derful craft of kinde, & be so ordained, for ye more greater kernels shuld occupy the more larger place, & ye lesse yt lesser place. Page  [unnumbered] And be so set in most best wise, for the lesse should be in the lesse place, vnder the waight of the more kernells: For the greater end of the Pine apple hang∣eth aboue, and is fast to the Tree by a stalke, and the sharpe ende hangeth som∣deale downward toward the earth And a Pine apple holdeth fast and closeth the kernells while it is fresh and new, and not dried of his fat humor by age. And the Pine apple fordryeth, when the gleymie humour and fatnesse is wa∣sted, and then the Pine apple all to fal∣leth: and so the one parte is departed from the other, and kernell from ker∣nell.

Therefore Dioscorides and Platea∣rius meane, that when the Pine apple kernell shall be vsed, it needeth to heate easely all the Pine apple vpon coales, & so the double rinde thereof is taken a∣way, the inner and the vtter. And then the kernells be full medicinable, & plaine and smooth, and moisteth, and some deale openeth & cleanseth the spirituall mem∣bers, and easeth the cough, and helpeth them that haue the Tisike, and be con∣sumed, and increaseth bloud.

The rindes thereof be medicinable, and by sowrenesse thereof stauncheth bloud, and namely menstruall, and bind∣eth and stauncheth bloudie flixe of the wombe, as it is sayd in Plat. and in Pli∣nius libro. 15.

¶Of Pice. chap. 123.

PItch is called Pix, and is dropping of the Pine trée, and is made hard & blacke séething on the fire, as Isid. saith. Of Pitch is double manner of kinde, the one is called ship pitch, for ships bée pitched therewith, and chins and crasing of ships be stopped therewith, to keepe that water should not come into ye ship; & pitch molten, is called pitch Liquida, & either kinde of pitch is hot and dry, and the hard pitch is compouned in one ma∣ner, and the fléeting or softe in another maner. And many call this fléeting pitch Colophora, or Pix Greca, Pitch of Gréece: for in Gréece is much thereof found, and either manner pitch is medi∣cinable, and dissolueth and consumeth, & wasteth, and helpeth against stopping & euill of the splene, and is put in many o∣ther medicines and in playsters.

And Dioscorides saith, that Pitche helpeth against venime and venemous biting, stamped with salte, and pitch ma∣keth fire burne lightly, and defileth and smorcheth hands by cleauing too, that it toucheth, and namely, if it be molten, & defileth white coulour, and white cloathes and cleane, and such defiling is vn∣neth taken away from cloathes, as tou∣ching the colour and sauour.

¶Of Pyro. chap. 124.

PIrus is the Peare trée, that beareth fruite, and hath that name, for the fruite thereof is shaped as the flame of the fire: for the fruite thereof is great & hard and broad at that one ende, and na∣row & straight at that other, as ye flame of fire, as Isidore saith libro. 17. And the tree is called Pirus, and the fruite there∣of is called Pirum, a Peare, as he saith: and so few Peares weigh heauier than many apples, if they be on a beasts back, as he saith.

And Isa. in diet saith. Of peares is dou∣ble maner of kind, wilde and tame: and of either kinde, the boughes and braun∣ches be sower, stopping, and biting. But the fruite is full diuers, for the wilde peares be more sower and earthy, more colde and drye than the tame, & more vnsauourie and hard in the tast, for they be generally more vndigest, and accord∣eth not therefore to meate, but onely to medicine: for it bindeth & stoppeth strōg∣ly the fluxe of the wombe, and staunch∣eth cholaricke spewing, if they be sad in running water, and laid to the stomack. And tame Peares gréne and not ripe, be sower, great and harde, and vnsauou∣rie, and euill to meate, but in seething in fresh water with honny, or with some other swéete thing, the earthinesse and the roughnesse thereof may be somwhat tempered: But yet they be not accord∣ing to meate, but to medicines.

And tame Peares ripe be colde and drye, and the sower substaunce thereof, Page  312 is medled with watry swéetnesse, and therefore according both to meate & me∣dicine, but they be better according both to meate & medicine after meate then be∣fore: for after meate they laxe and beare downe the meate to the place of digesti∣on, and comforteth the sinewes of the mouth of ye stomacke. And many peares eaten fasting, bréedeth wormes in the wombe, and Colliea asio incurable, & swéete peares be more temperate of cō∣plection, and lesse cold than other, and ac∣cordeth therefore, the better to them that be colde and drye.

And peares haue this propertie, that if they be sod with toad stooles, they take away from them all griefe and mallice, and namely wilde peares, for they be ful sower, as Isaac saith. Powder or ashes of wilde yeares dronke, helpeth against Fronges tead stooles, as he sayth. Alwaye after eating of peares. Wine shall bée dronke, for as one saith, without wine, peares be venime.

(*The drint and mellower that the peares be, the wholsomer they be: ill to & colde stomacke, but baked with, daye, & hot spices, they are indifferent.)

¶Of Pruno. chap. 125.

THe Plum trée is called Piunus, and L••n's and iPunom and of that trée is many ••edner of kinde;* but the Damacen is the best that commeth out of Damaske, as Isidore sayth: the fruite thereof, accordeth and healeth the sto∣macke. Onely of this trée droppeth and commeth glowe and fast gum, Phisiti∣ons say. ints profitable to medicine, & for to make inke for writers vse, as Isid saith 〈…〉

The fruite of the plum trée, is cal∣led, Prynum, and some is white, & some is blacke, and some is red but ye blacke plum that is somwhat hard, dry & sow∣er is good for the stomacke as they of Damaske and the colde plum & moyst, when it is well ripe, moysteth and kee∣peth the mouth, and be giuen agaynst heate of fouers and against daye stop∣ping and binding of the wombe. And Papies sayth that Prunus and Lentis∣cus is all one trée. But the Glose sayeth super Dan. that Prunus and Lentiscus is the same. Trée and standeth for the same. But sith of ye trée Lentiscus com∣meth not Prunus, Puinus and Lenticus is not one trée.

(*There are diuers sorts of plums, the Damzen, the Apricot, the pear plum, the wheaten plum, the Leuant plum, The whils shrag, the Bullis, the Sloes, the sages; besides other strange plums that grow in other Countreyes, to vs vnknown, as in Russie, the Yaga∣dens, whereof there are also manye kiudes.)

¶Of Papyro. cap. 126.

PApyrus is a manner Rush, that is my to kindle fire and lanternes, and is called Pabulem gnis, the feeding of fe, for fire is called Pir in Gréeke. And this hearbe is put to burne in wickets, and in tapers and is a gréene hearbe and round, and full smooth without with soft pith white and dry sucking, full of holes within. The rinde is stripped off vnto the pith, and is so dryed, and a little is lefte of the rinde on the one side, to su∣staine the tender with, & the lesse is lefte of the rinde: the more cléere the pith bur∣neth in a lampe, and is the sooner kinde∣led. And the places wherein such rush∣es growe, is as marreys and moores, by ••eades and, water breaches: and is cal∣led Papyro papyrionis, as Isidore say∣eth.

Of rushes be rushen vessels made, for all thing that is made of Rushes, is called Papyrion. And aboue Memphis, and in Inde〈…〉 such great rushes, that they make boates thereof, as the Glose with Super Esa. ca. 18. And Plinius wit∣nesseth it. And Alexanders storie saith the same. And of rushes he charters made in the which were Epistles writ and sent by messengers. Also of rushes be made pauiers, bores, and cases,* & bas∣kets to kéepe in letters and other things in as the Glose saith. And Plinius saith, that the pith of this rush, is good to draw water out of the earth, for it sucketh it kindly, and draweth it to it selfe.

Page  [unnumbered]Therefore with rushes, water is draw∣en out of wine. Lib. 13. Plinius speaketh of rushes and sayth, that in marreys of Aegypt grow rushes, and in other stan∣ding water of Nilus, where the waters passe not two cubites of height. Rooles of rushes that grow in those places and bounds, be as great as an arme, and bée thrée cornered in the side, and thereof spring Rushes, passing tenne cubites of height. And people of that countrey, vse those rushes to burne in steede of wood. Of these rushes be made diuers things, that be néedfull in households, and ther∣of they make and weaue boates & sailes, and ropes for ships, and also cloathing. And also they make thereof Paper to write with, Huc vs{que} Plinius.

(*Fiue kindes of rushes are writ∣ten of: Mariscus the candle rush, Iun∣cus acutus, the hard rush and fenne rush, Hotosehaenus, the bull rush or Mat rush, Squinantum, in English Squinant, as reported Ddon. in Fol. 511. Papyrus, a great rush in Aegipt growing in fe••s or istacth grounds, whereof the first pa∣per was made: now it is vsed for paper to write or print on. The paper that is now common, is made of olde lynnen ran wrought in a ni, and brought to a perfection wheron is written the help of memorie, the bewrayer of •••on & the treasure of truth, which blusheth •• no mans folly, bewrayeth euery one? Paper is also called Oliarta, of the ot∣ters therein contained. Séeing we bée come so néere the word Papirus, heate what shall be sayd of Papyrius ye name of a young Gentleman, who being a childe, (as the manner then was) came with his father into the Senate, at such time as it happened w••ghtie and very secret matters to be talked of. When he came home, his mother was verye car∣ness with him, to knowe what made who handled in the Senate that daye. He séeing no other shifte, and yet loth to vtter the truth said. To saith mother, they debated that it might be lawfull for one man to haue two wiues. She thinking it to be true, the next morning, when the Senate was againe set, gathered toge∣ther the noble women, and with admi∣ration of all men, commeth into the Se∣nate and there with a solemne tale re∣questeth, that by the same law, it might be lawfull, for women also to haue two husbands. The Senate at ye first mer∣uailed much at hir words: But when the matter was declared by the young Gentleman, they much praised his wise∣dome and towardnesse, and with rebuke dimissed the women that shewed them∣selues so foolish, and so curious to know that, which nothing appertayned to them. D. Cooper.)

¶Of Paliuro. cap. 127.

PAliurus, furze is a thistle most rough and sharp with prickes, and groweth in rough land vntilled, as Isidore saith, with certaine heades full of certaine prickes, foule and vneasie to touch: for it grieueth his hand that is fou••eth, and in those heads the seede is contayned, & that is Dareticum, tempering in so••e things, and is good as Dioscori saith, a∣gainst venemous biting, & also to breake the stone. Also this hearbe hath manye prickes, and woundeth feete is that passeth and treadeth thereon. The stalkes ther∣of be so rough and so full of prickes, that it suffereth not Asses to touch them, nei∣ther to eate thereof.

(*This tearmed Thistle is Fure, called Genista Spinosa, or Goate Thi∣stle.)

¶Of Papauerd. cap. 128.

POpie is called Popauet, and is a slée∣pie hearbe, and maketh sicke men to sléepe: and is double, common & wilde. Thereof commeth iuyce that Phisitions asOpium or Oplo. Of the common, some is white, and that is colde and moyst: and some is blacke and that is colde and drie: and some is redde.

And this diuersitie of kinde, is knowen by flowres, white, Purple, red or whi∣tish. And they haue greate hands, as Pomegranards: and therein is the saide closed, and the seede is vnctuous, & there∣of is Oyle made, that is good so diuers vses. Of the iuyce of the leaues and of Page  313 the head thereof Opium is made, that maketh them sléepe that haue the Fea∣uers, and shall be giuen wisely and wa∣rely, for it is soone stopping, and cooling, and slaieng, and namely blacke popie is good & wholsome in medicines, as Plat. and Plin. saith, and Diosc. meaneth.

(*There be 3. sortes of Poppie, the blacke, the white, and the common Po∣pie, which is smallest: all Popies bée cold & dry, almost to the 4. degree, a pro∣uoker to sléepe, &c.)

¶Of Plantagine. chap. 129.

WEy bread is called Plantago, & is a colde hearb, and is called Arno∣glossa in Gréeke, that is to say, ye lambes tongue, as Isid. saith li. 17. For ye leaues therof be plain, & some deale sinewie, as the tongue, and be euenlong with round∣nesse. In the middle thereof riseth and springeth one stalke that is strong with corners, and in the top thereof the séede is gathered, & is in the shape of a mate: & the miter of ye chiefe priest was shapē to ye lykenes of this hearb, as ye Master saith in his story super Exo. And name∣ly this accordeth to medicine, for it hea∣leth sore wounds, and biting of woode hounds, and abateth the swelling there∣of, and helpeth against the dropsie, and is contrary to venim, and namely to the venim of a Spider. The iuyce thereof, slaieth long wormes in the wombe, and swageth and abateth strong womb ach, and cleanseth & dryeth mattry wounds, & abateth running of menstrual bloud, & sheddeth & smiteth off swellyng of Po∣stumes in ye beginnning: & Wey bread chewed, easeth & clenseth swelling gums and abateth the swelling thereof, as Diosc. saith, that praiseth the vertues of Arnoglossa, in many manner wise.

(*Plantago maior and minor, Rib∣wort, and sea Plantaine: these 4. kinds are knowen. Buckhorne plantaine, and Cordnop plantaine, and Peregrina: these seuerall are rehearsed in Dodoneus, fo∣lio .94.)

¶Of Petrosilino. chap. 130.

PEtrosily is called Petrosilium,* & is an hearbe that groweth in gardens,* and hath good smell, & hath that name Petro∣silium, for oft it groweth among stones and stony places. And of Percely is ma∣ny manner kinde, but the best is Mace∣douicum, of Macedonia, swéete in tast, and with good odour and smell, as Isid. sayth, and the vse thereof accordeth both to meate and to medicine, and is an hot hearbe and drye, soone tempering, ope∣ning, and departing, and diuiding, and consuming, and wasting, and making thin & subtill great humors, comforting the stomacke, & exciting appetite, & bre∣keth therfore the stone, and bringeth out menstrual bloud, and helpeth against the dropsie, and openeth stoppings, of the li∣uer and of the splene, & helpeth against many other passions and euills, as Plin. Dioscorides, and Plat. meane.

(*Garden Parsely is hot in the se∣cond degrée, and drye in the third, it is good against the cough. Marsh parsely is Smallach, Paludapium. Read Dodone∣us, like of mountaine parsely, & of stone Parsely, of great parsely or Alexander, of wilde parsely, water parsely, and red parsely.)

¶Of Pipere. cap. 131.

PEpper is called Piper, and is the séed or the fruit of a trée, that groweth in the South side of ye hill Caucasus, in the strong heate of the Sun, as Diosc. sayth li. 17. The leaues thereof, be like to the leaues of Iuniperus, and serpents kéepe the woods that pepper groweth in, and when the woods of pepper be ripe, men of that country setteth them on fire, and chace away the serpents by vyolence of fire, and by such burning, the graine of pepper, that was white by kind, is made blacke and riely. And of pepper are 3. manner kindes, as he saith: for some pepper is long, and that is not ripe: some is white, and that is not corrupte by fire, nor blemished with fire, and some is black and riuelled without, with par∣ching and rosting of the heate of ye fire. And blacke pepper is most vertuous, and Page  [unnumbered] may longest be kept in heate, & is stron∣ger than other Pepper, and the more heauie it is, the better it is, and the more new, as he saith, and is fayned new by scand and guile of merchandise: for they couer the most eldest pepper, and spring thereon oare of siluer or of lead, for it should so seeme fresh and newe, because of the while huske. Huc vsque Isid. And lib. 12. cap. 8. Plinius sayth, that Pepper is made black and riueled, by long burn∣ing of the sunne, and that not without wrong done to the pepper: for Pepper should be white by kinde, and wexeth, so blacke by distempering of heauen, and men of that lande suffereth that, that it may the better be kepte, and the longer time. But Diosco. saith, that Saracens putteth the pepper into an ouen, when it is new gathered, and parcheth & rost∣eth it so, and taketh so away from it the vertue of gendring and of springing, for it should not spring and beare fruite in other landes. And pepper is hot and dry in the fourth degrée, as it is said in Plat. And hath vertue to temper and dissolue, to consume and to wast, and to drawe. Powder thereof maketh sneesing, & pur∣geth and cleanseth the braine of fluma∣tike superfluitie, and fretteth dead flesh, and consumeth and wasteth the web in the eye, and cleanseth the spiritual mem∣bers of superfluities that be cold & gley∣mie, and namely if it be taken with dry figs, and also it hath vertue to heate, and comfort the stomacke, and to excite ap∣petite, but the vse of pepper is not profi∣table to sanguine men, neither to chola∣ricke: for pepper dissolueth and dryeth, and burneth the bloud, and bréedeth at last meselrye, and other full euill sicknes∣ses & euils, as it is said in Plat. Also the pepper graine is soule in sight, and black without, and white within, hot in sa∣uour, with good smell, little in quantity, most in vertue, colde in déede, and hot in might. The vertue thereof is not felte, while it whole and sound, but when it is chewed or ground.

It were long to recken all the ver∣tues thereof at full: and though it bée right precious among vs, for the vertue thereof & might: yet for the great plen∣tie therof among the Indes, it is accoun∣ted lesse worthy than Palegium, as Ier. saith, and Isidore also.

(*The elder Writers der set foorthe 3. kindes of peper, the long, the white, & the blacke pepper. Pepper is hot & drye in the third degrée.)

Of Pulegio. chap. 132.

PVlegium, Pennie royall, is an hearb with full swéete smell, aud hath that name of Pululando, springing, as Isido. saith, and is more precious than pepper among the Indes. And Plate sayth, that Pulegium is an hot hearbe, and drye in the third degrée: and the vertue thereof is in leaues and floures, and shal be ga∣thered when it floureth. And is double: the tame, that is called Sisinbrium, and the wilde. And either is profitable & me∣dicinable, and hath the vertue to temper and dissolue, consume and wast, & to com∣fort, and to cast out and destroy venim, & to destroy the cold cough, and to cleanse the mother, & to constraine the gate of the wombe: and to bring out menstruall bloud, to comfort the stomack, and to ex∣cite appetite, and to abate ventosity, and to swage wonderfully ach of ye wombe and the uts, which commeth of colde, & to breake the stone, and to help concepti∣on, as Plinius sayth.

(*This hearbe taken with honnye, cleanseth the lungs and the breast from al grosse humour: the pouder rubbed on the gums, fastneth the teeth.)

Of Porro. chap. 133.

A Leeke is called Porrum, and Porrum is a Nowne Ethroclitum. For it is declined hoc Porrum in ye singular num∣ber, and hi Porri in the pluall. And is so Newter gender in the singular, and Mas∣culin in the plurall, as this verse follow∣ing meaneth.

Dat rastrum rastros, porrum{que} facie tibi porros.

This verse meaneth, that these two nownes, Rastrum for a rake, and Por∣rum for a léeke, be Neuter gender in the Page  314 singular number, and Masculine in the plurall number. Also in li. Num. cap. 11. It is said in this manner.

Porri, cepae, & allia, in memoria no∣bis veniunt, &c.

(*In mentem nobis veniunt Cucu∣meres, & pepones, porrique, & cepae, & allia. There came into Israels remem∣braunce, the Cucumers, the pepous, the léekes, and the onions, and the Garlyke, that they had in Aegypt, &c.)

This authoritie meaneth, & is héere set for an ensample, that this Nowne Porrum maketh Potri in the plurall, & is so the masculine gender.

Of a léeke is double maner of kinde, one with whole head, and another is cal∣led Sectile, and Sectile is called a lyttle knot planted or set: and the léeke with a head is more,* and is taken from place to place, as Isidore sayth libro. 17. The léeke that is called set léeke, accordeth more to meate than to medicine, and the léeke with whole head againward. And the head is white and full of meate, and compassed about with small skins, and hath in the neather ende many mores & rootes in stéede of haire, and cleueth ther∣by to the earth, & taketh féeding & nou∣rishing, and the plant springeth out of the middle of the head. In the ouermost ende of the stalke is a head, and in that head the seede is gathered, & each graine of the séede hath a stalke, whereby it cle∣ueth to the plant, & séedeth not the first yere, but the second, as it is said in Dio. and in Mac.

