Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.


FOR the properties of the Earth and of the parties thereof, is described in ge∣nerall: by helpe of God, is now our purpose to plant héere somwhat, of ye beautie & ornament therof in special. Of things, yt beautifie ye earth, some be clene without soule & without feeling, as all thing that groweth vnder the grounde, & is gendered in veines of the earth, as stones, coulours, and mettall: and of these we shall first speake by order. And some with lyfe and soule, as rootes, hearbes, and trees, and some with soule and fée∣ling, as men, and other beasts, of whome we shall last speake. And we shall shewe first by order of A.B.C. the things that be gendered in the earth, & in the veines thereof.

Of Arena. chap. 1.

GRauell is called Arena, and hath that name of drinesse. And if it were thrust and brused together in a mans hande, it should rattle & make noise for drinesse & hardnes. And if grauell be throwne on a white cloth, it defileth it not, as Isi. saith li. 15. ca. 4. Also grauell of the sea is wash∣ed of all manner slime and wose, and of gleamie fenne, as Aristotle saith liber de proprietatibus elementorum. And there∣fore because of great drinesse it runneth not, nor turneth not perfectly into stone. Also li. 4. Mcth. he saith, that pure earth turneth not perfectly into stone: for it cō∣tinueth not, but breaketh. And therefore drines euercōming all moisture, suffreth not earth to turne into sadnesse of stone. Therefore it is ye grauell & sand is more harde in substaunce then common earth, & more soft then a stone, and may be de∣parted in many parts. And so grauel and sand is colde & dry & small, & most heauie in weight when it is thrust togethers, & though of it selfe it be small & baraine for defalt of heat & of moisture, & mastry of cold & drines, whē a showre falleth ther∣on, it breaketh not, but sennye things is washed away & wasted, & grauell & sand is more pressed togethers, & is more pure & sad: for the parts cleaue more together. Also the waues of the sea is letted with multitude of grauel and sand, & withstood with heaps thereof, & constrained that it passeth not the meares & boundes yt God hath ordeined thereto, as Hierome saith super le. cap. 5. He set grauel & sand mark & meare to the sea, &c. Also he hath vni∣uersally kind of during and of cleansing. And so water that runneth through gra∣uell is most clene and fresh, as Constan∣tine saith.

Also it hath vertue to cleanse mettal, and to cleanse alwaye the rustinesse of mettall. Gold, Brasse, and Yron is made bright with froting of Grauell and Sand.

Page  [unnumbered]Also it hath vertue to coole and to smite inward, and to stop and to swage swel∣ling, as it fareth of Thimalia, that is, grauell and sande shauen or brused of a Smithes stone, which is good for all the foresayde things, as Constantine saieth plainly, and hath vertue like to oare of mettall. And so among grauell and sand both of riuers and of the sea, is founde golden grauell oft times, and also bright polished stones, and precious stones are found in the sea cliues among grauell. Also grauell of riuers and of the sea, bée gathered to heapes with contrary winds, that reaseth parts thereof hetherwarde and thetherward, and stoppeth and tary∣eth oft the waters of the riuers, of course and running into the sea, as Iero. saieth super Amos. 8. Ibi destuct sicut riuus Aegypti, &c. There it is openly sayde, that the water of Nilus is lot with heaps of grauell, that are gathered together in the month of the riuer, and suffereth not the water of Nilus to runne into ye Sea: but constraineth it openly, and maketh it turne againe and ouerflowe the plaines of Egipt: but the more the water is let∣ted, and compelled to turne againe with those heapes of grauell, with the more course and might it runneth and falleth into the sea: and it is said that it falleth the more déepe into the sea, when those heapes be departed and auoyded, as Ier. saith there. Also it is hard and most pe∣rill to fall and smile on heapes of gra∣uell, hid in the sea vnder water, as it is rehearsed before, where it is shewed of perills of the sea.

¶Of Claye. chap. 2.

*CLay is called Argilla, which is tough earth, glewie and gleymie, apte and meete to diuers workes of Potters, and hath that name Argilla of Arges, as Isi∣dore saith lib. 16. cap. primo. For among them were first earthen vessells made of such claye: and as it is said ther, by wor∣king of heate that consumeth and wast∣eth the moystie partes, and dryeth and hardeneth the earthie parts, such claye turneth into ile. Also ofte it happeneth, that colde fréeseth the water in such fen∣nie earth, and the earth turneth to stone: Also changing of vnctuous sen into stone, falleth ofte by heate running & hardning the matter, as it saide 4. lib. Metheorer. Unctuous fenne is able to such chaung∣ing and turning into stone, by burning & hardning of heate: for an vnctuous thing is meane betwéene a gleymie, and vapo∣ratiue thing that passeth out of things, in breathing or smoking. And the thing that is vnctuous hath moisture in it selfe, and so because of the partie that is vaporatiue, it may congeale and be made hard by heate: and because of the partie that is gleymie, it may not all passe out in vapours, but be more thrusted toge∣ther and made thicke and harde, and so tourned into stone, as the Commentour saith. Claye by his coldnesse stauncheth bloud at the nose,* if clay be tempred with strong vineger, and laid to the temples.

¶Of Alabastro. chap. 3.

