Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

¶Of Vite. cap. 177.

A Uine is called Vitis, and hath the name of Venciendo, binding, for it is bound. And Isidore saith, that Vitis hath that name, for it hath vertue to take some roote and p••••.

Or els they be called Vites in the plurall number, for they haue vertue and might to binde themselues togethers, & be porrued and railed and bound to trees that be nigh to them. The kinde there∣of is plyant, and taketh and holdeth by strength, and imbraceth what it taketh, •• it were in armes: and those bondes by the which it taketh and windeth a∣bout trees and stalkes, be called Capre∣oli; and haue that name, for it taketh & compasseth trees, and holdeth them each by order. These he crookes of the vines, by helpe and succour of which, knots & braunches of the vine, be helpe so su∣staine & to withstand winde & stormes, that they breake not with blasts of we∣thers. And be also called Corithi, for they be as it were rings and bends, and haddeth things that be nigh thereto, for boughes and braunches of the vine, should not be slaked farre for the succor∣med shaken, and disperpled, and hurled with blasts of winde: but they should so come, to beare and saue the fruite without perill. And these things accor∣deth most to vines, that the earth be o∣pened about the roots, and there made as it were a great hole, that the roote maye take more plentie of moysture and of humour, and also that the sunne beame may the better come thereto, and work therein. Also vines néede to be cut and pared, and purged of superfluitie & wa∣terie boughs and vaine. Also vines néed letting and planting, and thereof com∣meth young vines, and be called Propa∣gines, and be the first twigs that spring and spred of the young vine: and vines néed deluing and paring of the grounde, with shouell, spade, or mattocke, to do a∣way superfluitie of hearbes and of roots, that the vine may so be the better nou∣rished and comforted.

Also vines néede to be rayled, to bée the better sustained, and the latine is for pitching of poles of rayling, Paxillare, as Papias saith, and commeth of Pango, gis, xi, and is to vnderstand, pitch or set stakes, as he saith. And Isidore sayeth, Pastinare is to vnderstande dounging with dounge, or with fat earth to féede & to nourish the vine to beare fruite, the Page  [unnumbered] more and the better. Also them néedeth Pampination, that is to vnderstand, pul∣ling away of superfluitie of leaues, that the sunne and pure aire may the better come to the grapes. Also that the grapes be not ouershadowed by leaues, for then they shal ripe the better, and a vine leafe is called Pampines, as Isidore saith. By the leaues of the vine grapes be defen∣ded and succoured from heate and from colds, and against all wrongs: and the leaues be taken away, for the Sunne beame shuld the better come to ye fruite for to ripe it, and be called Pampini, for they hang by boughs and branches that are called Palmites, as Isidore saith li∣bro. 17.

Also them néedeth Vindimacion; that is taking away of grapes, and that: is done, when Grapes be gathered to make of them wine. And Plin. lib. 8. ca. 22. speaketh of the vine and sayth, that when a vine is cut in good time and due manner, it taketh vertue and strengthe of the cutting, and conceiueth matter, of the which springeth and commeth after∣ward floures and fruite: and but it wer chastised with such cutting, and clensing and purging of such superfluitie, all the vine should were barren: For nothing groweth swifter than the vine, & there∣fore but the vertue of fruite bearing bée saued, the vine beareth no fruite: and in the vine is a kinde, that the vine would rather beare fruite than liue. Therefore all that is taken away of superfluitie of the matter of the vine, is aduauntage to the fruite in paring and cutting time.

The sooner the vine is cut, the more wa∣ter it sheddeth, and the later it is cut, the more plentie it beareth of fruit: so that the cutting passe not due time. Small vynes néedeth to be soone cut, & great vines and strong néedeth to bée late cut; and the cutting shall be astone betwéen two knots, so that in the other side afore the knot the kerffe shall passe, and there∣fore it shall be a slont, & not euen ouer∣thwart, for the rayne drops should soone come and fall away: For by ofte com∣ming of such drops, & long abiding vpon a plaine kerffe, the top of the vine shuld be grieved and hurt.

And the more small and leane the vine is, the more thereof shall be cut & when the leaues shall be cut off, the leafe that is with grapes, shall not be remoued, but it be a now vine and young, but the other leaues that be far, for these leaues should supplant the grapes. All those braunches that spring out of the vine, in other places than in the knottes, are accounted vnprofitable: and bastarde, and shoulde anone be plucked off and rased.