Ipocras vsed léeke in many medicines, for he gaue onely the iuyce thereof to drinke against casting of bloud: and léeke is good against barrennesse, if young wo∣men eate thereof. The iuyce thereof dronke with wine helpeth against bi∣ting of serpents, and against euery ve∣nemous beast. Léeke stamped with ho∣nie, healeth wounds, if it be layd therto, in a plaister wise. The iuyce thereof medled with milke stancheth the olde cough, and healeth euills of ye lungs. The iuyce thereof medled with Goates gall, with the third part of honie, luke warme hot, dropped into the ears, healeth ye ach thereof, and helpeth against deafenesse. And the iuyce thereof dronk with wine, healeth the ache of the luynes. Léekes medled with salte closeth soone, and hea∣leth new wounds, and laxeth hardnesse, and soudreth soone breaches. And léekes eaten raw, helpeth against dronkennes, and exciteth Venus, and softeneth the hard wombe, and Plinius saieth all this libro. 20. capitulo. 7. There he say∣eth more héereto, and saieth also, that the smell of léeke driueth away Scorpi∣ons and Serpents, and healeth the bi∣ting of a mad dogge with hony, and hel∣peth agaynst tooth ach, & slaieth wormes thereof, and bréedeth sléepe, and healeth the kings euill and the dropsie. But the léeke hath some vice: for it gende∣reth swellyng and bolning, and grie∣ueth the stomacke, and bréedeth thirst, and kindeleth and heateth bloud, if it be ofte and too much eate thereof. Huc vsque Plinius.

(*The Léeke is hot and drye in the third degrée, of nature like the Onion, but not so strong: they ingender grose & euill bloud, breede winde, and cause hea∣uie dreames, &c.)

Of Polanda.

OF the fruite Polanda or Apolanda,* growing in Calicut, the tree where∣on the fruite groweth, is vi. or vii. feete high, and beareth not past foure or fiue leaues hanging by certaine slips, euerie leafe so great, as will couer ouer or a∣bout a man from raine, or heate of the Sunne. Forth of the middle of the leafe, groweth a twigge, like the stalke of a beane, which bringeth forth flowers and also fruite, of a handfull long, and as big as a mans arme. These fruites are ga∣thered vnripe, because they ripe best bee∣ing gathered: they growe clustering, & many, and because of such increase, they are sold there, after the rate of 20. a pen∣nie, with many other rare fruites.

¶Of Quercu. ca. 134.

THe Oke is called Quercus, and that nowne is declined, Quercus, cus, cui, and is a trée that beareth mast, and is a Page  [unnumbered] fast trée and a sad, and dureth long time with hard rinde, and little pithe within or none, and there bréedeth on the leaues a manner thing sower and vsanery. And phisitions call it Galla, and beareth fruit which is called Akorne, and therewith Swine and Bores in countries be fat∣ted: and hath a strong roote and crooked, and is full deepe in the ground, and cle∣ueth full fast therto. The rinde & fruite and twigs therof be sowrish, and so cold and drye, and be good to medicine. And hath the name Quercus, seeking or ask∣ing: for therein Gods of Nations gaue aunsweres, as Isid. saith li. 17. Or els, for theron men in old time sought akornes to eate, as the Poet sayth.

Mortales primi ructabanti guttura glandes.

In old time, this trée was hallowed to Iupiter, as Ouidius sayth: Men desi∣red akornes of the broad tree of Iupiter. And Okes grow in mountaynes and in woodes, and namely in the land of Ba∣san, there groweth Okes that beareth a∣kornes, and passe other trées, in hardnes and in strength, as Ierome saith sup. A∣mos ca. 2. And Quercus and Ilex is all one. Looke before in the same book, in li∣tera I. The fruite of Quercus is called Akorne, and groweth among the leaues, and no blossome springeth before hande, And akornes be long and euenlong with out, full plaine and smooth, & some deale bright, as a mirrour, and cléere as the nayle, and so it is sayd in Diet. Akorns be colde and drye, and therefore hard to defie, and vnobedient to digestion, & har∣deneth the wombe, and commeth slowly downe from the stomacke, and bréedeth head ache, for thick fumositie passeth ther¦of out of the stomacke to the braine: & are gréene in the beginning, and as it were browne red when they be ripe: & they grow in shells shaped round, plain, and smooth, within the kernell it is full sad, and hath a little skin that departeth betweene the kernell and the shale, and the shale with the kernell & the huske, be full sower and dry, and not well sa∣uoured: but when they be well-ripe & rosted in the fire, or sod in fresh water, they be better in sauour, and taketh better sauour of the heate, and swéetnes of ye water And akornes helpeth against venime: for they stop waies and pores that venime may not passe soone to the heart, and dryeth rotted humours, and stauncheth and stinteth menstruall fluxe and running, as Isaac saith in Dietis.

(*The ripe Akorne beaten to pouder and dronke in ale or wine, stayeth the pricking of the splene, called the stitche: the cup wherein the Akorne groweth, beaten to pouder, and dronke in redde wine stayeth the flixe or laske.)

¶Of Quisquilie. chap. 135.

Gulls and outcast of corne is called, Quisquilie,* as it is sayde Amos. 8. cap. And falleth off when corne is clean∣sed with a siue or with a riddle, and bée of no value to mans meate, but they bée meate to swine and to fowles, and ap∣paireth corne, if it be medled therewith: and corne hath thereof no profite, but waight onely, neuerthelesse the greines therof be light, hollow and voyd, & eaten with wormes, & the pith within is wa∣sted, & therfore the hole is voyd & léere, therfore it healeth not ye womb, so much as it grieueth it, & maketh it to swell.

¶Of Rosa. cap. 136.

ROsa, the Rose trée, as Plin. saith, is a little trée with prickes, and the most vertue thereof is in the floure, and the se∣cond in the leaues, & in the séede, for the trée is medicinable in floure, leaues and seede. And the rose is double: one is tame, & groweth in gardens, another is wilde, and groweth in woods. The rose of gar∣dene is planted and set, and tilled as a vine, and if it be forgrowen and not she∣red and pared, and not cleansed of super∣fluitie: then it goeth out of kind, & chan∣geth into a wilde rose. And by oft chan∣ging and tilling, the wilde Rose tour∣neth and chaungeth into a verye rose, & the rose of the garden and the wild rose be diuers in multitude of floures, smell and coulour, and also in vertue. For the leaues of the wilde rose be few & broad and whitish, medled with little rednesse, & smelleth not so wel as the tame Rose, nor is so vertuous in medicine.

Page  315The tame rose hath manye leaues sette nigh together, and be all red, or all most white, with wonderfull good smell, sow∣rish in sauour, and somdeale biting, with great vertue in medicine: and the more they be brused and broken, the vertu∣ouser they be and the better smellyng: & springeth out of a thorne, that is harde & rough: neuerthelesse, the rose followeth not the kinde of the thorne, but she arai∣eth hir thorne with faire colour and good smell: when the rose beginneth to spring, it is closed in a knop with greynes, and that knop is greene, and when it swel∣leth, then springeth out harde leaues and sharpe. In the middle thereof sprin∣geth out other soft leaues, and compasse each other, and wexe red lyttle and lyt∣tle, and when they be full growen, they spread themselues against the Sunne ri∣sing, and for they be tender and féeble to holde togethers in the beginning, there∣fore about those small greene leaues, be∣neath bered tender leaues and softe, and beset all about: and in the middle ther¦of is seene the seede small and yeolowe, with full good smell, and that seede clea∣ueth vpon the fruite of the rose. First, the fruite of the rose is shapen, or the leaues spring out and spred at the full. And the fruite thereof is small rounde knops and hard, with a manner rough∣nesse, and full of certaine graynes that be first gréene, but they are redde, after that the seede and the leaues be fallen in Haruest, and be softe when they be full ripe, and were blacke about winter, and the sauour thereof is biting & somedeale soure, as the sauour of Medlars, but they be not ful good to eate, for roughnes that is hid within, and grieueth within his throate that eateth thereof. The Rose springeth sometime by sowing, & some∣time by planting, and somtime by graf∣fing, and the rose amendeth by changing of place, and by cutting and paring. Huc vs{que} Plin. li. 20. cap. 4. Among all flow∣ers of the world, the flower of the rose is chiefe, and beareth the price, and ther∣fore oft the chiefe part of man, the head, is crowned with flowers of Roses, as Plin saith, and that is because of vertues and sweete smell and sauour: For by fairnesse they féed the sight, and pleaseth the smell by odor, and the touch by nesh and softe handlyng, and withstandeth & succoreth by vertue against many sick∣nesses and euills, as he sayth, and accor∣deth to medicine both greene and drye. Many medicines be made of the greene leaues of roses, as it is sayd in Plat. For roses shred small and sod in clarified ho∣nie maketh that honie medicinable with good smel. And this comforteth and clen∣seth, and dissolueth & departeth in clean∣sing, and defieth gleymie and fleumatike humours and thicks, and bindeth and stoppeth with cold water, & laxeth with hot. Of roses well brused, and well in∣corporate with Sugar, is made Succura rosacea, Sugar roset, that hath vertue to comfort and to bind, and helpeth against the blondie flixe, and against sowning, & against cholarick spewing, and the Car∣diacle passion.

Of the rose riped in oyle, is made O∣leum Rosaceū, that helpeth against cha∣sing of the lyuer, if the place of the liuer be anoynted therewith, and is néedful in many causes, and helpeth against head ache of the forehead and of the temples, if they be baulmed therewith, and help∣eth against distemperaunce of heat, and fierce agues, and maketh to sléepe. Of gréene roses, Aqua rosacea is distilled by seething of fire, or of the Sunne, and this water is good for all the aforesayde things, & is good in Colliries, medicines for eyen, and in oyntment for Ladies, for it cleanseth awaye webs and fowle speckes of the face, and maketh the skin thin and subtill.

Also of dry roses be made many me∣dicines: for the smell of dry roses relee∣ueth and comforteth the braine: the de∣coction thereof in raine water, staunch∣eth all flixe that commeth of cold cause: pouder thereof stauncheth bleeding at the nose, & drieth and wasteth rotted hu∣mour, that corrumpeth and grieueth the gums and rootes, and comforteth wag∣ging téeth, that be in poynt to fall. Pou∣der thereof stamped with saffron, med∣led with the white of an egge, effectually healeth sore ache of the eyen, and staun∣cheth the humour and the bloud that flée∣teth Page  [unnumbered] and runneth to the veynes of the eyen, and abateth swelling of the priuye chose of a woman, and reléeueth it if it abate downward, Plinius lib. 10. cap. 19. toucheth these vertues, and many other vertues of the Rose.

(*Distilled water of Roses, is neces∣sarie to many vses: the red rose to pre∣serue and to medicine. Dodoneus wri∣teth of ten kinde of Roses, among the which, the Eglantine rose, and Muske rose, yeolow and white. There is one rose growing in England, is worth all these, Rosa sine spina: which royall Rose growing in hir proper soyle, is borne vp of a well settled stalke, and ar∣med with such thornes, as are apparant to so gentle a kinde, the leaues of Lilye hiew, called the Orient gréene, notwith∣standing, subiect to awes of dreadfull blaes, as all our common Roses be to tempesteous windes. Zeale constrai∣neth me somwhat to speake of so whol∣some a floure, chéerefull in sight, mild in kinde, and mercifull in iustice, by whose meanes, as the smell of the rose is com∣fortable to the sence, so much more is this Rose, for Englandes whole prospe∣ritie. Finding so great good by the grow∣ing of so wholsome a flower, it shall be good for the rest, hearbes of the whole garden, to take héed of the superfluous vanitie of their present being, & reioyce not with the olde wéedes in time past, which growing to all vnthankfulnesse, sayd: Our life shall passe away as the cloud, and come to nought as the myste that is driuen awaye with the beames of the Sunne, and put downe with the heate thereof: our name also shall bee forgotten by little and little, and no man shall haue our worke in remembrance, for our time is a very shadow that pas∣seth away, and after our ende, there is no returning: for it is fast sealed, so that no man commeth againe. Come on therefore, let vs inioy the pleasures that are present, and let vs chéerfully vse the creatures lyke as in youth: let vs fill ourselues with good wine & oyntment, and let there no flower of the time es∣cape vs; let vs crowne our selues with Rose buds afore they be withered. May not the buds be ye common profites, that are made by dayly pillage of the Clear∣gie, in abusing the gift of the Maiestie, who are neuer suffred to be at rest by one extreame assault or other, the faxe of re∣rages hath almost beggered, the humble and dutiful subiects. God graunt ye view of this note to the royall Rose, that the Cleargie be no more oppressed. Those thistles, nettles and thornes, say, let ther be no faire meddow, but our lust goe through it, let euery one of vs be perta∣kers of our voluptuousnes, &c. Let vs op∣presse the poore righteous, let vs not spare the widow nor old man, let the lawe of vnrighteousnesse be our strength, &c. Let vs defraud the righteous, and wy: he is not for our profit, &c. Wisdom. ca. 2.)

¶De Radice. cha. 137.

A Roote is called Radex, and hath that name of Radius, a beame, for it stick∣eth fast to ye ground as it wer by certein beames, or else it hath yt name of Rado, dis, to shane, for if it be shauen, it gro∣weth no more: then the root is the begin∣ning both of an hearbe, and of a tree, & is soft in substance with poores, & is rough & crooked, & is soft & fat in substaunce for to take the better incorporation of moi∣sture, & hath many pores to take the soo∣ner, & the more humour to send to féeding & nourishing of leaues & branches, & it is rough for great drawing of nourishing & of feeding, & hath the same office in bo∣dies of hearbs & of trées, that the mouth hath in bodies of beasts, & cleaueth to the earth by roughnesse, & draweth to it selfe that yt is according of humour, and sen∣deth it by pores as it were by veines to nourish the plant: and is crooked, for to cleane the faster to the earth: and the root is diuers in shape & in disposition by di∣uers working of heat yt worketh in the substantiall matter of ye root. The which matter is somtime thin & somtime thick, & somtime mene, as Al. saith in Cōmen∣to super li. de Plantis. For if the matter be watry & thin, & strong heat: then the roote is euenlong, & sharpe in shape. And if ye moisture of nourishing bée thicke & earthie, then the root is hard & drye. For such humour is strongly fastned & runne by vertue of might and heate.

Page  316And if the matter bée meane, & the heate strong:then the heat draweth like swift from all the parts. And because of equall moouing of the partes, the roote is round in figure and shape. If the heat be feeble and the matter gleamie: then the heate may not send vp much matter, nor make it spread nor reare, but the most lyghtest partes thereof, and the most heauyest partes breaketh hether and thether by theyr owne heauynesse and weight. And so therein abideth an euen shape with knots and roughnesse. And the roote is gendered of humour of the earth by the working of heate, and the heate of hea∣uen entereth and commeth therein: and by vertue therof agréeable féeding & nou∣rishing is drawen and incorporate there∣to.

Also of place and disposition of the ground, the root taketh disposition & com∣plection. For that that groweth in swéet ground, and meanly drye, and bée nouri∣shed with raine water, be better then other, and those that be nourished in soft land and in marreys, where standing & rotten water is, whereof they draw nou∣rishing: and by reason of the malignitye and corruption of water, they be worse then other, and least wholsome in meate and in medicine, as Isaac saith. The root is hid vnder the ground out of sight, and sheweth the vertue thereof and working in flowres, fruit, and boughs. The roote lyeth hid vnder the ground, liueth, & pro∣fiteth, and is better and better, & fayleth if it be drawen out of the grounde, and dryeth, and fordryeth. For of all the tree or hearbe the root is a part counted lesse of price, neuerthelesse as the root is mo∣ther and well of hearbe and trée: so it is of either the nourisher and most néedfull susteiner, and the more déepe the roote is put in the grounde, the more steadfast foundation it is of hearbs and trées: and though the root be soft in substance ther∣of, yet by vertue and subtiltie of kinde heat, it pearceth betwéene hard stones, & commeth into the innermost part therof. In winter time kinde heate slieth colde aire, & gathereth it selfe to the innermost of the root, and there it is multiplyed to temperatnesse and nourishing of it selfe. And then in winter time the root concei∣ueth and taketh water out of the hu∣mour, that is drawen, & sendeth it forth to nourish and to bréede the braunches and flowres in springing time, ye spring that time, and so trees and hearbs that be dry, & as it were dead in winter time, when the humoure commeth vp to the ouer partes, they quicken in springing time.

Also the qualitie good and euill of the root commeth vp to boughs and twigs. And oft it is shewed in fruit and in flo∣wers, what vertue or vice is in ye roots. But oft sowrenesse and bitternesse of hu∣mour of the roote is defied by benefice of aire and heate of heauen, that purifi∣eth the matter. And so oft it falleth, that of a bitter roote commeth swéete fruite and flowers, as it fareth of the roote of the vine, of the Nut trée, and of the O∣liue. Huc vsque Isaac in Dietis vniuer∣salibus.

Also Aristotle saith, that Trées when they be at a stay & beare no fruites are wont to be remedied in the roote. For the roote is slit, and a stone is put in the slit, & so the thicke humour and the corrupt, passeth out as it were séething, and so cleane humour & pure & new aire is drawen & commeth into the root. And so the trées be renued & healed. Also Isaac & Galen saye, that Muscus Atheniense sayd: that each hearb with a root of much nourishing, hath séed that is not nourish∣ing: as it fareth in Pasnepis, & in Rapis,* and in other such. And againward, if the séed of an hearb nourisheth, then ye roote nourisheth not. And there is a certaine hearbe that approprieth the name of a root, & is hot and dry, & is like Raphane in vertue, and hath vertue to temper, de∣part, and dissolue, to consume and wast, and to open poores, and so it helpeth a∣gainst scauers, which come of colde, and openeth stopping of the splene, and tem∣pereth hardnesse thereof, and succoureth against the dropsie, and hath harde sa∣uour and sowre, and accordeth more to medicine then to meate, as raye againe∣ward accordeth more to meate then to medicine, and is hot & moist, & nourish∣eth more then the other hearbs or roots, Page  [unnumbered] as Isaac sayth in Dietis, and maketh soft flesh and sweete, for the ventositie and bolning thereof. Therfore it nourisheth the better if it be well sodde, and is hard to defie, if it bee rawe and euill sod, and stoppeth the pores and ye veine. And also it is good by way of medicine: for ye iuyce of it is good for Podagre feete, and the goutie places bée aswaged of sorenesse & ache. Of the séede of the rape, and also of ye séede of Raphane is Oile made, that is náedfull in manye vses, and namelye in Lamps, but yet it was not lawful to put such oyle in lamps of candlesticks in the house of God, as sayth the Glose super Exodo. 27. there it is sayd, with distincti∣on it is bidden to offer Oyle, not Ra∣phon nor Myrtum, or Mirtinum, but most pure oile of Oliue trees, for it was not lawfull to offer other oile, as it was not lawfull to light fire other then came downe from heauen, &c.

Of Rampno. cap. 138.

*THE Cambmoke is called Ramp∣nus, and is a right hard Trée with knots, boughs, braunches, and pricks, for it hath small leaues with full sharpe prickes in the sides, and doth harme to his feete and handes that toucheth it or treadeth thereon, and hath soft leaues in the beginning, when it springeth. And the more it groweth, the more sharp be the prickes. The master in Historie su∣per Iud. 9. taketh witnesse of Iosephus, and sayth, Chambmoke hath this singu∣lar vertue, that it gendereth fire of it selfe, for when the leaues therof fall and be dry, it is sayde that they be full drye with a soft fatnesse. And therefore when there is strong fire in hot Countryes or impression of heate of the Sunne, those leaues that be fallen so, and disposed to inflamation, by a lyttle blast of heate, winde, and brought, are set on fire. And because of that burning, sometime woods and groanes, that be nigh, be wonderful∣ly light and set on fire. And Plinius li. 24. cap. 14. speaketh of Cambmoke, and sayth, that among kindes of Trées, the Cambmoke is a pricking shrubbe, and hath boughes and leaues with sharpe pricks, euen and not crooked: and hath in the boughs a manner red hoales, and fruit, in the which is the séde. And hath vertue to drawe the Secundinas, that bée the bagges that children bée wrap∣ped in the wombe. And is a trée of great bitternesse, both in root and in leaues, and also in boughs and in braunches. And is neuerthelesse good and profitable in me∣dicine. For of the iuyce of the rootes and of the stalks by decoction, is made a me∣dicine, that Phisitions call Licium.

