Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

¶ Of Virga. cap. 175.

A Rodde is called Virga, and Virga is properly that that groweth out of boughes, and hath that name of Vir∣tus, vertue: for it hath in it selfe great vertue. Or it hath that name of Viror, gréene, for the vertue that is hid in the roote, sheweth it selfe in the gréene cou∣lour of the rodde.

And Virga is sayde, as it were gouern∣ing by vertue and might. Witches and Inchantors vsed rods to make serpents as it were bounden. Also Philosophers, Kings and Masters vsed a rod: and so doth he that meateth, kéepeth and depar∣teth fieldes, and threshing stoores, and meades, and so doth Ambassadors, mes∣sengers and heardes. Also a rod is com∣pouned of thrée manner of substaunce, of the rinde, Harke & pith: & is nourished & liueth by the pith: and springeth and is reared vp by the stalke, and is co∣uered and defended from wrong of the vtter aire by benefice of the rinde. For as the Commentor saith super. libr. de plantis, a trée hath rind in stéed of skin, and stocke or stalke in stéede of bones, & pith in stéede of veynes. For kind heate that is namely in the pith of the rodde, draweth thereto humour out of ye stock and roote, by the bough that is meane. And of the bough the rod springeth, and the kinde heate changeth the grosse mat∣ter and thicke and earthy, that is in the humour that is drawen, into the stalke and rinde, and turneth the watrye parts thereof into many twigs and braunch∣es, and bringeth the parte that is most vnctuous and pure to the vtter parte of the rod, to bring forth thereof, blossoms, floures and fruite: and at the last, both flower and fruit, springeth and commeth of the substaunce of the rodde, without corruption or defiling of the rodde: for the floure breaketh and springeth priue∣lye out of the rodde, and doeth neyther defile nor yet vnbeautifie the rodde: but maketh it more plenteous, perfect and faire. Also the rod taketh not strength of burgening, neither might of gendring by medling of seminal humour, as men and beastes doe: But a rod taketh such strengthe and might of the deawe of heauen, and of beate of the Sunne.

And when a rodde groweth, it spring∣eth alway vpward, and holdeth and rea∣reth the toppe towarde heauen, for to come to perfect nourishing: and the rod is meane betwéene the boughe and the stocke or roote that conceyueth thereof, Page  326 and betwéene the fruite that it heareth, by tendernesse of the substaunce, the rod is full plyant and bendeth lyghtly, and some towarde euerie side. Also a rod is drye, rough, and knortie without, & softs within in the pith, and sail of humour vnder the rinde: and the m•••• codde groweth, the higher it passeth from the earth: and the higher it passeth vp∣ward, the more small and sharpe it is us the ouermost roppe. Also a codde shall stretch vpright of it selfe: but when it is young & tender, and worth•••tes hap∣peneth that it crooketh & bendeth down∣ward toward the earth, and is hardened in that crookednesse, then it is harde to stretch it, and to make it againe euen right. And somtime a crookedo and put in the fire, and by heate of the fire, the stiffenesse and hardnesse is tempered & made softe and so the rod is the more easely straighted, & made euen and right. Also children & houndes hate the rod, for they be therewith chastised.