Also cap. 24. he saith, that vines haue a speciall euill, when the braunch of the new vine is to soone taken away, either too hastely cut in vndue time, or when vines be sprong with euill dew or raine in blooming time: or when new twigs or burgening is appaired with frost, or with colde or when vncunning Garde∣ners hurte and wound wrongfully the rootes, and when they strip the roote, or spoyle the vine of all the roote. Among all, ye vine is most grieued, when strong raine smiteth the twigges while they bloome: for then falleth both flower and fruite of corrupt aire and corrupte heawe.

And raine gendreth and bréedeth cer∣taine wormes, and Caterpillers and Snanies, that grow and fret burgening and leaues of the vine, & leaueth light∣ly the vine so spoyled, gnawen and ea∣ten: and this euill bréedeth in moyst, time, easie and softe. And there is ano∣ther euill that kéepers of vines call A∣raneum, for of euill blastes of winde, & corrupt raine commeth and bréedeth as it were copwebbes, and compasseth and wasteth the fruite, and burneth & grie∣ueth it.

Also the vine bafeth Cabage, and all manner Coleworts, and hateth also Ha∣sels, for when such are nigh to the vines, then the vines be grieued and sicke; and Mitrum much lyke to salte, Alome, and sea water, and beanes, and etches, & namely in the last cutting, be venime to vines, and destroye them. Huc vsque Plinius libro. 17. cap. 2.

And he saith, that among men in old time vines wer accounted among great trees. And in some parts and countryes Page  327 be so great vines, that they make Ima∣ges poasts, and stocks of vines: as it fa∣reth in the Image & mawmet of Iupiter in the citie of Popoloma. And men stye vp vpon a vine to the top of the Tem∣ple of Diana Ephesina. Also poasts and pillers made of such vines, dure and last without corruption long time. And in few trees kinde is more durable then in vines, they growe without end, & spring and spread full wide, and maye be laide with railing about houses and townes. And springeth vpward into many coun∣tryes vnto the toppes of Oliues, of Po∣pler, and other high Trées, and compas∣seth them and holdeth with their armes, as it were by affection of matrimonye. The vine is a good tree and medicinable, both in branches and in fruit. And ther∣of commeth licour, that is better, & pas∣seth the iuyce of all trées. When the vine is cut, thereof commeth dropping most clene and pure, and that dropping is good and profitable, and put in Colliriis, me∣dicines for eyen. By passing out of that dropping the substantiall humour of the vine is cleansed and purged in the roote. And therfore the vine beareth afterward the more pure fruite and swéete. The leaues of the vine be broade, plaine, greene, and softe within, and some deale rough without, and cloued and ragged in the vtter side and sharpe, and make a great shadowe. And the shadowe there∣of in Summers time is full pleasaunt to them that loue to rest there vnder. And the leaues be full medicinable, for they cleanse woundes, and heale full cleanly.

And the leaues sodde in water, aba∣teth seuourous beate, and healeth won∣derfullye burning and swelling of the stomacke. If they be layde in a playster wise: and helpeth women with children, and exciteth sleepe, and refresheth and comforteth the braine. The drop there∣of oft dronken, breaketh the stone, as Di∣oscorides sayth: and sharpneth the fight, and doth away learednesse of eies. And succoureth against venimous biting, and venimous trauell: and stauncheth the wombe.

Also ashes thereof is good to the foresaid things, & the ashes thereof medled with iuyce of rew and with Oile, abateth end softneth, and doth away swelling of the splene, as Plinius saith, li. 24. ca. 1. where be saith, that vine leaues doth away head¦ach, and swageth inflasions. And Uine leaues with Barly meale, healeth hetie goutes: and helpeth them greatly yt haue the bloudie flixe, if they drinke it. The iuyce thereof with Oile laid to an hairie place in a plaister wise, doth awaye the haire, and namely the dropping that cō∣meth of boughs of ye vine. The rind of ye vine doth awaye wartes: and dry vine leaues stauncheth bléeding wounds, and closeth and healeth woundes. Moreouer, the ashes of the vine purgeth and healeth soone a fester, & abateth ach and shrink∣ing of sinewes: and healeth with Oyle stinging of scorpions, & biting of hoūds: Ashes of the rinde by it selfe, restoreth & multiplieth haire that is fallen.

(* Vitis vinifera, ripe grapes are hot and moist in the first degrée, and the rai∣son, or drie grape is hot and dry, as saith Galen.)