Some men call it Lucidus, for it maketh cléere eien, and doth away webbes and wormes of the eien, and helpeth against blearednesse of the eyen: and against other euils of liddes of the eyen, and also against itching of the eyen. And healeth and cureth rotted gummes and spitting of bloud. And is good against the running of menstruall bloud of wo∣men, and when they haue much of super∣fluitie of humour in the mother, & clo∣seth the mother in the best wise, and also wasteth such humour, as Plinius sayeth. And healeth whelks and pimples of the lips, and healeth the chipperings of the tongue, as he sayth.

(*The Cammocke, Rest, Harrow, or pety whyn, is ground Furze. The barke of the root taken with honny, prouoketh vrine, and breaketh the stone.)

Of Resina. cap. 139.

REsine, as Isid. saith, libr. 28. is a drop∣ping, which commeth and issueth out by sweting of the trées, as out of ye trées of Balsamus, Ferule, Pine, and Lentis∣cus, and of other trées & shrubs, which sweateth & woseth out liccur. For Rein is Gréeke, & is as much to say in Eng∣lish, to sweate or to wose, as well smel∣ling trées of the East landes and coun∣tries, as the dropping of Balsamus or of Ferula. The dropping whereof har∣deneth and chaungeth into precious stones, and into Electrum. The first and the chiefe Resina, is Therabinthina, and is chiefe and better then other, and com∣meth out of Arabia, Iudea, Siria, Ci∣presse, and Affrica, and out of ye Ilande of the Sea: The second is Lentiscina,Page  317and that is called Mastix, and this com∣meth out of the Iland Hedechio: ye third is Resine pinealis, and this is now soft now hard. Huc vsque Isidorus. And one∣ly gumme hard or soft is called Resin. Some Resin is softe and fléeting as, Re∣sin of Balsamus, and Tirebinthina, and some is harde, as Mastix, Thus, and Mirra, and other such. And all Resin is first soft, and fleeting, and gleamie in the first wosing of the Trée, and abideth al∣way soft and fleeting, and waxeth harde with heat or with colde. And all Re∣sin is good and profitable in medicine, and therefore Resin is put in noble oint∣mentes and medicines. Looke kinde and vertues of all Resins in their owne pla∣ces.

(*Resine pituinae, Pitch, Resina, Ro∣sen, Resina pini, Resina Colophonia, drie Pitch, Resina arida, dried Rosen, &c.)

Of Rubo. cap. 140.

*A Bush is called Rubus, and is thick∣nesse of thornes and of Bryers, and of other shrubbes and prickes, when it groweth in a place together, as Isi. saith. And Rubetum, or Rubus is a name pro∣pried to shrub, that beareth wilde Be∣ryes, which heards eate for hunger. And the fruit thereof is first red, & spreadeth in long braunches, small, and round, & some deale thicke, growing with sharp pricks. And these branches be pliaunt & spring∣ing, and bending in it selfe. The leaues thereof be short and clouen in the side, & some deale sharp, with smal pricks with∣out, which be crooked, and lightly prick∣ing. And thus Rubus is full of pricks frō the roote vp to the toppe, and the prickes therof be some deale crooked downward towarde the earth, and is sharpe as téeth.

The fruit thereof is first gréene, hard, and full sowre. And then red and some∣what sowre. And is blacke and swéet at the last, when it is ripe at the full. The ilyce thereof is red, and painteth and di∣eth as bloud. And the fruite without is compassed with a full thin and wearish skinne, and departed asunder. And diui∣ded as it were small dens and valleyes, & with a manner roundnesse some deale vpright, but it is ful of moist meat with∣in, and ful of graines, & is a medicinable trée with fruit thereof.

And this trée Rubus is cold and dry, as Platearius sayth, and Constant. sayth the same. And saith that the crop there∣of is some deale sowrish, and helpeth a∣gainst hot Postumes and burning, and against rednesse of eien, if the croppes of it be powned with the white of an egge, and layde therto. Also iuyce of the stalks and of the crops therof, medled in water of barly, helpeth against the bloudy flixe. Huc vsque Platearius. Of the goodnesse of the fruit therof, looke before in littera M. de moris agrestibus.

This trée groweth in barren land, and is best to close gardens and vineardes: for the thicknesse of multitude of pricks letteth and holdeth out men and beasts, that passseth forth by of entering, and re∣ceiueth hares & other such small beasts. And defendeth foules that make theyr neasts therein, for to ye intent their kind giueth pricks therto to defend it so ther∣with, as it were swoords. And therefore grieueth & hurteth & pricketh the hands that gather fruit thereof, and suffereth not aduersaries to come there within. And Rubus also is darke and shadowie, by reason of his thicknesse, and letteth the passing in of the Sun beame by the thicknesse thereof. And is therfore friend to Adders, & to other créeping wormes. Therfore of Rubus, a bush, Rubeta hath the name, and is a venimous Frog, that dwelleth in bushes. Therefore it is not safetie to sléepe and rest nigh such bu∣shes, for such venimous wormes, as the master sayth in Historie super libr. Ex∣odum.

(*Of the bramble are thrée sorts. The great brier that is in euerye hedge bea∣reth black berries. The long ground bry∣er, wheron groweth a bigger bery black, called the dew berye, which is very good to coole a hot stomack. The smal scratch brier:these briers be all medinable both leafe and fruite. There is Rubus I∣daeis, called the Framboys, Raspis or hinder Berrie, both redde and Page  [unnumbered] white, these grow in gardens, the iuyce is good to comfort a weake stomack, and the berryes haue a swéete smell: the La∣tines call it Crispina, Merum, Rubi, I∣daei. Dodoneus in fol. 662.)

Of Ruta. chap. 141.

RRow is called Ruta, and is a medi∣cinable hearbe, and hath that name, for it is full feruent, and therof is dou∣ble kinde, wilde and tame, and either is full feruent. But the wilde is more fer∣uent then that other, as Isidore sayth, li. 17. cap. vlcimo. Wéesells teach that this hearbe is contrary to venim, and to ve∣nimous beasts, for he eateth first Rew, and balmeth himselfe with the smell & the vertue therof, before he fighteth with the Serpent, as he sayth. And the Wee∣sell knoweth the vertue of Rew, and ea∣teth thereof, and fighteth afterward safe∣ly, and resith on the Cockatrice, and slai∣eth him, as Plinius, Dioscorides, & Con∣stantine saye. And Plinius praiseth this hearbe in a manner wise passing al other hearbes, libro. 20. cap. 27. and sayth, that the vertue thereof is hot and dry, and comforteth the stomack if it be oft dronk, and putteth a dead childe out of the wombe, and cleanseth the mother, and bringeth out filth and vncleannesse ther∣of, and purgeth and cleanseth the mother full cleane, and wasteth the humour of Venus, and abateth in males the appe∣tite of Venus, for it kindeleth in them complectional drinesse, and heat that hath mastrie in them, and by strength of these qualities the humour is wasted in men, that is oft the cause of the appetite of Venus seruice. And in women that bee colde and moyst, it worketh the contra∣rie by contrarie cause. The broath of Rew abateth hard torments, and gnaw∣ing of the wombe, if it be dronke. And the hearbe layed hot to the wombe in a plaister wise, cleanseth and healeth the lungs and the breast of all moystnesse and colde, that grieueth in the spirituall members. And if it be sod wt Oyle, it slai∣eth wormes of the womb. And Rew ea∣ten rawe sharpneth the sight of the ey∣en, and healeth and doth away the dim∣nesse of eyen, and stauncheth and dryeth bléeding at the nose, if the iuyce thereof be dropped therein. And Rewe eaten or dronke, withstandeth mightelye all ve∣nim and biting of venimous beasts, if it be stamped with Salt, Garlike, & Nuts. And healeth wonderfullye such biting. In the eare and nose the iuyce oft drop∣ped, purgeth the head of fleame, and hel∣peth them that haue the falling Euill. The broath thereof helpeth and releeueth tooth ache. And bringeth Paralitike oft to féeling, and openeth the poores that were before closed. And destroieth migh∣tely ventosity and wind in the guts, and abateth all sore ach within: and rew ea∣ten, medled with the water of roses, and with Comin, cleanseth and healeth blea∣rednesse & rednesse of eien. And the smell of Rew driueth and chaseth away al ve∣nimous beasts out of gardens: and is therefore planted about Sage, to driue away Serpents and Toads which loue Sage best.

(*Ruta Hortensis, and Ruta Silue∣stris, hearbe grace, it is called Eriphion, and the small Rue, Viperalis, in shops, Hamel: Rue is hot and dry in the third degrée, the wilde Rue is stronger. These are good hearbes, and serue for diuerse cures, the iuyce of Rewe dronke with wine cléereth the stomacke from venim. To annoint the bodye with the iuyce of Rew, no venimous Serpents, nor noy∣some flyes will either sting or bite the body: and excellent receite for those that trauaile into the hotte Indies, and other places where those are, it killeth fleas and gnats.)

Plinius libro. 19. cap. 9. speaketh of Rewe, and sayth: That Rue woulde bée sowen or set, when day and night be euen of one length, in haruest. And hale the Winter, doung, and humour, & thriueth well in drie weather. And will be nouri∣shed. with pouder and stones, and with a∣shes. Ashes should be medled with seede thereof, to destroy the wood canker, and other wormes.

The Romanes in olde time did rew in their wine, that they dranke against venim and other euills. And vertue se∣minatine of rew is in the séed, in ye stalk, Page  318 in braunches, & in roote. For the braun∣ches & spraies therof bended downward toward the ground, taketh roote anone, & dryeth not soone, and taketh friendshippe with the figge tree.

Insomuch that Rew is neuer in more liking, nor thriueth better then vnder the Figge tree, or nigh thereto. Also he sayth libro. 20. That Pythagoras erred, that supposed that Rewe grieued the eyen.* For Grauours, Lymnours, and Pain∣tours eate Rew because of the eyen, and to sharpe theyr sight, but beware women with childe, least they eate Rewe. For such meate slayeth the childe in the wombe. Rew is giuen against feminall fluxe, and against the seruice of Venus, and to them that dreameth of lecherye. They that be baulmed with the iuyce of Rewe, bée not bitten with Spiders nor stong with Scorpions, with Bées, nor with Waspes, nor infected with the iuyce Cicuta,* that is venim of venims. Huc vsque Plin. li. 20. cap. 14.

(*Cicuta, an hearbe much like our Hemlocke, but hauing smaller leaues: some vse this worde for Hemlocke. The iuyce of it through extreame cold is poi∣son, and therefore the Athenians vsed it kill men in common executions.)

Of Saltu. chap. 142.

SAltus is a wilde place, and wilde trées there growe and spring on high, as Isidore sayth; libro. 14.* And he sayth, li∣bro 17. that Saltus is high thicknesse of Tráes, and hath that name, for Trées spring and rise there in height. And Sal∣tus and Silua bée diuerse, for in a woode that is called Silua groweth many trees, and more short and more thicke, and neerer togethers, then in the wood that is called Saltus: And in the wood that is cal∣led Saltus, trées be more high and great. And so Silua is a thicke wood with short trées, and hath that name Silua, of Silen, that is a frée, for many Trees be there∣in hewen and felde and wasted.

And Silua, Nemus, and Lucas bee all one: and be names of woods, but Sylua commeth of Silen, that is widenesse or wasting, or of Silence, for a woode that is called Silua, is where be wilde pla∣ces, wastes, and desartes, full of silence. And the Woode that is called Nemus, hath that name of Numen, that is God, for therein Ido made a mawmet, and foreshaped it in steede of God, and in woodes that be called Nemora Trees be great, and make shadowe with boughes and braunches. And the woode that is called Lucus is thicknesse of Trees, and letteth light to come to the grounde, and commeth per Antiphrasim, by con∣trary of Lucco, luces, to shine, and so Lu∣cus is to bee vnderstoode, as it were not shining, as Piscina is a poole or a water without Fish, as Isidore sayeth, libro 16. Then Saltus, Silua, and Nemus be wide places,* wast, and desolate, that ma∣ny Trees growe in without fruite, and also few hauing fruite. And those trees which be barren, and beare no manner fruit, be alway generally more and high∣er then that with fruit, few excepted, as Oke and Beech. In their woodes be ofte wilde beastes and foules, therein grow∣eth hearbes, grasse, lees, and pasture, and namely medicinable hearbes in woodes be founde. In Summer woods be beau∣tified with boughs and braunches, with hearbes and grasse. In woods is place of deceit and of hunting. For therein wilde beasts be hunted, and watches and de∣ceites be ordeined and set of hounds and of hunters. There is a place of hiding & of lurking: for oft in woods théeues be hid, and oft in their awayts and deceits, pas∣sing men commeth and be spoiled and robbed, and oft slains. And so for many and diuerse wayes & vncerteine, strange men oft erre and go out of the way, and take vncerteine way, and the waye that shal is vnknowen, before the way that is knowen: & come oft to the place there théeues lye in awaite, & not without pe∣rill.

Therfore be oft knots made on trées and in bushes, in boughes and in braun∣ches of Trées, in token and marke of the high way, to shew the certeine and sure way, to waifaring men, but oft ye théeues in turning and méeting of waies, change such knottes and signes, and beguyle Page  [unnumbered] many men, and bring them out of the right way, by false tokens and signes. Birds, foules, and Bées flye to the wood: Birdes to make neasts, and Bées to ga∣ther honnie, Birds to kéepe themselues from Fowlers, and Bées to hide them∣selues to make honnie combes priuely in hollow trées and stocks. Also woods for thicknesse of trées be cold with shadow. And in heat of the Sun wearye wayfa∣ring and trauailing men haue liking to haue rest, & to coole themselues in the sha∣dow. Many woodes bée marks & meares betwéene diuerse countries and lands, & departeth them asunder. And by weuing and casting together of trees, often men kéepe and defende themselues from eni∣myes.

(*Saltus, as forrest, a lawne in a parke or forrest:a wood wherein Déere and other beasts do feed, & shadow themselues from Sunne).

Of Salice. chap. 143.

A Wilow trée is called Salix, and hath that name Salix for it groweth soone and spurteth vpwarde after yt it is pight and set in a place, as Isidore sayth, libro 17. And is a plyaunt trée and softe, and according to binding & rayling of vines, and vine braunches, as he sayeth. This Trée hath no fruite, but onely séede of flowres. And it is sayde, that the séede thereof is of this vertue,* that if a man drinke of it, he shall get no sonnes, but onely barren daughters Huc vsque Isi∣dore. lib. 17. Lib. 16. cap. 36. Plinius spea∣keth of the Wilow, and saith, that of wi∣lowes is diuerse kinde. For some bea∣reth long roddes and high,* and waxeth great, and thereof be pearches made and raises for vines. The rindes thereof be long and thicke, and strong, white with∣in, and gréene without. And thereof bée made bondes & hoopes. And though such Wilowes bée strong, yet they bee not so plyaunt as the lesse. And therefore they breake the sooner, when they be wouen and bended to make withye, and bonds, and so Wilows bee lesse and more smal and plyaunt then other, and passing ply∣aunt, and bée so pliaunt that they beare not, but they be made stronger with weauing and tourning, as thréed is with twining. And therewith men binde Wine pipes and Tunnes for Wine. And the thirde kinde of Wilowes is meane betwéene the two first, both in plyauntnesse and in quantitye. For it is more plyaunt then the more, and more stiffe then the lesse. And the boughes bée white when the rinde is away, and plaine & smooth to handling. And there∣of be made diuerse néedefull thinges to householde, as stooles, seates, paniers, and kippes. And is thicker in boughes and braunches, by plashing, shredding, and paring. And though euery Wilowe bée barren of fruite, yet neuerthelesse they beare well, and be not barren of boughs and braunches: and namelye if it bee shredde and pared in due time, as in March or in Aprill, as he sayth: and hée sayth the same, libro. 17. cap. 20. Among Trées that be set and planted, wilowes beare the price: and if they be cut two foote from the grounde, then they growe not n high, but spring and spread a∣broade, and so the maye eft soones bee shered and pared without a Ladder: and each Wilowe, the moe boughes and braunches it beareth, the neerer it is to the ground: and in passing of time when the wilow is right olde, then it falleth and rotteth some and some: and the cor∣ruption thereof beginneth within the pith, and there, oft the Wilowe abideth all voide and hollowe within, though it seeme greene and fayre without. Oft in the hollownesse thereof lyeth veni∣mous wormes, as Adders and Ser∣pents: and therefore if no safely to sleepe vnder the Wilow tree. Huc vsque Pli∣nius.

And if the wilow trée be vnprofitable in fruit, yet it is full good and profitable in medicine, and is colde and drye, as it is sayde in Platearius, and hath vertue to stoppe and to binde, and to close and souder, and abate hot feauers, if the iuyce of the leaues thereof be dronke: and pou∣der of the rinde thereof burnt, helpeth a∣gainst ye bloudy flixe if it be takē in drink, and the same pouder healeth and closeth wounds with botches, and the same pou∣der Page  319 dronke, and layde in a plaister with∣out, doth away wartes, and the braun∣ches and leaues therof sprong with wa∣ter, cooleth the aire about fenorous men, and refresheth and comforteth them, and maketh them sléepe. Huc vs{que} Plat.

Of Sambuca. cap. 144.

THE Elder trée is called Sambucus, or Sambuca, and is a little softe trée, & thereof is a certeine symphonie made, that is called Tibia, and Sambuca also, as Isidore sayth libro. 12. or Tractatu de Musicis instrumentis, and is a trée with long boughes, and rounde and plaine, full sounde and sad without, and full hol∣lowe within, and full of certeine softe pith. And the leaues thereof be pleine, smooth, and fat, with heauy smell, and the flowers thereof be full white and small, with strong smell, and hath double rind. The vtter is browne redde, and the in∣ner is gréene. And that rinde is ful moist in déede. And the iuyce thereof accor∣deth to medicine, and beareth flowres and fruite twice in one yeare, and that fruit is black, with horrible smel and sa∣uour: and this is therefore vnprofitable to eate. And the elder tree is hotte and dry, and rindes, leaues, and flowres ther∣of accord to medicine, as it is sayde in Platearius, and hath vertue Diuretica, to temper and soften, to distribute and to drawe, and to purge fleams, and hel∣peth therefore against the Feance Cori∣diana, that commeth of fleme. The iuyce thereof by it selfe, or with honnie, slaieth long. Wormes in the wombe. The broth of the middle rinde within tempereth hardnesse of the liuer, and of the splene. And the same doth the leaues sodden in Oyle. And the barke and fruit therof sod∣den with Salt water, fordoeth swelling of feete, if the feete be baulmed therwith. The iuyce thereof helpeth against the dropsie, that commeth of colde, the broth of the leaues and of the fruits thereof sadde in strong Wine, helpeth agaynst Le〈…〉, that commeth of fleame, if it bee used, 〈…〉 purgeth, wonderfullye flea∣matike humour and corrupt, call such mours fleamtike disposed to corruption. And wonderull it is to sée in Elder, for if the middle rinde of the stalke, or of the roote bee shauen vpwarde, then it purg∣eth vpwarde, and if it be shauen downe∣warde, it purgeth downewarde, as Pli∣nius, Dioscorides, and Platearius doe meane.

(*The common elder is hot and dry in the third degrée, especially in the bark, the leaues and buddes, the tender crops or buddes sodden in broath: or Potage, doth open the belly, purgeth flegma and cholarike humours.

There is also Marris Elder, called O∣ple or Dwarfe Plane trée, spoken of be∣fore.

The gréene berryes of the common Elder tree, gathered néere the full of the Mone, and béeing dryed, beaten to Pou∣der, the quantity of halfe a quarter of an Ounce put into white or redish Wine, sixe sponefulls, dronke fasting, is a rare and speciall remedie to cure the stone Collicke, &c. He that taketh this medi∣cine, must walke halfe an houre after the receit, and kéepe good diet.)

Of Saliunca, chap. 145.

SAliunca is a lyttle hearbe with sharp prickes, as Vgucion sayeth, and hath that name of Saliendo, leaping. For it maketh them leap that treadeth ther∣on: and is called therefore Thauthe∣trape in French: For it taketh and hurteth the foote that treadeth thereon. And it séemeth that Virgil sayeth the same, and sayth, that Saliunca is among redde Roses. And héereby it seemeth an hearbe with a greate roote and a long, fat and softe, and full of meate: as the Parsneape, and is oft done in Elec∣tuaryes, and hath another name, and is called ringus, and thereof springeth cer∣teine harde stalkes with cornets, and in the toppes thereof growe certaine heads with sharpe prickes all about, as it were Speares. And groweth in dry barren lande and sandye, and some men call it Scorpio: for it stingeth him that toucheth the seed thereof, as it were a Scorpion.

And libro. 20. capitu. 7. Plinius sayth, Page  [unnumbered] that Saliunca is a lyttle short hearb with thicke boughes and leaues as they were thrusted together, and smell full well, nigh as Nardispica, and cleaueth to the ground by certaine small rootes, and gro∣weth in Pannonia in hard place and sto∣ny, and is a hot hearbe and dry, and sub∣till in substaunce, and right tempering and softening, the roote thereof sodde in Wine, stauncheth spuing, and comforteth well the stomacke, as Plinius sayth, libr. 21. cap. 10.

Of Stacten. chap. 146.

THE dropping of the Tree Mirra is called Stacten, and is the same that Mirra is, as the Glose sayth super Ge∣nesis, the dropping of the Trée Mirra 37. and is declined Haec stacte, haius stactes, and is founde Stacten indeclina∣ble. Isaac 3. where hée speaketh de odo∣ribus, speaketh thereof and sayth, Stac∣ten is Incensum that wooseth out of pressing, and is a Nowne of Greeke. Looke before De Mirra in littera M.

Of Storace. chap. 147.

STorax, as Isidore sayth, libro. 17. is a Trée of Arabia, and is like to a quince Tree. The braunches thereof wooseth out by dennes aboute the rising of the Starre Canicula. The dropping there∣of that falleth on the grounde, is not cleane, but if it bée kepte with the rinde of the same. And the dropping that clea∣ueth to the springs and sprayes is white and cleane: and is first made browne redde, by heate of the Sunne. And some manner kinde thereof is called Calami∣tes, and is fat and moyst, and full of Ro∣sen. And thereof commeth swéete ly∣cour, as it were honnye, with good smell and merrie, and is fastened together and hath the same name. For the Gréekes call a drop Stiman: and Stirax in Gréeke, is called Storax in Latine, as Isidore sayth. And the Glose super Eccle. ca. 23. sayth the same.

Also Storax is the dropping of the Trée Stirax, and is right vertuous in medicine. For it is (as Dioscorides sai∣〈…〉Platearius) hotte and drye with glewie substaunce, and hath vertue to drawe. And heereof is thrée manner kindes: one is called Calamites, and is good, and the first that droppeth out of the Trée and wooseth: and the other is called Storax, and is redde, and commeth out and droppeth after the first, and is more pure. The third is Storax redde in colour, softe and fléeting, swéete in smell, sowrish in sauour, much and great in quantitye, and maye bée departed and made roughe with handeling and kne∣ding in the hande: and that that hath sweete sauour, is feyned: And what is feined, is knowen. For if it bée olde, it falleth to Pouder while it is iourned and wonde, and kneade in the hand, and falleth in péeces. And if it be freshe and newe, it waxeth soone moyst, and clea∣ueth not full fast to the hand, and hath more swéetnesse then it should, the softe and fleeting is not feined.

Among these thrée manner kindes, Calamita is of much vertue, and com∣forteth wonderfully the braine. Fumo∣sitie thereof stauncheth all manner run∣ning of reme. And a plaister thereof made, cleanseth the gummes: and faste∣neth and strengthneth wagging of téeth, and commaundeth menstrual bloud, and helpeth well against coughing and hoars∣nesse: and good Storax is put in ••olls, and kepte against Nittes, whelkes, and pimples of the head, and agaynst manye other passions and euills. Huc vsque Dioscorides & Platearius. The fumo∣sitie of Storax purgeth the ayre that is corrupt, and driueth awaye all pesin∣tiall vapour and fumositie, as Isidore sayth.

*(Storax, a swéete intense or Gum, whereof is made Stirax liquida, a strong smelling moysture.)

Of Sicomoro. chap. 148.

SIcomorus is a nice Figge Trée, lyke in leaues to the trée that is called Mo∣rus, and holdeth the lykenesse of a figge trée in other things, as the Maister say∣eth in Historie, libro. 27. Sicomorus and Morus be Nownes of Gréeke.

Page  320And Sicomorus hath that name, for it is lyke in leaues to the trée that is called Morus. And this trée is called Celsa a∣mong Latines: and is much higher and greater then the trée that is called Mo∣rus. Or else as other men meane, it hath ye names Sicomorus of Sile, that is a figge trée, and Morus, that is folly or nisenesse, as it were a foole, or a nice figge trée, as the Glose saith super Lu. 19. And Diosc. meaneth, that Sicomorus is a wild fig trée, and beareth certeine swéete fruite, that is neuer ripe at the full, as it fareth of the trée that is called Caprificus, as Plinius saith, lib. 15. cap. 19. The wilde figge trée ripeth neuer: but some men eate such fruit, and so Dioscorides sayth, that if the Sicomorus be beaten with a stone, it sweateth and woseth out dropping, as it were Gumme, and that is medici∣nable, for it sucketh venimous biting, if it be dronke, and abateth swelling of the splene, and doth away the ach of the sto∣macke.

*(Sicomorus is a great trée, like to the Mulbery trée, the fruits lyke a wilde fig, the fruit groweth forth of the stocke; or braunch close by the maine woode. This tree groweth in Aegypt, and in Alkaire among the Turkes. Reade Matheolus, &c.)

Of Spina. cap. 149.

A Thorne is called Spina, and is a trée with sharpe prickes, and is as it were armed with prickes against wrongs of them that touch it, as Isid. saith. And by likenesse thereof the ridge bone is called Spina. For the ioynts of the bones in the ridge bone, be sharp as a thorne: and pro∣perly to speake, Spina, the thorne, is the pricke that groweth out of the thorne or of hearbs & trées with pricks, & the prick springeth out of the stocke or of the stalk, & is great next to the trée & stalk, & sharp outward at the point. Thou maist finde the cause therof before in the same booke, where it is treated of trées, and of dispo∣sition of trées in generall.

There it is sayde, that it is not the intent of kind, that trees be sharpe with prickes and thornes: But it happeneth and commeth of vnfastnesse and vnsad∣nesse of the tree, by the which colde hu∣mour is drawen that is but lyttle odde. And is drawen and passeth by pores and hoales outwarde, and is hardned by heat of the Sunne, and made a thorne or a pricke, and is made small and sharpe at the ende for scarcitie of matter. And sometime is sharpe, and some deale ben∣ding, as it fareth in briers and rose trées, sometime the point is areared vpright, as it were in Dartes. Oft growing of thornes, is token of barren land vn∣tilled. And it is as it were a generall rule, that all shrubs and trees with ma∣ny thornes and prickes bee wounde and wreathed togethers, and compassed and succoured and defended each with other, and fight against them that they touch, and wounde theyr handes, and none of them hurteth other. And for thicknesse it letteth the comming of the Sun beames and of the dew of heauen, to things that be there vnder. And therefore that which is sowen nigh, or among thornes, thri∣ueth not commonlye. Often handes and feets be wounded with pricking of thornes, and the ach ceaseth not till the thorne be all taken out of the places that be hurt. And for sharpnesse and pricking vnneth thornes be feld or plucked out of the ground without hooke, Bill, Matock, or some other edged toole. And when they bee felde or rooted vp, they be bounde in Fagots and in heapes, and burnt in Ouens and in Furnases.

Also among thornes often be flowers scene, and also much fruit, but thornes be not softned by softnesse of flowres, but when flowres and leaues fall, thornes a∣bide and be more harde. And for thornes be kindly dry, they be soone kindled in the fire, and giue a strong ley, and sparkleth and cracketh, & maketh much noise: and soone after they be brought all to naught, as the Glose saith super Eccle. 7. The Laughing of fooles, is as the cracking of thornes vnder a pot, and that is a vaine thing. Ecclesiastes. 2.

But thornes be not vnprofitable, but they bee good and profitable to manye manner vses. For of thornes men make hedges and pauises, with which men de∣fend Page  [unnumbered] and succour themselues and their owne. And thornes beareth manye good fruits, and defendeth the fruit. Looke be∣fore de Rubo in littera R.

Of Lignis Sethim. chap. 150.

CErtaine trées be called Ligna Si∣them, and such Trées haue many prickes, and bée light and rotteth not, and bée lyke to the white thorne, and bée called Acharitis in Gréeke, as it is sayde vpon Exodus. 25. There it is sayde, that Sethim is a name of an hill and of a Countrie, and of a trée, that is lyks to white thorne in leaues. And is a most lyghtest Trée, and rotteth not nor burneth: therefore it is sayd in Au∣rora.

Ligna Sethim torpent nulla purtredi∣ne, iustos
Signant in coelum qui sine fine ni∣tant.

The trée of Sethim fayleth with no rotting, and betokeneth rightfull men in heauen, that shine without ende. And they bée called thornes of Sethim: for by might and vertue, and paines and tor∣ments men come to the Starres of God, as Dioscorides and Plinius meane. And the vertue therof stoppeth and bin∣deth, and stauncheth bloud. The leaues therof be rough and whitish, with thorns and prickes, and hath purple flowres and long braunches, of the greatnesse of a fin∣ger, and hath in the top of the bough smal beads with prickes and thornes, and full of rounde séede. And the séede dron∣ken, succoureth and helpeth rotted mem∣bers.

(*Setim, a trée lyke a white thorne, which doth neuer rot, whereof was much of the timber in Salomons Tem∣ple.)

Of Sentice. chap. 151.

*SEntix is a manner trée or an hearb with rough leaues, and fatte and cloue, as Eruca. And hath braunches of two cubites long, and hath that name Sentix of the place that it groweth in. For they growe among harde thinges, and be not tilled, as thornes doe, as Isi∣dore sayth. And hath heads as a rough Thistle, and the roote thereof is redde, long, and fat, and is medicinable, and hel∣peth sores of burning and of scalding, as Dioscorides sayth. And helpeth against inward stopping of veines.

Of Sepe. chap. 152.

AN Hedge is called Sepes, and Se∣pes is declined, Sepes, pis, and is a manner closing of briers, of thornes, and trées made. The soules and stalkes be pight in the grounde, and there about bée wreathed, wouen, and wounde thornes and roddes. And so houses and Corne be succoured and defended by strength of the hedge. And is declined haec Sepes, hu∣ius sepis. Thereof is mention made Ecc. 36. where no hedge is, possession is de∣stroyed.

Also about hedges lurketh and dar∣keth venimous wormes, Frogges, Ser∣pents, and Adders: And so of this Noune Sepes, commeth this Noune Seps, and is a name of a venimous Adder, that is so venimous, that the venimme destroyeth not onely the bodye, but also it wasteth and destroyeth the boanes: and so sayth Lucanus. And meaneth, that this Adder destroyeth bodye and boanes, &c. And therefore it is perillous to sleepe vnder hedges, for dreade of venimous beasts, that lurke there. Hedges stand in great heate, and fayle soone except they be re∣newed, and while they kéepe and saue other things, they stande in the heate of the Sunne, and bée wasted themselues some and some: and at the last they bée rotted with drynesse, and burnt in the fire. Of Sepes, an hedge, or of this verbe Sepio, Sepis, that is to vnderstand close, commeth this Noune Septum, that is a place closed about. It is sayde, Intra septum templi, that is to vnderstande, within the closing or the clausure of the Temple.

Of Sude. chap. 153.

Page  321SVdes, sudis, is an heisaule or a stake sharped at the end, and this Noune Sudes commeth of Suo, is, to sow. For an hedge séemeth as i were sowen with such soules and stakes, for such soules and stakes be cleaned or they be pight in the ground: and the faster they bee pight in the ground & more stronglye wouen and wound with rods, the more strong is the hedge. And Sudes is feminine gender, & declined haec Sudes, huius sudis, as Hu∣go sayth, and Ouidius Methamor. dicit. Que coniuncta est humeris ceruix su∣de figitur combusta, &c.

Of Siliqua. chap. 154.

A Codde and an huske is called Sili∣qua, and is a void thing of Codware, as it were Balthis, or a bladder blowen, and chargeth more then it feedeth and nourisheth, as the Glose saith super Lu. 15. and Hugo sayth, that Siliqua is the codde of all manner codware and purg∣ing, with the which Swine be sed. And Isidore saith, lib. 17. that Silique that is shortned among Latines, and is called Siliquam, had such a name among the Gréekes, for it is a trée, & the fruit therof is swéete, and a trée is called Xilon a∣mong them, and swéete is called Liquon among them. And to this sentence accor∣deth Plinius, lib. 9. cap. 24. There he sai∣eth, that fruit of Siliqua is swéete, and a finger long, and an inch broade, and the skinne thereof is eaten. And sayth there, libro. 13. cap. 9. that some men saide, that it is a figge of Aegypt, but that is open errour, for it groweth not in Aegipt, but in Syria.

Of Sinape. chap. 155.

*SEnule is called Sinapis, and hath that name of Syn, and Napus a Nepe, for it is like to a Nepe in leaues, as Isi. sayth li. 17. And li. 20 cap. 24. Plinius speaketh of Senuey & saith, yt among hearbes that Pythagoras praiseth, it is sayde, that hee gaue to Senuey the first & chiefe praising, and sayth, that among hearbes Senuye beareth the price: And it is hot and drye in the fourth degrée, and wasteth and pur∣geth thicke humours and gleamie. And healeth smiting of serpents and of Scor∣pions, and ouercommeth venime of the Scorpions, and abateth tooth ach, and pas∣seth to the braine, and comforteth it won∣derfully, and breaketh the stone, & com∣maundeth menstruall bloud, and exciteth appetite, and helpeth them that haue the falling euill, and healeth the dropsie, and helpeth them that haue Litargie, the slee∣ping euill, and helpeth them full great∣ly: and cleanseth the haire, and letteth the falling thereof: and doth away tink∣ling and ringing of the eare, and wi∣peth away dimnesse of eyen, and smooth∣eth roughnesse of the lippes, and helpeth Paralitik men: for it openeth the pores, and tempereth and consumeth and wast∣eth the humour that laxeth and smiteth sinewes togethers, and taketh awaie the palsie.

Plinius rehearseth the praising and many other, and saith, that the most ver∣tue thereof is in the seed and the seede is lesse in quantitie, and most in might and in vertue: For the séede heateth and ope∣neth, consumeth and wasteth and multi∣plieth it selfe. Of one little graine com∣meth a right great plant, and springeth and spreadeth greatly in branches, flow∣ers, and seed. The seed thereof groweth in certaine small cods, euenlong and round, and is kept by defense of those cods vn∣till they be ripe. The flowres thereof be full yeolow, with good smell. And though all the hearbe in substance be kene & fer∣uent, yet Bees loue best the flowers, and haunt them as Plinius sayth. Neuerthe∣lesse Bees touch neuer flowers of Oliue. And Plinius sayth, li. 20. ca. 12. that senuie multiplieth so it selfe, that where it is once sowen, vnneth the place may be de∣liuered thereof. And there it falleth once, it waxeth greene, and springeth anone, as be sayth. lib. 19. cap. 9.

(*Senuie brused and ground with vi∣neger, is a wholesome sauce, meete to be eaten, with hard and grose meates, either flesh or fish, it helpeth digestion, & is good for the stomack, to warme the same, and to prouoke appetite.)

Page  [unnumbered]

Of Semine. cap. 156.

SEede is called Semen, and is sow∣en in fieldes to bring forth fruite, though the seminall humour of beastes is called Semen by a manner appropria∣tion, as Isidore sayeth: and Sementes is the séede of corne, when it is sowing time, and was called of manye men the Goddesse or the Lady of sowing: And Seminarium is the beginning of euerye thing, or a vessell that séede is put in for to sowe: But Sementum is profite and winning that commeth of the seede, as Hugo sayth. Héereof bée vearses dif∣ference in Grecismo, that meane that seminall humour of beasts is called Se∣men, and grains of corne that bée sowen in the fielde is called Sementis proper∣ly, and Sementinum. And Seminum is the well and beginning of things. And as Plinius libro. 8. and 24. cap. sayeth. Séede is good kepte one yeare, or two, or thrée: and is little woorth that is kepte longer time: and the grain that is lowest in the threshing floure is best is séed, & is best séed, for it is heauyest: & that is best, that is most heauie, and most white within. And by qualytie of the land, séede shall be sowen thicke or thinne, soone or late, for it must be sowen soone in moyst lande, least the séede rosteth with raine: and late in drye lande, that raine come soone thereafter, least the séede lye long drye, and vanish, and bée lost. And lesse séede shall bée sowen in fat land, and most in leane land. For in fat land it groweth full fast, and destroyed it selfe: and one séede ouersetteth another at the last by greate multiplication of it selfe. And séede that is sowen soone, shall waxe thic∣ker then the séede that is late sowen.

For late séede shall be thinne, least it dry for thicknesse: and it is cunning to sow euen lyke thicke. For the hand shall ac∣corde with the stepping, and passe away foorth with the right foote: and séede shall not bée chaunged out of colde place into hot, neither againewarde. For no∣thing shall bée commanded into the con∣trary. Of séede sowen in leane land com∣meth thin strawe and small eares, som∣time voide: and in fat fields, of one roote of séed commeth a cluster of stalks: and in Haruest, when the day and the night bee lyke long, the time is contrarye to séede time, and also in springing time. And men shall not sow in full hoare frost: and that is sooth: for the winter séede is sowen before the hoare frost, and breaketh and springeth the seauenth day. But after the frost, vneth it springeth within 40. daies, Huc vsque Plinius. ca. 20. Then seede is small graine and rounde, and hath in it selfe vertue to multiply and to saue kinde therof: And when it is sowen, it swelleth by humour of the earth closed within, yt tempereth & maketh subtill the humour and the earth all about. And bringeth it & draweth it to temperatnesse of ye grains: and so the graine waxeth soft and great: and so the small skin of the séed cleaueth and the burgening springeth out lyttle and lyttle: the rootes be pight down∣ward in the ground by the which rootes the burgening séede draweth awaye to it selfe féeding and nourishing, and ope∣neth at the last priuelye the earth: and thereof springeth stalkes, twigges, flow∣ers, fruit, and séede. And though the séede yt is sowen, be right little: yet therof com∣meth a right great thing and an huge. Fooles account séede lost when it is sow∣en: neuerthelesse in better wise it is not kept then by sowing. Also in the séede is the vertue seminall, and kinde heat wor∣keth therein. And humour of nourish∣ing and of féeding is drawne thereto by vertue of heate. To féeding and growing of the séed commeth the stalks, and of the stalke commeth the eare that is called Spica, and hath that name of Spiculo, a dart or an eile, as Isidore sayeth, libro 17. For in the eares groweth many eiles that be sharpe as dartes. Kinde maketh eyles in the corne eares, to be succour and armour against sodeine réeses & bi∣ting of small birds and wormes, as Isi∣dore sayth. After diuerse kindes of séeds the eare is diuerse in figure and shape. For sometime the eare is broad, as it fa∣reth in Barlye, & sometime foure edged, as it fareth in Wheate, and is sometime round, as Plinius sayeth and Aristotle also.

Page  322Also the eare is in the toppe of the stalke compassed all about with small skinnes and bulls, and therein the séede is nouri∣shed as it were in the mother, and kept and saued vntil it be ripe: and such hulls springing out first with the graine bée closed, and cleaueth afterward some and some, and the graine swelleth and wat∣eth great, and namely in wheat, as it is sayd super libro. Aristotelis de plantis. And generally in the beginning by wor∣king and rearing of heate, the heads of corne eares be areared vpward, but whē it ripeth, then it bēdeth somwhat down∣warde by heauynesse and weight of the graines. And while eares bee greene, they bée sometime sprong and corrupte with corrupt aire and dewe, and taketh as it were rust thereof: and ripeth the better, if they be sprong with couenable dewe and raine, and haue dewe heat of heauen. And moysture of dew suffereth not the graines to fall out of the hulls, as Plinius sayth, libr. 17. And Constan∣tine, Isaac, and Albuma. meane the same. By goodnesse of the land the goodnesse of the eare is knowen: for in good and fat ground groweth good eare in great quan∣titie, and fruitfull of graines, and in dry lande and leane againeward, as Plinius sayth.

Of Stipula. cap. 157.

STubble is called Stipula, & hath that name of burning, as it is were a thing burnt, for when the corne is ripe and ga∣thered, the stubble is burnt, that the field may be eared, as Isid. saith, li. 17. Or else it hath that name, as Hugo saith, of Sti∣po, as to beset and compasse. And Stipu∣la is properly that strawe with leaues & hofen, that is left in the fielde after that repers haue reped the corne with hooks, and gathered it home.

And many men gather this stubble, that is apt to many diuers vses: for some men thetch houses therewith, and some fée∣deth beasts therewith in stéed of strawe and sodder. And some maketh fire ther∣with and baketh bread therewith, and séeth meate, as Plinius sayth, libro. 18. cap. 30. Looke before in Palea, in littera P. Stubble is a little thing, hollowe and drye, and is full soone sette on fire, and with tlowing of winde, as hée say∣eth.

Of Simila. chap. 158.

THe flowre of wheat meale is called Simila, & is chiefe meale of wheate, most cleane, delicate, & liking. Thereof is bread made for noble men of renowne, & that bread is properly called Similago.* & is the flowre of most smallest meale, most cleane, & most white & soft: and ac∣cordeth to many meates, & also to medi∣cines. Looke before de fauna in littera F. & de polenta in littera P.

Of Scopa. chap. 159.

SCopa is a trée,* and hath that name of Scopando; spewing, that commeth of Scopis or Scopo, pas, and is to vnder∣stand, cleanse or purge for therwith hou∣ses he swept and cleansed, as Isid. sayth, lib. 17. And many call to tree Birch, & hath light leaues, as the ••pe.* For the leaues therof bée full thin and full light, and moueth and quaketh with a right soft blast of winde. And hath manye hard twigs and braunches with knots, and therewith often children be chasti∣sed and beaten on the bare buttocks & loines. And of the boughs and branches therof be besomes made to swéep and to clanse houses of dust, and of other vn∣cleannesse: and beareth séed that is void, as it were like huskes or voide coddes, and wilde men of woods and Forrestes vseth that séede in steade of bread. And this trée hath much sowre inye, & some∣what biting. And men vse therefore in springing time and haruest to stirte the rindes, and to gather the humoure that commeth out thereof, & drinke it in steed of Wine. And such drinke quencheth thirst, and bréedeth much swelling, as he telleth, but it nourisheth not, nor ma∣keth men dronke. Also ye same iuyce kept long in a vessell vnder-dung, and chafed with the heate of the Sun, corrupteth & rotteth, & turneth into fatnesse, & so it is made an ointment, & by séething of fire many mē draw out therof as it wer pitch Page  [unnumbered] And though it be right blacke and stink∣ing, yet it is néedfull to many diuers v∣ses. Therefore wilde wood men, in desert vse the seede thereof, and the iuyce in steed of corne and of wine, and of Olyue, as Plinius saith libro 15. treating of iuyce of trées.

(*In the booke tituled the Kalender of miles, there is in Macedonia, a nota∣ble Citie, in the which thrée sorts of peo∣ple inhabit, which at this day is called Scopia, three dayes iournie from Thes∣salonica, Turkes, Iewes, & Christians: the greatest companies, are Turkes.

This Citie standeth not farre from the mount Olympus, &c. Muntles in lib. 4. folio. 931.)

Of Stupa. cap. 160.

HArdes is called Stupa, & is the clen∣sing of hempe or of flexe, and men in olde time called it Supa, as it were stopping or porring: for therewith chins and cliftes of ships be stopped and por∣red. Therefore they that aray it to that craft, and make it ready thereto, be cal∣led Stipulateres, as Isido. sayth libr. 20. Vbi agit de lanis.* For with much bra∣king, heckling and rubbing, Hardes, be departed from the substance of hempe & of flexe, and is great when it is depart∣ed, and more knottie short and rough, & is therefore not full able to be spun for threed thereof to be made: neuerthelesse thereof is thréed spun, that is full great, vneuen and full of knovbes, and thereof be made bondes and bindings, and mat∣ches for candles, for it is full drie, and taketh soone fire and burneth, and so when it is kindled, it falleth sodainly in∣to ashes, and thereof commeth when it is quenched, bitter smoake, that grieueth both the eyen and the nose, and is good & profitable to medicine, when it is well wrought and purged of stalkes, and is good to dry and to heale woundes, and to ease burning and scalding, and to abate swelling of eyen, as Plinius sayeth, lib. 20. cap. 10.

¶Of Taxu. cap. 161.

AN Ewe trée is called Taxus, and is a tree with venime and poyson, and is a strong tree and an high, with great boughes piyant and long; of the which the Parthes make bowes, as Isid. saith li. 17. The Doet speaketh thereof & say∣eth that such trees are burnt, and bowes made thereof. The shadowe thereof is grieuous, and slayeth such as sleepe ther∣vnder. The iuyce thereof is too laxa∣tiue, the substaunce thereof kéepeth the euill that is called Ignis Grecus, that it shall not quench, as Dioscorides affir∣meth and sayth.

(*The Yew trée is a fast wood, wher of, because of the toughnesse, bowes are made for Archers, Ewe or Yew, is al∣together venemous, and against mans nature. The birdes that eate the redde berryes, eyther dye, or cast-theyr fe∣thers.)

¶ Of Tabula. ca. 162.

A Boord is called Tabula, and hath the name of Teneo, to holde: and Ta∣bula is in one signification a meat boord, and namely of rich men, as it wer Te∣nebula, bolding morsells, for they holde morsells and vessell, that be set there vp∣on: and is areared and set vpon féete, and compassed with a lyst about. And in another manner. Tabula is a plaieng boord, that men play on at the Dice, and other games: & this maner of Table is double, and arayed with diuers colours. In the third manner it is a thin planke and plaine, and therein be letters writ with colours, and sometime small shin∣gles be plained, and made some deale holow in either side, and be craftely ioy∣ned togethers, and filled full of waxe, blacke, greene or red, to write therein. And such tables be called Tabulae, for they hold letters that are writen therin. And the more plaine ye trée is that they be made of, and the more hard & smooth, the better the Tables be.

In another manner, this name Ta∣bula commeth of Tegendo, as it wer a heling or a couering, and is a long shin∣gle and broad, cloue with an axe or with Page  323 a sawe, and such a boorde is néedefull to couering of houses, for of such boords be tables made, and other buildings crafte∣ly arayed, and be disposed, sometime in fighting, with many manner crafte and wonderfull,* and that after many maner casting, hewing, denting, and plaining: that such tables and boords may be euen and well ioyned. Boords and tables gar∣nish houses, neuerthelesse when they bée set in soler flores,* they serue all men & beasts that be therein, and be troden of all men and beasts that come therein, & haue gyests or beames lyke farre asun∣der, and be fastened thereto, and defend∣ed therewith, that they bende not nor crooke too soone, when they be ouerset & pressed with stones and other heauye things laid on them. Then they be dres∣sed, hewed and plained, and made coue∣nable to vse of the ships, of bridges, of bulks, and coffers, and many other néed∣full things of buylding. Also in shippes mariners flye to a boord, and be ofte sa∣ued in perill.

¶Of Trabe. cap. 163.

A Beame and also a gyest is called Trabes, and is a trée that stretcheth thwart ouer an house, and toucheth the walls in either ende, and holdeth them vp, that they fall not for great highnes, neither for leuieng, and is declined haec Trabs vel Trabes, and hath that name of Traho, that is to drawe or to reach, for they reach from one wal to another, and are ioyned and sticked therein, as Hugo saith.

And it néedeth that a gyest & a beame be long, strong, and great, and namely in the middle, lest they bend & were croo∣ked, if that they be too small in the mid∣dle, and so for dread of bending and of crooking, ofte it néedeth to vnderset them with posts or pillers, for such a thwarte ouer trée, set in that wise, néedeth to bée vnderset for succour, that they maye bée the better held vp, & beare heauy things that be laid therevpon.

¶Of Terebinto. chap. 164.

TErebinthus (as Isid. saith li. 17.) is a trée that sweateth Rosin, and is better than all the other, and the Rosin thereof is called Terebintina, & is right medicinable: for as Dios. saith ye leaues thereof, fruite, rindes and séede be sow∣rish, and they are gathered as busilye as the ashes thereof, and be contrary to ve∣nemous biting. The good Rosin thereof is cleane and bright, and cléere, with good sauor and red colour, and hath ver∣tue to temper and moyst, to laxe and is ripe, and in therefore good against hard postumes and other gatherings, that bée in the head, and in the members. And Plin. lib. 14. cap. 7. speaketh of this trée Terebintus, and saith, that in Siria is Terebintus, and thereof is double kind, as the male, and that is without fruite: and female, and that is double: That one hath red fruite of the greatnesse of a Fetche, and that other hath pale fruite of the greatnesse of a beane, & the fruite hath a merry smell, and is fat in hand∣ling and touching, and with much Ro∣sin, and is in Siria a great trée, and the matter thereof is right soft and durable. And when they wexe blacke and shine for age, then the leaues be thicke, & haue some manner cods, and therof commeth certaine beastes as it were Gnats, that gnawe and pearceth the rindes, and so when the rinde is pearced, thereof wo∣seth and springeth drops of Rosin. Also lib. 24. cap. 6. Plinius saith, that the roote of this trée Terebintus and leaues sod∣den in wine, comforteth the stomacke, & helpeth against head ache. Terebintina, the smelleth best, pleseth, both of Siria, and of Cipresse, that is pure, bright, and whitish, with a manner of rednesse and thicke: and that that groweth in Mountaynes, pourgeth and healeth woundes better then that that groweth in fieldes.

(*The Turpentine trée groweth in Syria, especially about Damascus.

The fruite is hotte and drye, prouo∣keth vryne, and stirreth vp fleshlye lust, &c.)

Page  [unnumbered]

¶Of Thina. cap. 165.

THina be certain trées most precious, as it were Hebenus, and thereof Sa∣lomon made steires and gréeces & posts in the house of our Lord, and so sayeth the Glose 4. Reg. ca. 10. vpon that place, a woman brought out of Ophir, vel E∣phir, timber of the trées Thina. And these trées Thina rot not, and also they haue prickes as a white thorne, and are round and white, and full cléere as a glasse, or as the nayle of the hand, & so therein be images séene, as it were in the naile, and these trées burne not in fire, nor soften in water, as the trée Si∣thim doth not. And many men suppose, that the trées Sithim and Thina, be one manner trée.

¶Of Tirso. cap. 166.

THe middle stalke of an hearbe or of a trée is called Tirsus, and hath that name, for it riseth out of the earth, and springeth vpward, as Papias saith. And is the ouermost part of a plant, tender, most gréene, and most softe and fayre, & most farre from the earth, and nexte is heauen, most sprong with the deaw of heauen, and is most full of leaues, & ten∣der boughes and braunches: for in the stalkes is most vertue of hearbes.

¶Of Tignis. cap. 167.

ROofe of trées is called Tigna, & are trees areared and stretched from the walls vp to the top of the house, & beare vp the couering thereof, and stand wide beneath, and come togethers vpwards, & so they nigh néerer and néerer, and are ioyned either to other in the top of the house, & haue that name Tigna of Te∣gendo, healing, or of Tegula, slate, or shingle,* or laths, for it holdeth vp heling slate, shingles, & laths: the lath is long & somwhat broad, and plaine and thin, and is nayled thwart ouer to the rafters, and thereon hang slates, tile and shingles.

The rafters be strong and square and hewen plaine, and be strong and great toward the walls, and smaller and lesse strong vpward toward the top, and bée charged without with slate and tile, or straw & thatch, and be made faire with∣in with faire gyests and boords, and are fast ioyned therein, and be called Laque∣aria, that be boords ioyned to the rafters to make faire houses & chambers with in, and be that arayeth the roofe with rafters, is called Tignarius, as Papias sayeth.

¶Of Tritico. cap. 168.

Wheate is called Triticum, and hath that name of Tritura, threshing or treading: for it is threshed or trodde to haue the most pure in ye barnes or gar∣ners. Or it hath that name, for ye graine therof is ground or stamped and brused that it may be able to be eaten, as Isid. saith libr. 17. And of wheate is double kinde, one manner kind is red without, and sharpe at either ende, clouen in the side, and is most white within, and hea∣uie in waight, & that manner of wheats is best, as Plinius saith.

The other manner wheate is yeo∣low without, and cléere and white with∣in, and is light and not easely broken. Of generall properties of wheate, looke before in litera F. de Frumento. Isaac teacheth and sheweth in Dietis, that wheate is diuers by diuersity of ground and soyle, that it is sowen and groweth in: for in such land that is fat and wel dounged, groweth fat ranke wheate and heauie of weight, and also more nutri∣tiue and nourishing, than is the wheate that groweth in leane land and also dry. And so the goodnesse of wheate is kno∣wen by goodnesse of the ground and land that it groweth in, and againward. Also wheate taketh diuersitie of diuersitie of tune, for wheate that groweth in mode∣rate time, is perfect in qualytie & quan∣titie, and is full of meale and of doure, with right little bran, and nourisheth at the best: and wheate that springeth in immoderate and vneasie weather and time, is vnperfect.

Also wheat is diuers, for some is old and some is new, & some is in ye meane: for when it is olde and kept long time, Page  324 it is too drye and hard so defye, & nouri∣sheth but little, and then the substaunci∣all moysture thereof is soone fordried & abateth by heate of aire, and new wheat that is kept but a little time, for super∣fluitie of moysture and of gleimie earth, is moist and gleimy, fast and hard to de∣fie, and bréedeth swelling and ventositie, and hurling and kurling in the wombe, and wheate that is meane betwéene the new and the olde, betwéene too moyst & drye is temperate, and is therefore the better, and nourisheth the more, for when the accidentall moysture is wasted heat of the ayre tempereth somewhat ye sub∣staunciall moysture. And therefore such wheate is the better, and nourisheth the better, and is well digested, & leeseth glei∣minesse and thicknesse of earth, and as Isaac saith, wheate is hot and temperate betwéene moyst and dry, but bread ther∣of is the more hot, because of heat of the fire and of baking, for the kinde heate thereof is strengthened by accidentall heate of the fire. Also wheate hath this propertie, that it nourisheth better than all other greines, and that because of likenesse of mans complection, as he sai∣eth. Also wheate by drinesse cleanseth and wasteth, and therefore iuyce of the meale therof, cleanseth and pourgeth the breast and the lunges, and so doth Tisa∣num made of wheate, as Tisanum made or barly, for it clenseth more than Tisa∣num made of barly, and helpeth against the cough and the bloudye flixe.

Also wheate sodde with Oyle, and laide vpon an hard postume dissolueth it. Also wheate soo with iuyce of rue, and dissol∣ueth and softneth running and kurding of milke, if the breast and teafes he bal∣med therewith. Also wheate tempered with the iuyce of Henbane, and layed to the sinewes, letteth euill humours, that they shal not fall downward. Also grems of wheate chewed, helpeth against the biting of a wood hound, for it draweth out the venime, as he saith.

Also of wheat is made oyle that hel∣peth in manie things, and namely in it∣ching and in seads wet and drye, and shingles, if it be welt froted with a rough cloath: and that is done, for the vertue of Oyle shoulde the better enter. Also bran of wheate, dryeth and clean∣seth more than doth the meale thereof: but the bran norisheth little or els right nought. Also as he sayth, wheate fresh and new nourisheth but little, and brée∣deth sleame and swelling when it is ea∣ten rawe, and also ache in the sides, hur∣lying and curlyng, and is soone rotted, & therefore often long wormes and other wormes in the wombe be gendered of such meate: and wheate rosted nouri∣sheth more, and bréedeth lesse ventosity, and stoppeth soone, and bindeth, and is most grieuous, and bréedeth swellyng and gleimie humour, when it is sod in water. Huc vsque Isaac. in Dietis.

¶Of Tisana. cap. 169.

TIsana, as the Glose saieth super 2. Reg. 1. is barley dried, stamped in a morter and shaled, and thereof is made that, that accordeth to them that bée toothlesse. Also of Tisanis such barley is drinke made that is good to them yt haue the feuers and other hot euills. Look be∣fore De Ordeo in litera O. It abateth and changeth heat, and quencheth thirst, and declyned Haec Tisana, huius Ti∣sanae, and the middle sillable is long: & thereof Alexander Nequam speaketh, and sayth in this manner.

Cortice nudato, Tisanas Ordea dicas.

His meaning is that Tisana is cal∣led Barley shaled, and thereof is made a drinke called Tisanum, as Isaac saieth in Dietis.

¶Of Tribulo. cap. 170.

A Brier is called Tribulus, and is a shrub with pricks, is more softe than a tree, and more hard than a hearb: and thereof is double kinde, the more that groweth by hedges, as Plin. saith libro 21. cap. 16.

The brier is an hard-thing, that gro∣weth about closing of townes, & spring∣eth vpward on high, but when it lacketh strength to stretche vpwarde, then it bendeth downewarde to the grounde, Page  [unnumbered] and hath many téeth, and sharpe pricks, and euery braunch thereof from ye crop to the roote is full, and succoured with sharpe prickes.

The other manner brier is lesse, & groweth in moores and in fieldes, and is lesse in length and in greatnesse, than is the more brier, and hath smal leaues and round stalkes tender and red, spredde by the ground all full of sharpe pricks, and beareth white blossomes, and the fruite thereof is first gréene, and afterward red and blacke at the last. Serpents, Adders and toades loue this fruite, and there∣fore it is not good for men to eate such fruite, and who that will eate thereof, shall chuse that fruit, that is most high from the ground, und is not too ripe, but whole and sound, and not touched ney∣ther bitten nor gnawen with flyes, nor with other wormes.

The brier that groweth in fielde, as Plinius saith, is enimie to ploughes and to fruite, and is quicke and sharpe, and multiplieth it selfe swiftly, and may vn∣neth be destroyed in fields yt they growe in, and therefore it destroyeth and ouer∣setteth corne, and hurteth sore féete, legs, and hands of them that passe thereby, & touch it, and maketh oft foote men stum∣ble and fall, and renteth mens cloathes, and gathereth off wooll from shéepe that goe in leese thereby: and therefore this nowne Tribulus commeth of Tribu∣lando, grieuing and working woe: for it grieueth them that commeth ther nigh aud doth them much woe.

¶Of Thimo. cap. 171.

THimus, is an hearbe with good sa∣vour, & Virgil speaketh so thereof, & sayth, that sweete donie sauoureth of it. The floure thereof is called Epithium, and is a medicinable floure, and clean∣seth and purgeth melancholy and fleme, and helpeth therefore against the sicke∣nesse called the uartane, and against diuers and manye other melancholicke euills, and grieuous passions.

(*Thimum Creticum, Thimum du∣riue. Time of Candie, & common time. It is hot and drye in the third degrée, a medicinable hearbe.

¶Of Thimiamate. cap. 172.

THimiama is a certaine confection most preciously ordained and made of Onice and of Seacten, of Galbanus, and of Thus, as it is sayd, Exod. cap. 30. And hath that name Thimiama of a good smelling hearbe that is called Thi∣mus, for it smelleth swéetly as Thimus doth, as Isidore saith libro. 4. where he treateth of odours and smells, and such confections should not be made to mans vse: for our Lord bad and commaun∣ded that such confection should be offe∣red in the Temple, vpon the Altar of Thimiama.

(*Thimiama, a swéete perfume, or odi∣serous sauour made of hearbes.)

¶Of Thure. cap. 173.

THus Frankencense, is the name of a trée, called Abies Firre, and of the gum that woseth and commeth out ther of. Isidore lib. 17. speaketh thereof and sayth, that this is a trée of Arabia, and is great with many boughes, and with the most lyghtest rinde, to the quantitis of the trée Acer, and thereof commeth iuyce with good smell, and is white as Almonds, and is fat when it is tempred and softened, and burneth soone when it is set on fire, & is among vs called Mas∣culus, for it is round shapen as the gen∣dering stones. And the other is plaine & full scabbed, and not so good as the smal, & fained by medling therewith of white Resine or of gum. But it is spyed and knowen, by his owne qualytie: For Thus burneth in the fire, and Resine smoaketh, and Gamme made not mel∣teth.

The trée that sweateth and woseth Thus, is called Libanus, and the gumme thereof is called Olibanum among phi∣sitions, and hath name of a mount of Arabia. But the gum that droppeth of the trée that is called Libanus, is called Olibanum, and also Libanus (as Isido. saith) and the Glose super. Eccl. 24. vpon Page  325 that place Ego quasi Libanus non inci∣sus. And some men meane that Liba∣nus〈…〉Arabia, like to the Lau∣reit tree in leaues, and beareth fruite twice in one yeare in springing time, & in harvest▪ And the gum that droppeth thereof by itselfe in the beginning of Summer is the better: the which, in Summer when the rinde is slit is com∣pelled to come out some and some. What droppeth in haruest, is not so white nor so pure: but that that first cleaueth to boughes and twigs▪ That Thus is best that is white fast and sounde, and euen¦long as the gendring stones; and is cal∣led therefore Masculinum. And Thus that commeth out in haruest, or in the beginning of winter, when the rinds be slit, is not like to the other in vertue, nor in colour for that is white & cleere and bright, and full cléere, with full good smell: and the secondary I had is thin and scabbed, as Isido saith before. The Countrey where Thus groweth, is fast of mountaines and hard to come to for high rockes and crags, as the Glose sai∣eth super Eccle. And Plin. saith all this lib. 15. cap. 10. There he saith, that in A∣rabia is a countrey, and Thus groweth therein, Saba is a Prouiuce of the same countrey that beareth most plentye of Thus, and is a lande that vnneth men may come to, for it is closed in the one side with rockes of the sea and in the other side with mountaines and crags & and so the tree that beareth Thus gro∣weth with out tilling, and loueth claye lande. And the Arabians tell that. Thus shall not be gathered, nor the tree therof pared,* but of holy men & religious, that be not defiled by touching of women, in time of gathering: and so they suppose; that méede shall increase by obseruaunce of religion. Also he saieth there cap. 16. that the first kinde Haruest and gather∣ing thereof as about the rising of the starre Canis, in the most strong heate. For then the rinde thereof is right thin and slaketh and out thereof woseth fat fome, and is gathered togethers, and hardeneth where the kinde of the place asketh: and this is most pure and white.

And the second gathering thereof is when it draweth to winter, when the rende be slit, and this commeth out red, and is not pure to the first.

Men déeme that the gumme of the young trée is most white, but the gum of an olde trée is most vertuous: And some déeme, that the best gum groweth in Ilandes, and other donie and say, that no ginuine groweth in Ilands, Thus is gathered and brought on Camels backs, to the Citie that is called Sabocriam, & there is a gate opened therefore. And if is not lawful to lead it by another way, and there it is fyed to the God that they worship. There the Priests take there∣of by measure and not by weight; and it is not lawfull to begge neither to sell thereof before due portion be offered to God and is assayed by witnesse if it burrieth anon to coales, and wexeth on light on high, if it how not togethers the téeth when it is bitten, but breaketh a∣〈…〉 and falleth to pouder. Huc vsque Plenius.

And Diosco and Platearius meane, that. thus is the gum of a certaine tree in Alexandria, and the best & most pure is called Olibanum Alexandrinum.

And the other is found beside Damas∣cus, and is not so good nor so pure as the first, and is hot and dry with wel smel∣lyng ight fat and gleymie; and comfor∣teth by good smell thereof, and soudreth, b〈…〉, and gleweth, and restrayneth & stinteth mightely by vertue of gummi∣nesse feares and ranning humours, that runne downward from the head, and namely when they runne by the vtter veynes of the face, and namely if pow∣der thereof be layd in a plaister to the temples with white wine and the white of an egge, and abateth also and staun∣cheth tooth ache of the gumers. And Thus chewed letteth the running of hu∣moures from the head to the spirituall members, that be the breast and lungs, and helpeth against feéble digestion, and sower bolking. And Wine in which Thus is sodden, helpeth, and com∣forteth, and cleanseth the Mother: and the smoake thereof helpeth greatlye to conception.

Page  [unnumbered]Powder thereof medled with vineger, lesseth and thinneth foule breastes of maydens, and helpeth brusing meddeled with pitch, and abaseth ache of the eares medled with wine. Huc vsque Diosco. and Plate. This nowne Thus commeth of Theos, yt is God, for it is offered in sacrifice of Gods. And in this manner it is written, as Isidore saith. Or els it commeth of Tundo, heating or brusing, for it is able to be stamped, and is ofte stamped: and the more it is stamped, the more and the better it sauoureth & burneth. And giueth lyght in the Sum∣mer, and is then writ without H. Tus. Of Thus set a fire, commeth a good smel∣ling smoake, shapen as a rod, and small beneath, and full mouable, and turning, and crooked with manye bendings and wrinklyngs, and moueth towarde con∣trary sides with most lyght mouing, & spreadeth abroad vpward, and shaddow∣eth the aire, and destroyeth stench of ca∣rayne by good sauour, thereof, and thyr∣leth and passeth straight to the braine, and comforteth and refresheth the spirit of féeling, and spreadeth into the cells of the braine.

¶Of Vimine. cap. 174.

*PErsh is called Vimen, nis, and is a soft rod, and hath that name Vimen, for it hath much vertue of gréenesse, for the kinde thereof is such, that if it bée dryed and laide in water, it wereth ofte greene and pliant, as Isidore saith, lib. 17. Of Persh are néedful bendes & knit∣ting made to bind vp vines, and hoopes for Tunnes, as it is sayde before in the same booke in litera S. Looke there, De salice.

¶ Of Virga. cap. 175.

A Rodde is called Virga, and Virga is properly that that groweth out of boughes, and hath that name of Vir∣tus, vertue: for it hath in it selfe great vertue. Or it hath that name of Viror, gréene, for the vertue that is hid in the roote, sheweth it selfe in the gréene cou∣lour of the rodde.

And Virga is sayde, as it were gouern∣ing by vertue and might. Witches and Inchantors vsed rods to make serpents as it were bounden. Also Philosophers, Kings and Masters vsed a rod: and so doth he that meateth, kéepeth and depar∣teth fieldes, and threshing stoores, and meades, and so doth Ambassadors, mes∣sengers and heardes. Also a rod is com∣pouned of thrée manner of substaunce, of the rinde, Harke & pith: & is nourished & liueth by the pith: and springeth and is reared vp by the stalke, and is co∣uered and defended from wrong of the vtter aire by benefice of the rinde. For as the Commentor saith super. libr. de plantis, a trée hath rind in stéed of skin, and stocke or stalke in stéede of bones, & pith in stéede of veynes. For kind heate that is namely in the pith of the rodde, draweth thereto humour out of ye stock and roote, by the bough that is meane. And of the bough the rod springeth, and the kinde heate changeth the grosse mat∣ter and thicke and earthy, that is in the humour that is drawen, into the stalke and rinde, and turneth the watrye parts thereof into many twigs and braunch∣es, and bringeth the parte that is most vnctuous and pure to the vtter parte of the rod, to bring forth thereof, blossoms, floures and fruite: and at the last, both flower and fruit, springeth and commeth of the substaunce of the rodde, without corruption or defiling of the rodde: for the floure breaketh and springeth priue∣lye out of the rodde, and doeth neyther defile nor yet vnbeautifie the rodde: but maketh it more plenteous, perfect and faire. Also the rod taketh not strength of burgening, neither might of gendring by medling of seminal humour, as men and beastes doe: But a rod taketh such strengthe and might of the deawe of heauen, and of beate of the Sunne.

And when a rodde groweth, it spring∣eth alway vpward, and holdeth and rea∣reth the toppe towarde heauen, for to come to perfect nourishing: and the rod is meane betwéene the boughe and the stocke or roote that conceyueth thereof, Page  326 and betwéene the fruite that it heareth, by tendernesse of the substaunce, the rod is full plyant and bendeth lyghtly, and some towarde euerie side. Also a rod is drye, rough, and knortie without, & softs within in the pith, and sail of humour vnder the rinde: and the m•••• codde groweth, the higher it passeth from the earth: and the higher it passeth vp∣ward, the more small and sharpe it is us the ouermost roppe. Also a codde shall stretch vpright of it selfe: but when it is young & tender, and worth•••tes hap∣peneth that it crooketh & bendeth down∣ward toward the earth, and is hardened in that crookednesse, then it is harde to stretch it, and to make it againe euen right. And somtime a crookedo and put in the fire, and by heate of the fire, the stiffenesse and hardnesse is tempered & made softe and so the rod is the more easely straighted, & made euen and right. Also children & houndes hate the rod, for they be therewith chastised.

¶Of Virgulto. ca. 176.

*VIrgultum hath that name of Virga, a rod, as Huguscion saith, and is a place where many rods gi••s. And Isi∣dore lib. 17. saieth, that Virgultum is a bough that groweth of the strength & stocke of the same tree: but a rod grow∣eth and springeth without meddeling of ••ede, and woreth vile in winter, & plea∣sing in spring time: for then they bur∣gon and bloome, and if they be cut, they grow againe and spring on high from the ground, and the more they grow, the more they spring vp toward heauen.

And sometime an Herbor is called Vir∣gultum, Viridarium, or Viretum, and is a gréene place, and merrie with gréene trées and hearbs, as it is said before De Orto, Looke in litera O.

¶Of Vite. cap. 177.

A Uine is called Vitis, and hath the name of Venciendo, binding, for it is bound. And Isidore saith, that Vitis hath that name, for it hath vertue to take some roote and p••••.

Or els they be called Vites in the plurall number, for they haue vertue and might to binde themselues togethers, & be porrued and railed and bound to trees that be nigh to them. The kinde there∣of is plyant, and taketh and holdeth by strength, and imbraceth what it taketh, •• it were in armes: and those bondes by the which it taketh and windeth a∣bout trees and stalkes, be called Capre∣oli; and haue that name, for it taketh & compasseth trees, and holdeth them each by order. These he crookes of the vines, by helpe and succour of which, knots & braunches of the vine, be helpe so su∣staine & to withstand winde & stormes, that they breake not with blasts of we∣thers. And be also called Corithi, for they be as it were rings and bends, and haddeth things that be nigh thereto, for boughes and braunches of the vine, should not be slaked farre for the succor∣med shaken, and disperpled, and hurled with blasts of winde: but they should so come, to beare and saue the fruite without perill. And these things accor∣deth most to vines, that the earth be o∣pened about the roots, and there made as it were a great hole, that the roote maye take more plentie of moysture and of humour, and also that the sunne beame may the better come thereto, and work therein. Also vines néede to be cut and pared, and purged of superfluitie & wa∣terie boughs and vaine. Also vines néed letting and planting, and thereof com∣meth young vines, and be called Propa∣gines, and be the first twigs that spring and spred of the young vine: and vines néed deluing and paring of the grounde, with shouell, spade, or mattocke, to do a∣way superfluitie of hearbes and of roots, that the vine may so be the better nou∣rished and comforted.

Also vines néede to be rayled, to bée the better sustained, and the latine is for pitching of poles of rayling, Paxillare, as Papias saith, and commeth of Pango, gis, xi, and is to vnderstand, pitch or set stakes, as he saith. And Isidore sayeth, Pastinare is to vnderstande dounging with dounge, or with fat earth to féede & to nourish the vine to beare fruite, the Page  [unnumbered] more and the better. Also them néedeth Pampination, that is to vnderstand, pul∣ling away of superfluitie of leaues, that the sunne and pure aire may the better come to the grapes. Also that the grapes be not ouershadowed by leaues, for then they shal ripe the better, and a vine leafe is called Pampines, as Isidore saith. By the leaues of the vine grapes be defen∣ded and succoured from heate and from colds, and against all wrongs: and the leaues be taken away, for the Sunne beame shuld the better come to ye fruite for to ripe it, and be called Pampini, for they hang by boughs and branches that are called Palmites, as Isidore saith li∣bro. 17.

Also them néedeth Vindimacion; that is taking away of grapes, and that: is done, when Grapes be gathered to make of them wine. And Plin. lib. 8. ca. 22. speaketh of the vine and sayth, that when a vine is cut in good time and due manner, it taketh vertue and strengthe of the cutting, and conceiueth matter, of the which springeth and commeth after∣ward floures and fruite: and but it wer chastised with such cutting, and clensing and purging of such superfluitie, all the vine should were barren: For nothing groweth swifter than the vine, & there∣fore but the vertue of fruite bearing bée saued, the vine beareth no fruite: and in the vine is a kinde, that the vine would rather beare fruite than liue. Therefore all that is taken away of superfluitie of the matter of the vine, is aduauntage to the fruite in paring and cutting time.

The sooner the vine is cut, the more wa∣ter it sheddeth, and the later it is cut, the more plentie it beareth of fruit: so that the cutting passe not due time. Small vynes néedeth to be soone cut, & great vines and strong néedeth to bée late cut; and the cutting shall be astone betwéen two knots, so that in the other side afore the knot the kerffe shall passe, and there∣fore it shall be a slont, & not euen ouer∣thwart, for the rayne drops should soone come and fall away: For by ofte com∣ming of such drops, & long abiding vpon a plaine kerffe, the top of the vine shuld be grieved and hurt.

And the more small and leane the vine is, the more thereof shall be cut & when the leaues shall be cut off, the leafe that is with grapes, shall not be remoued, but it be a now vine and young, but the other leaues that be far, for these leaues should supplant the grapes. All those braunches that spring out of the vine, in other places than in the knottes, are accounted vnprofitable: and bastarde, and shoulde anone be plucked off and rased.

Also cap. 24. he saith, that vines haue a speciall euill, when the braunch of the new vine is to soone taken away, either too hastely cut in vndue time, or when vines be sprong with euill dew or raine in blooming time: or when new twigs or burgening is appaired with frost, or with colde or when vncunning Garde∣ners hurte and wound wrongfully the rootes, and when they strip the roote, or spoyle the vine of all the roote. Among all, ye vine is most grieued, when strong raine smiteth the twigges while they bloome: for then falleth both flower and fruite of corrupt aire and corrupte heawe.

And raine gendreth and bréedeth cer∣taine wormes, and Caterpillers and Snanies, that grow and fret burgening and leaues of the vine, & leaueth light∣ly the vine so spoyled, gnawen and ea∣ten: and this euill bréedeth in moyst, time, easie and softe. And there is ano∣ther euill that kéepers of vines call A∣raneum, for of euill blastes of winde, & corrupt raine commeth and bréedeth as it were copwebbes, and compasseth and wasteth the fruite, and burneth & grie∣ueth it.

Also the vine bafeth Cabage, and all manner Coleworts, and hateth also Ha∣sels, for when such are nigh to the vines, then the vines be grieued and sicke; and Mitrum much lyke to salte, Alome, and sea water, and beanes, and etches, & namely in the last cutting, be venime to vines, and destroye them. Huc vsque Plinius libro. 17. cap. 2.

And he saith, that among men in old time vines wer accounted among great trees. And in some parts and countryes Page  327 be so great vines, that they make Ima∣ges poasts, and stocks of vines: as it fa∣reth in the Image & mawmet of Iupiter in the citie of Popoloma. And men stye vp vpon a vine to the top of the Tem∣ple of Diana Ephesina. Also poasts and pillers made of such vines, dure and last without corruption long time. And in few trees kinde is more durable then in vines, they growe without end, & spring and spread full wide, and maye be laide with railing about houses and townes. And springeth vpward into many coun∣tryes vnto the toppes of Oliues, of Po∣pler, and other high Trées, and compas∣seth them and holdeth with their armes, as it were by affection of matrimonye. The vine is a good tree and medicinable, both in branches and in fruit. And ther∣of commeth licour, that is better, & pas∣seth the iuyce of all trées. When the vine is cut, thereof commeth dropping most clene and pure, and that dropping is good and profitable, and put in Colliriis, me∣dicines for eyen. By passing out of that dropping the substantiall humour of the vine is cleansed and purged in the roote. And therfore the vine beareth afterward the more pure fruite and swéete. The leaues of the vine be broade, plaine, greene, and softe within, and some deale rough without, and cloued and ragged in the vtter side and sharpe, and make a great shadowe. And the shadowe there∣of in Summers time is full pleasaunt to them that loue to rest there vnder. And the leaues be full medicinable, for they cleanse woundes, and heale full cleanly.

And the leaues sodde in water, aba∣teth seuourous beate, and healeth won∣derfullye burning and swelling of the stomacke. If they be layde in a playster wise: and helpeth women with children, and exciteth sleepe, and refresheth and comforteth the braine. The drop there∣of oft dronken, breaketh the stone, as Di∣oscorides sayth: and sharpneth the fight, and doth away learednesse of eies. And succoureth against venimous biting, and venimous trauell: and stauncheth the wombe.

Also ashes thereof is good to the foresaid things, & the ashes thereof medled with iuyce of rew and with Oile, abateth end softneth, and doth away swelling of the splene, as Plinius saith, li. 24. ca. 1. where be saith, that vine leaues doth away head¦ach, and swageth inflasions. And Uine leaues with Barly meale, healeth hetie goutes: and helpeth them greatly yt haue the bloudie flixe, if they drinke it. The iuyce thereof with Oile laid to an hairie place in a plaister wise, doth awaye the haire, and namely the dropping that cō∣meth of boughs of ye vine. The rind of ye vine doth awaye wartes: and dry vine leaues stauncheth bléeding wounds, and closeth and healeth woundes. Moreouer, the ashes of the vine purgeth and healeth soone a fester, & abateth ach and shrink∣ing of sinewes: and healeth with Oyle stinging of scorpions, & biting of hoūds: Ashes of the rinde by it selfe, restoreth & multiplieth haire that is fallen.

(* Vitis vinifera, ripe grapes are hot and moist in the first degrée, and the rai∣son, or drie grape is hot and dry, as saith Galen.)

Of a wilde vine called La∣brusca. chap. 108.

A Wilde vine is called Labrusca, and hath that name, for it groweth in the vtter side of the lande. And this Noune Labrusca commeth of Labrum, that is a lippe or brimme, or the vtter∣most side of the land where it groweth, as Isidore saith, libro. 14. And Labrusca the wilde vine, is lyke a vine that bea∣reth wine in leaues, and not in fruit, for it beareth small fruite or none, and if it beare fruite, it is harde, sowre, and bit∣ter. And oft the vine that beareth wine, passeth out of the kinde, and fourneth into a wilde Uine, & that when it is not filled, neyther digged, neyther shred, nei∣ther pared. And againewarde, oft La∣brusca turneth into a vine that beareth wine, and that is by good filling and ut, and by shredding and knitting, as Pli∣nius sayeth. And though Labrusca bée not good to meate, yet it is good to medi∣cine. For the roote thereof sodde in raine water, and medled with wine, healeth Page  [unnumbered] men of the dropsie, & doth away wens, and healeth the cough. And pauder of the roote thereof, helpeth wonderfully a∣gainst default of the stomacke, as Diosc. saith. Also lib. 13. cap. 2. Plinius sayth in this wise, Labrusca is called Ampeloe∣sargia in Gréeke, and Labrusca hath many leaues, and a rinde full of iuyce or wine, and beareth somdeale red grapes, like as they were sod: and with iuyce of those grapes, women purge the skin of the face, & those grapes stamped with the iuyce and leaues, be profitably laid to the euills and sores of ioynts, lendes, & loynes: and the same grapes stamped with vineger, healeth scabs of men, and also of soure footed beasts.

(*The fruite of the right vine or se∣cond kinde called Labrusca, is also tear∣med Paslula de Corintho, in Englysh, Currants: a wholesome fruit, that pur∣geth fleame, and comforteth the heart.)

¶Of Vitulamine. cap. 179.

VItulamen hath that name of Vitis, a vine, and is that bastarde plant or braunch barren without fruite, ye sprin∣geth out of the roote of the vine, or els where in the vine, and not out of the knots. And such braunches be vnkind, and beare therefore no fruite, but they charge and grieue the vine, and letteth & taryeth the fruite: for it draweth ye hu∣mor from the roote to the nourishing of themselues, that should be drawen to fee∣ding and nourishing of fruite. And ther∣fore they must be plucked & rooted vp, & done away, least they let the growing of fruite of the vine, if they growe there long time, and therefore such braunches be called bastarde. Vitulamina, that is passing out of kinde, and not kind bran∣ches as it is had lib. Sap. cap. 4. and this is the letter of Rabanus, and of olde men, though Austen in lib. de doctrina s••• s•••na, meane; that it were better sayd: Adulterine plantagines, bastarde plantings, and that is sayd to vnderstan∣ding of simple men: but the very letter and good to perfect vnderstanding men, in Spuia vitulamina.

¶Of Vinea. cap. 180.

A Uineyard is called Vinea, and is a place where vines be set and growe, as Papias saith, and so we call Vinetu, the place where many vines be set. A vineyard is busely tilled and kept, & pur∣ged and cleansed of superfluities, & ofte visiled and ouerséene of the earth tillers and keepers of vines, that they be not appaired neither destroyed with beasts, and is closed about with walls & with hedges, and a wayle is there set in an high place, to kéepe the vineyard, that the fruite be not destroyed, and is lefte in Winter without kéeper or wayter, but in haruest time many come and haunt the vineyard. In winter the vineyarde is full pale, and wereth gréene and bloo∣meth in springing time and in summer, and smelleth full swéete, and is pleasant with fruite in haruest time. The smell of the vineyard that bloometh, is contra∣ry to all venemous things, and therefore when the vineyard bloometh, Adders & Serpents flye, and Loads also, and may not sustaine and suffer the noble sauor thereof. A vineyard with gréene coleur and merrie, pleaseth the sight, and is ly∣king to the smell with swéete smelling, and sadeth the taste with swéetnesse of sauour, and is pleasing to touching and to handelyng with softnesse and smooth∣nesse of leaues, and comforteth the tou∣ching therewith, and loueth cleane ayre and faire weather, as Plinius sayth. And loueth not cloudes, mystes, neither too much raine, but they loue hot lande and drye, and meanly fat and swéete, for in landes that is too fat & moyst, the vine outrageth, and beareth too manye, too great and long leaues, boughes & braun∣ches and little fruits: and in grauellye lande and leane, the vine ouer drieth & sayleth, for they finde not sufficient nou∣rishing.

Also in bitter lande and salte, the roote thereof is corrupted with maliti∣ous humour that commeth and entreth into the substaunce of the roote: & ther∣fore the vine loueth sweete lande and temperate in his qualities.

Page  328And so high mountaines that standeth well in the Sun, be best places for vine∣yardes, for therein is sweet humour and strong heate: the more the vineyarde is in the Sunne, the more sweete grapes it beareth. And first the fruite the gréene, harde, and sowre, and is afterward made swéete by working of the Sunne. Fores lurke and hide themselues vnder Uine leaues, and gnawe couetouslye, and fret the grapes of the vineyard, and namely when the kéepers and wardens be negly∣gent and retchlesse, and it profiteth not that some vnwise men doth, that cloase within the vineyarde hounds, that bee aduersaries to Foxes, for fewe houndes so closed, wast and destroye moe grapes that many foxes should destroy, yt come & eate therof theeuishly, as Isidore saith. Therefore wise wardens of vineyardes be full busie to kéepe, that no swine nor same hounds, nor foxes come into the vi∣neyard. From fretting & gnawing of flies & of other wormes, a vineyard may not be kept nor saued, but by his succour and help that all thing hath, and puriueth in his power and might, & kéepeth and sa∣ueth all lordly and mightely, as Isidore sayth.

Of Vua. chap. 181.

A Grape is called Vua, and hath that name of Humeoes, to wet & to moist. And so Vua is as it were wet & moyst, for it is full of moisture within; as Isi. saith, libr. 17. The grape is compowned of thrée: Of the hul of Glarea, and of A∣rillis: the hulls be called Vineria, or Te∣ce, therein in Glares conteined, & Glarea is the iuyce and fat humour of ye grape. And Ailli be the small graines that bée in the grape, and haue another name, & be called Acin, and that Nowne com∣meth of Acco, es, and shall be sayde. Hic Acinus, Acina, as priscian saith in maio∣re volumin, where it is sayde, that this word Paulini.

Exprimit humentes acinos succum∣que liquentum.

The vnderstanding is, that Acinus is Masculine gender: and also that Paulini betokeneth the iuyce, and the grape that droppeth. But some men meane, it is hoc Acinum. Also Uua is a generall name, both of the cluster and of the grape. For properlye Uua is gathering of manye graines together. Racemus is taken for one grain, & Botrus is a cluster of grapes & Racemus is gathering of many grapes that be called MosAine in French. And Papias & Isidore meane, that Racemus is a part of the bough yt beareth grapes, and is a little braunch cut off wt grapes. And so this Nowne Racemus commeth of Ramus, a bough, as Isidore saith. And Grapes be called Suburbane, for they be solde to be eaten in cities, and fairenes & mery fauour thereof praiseth the grapes. And of grapes is many manner kind, for some be Precoque, & haue that name, for they ripe soone, & be before all other riped by heate of the Sun. And ye Gréekes call them Lageos, for they hast to riping as ye hare hasteth for feareland some be called Purple, for they haue such coulour. And some be called Uerticiarie, and haue that name of greatnesse; as Dactili haue their name of length. And some is called Ste∣phanice, for they be rounde. And some is called Cetance, for they be red as fire: And some is called Aminee, for they be white, & not medled with red. And some be called Apiane, & beare swéete wine, & if they be not gathered soone, they be lost with winde and raine: and bée namely destroied with Bées: and haue therefore that name Apiane, of Apes yt bée Bées. And some is called Biculpite, & haue that name of the country that they grow in, and may well susteine and suffer at the best, raine, stormes, and heate: and men say, that the grape Basilica is such, and of such kinde: and some is called Argite, and if they be not gathered first they fall to the ground, or rot with corrupt aire, & humour: and some is called Elbolie and haue that name, for they be diuerse, ney∣ther red nor blacke, & haue the name of ye colour that is called Elbus, that is ye mid∣dle colour betwéene white and blacke: and there bée manye other diuersityes of grapes. For grapes be diuers in sauour, in coulour, and greatnesse, and in vertue: but these be ye most diuersitie of grapes, as Isidore saith, lib. 14.

Page  [unnumbered]And Isaac in Dietis saith, that grapes vary in foure diuers coulours: for some Grapes be all white and cléere, and full of iuyce, with little hard matter within, and haue thin holls and small graines. Also some Grapes be all blacke, with thicke skinnes and pith: but the skinne is not full moyst, and in these Grapes be great graines. And some be citrine, ac∣cording more with white then with blacke. Also some be red, and accord more with blacke then with white. The white nourisheth easier, and be sooner defied: & thirleth the veines, and exciteth vrine. The blacke be of harde digestion, but they comfort more the stomacke, & nou∣rish also more when they be defied: and the citrine and red be meane in sowre∣nesse, as Isaac sayeth, the more ripe the Grapes be, the more they are to be prai∣sed, and the better they are to nourishing & to gather good bloud. And grapes that haue lesse pith then humour, gender bet∣ter humours then those that haue more pith then humour, but they nourish not so much.

Of Vua immatura. cap. 182.

A Gréene grape is called Vua imma∣tura, and is colde and drye, and full sowre, and greiueth the rootes & sinews of the teeth with colde, so that they make the teeth on edge: so that it séemeth yt they be somewhat frosen: and haue vertue to bind and to stanch cholarike parbraking and casting, & to quench the heate of the liuer, and also thirst, and to abate sharp∣nesse of heat, and to drie thicke humours in the eyen, and in the lids: and to abate itching and smarting of eien, as Isaac saith in Dietis.

Of Vua passa. chap. 183.

REison in the singular number is cal∣led Vua passa, and is made in many manner wise. For sometime the stalke thereof is woue and wounde, so that the humour may no more come to the grape from the vine. And so the grape in cer∣teine dayes is fordryed by heate of the Sunne. And this Grape and Reison is called Vua passa: for they suffer heate of the Sunne: and this is best to eat. And sometime the grapes be wounde in vine leaues, and bée bound with thréed, for the grapes should not séede, and be put into an Ouen so bound & wrapped after that bread is taken out and be dried, when the heate is temperate, and bée Reisons when they be so dryed. In such man∣ner they bée called Vue passe, for they suffer a manner of violence of heate of the Ouen. In such manner sometime Vua passa is made in chimneyes. A∣lexander Nequam speaketh thereof and sayth.

Dant vuas passas clibanus fumaria Phoebus.

The meaning is, that Raisons bée made in Ouens, Chimneies, and in heat of the Sunne. Isaac sayth in Dietis, that Vua passa, that is perfect in swéetnesse, is most hot, and namely if it be blacke, & not to binding nor to softning, but meane in both. And Vua passa then tempereth euill humours, and abateth fretting and gnawing, and namely when they be fat, with much pith and thin skin, with few pepines and graines and small, such rey∣sons helpe against sore breasts, and clen∣seth and purgeth the bladder and raines. But such reisons accord not to the splene, neither vnto the liuer, if the splene and the liuer be hard and thicke. And sowre reisons and biting be lesse hot then the swéete and moist, and namely if they be white, and therefore they nourish but lit∣tle, but they quench heat and harden and binde the wombe.

Of Vino. cap. 184.

WIne is called Vinum, as it wer gro∣wing in a vine. Or else it hath that name of Vena, a veine, for drink of wine filleth soone the veines full of bloud, as Isidore sayth, libro. 20. where he treateth of drinke. And strong Wine is called Temetum, for it holdeth the wit, & ma∣keth it oft to do amisse. And wine is cal∣led Merum, when it is pure & not med∣led with water, and is called Bacchus, and hath that name of Liber Pater, that was called Bacchus also.

Page  329It is sayde that this Bacchus found first wines. Or els wine hath this name Bac∣chus of working & doing, for by strength of it selfe 〈…〉 maketh them that drink therof madde and out of their wits, and éese madly an other men. The worthy∣nesse and praising of Wine might not Bacchus himselfe describe at the full, though he were aliue. For among all ly∣cours and iuyce of trees. Wine beareth the price, for passing all licours, wine mo∣deratly monkes; most comforteth the bo∣dy, and gladdeth the 〈…〉, & healeth and saueth, wounds and 〈…〉. Thereof spea∣keth Isaac in Dietis〈…〉 and sayeth, that wine giueth good nourishing to the body, & restoreth the health that sweep 〈…〉 and comforteth & increaseth kinde heate pas∣sing all other meate & drinke, & that for likenesse and companye that wine hath with kinde and so Wine bréedeth most pure bloud, and pursueth & cleanseth trau∣bly and thicke bloud, & openeth & clean∣seth the smuth of the veines, & commeth inward by his subtiltie to cleanse and to purge the inner partes, and lyghtneth and driueth away darke umasie, that bréedeth and gendereth cleingnesse and discomfort, & strengtheneth all the mem∣bers of the body, & giueth to each might and strength, and déede and working of the soule sheweth and declareth to good∣nesse of Wine. And wine breedeth in the soule, forgetting of auguish, of sorrowe, and of oo, and suffereth not the soule to féele anguish and woe. Wine sharpneth the wit and maketh it cunning to in∣quire thinges that be harde and subtill, and maketh the soule bolde and hardye, and so the passing nobilitie of wine is knowen. And vse of wine accordeth to all mens ages and times and Coun∣tryes, if it bée taken in due manner, and as his disposition asketh, that drinketh it.

Also wine accordeth to olde men, for the heat of wine is contrary to their coldnesse. Also wine accordeth to young men, as it were meate. For kinde of wine is like to kinde and age of young men, and is meate & medicine to young∣lings and to children. For it nourisheth & helpeth their heate that is yet vnperfect, and consumeth and wasteth and dryeth superfluitye of moysture of children. And strong wine cleane and pure accor∣deth in colde co〈…〉 and in winter: And in Summer and in hot Countryes small wine, and well medled is good and profitable. For it moistneth and cooleth the body because of medling of the mat∣ter, that is sayde, and commeth full soone into the innermost members by subtilty of the wine. Therefore men in olde time called wine the greate. Triacle, for they found that wine helpeth in the 〈…〉∣ries, For it heateth colde bodies and 〈…〉 hot bodies and moisteth dry bodies, and hteth and dryeth moyst bodye. Also the heate, and drynesse thereof is ••••ly, and moisture and colde thereof is, accidentall, for by subtiltie thereof it bea∣reth water to members that needeth to be cooled and moysted, as he sayth. And in wine take heed of these things, of the licour, of coulour, of sauour, and smell. Bee the substaunce and lycour of wines subtiltie and cléernesse is knowen, and so is his earthynesse & thicknesse. And me∣ly wine that is subtilt cléere, and thinne, is white and cléere and accordeth to the stomack, for it is soone defied & ••aréeth and thirleth, & commeth to the veines, & purreth not norgrieuesh: the wit, neither grieueth the sinewes neither the braine. Great wine & earth it is contrary for sub∣tilt wine, for it grieueth ye stomacke, & it pearceth slowly. Of colours of wine bee foure manners, white, blacke, uane, and red: and both white and black bee lesse hot then other wine. And white wine is more moist then black, because of cleere∣nesse and watrynesse that hath mastrye therin: And blacke wine is more drye because of thickenesse & earthinesse that hath more substantialye mastrye there∣in, and wines of meane colour are hotter & then other, and so wine citrine or of gol∣den coulour, and red wine, be more h••te then white wine or blacke, and that is as they be farther from white or blacke; and the more that they be farther from white wine or blacke and the neerer they be in coulour to white and black, the lesse hotter they be.

Page  [unnumbered]

Of Vino rubeo. cap. 185.

REd Wine that is full redde as bloud is most strong, and iceth much the héad, and noteth the wit, and maketh strong drunkennesse: and néedeth there∣fore •••be right well watred. And so if it be watred when it nedeth to be dronken, it néedeth to be watred as it accordeth & is séemely to age, time, countries & vsagè: and is full good, for it dissolueth and tem∣pereth thicke humours, and cleanseth the wayes of veines of matter & rottennesse and puristeth the bloud, and namely if is be 〈…〉 purenesse and cleannesse. And ac∣cordeth therefore to olde men, in that it comforteth their heartes, and dissolueth & tempereth many colde humours, that be gathered in the bodies of old men: and red Wine néedeth, so haue biting, sauour and sweete, and it néedeth that the licour be meane betweene thin and thicke, and the odour & smell meane betweene strong and softs and such wine is more tempe∣rate then other to nourishing and to see∣ding, and turneth soone to bloud, because of lykenesse that it hath with bloud with licour, sauour, and coulour. For swéete Wine that is full red, helpeth & is right necessary to cleanse and to purge diseases of the breast, & in likewise of the lungs, and tempereth full lightly, and cleanseth and wipeth and putteth away vnclean∣nesse and gleanious humours. Aud take déede dilligently of the good odour and smelling of Wine for it manifesteth and sheweth openly, and betokeneth, that the licour is cléere and temperate, and cleane from all filths. And maketh best digesti∣on: and gendereth therfore cleane bloud and cléere; and comforteth and gladdeth the heart, and putteth out thicke smoak, darke and troubly. And so Ipocra saith, that wine with good smell is more sub∣till and cléere then other, and is more light, and is sooner defied, and nourisheth better. For kinde sheweth and betoke∣neth, that working therein is compleate and profitable. And Wine without good smell sheweth that it is venteous and thicke: and is therefore the lesse worth to nourishing, and clarifieth not the bloud, nor comfortheth: but bréedeth and gen∣dereth great humoures and thicken, and troubly imbake and darke. Aud Wine with most strong odour and smell, and with sowre sauour i〈…〉 for it grie∣neth most the body, and gendereth worst bloud, and giueth to the body noyful nou∣rishing, and namely if the Wine be full blacke. For to such perteineth and be∣longeth thicknesse of licour, heauynesse of smell, and sowrenesse of sauour.

Also Wine that is temperate in ye fore∣said qualities, and is dronke temperatly, and in one manner, helpeth kinds, and gendereth good bloud, and maketh sauour in meate and in drinke, and exciteth de∣sire and appetite, and comforteth the ver∣tue of life and of kinde, and helpeth the stomacke too haue appetite, and to haue & to make good digestion: and exciseth the vertue of out putting, and to poure out the drasts, and quencheth thirst, & chaun∣geth the passions of the soule & thoughts out of euill into good. For it tourneth the soule out of cruelnesse into mildnes, out of couetousnesse into largenesse, out of pride into méekenesse, and out of dread into boldnesse. And shortly to speak, wine dronke measurably, is health of body and of soule. Huc vs{que} Isaac •• Dietis, & Pli∣nius li. 13. ca. 9. where it is said, that kind of Wine and drinking, kindeleth and heateth the guts within, & keeeth with∣out members that be washed therwith, and to vertues of the bodye nothing is more profitable then Wine, if it be taken in due manner and measure, and nothing is worie taken passing out of measure. And so Adronides a cléere man of witte and of wisedome, wrote to the great A∣lexander, to restraine Wine kinde in drinking, and sayde in this manner: King haue mind, that thou drinkest bloud of the earth, for Wine drinking vntem∣peratly is to mankinde heauye and ve∣nime.

¶And if Alexander had done by his counsayle, truelye hée had not slaine his owne friends in dronkennesse, as Plinius sayeth. And toucheth there in the same booke, cap. vltimo, and rehearseth euilles and harme that wine doth immoderatly dronke, and saith that it turneth wit into Page  330 woodnesse, and into euil raises, & into for∣getfulnesse of good. And the dronken mans face is pale, his chéekes hang, his eyes be ful of welke and pimples, and of blearednesse. The dronken mans handes tremble & shake, & his tongue is bounde and knit, and his stomacke bolketh and giueth vp in the morrow tide some foule and abhominable stinking thing, as it ware a pit, wherin some dead carrenli∣eth, and feeleth and is grieued with sore pricking and aking in the head. And the palet or roofe of the mouth waxeth bit∣ten by Cholera, that is beate by hot fu∣mositye of kinde, the throate is tormen∣ted with drynesse, burning, and thirst, For this property followeth wine, that vse of drinking bréedeth appetite to drink oft. And wine dronken men fare as the Wormes that sucke bloud, for euer the more the vine dronken man drinketh, the more he is a thirst. And to these wordes of Plinius, Isaac sayth in this manner: if wine be oft taken, anone by dronken∣nesse it quencheth the sight of reason, and comforteth beastly madnesse, & so the bo∣dy abideth, as it were a ship in ye sea with out sterne, and without loades man, & as chiualry without Prince or Duke, there∣fore the dronken man fauoreth the thing that should not be fauoured, and graun∣teth that should not be graunted: & pray∣seth yt shoulde not bée praised worthy in it selfe, and maketh of wise men fooles, and of good men and well willed, dron∣kennesse maketh euill men and wicked: For dronkennesse is nourishing & cause of euill vice. And dronkennesse falleth oft in man slaughter, and spouse breaking, and in theft. And therfore men that will kéepe and rule men, it néedeth to kéepe them from Wine, that they drinke not more win then is spéedfull to their ver∣tue and kinde.

Of Musto. chap. 186.

NEw wine that is new taken out of the presse or wrong, is called Mu∣stum, & hath that name, as it wer holding Mus, that is earth or fenne. For Mus in Gréeke, is called Tetra in Latine, Earth in English, and so earth is called Hu∣mus humeficta, made moyst. In Must be earthy partes and drasty, medled with watry parts and airie, & vertue of odour and of heate worketh therein, and mak∣eth full strong boyling. For the fire and airye partes mooue, vpwarde, and ear∣thy parts mooueth downewarde, and of such disturbaunce and strife, and contra∣rynesse commeth strong boyling, and du∣reth vntill the heate hath mastrie: and departeth the cleane and pure from the vncleanenesse and vnpure: and maketh full digestion. And the strength of ser∣uent Must is so strong, that it breaketh full strong vessells that it is put in: but they bée vented, as Constantine sayeth, and Gregorie super Iob. For by venting foame and other vncleannesse is brought vp to the mouth of the vessel by strength of heate, and it casteth it out: and it pas∣seth out alway vntill the Wine be full cleane purged. And in the beginning when Must is so troden, wrong, & pres∣sed, it is troubly and thicke. And there∣fore Isaac sayth, that Must dronke, gen∣dereth thicke fumositie and dreadefull dreames, and euill humours: and ma∣keth kurling and swelling in the guts. And new Must is full windy and smoa∣kie, for departing and distributing of partes by vertue and might of heat.

And so Galen sayth, that new wine hath vertue and might to leade and to bring meate in to all the body, and gendereth therefore ventositie and swelling, and abhomination or wambling. The lon∣ger the Wine dureth after wringing & pressing out of the presse, the more cleere it is and pure, & the heate thereof is the more strong and mightie. And while the wine is Must, it resteth not of boyling and séething, nor the earthye partes fall not at the full in theyr place, nor the fi∣ry parts come vp at the full to the place, and so the Must abideth yet vndigest.

And therefore when the wine is stale, cléere, and well purged, it is bright, and good friende to kinde. For then the heate of the same Wine is alway com∣forted, and is alway better and better in smell and sauour, and also in vertue: but if it happē to be appaired by corrupt aire Page  [unnumbered] or by a fustie vessell. For if the vessell in which the wine is kept; bée fustie, or cor∣rupt, then néedes the wine shall be fusty or corrupt. Also oft wine is corrupte by corrupt aire, or by greate distempering heat or cold. And therfore now wine for∣drieth, & now fasteth, & now rotteth all and some: and is then first and most c••∣my to mans kinde: and shall therfore be forsaken as denim, and not dronke. Also sometime most oldest Wine is passing in temperate heate, and therfore chaungeth sauour and coulour. And such wine with sharpnesse thereof gréeueth the braine, & the wit, and burneth the substantial hu∣mour by defnesse thereof, and quencheth the kinde heat thereof. And 〈…〉 wine that is not soone to neither too old; but meane betwéene both is good. For therein is good rate, neither too new nor too olde: for such wine is most temperate. Huc vs{que} Isaac in Dietis.

Of Vino condito. chap. 187.

WIne is made by craft of good spice∣rie and hearbes, as it fareth of the Wine that is called Saluiato, and of the wine that is called Rosatum, and Gan∣ohlatum. And that wine accordeth both in meat and in medicine, for vertue both of spicery, and also of hearbes chaungeth and amendeth this wine, and giueth ther to a singuser vertue, and therefore such Wines be wholesome and liking, when wholesome spicerie & hearbes be incorpo∣rate there, in due manner. For vertue of spicery kéepeth & silueth wines, that they be not soone corrupt; therfore such wines with their sauour please the tast, and ex∣cite appetite; and comforteth both the braine and the stomacke with their good odour and smell, and cleanseth also the bloud, and thirleth into the inner partes of the veines & of the members, as Isaac sayth.

(*Compound Wine with spices, is called Ipochresse, whereof is redde and white.)

Of Vino corrupto. Chap. 188.

WIne is first swéet and temperate in sauour, and is corrupt by long 〈…〉∣king of the Sunne, or of the aire also by long boiling, and turneth m〈…〉 when it hath no vertue, by the which it may bee kept & saued, as Isaac sayth in Dietis. ca. de Aceto. For by accidentall heat that passeth ouer & ouercommeth the vertue of kinde, the licour is made then. And by boyling and seething of acciden∣tall heate, kinde heate is cure quenched And to the winde that was first kindlye hot, is made colde by substaunce of 〈…〉••pte heate, and tourned into vineger, and is more drye then colde, for it cooleth mo∣derately in the first degree, and sorpeth strongly in the third degrée, as he sayth. And so by subtiltie of the substance ther∣of, and by féeblenesse of the coldnesse, it thirleth the body soone, & commeth to the well worse place: and so neither the iuyce of Pomgranard, nor other sowre licour hath virtue to thirle and to come into so déepe a place, as vineger. For the iuyce of a Pomegranard & other such worketh much more roughly in nigh places then in farre. And so who that will abate the heát of the stomacke or of the members and places that be nigh thereto, shall vse more profitablye the iuyce of Pomegra∣nards then vineger.

But for to coole places that be far off, vineger is more profitable then the iuyce of Pomgranards or of gréene grapes, for it hath a liuelye vertue, by the which it commeth & passeth into farther places, therfore if dissolueth and tempereth, cut∣teth & departeth and maketh thin, & ther∣fore it dissolueth and departeth milke, which is crudded and runne and fastned in the stomacke if the vineger be dronk. Also (as he sayth there) vineger comfor∣teth the stomacke, and exciteth and aug∣menteth appetite, and beareth downe mightely all things that come downe to the stomack: and helpeth against venim, and also against venimous beasts which slayeth, as Opium helpeth, and Iusquia∣mus, and Euforbium also. Huc vsque I∣saac.

And Plinius sayth, and Dioscor. also meaneth, that strong vineger done vpon Page  331 yron or vppon the colde grounde, boyleth and séetheth anone. Also vinger stancheth the fluxe of the body & of the wombe, or running of bloud, & dissolueth & laxeth if it find the wombe full, & bindeth if it finde the wombe lere: & helpeth them yt haue the Litergy, the sléeping euill, & frantike men also, & cleanseth new woundes, and suffereth them not to swell: and wipeth & washeth away the stench of the mouth, and of the gums, and putteth away the stinch of the téeth, & maketh them to bée soone on edge: and stauncheth perbraking and wambling, if the mouth & the other parte of the throate bée washed there∣with, & throwen out againe. And helpeth deafe eares, & openeth the hearing and the waies: and sharpneth the sight of ey∣en, and fretteth mettals, & therof are gen∣dered diuers colours, as Sorusa of leade, gréene brasse of copper, & Lasurium of sil∣uer. And an Egge laid in vineger maketh the shell soft as a small skinne. Drasts of vineger helpeth against the biting of a mad hound, and of the Cokadrill. Huc vsque Plinius. li. 23. cap. 10.

Of Vinacio. chap. 189.

THE after Wine that is wrong out of the grapes is called Vinatium, & Vinarium also, and is as it were drasts of all the wine. And the small skins and hulls of the grapes be called Vinacia, and the pepins of grapes be called Acini: and hulls & pipins abideth when the Wine is cleane wrong out, and gathered, and be then throwen out. Héereof Gressisme speaketh and sayth in this wise.

Pelles vuarum vinacia dic fore tan∣tum.
Et dicas acinum quod vua cernis a∣cutum.

These vearses meane, that skinnes and hulls of grapes be called Vinacia, & a pepin is called Acinum. And Swine eat gladly the drasts therof, though they giue them but little nourishing, for they do swell more then nourish in ye manner of wise.

Of Vinaria. cap. 190.

SEc Vinaria, rie, is a celler or a place where Wine is kept in, & the more dry that the place is, the better it is to saue & kéepe that that therin commeth in vessells of wine. Therefore stony places be digged vnder the ground, & deepe cel∣lers be made to kéep and to saue wine in them from corruption of hot aire, yt the wine be not made sowre therby, neyther corrupt in any manner.

Of Viola. chap. 191.

VIolet is called Viola, and hath that name for strong smel, as Isidore sai∣teth, & therof is thrée manner kinds, pur∣ple, white, and meline, that is a manner white colour that commeth out of the I∣lande Melos. But all manner Uiolets haue leaues cold of kind, and watry, and therefore vnbinding: And so violet sod∣den in water with hony, laxeth and soft∣neth the wombe. And also if it be medled with Sugar, & set long time in the Sun in a glassen vessell, it laxeth the womb, & abateth swelling, and chaungeth feaue∣rous heate, and quencheth thirst. Sade therof casteth out conception of women, and slaieth long wormes in the womb, & helpeth against chafing of the liuer. Ui∣olet is a little hearbe in substance, and is better fresh and newe, then when it is olde, & the flowre thereof smelleth most, and so the smell thereof abateth heate of the braine, & refresheth and comforteth the spirites of féeling, and maketh sléepe, for it cooleth & tempereth & moystneth the braine: and the more vertuous the flowre therof is, the more it bendeth the head thereof downward.

Also flowres of springing time spring first and sheweth Summer. The lyttle∣nesse thereof in substaunce is noblye re∣warded in greatenesse of sauour and of vertue, as Diose. and Plinius meane.

(*There be two sorts of Uiolets, the garden, and the wilde violet, there is a third kinde bearing flowers, as white as Snowe. Of their properties, read Dod. in his. 2. li. cap. 1.2.)

Of Vlmo. chap. 192.

Page  [unnumbered]*VImus hath that name, for it grow∣eth better in moyst places then in other. And this trée is not at liking in rough places, nor in mountaines, as I∣sidore sayth, libro. 17. The rootes there∣of be put deepe into the ground, and dra∣weth and sucketh humour out of the déep guts of the earth, to feed the boughs, twigges, and braunches: And hath ma∣ny boughes with knots, & maketh with thicknesse of leaues shadowe to wayfa∣ring men, and is a barren Trée and ac∣counted of Plinius among Trées that beare most: and hath white flowers swéet smelling, as the Trée Tiha, and hath certaine graines, as Cucurbite, but that fruit is vnprofitable. And Bees haunt flowers thereof, and gathereth thereof swéetnesse of honnie: and though the Trée be barren, yet it is profitable to vines that beare fruit, for this Trée rea∣reth vp and susteyneth boughs, fruit, and braunches of vines. And hath a harde rinde and rough, but the Trée within is soft and full smooth, and full able to be grauen therein, as Tiha is, as Isidore sayth.

(*Of Elme trées there are thrée sorts, the standard Elme, the hoppe Elme, and the Wych Elme. The first groweth high and is common, the second great & knot∣tye, and casteth of a thinne leafe lyke to the hoppe, with a séede, & beareth broun∣ches of a very great bignesse: the thirde groweth as the second, but more graye, and a tougher woode, wherewith in some shieres they make bowes. This woode made into piles and plankes for water worke, will not rot in a meruaylous time.)

Of Vitica. chap. 193.

THE Nettle is called Vitica, and hath that name, for it burneth the bo∣dye that it toucheth. And it is of firye kinde, as Macer sayeth. And the vertue thereof is full feruent holden and great, and so it taketh that name Vitica, not without cause, for it burneth things that it toucheth. And of Nettles is double kinde: One burneth and biteth and gen∣dereth bleines and itchinges, and hath sharpe leaues and rough, and some deale redde, and rough stalkes with edges, and burneth his hande that it handleth. And is heauye of smell and somewhat bitter & sowre. Another manner of Net∣tle is that which is called the dead Net∣tle, or the blinde Nettle. And hath leaues more white then the other hath, and more rounder. And biteth not them that it handleth, and hath flowres now red and now white, with full heauye smell and sauour, and each Nettle is medicinable. For the iuyce thereof dronke with Wine helpeth agaynst Collica passio. And hea∣leth with honnie an olde cough, and clen∣seth the lungs, and abateth and strageth swelling and bolning of the wombe. The leaues thereof stamped with Salt, helpeth and cleanseth hoarye and soule woundes, and also biting of houndes and of Cankers. The roote thereof stamped with Salt and with Wine, and sodde in Oyle, helpeth agaynst swelling of the splene. The iuyce thereof stauncheth the bléeding of the Nose, and stauncheth menstruall bloud meddeled with Mirca. The seede thereof dronke with Wine moueth Venus, and reciteth courage, and namely if it bee meddeled with hon∣nye and with Pepper. The fresh hearbe sodde, softneth the wombe, if it be eaten. And so Plinius commaundeth to séeth the fresh Nettle when it groweth first in March, and eate it, as it were Oyle a∣gainst many evills and sicknesses of the body. But the Nettle is better in medi∣cine then in meate.

(*Nettles be of diuerse kinds, Viti∣ca, Siluesti, Maior, Minor, and Lami∣um, called Archangell, or dead Nettle, al∣though they be common weedes, yet are they very medicinable for many griefes.)

Of Zizania. cap. 194.

RAy is called Zizania, and is a certein hearbe, of the which Isid. speaketh, li. 14. and saith, that Peets call this hearbe Infelix lol vngrations to kill or rad, for it is vnprofitable & vngracious, and is feminine gender in the singular, & neu∣ter gender in the plurall, as he saith. And Page  332 it groweth among Wheate in corrupt time and daie. And is lyke to Wheate when it is grasse, and maye vnneth bée taken therefrom when it groweth first. And it stuffeth and grieueth the wheat, but if bée wisely and warily looked ther∣to and departed therefrom with greate flight and warinesse. It shall not be pluc∣ked vp when it is greene, least men plucke up the wheat in stéed of ray, for likenesse that the ray hath to ye wheate: Therefore it is more wisely done when it is knowen betweene the raye and the wheat, to suffer & let either grow til they be ripe, & then when the raye is knowen by the seed frōm the wheat, to gather the ray & depart it from the Wheat, & make therof bundels and kitches, & burne it in the fire when the wheat is in the barne. And ray hath a sharpe strength & work∣ing, & some deale venimous, and gende∣reth swelling & venitoutie, and maketh therefore men dronke, & distroubleth the wit, and gréeueth the head, and changeth sauour of bread, and infecteth bread that it is medled with and put in. And gree∣ueth full soone, and slayeth sometime if it be eaten in great quantitie. And it is grie∣uous within the body, if it be eaten, but it is full good in medicine without. For if it be medled with Barly meale, and wt pouder of Thus and of Saffron, it hel∣peth conception and birth in women. And ray meddeled with Brimstone and with vineger, helpeth against scabs, wet and dry, and against Leters, and against itching: And if it bée medled with Lin∣seede sod with wine, it dissolueth and hel∣peth Postumes. And if it be sodde séede, rinde, and roote, it cleanseth rotten wounds, and helpeth also against the Fe∣ster & Canker, and exciteth wonderfully menstruall bloud: and cleanseth the mo∣ther, & disposeth and arayeth, & maketh ready conception, as Plinius and Dio∣scurides meane.

(*Zzuia, olium, Darnel, and Ray, the meale mixed with birdrs grease, (is sayd) being bound to the head, eureth the ac.)

Of Zinzibero. chap. 195.

GInger is called Zinziber, and is the roote of an hearbe, and is hot & moist, as it is sayde in Platearius, and some Ginger is tame, and some is wilde, the wilde Ginger hath more sharper sauour then hath the tame, and is more sadder and faster, and not so white, but it brea∣keth more sooner, and helpeth and relée∣ueth agaynst colde euills of the brest and also of the lounges, and easeth and aba∣teth colde ach of the stomacke, and of the guttes, and putteth out easily winde and ventositie. And if Wine that Ginger is sodden in with Comin, be dronkes hot, it comforteth the stomacke, and maketh good and profitable digestion, and sharp∣neth the sight, and destroyeth and wast∣eth the web that groweth in the eie: and that doth much better tame Ginger then wilde Ginger, and the more whiter it is, and the more new, the more sharp it is, and the more better: and Ginger is kept three yeres in good might & vertue, but af∣terward it wareth dry, & wormes eate & gnawe & make holes therin, & rotteth al∣so for moisture thereof. Isaac sayth ther∣fore, that who that purposeth to kéepe Ginger by long continuance of time, shal put Ginger among Pepper, that the moi∣sture of the Ginger may be tempered and swaged by drynesse of the Pepper, as he sayth expresly.

(*Ginger heateth the stomacke, & hel∣peth digestion, but it heateth not to soone as Pepper, but afterward the heat remai∣neth longer, and causeth the mouth to be moister: being gréene & well confectio∣ned in strop, it comforteth much the sto∣mack & head, & quickneth remembrance, if it be taken in the morow fasting: it is hot in the second degrée, and drye in the first.)

Of Zedoario. cap. 196.

ZEdoarium is hot and drye, and the tame is best; and that is most ci∣trine, thinne, and also long, and sharpe in sauour, and not thirled neyther hoa∣led. The wilde is whitish, and some∣what sharpe in sauour. And is good and necessary to the same things that Gin∣ger Page  [unnumbered] is good for: and comforteth the sto∣mack and the body, and exciteth and mo∣ueth appetite, as pla. sayth.

Of Zucaro. chap. 197.

SUgar is called Zucarum & Sucara also. And is made and issueth out of certaine Canes and Réedes, which groweth in lakes and pondes fast by a Riuer that is in Aegypt called Nilus. And the iuyce that issueth out of those Canes or Réedes, is called Canna Mel∣lis, and of that iuyce is Sugar made by séething, as Salt is made of water. The Canes bée broken and put in a Caudron, or in another great vessell, and is sodde with easie and soft fire vntill it be come thicke. And first it séemeth that it tur∣neth all to foame: but after that it hath rested, it becommeth thicker and thicker. And the most purest and best therof sink∣eth down vnto the bottome of the vessel, that it is sodde in, and that which is fatty and foamie abideth and fléeteth aboue. And is lesse of swéetnesse & full of holes, and cracketh not among the téeth when it is chewed, but vanisheth sodeinly and melteth: And the best & most purest deth y contrary: and that that is best is put in a vessell, & wareth all hard and white at the fire and at the Sun. And some is ri∣trine and more hot then the other, & shall not be giuen to sicke men that haue the feauer ague. And good Sugar is tempe∣rate in his qualities, and hath therefore (as Isaac saith in Dietis) vertue to dry & to cleanse, & to dissolue and temper, & to make thin and cleere, & to moist ye womb without any fretcing or gnawing, and to cleanse the stomack, and to plane & make smooth roughnesse of the brest and of the lungs: and profiteth in cléerring of the voice, & doth away hoarsnesse & cough, & restoreth the humour & moysture that is spent & wasted: and it tempereth sowre∣nesse & bitternesse of smelling spicery: and is most profitable & necessarye in medi∣cines & in Electuaries, in pouders & in si∣rops, as Isaac sayth. But it maketh the wombe somwhat to swell, & namely if it be taken after meate, for all swéet things by kind bréedeth swelling. Also Sugar changeth soone & turneth into red Chole∣ra, if it be giuen to cholarike men. For as Sugar abateth and quencheth ye cold∣nesse & sharpnes of Cholera: so the swéet∣nesse as it were contrary therto, exciteth and whetteth & nourisheth Cholera, as I∣saac sayth in eodem cap.

(*Sugar is a thing very temperate & nourishing, and where there is Cholar in the stomacke, or that the stomack ab∣horreth honnie, it maye bee vsed for hon∣nie in all things wherin honie is requi∣red to be. With Sugar and vineger is made sirop Acetose.)