AS Isidore saith li. 15. ca. 5. Alabaster is a white stone,* with strakes of diuers coulours. Of such stone the oyntment boxe that the Gospell speaketh of,* was made: and of this stone, the oyntment vessell is made at best without corrupti∣on, and that stone that bréedeth about Thebes, in Aegypt and Damascus, is more white, than other: but the best commeth out of Inde. And Dioscucides calleth this stone Intomar, and it is said, that this stone helpeth to win victory, & mastrie. Also he saith, that this gendreth and kéepeth friendship.

¶Of Golde. chap. 4.

GOlde is called Aurum, and hath that name of Aura, still wether, as Isidor. saith lib. 26. For it shineth most, in aire that is bright: for it is kindlye, that shi∣ning of mettall blase the more, if they be shined with other light. Therfore things that make shining the more blassing, be called Aurarij, and golde that is most blasing is called Obrisum, for it shineth with bright beames, and is of best cou∣lour. And the Hebrewes call it Ophar, and the Gréekes name it Chrusos.

Page  254And a thin plate, of the which golden threds are cut out, is called Brathea. Huc vs{que} Isi. cap. de mettallis. In li. Metheo∣rorum parum ante fine Aristotle saith, that golde, as other mettall, hath other matter of subtill brimstone and red and of quicke siluer subtill and white. In the composition thereof is more sadnesse of brimstone, then of aire and moysture of quicke siluer: and therefore gold is more sad and heauie than siluer. In composi∣tion of siluer, is more commonly quicke siluer than white brimstone as he saith. Then among mettall, nothing is more sad in substaunce, or more better compact than golde: and therefore though it bée put in fire it wasteth not by smoaking & vapours, neither lesseth the waight, and so it is not wasted in fire: but if it be melted with strong heate, then if any filth be therein, it is cleansed thereof, & that maketh the golde more pure & shi∣ning. No mettall stretcheth more with hammer worke than golde: for it stret∣cheth so, that betwéene the anfield and the hammer without breaking and renting in péeces, it stretcheth to lease golde. And among mettall, there is none fayrer in sight than golde, and therefore among Painters, golde is chiefe and fairest in sight, and so it darkeneth shape and cou∣lour of other mettall. Also among met∣tall is nothing so effectuall in vertue, as golde. Plato describeth the vertue there∣of and saith, that it is more temperate & pure than other mettall, for it hath ver∣tue to comfort, and for to cleause super∣fluities gathered in bodies: and there∣fore it helpeth against leprosie and me∣selrio. The filing of gold taken in meate or in drinke, or in medicine preserueth, & and letteth bréeding of leprosie, or name∣ly hideth it and maketh it vnknowen: for ofte vse of golde letteth & tarieth the bréeding of Lepra, or maketh it vnkno∣wen, as Auicen saith. Also the some fi∣ling and powder, with the iuyce of Bo∣rage, and with the bone of the heart of a Harte,* helpeth against sownding, and a∣gainst cardiaele passion. Also thin plates of gold, fire hot, quenched in wine, ma∣keth the wine profitable against ye euill of the splene, & against many other euils and passions melancholike: and also bur∣ning made with instruments of gold, is better than with other maner of mettall, for it kéepeth ye place that is burnt with∣out stinking. Also powder of the offall of golde healeth spots of eyen, if it be ther∣in. Also golde comforteth sore lymmes, though it be not corporate therein, and though it norisheth them not, yet it doth away with the sharpnesse thereof, super∣fluities that growe in members, & clean∣seth them in that wise as Plat. saith. Al∣so hot gold doth away haire of members: and what that is burnt or froted there∣with, groweth no more, as Consta. saith. Also gold smitten, foundeth not as brasse doth and siluer, nor creketh nor cleaueth, but strecheth euen abroad, except other strong mettall be medled therewith in some wise. For as long as brasse or lat∣ton is medled with the substance of gold, it cleaueth alway vnder the hammer, & is inobedient to take out shape by bea∣ting of the hammer: no therfore it née∣deth that all superfluitie be put awaye, and the golde clensed by melting & made pure, that it may be able to be shapen wt a hammer, to make thereof some vessell with couenable shape as Gregory saith. And when a plate of golde shall be med∣led with a plate of siluer, or ioyned ther∣to, it néedeth to beware namely of thrée things,* of powder, of winde, and of moy∣sture: for if any héreof come betweene golde and siluer, they may not be ioyned together, the one with the other: and ther∣fore it néedeth to meddle these two met∣tals together, in a full cleane place & qui∣et, and when they be ioyned in due ma∣ner, the ioyning is inseperable, so yt they may not afterward be departed asunder.

(*Golde maketh wise men glad: and spendthrifts mad: Gold vpholdeth king∣domes: Golde is preferred in manye common wealths before Justice: & there∣fore to those that put their delyght ther∣in, it is called Auri sacra fames, of ye mis∣vse thereof. It is reported by late Wri∣ters, of the golden mountaines of Ciba∣na, aud of the wonderfull riches of gold that the king of Spaine hath yéerly from the West and East Indies, gathered by a multitude of slaues, ordained for that Page  [unnumbered] purpose: notwithstanding the vsurers yt inhabit Britaine, doe make moe slaues that are frée borne, by raising of rentes, ingrossing of landes, and hindring of til∣lage, for the quantitie of ground in one yeare, then is subiect among the Indies in thrée yeares, to the vtter ouerthrowe of landes, goods, wife and children.)

¶Of Laton. chap. 5.

LAton is called, Auricalcum, and hath that name, for though it he brasse or copper, yet it shineth as gold without, as Isid. saith, for brasse is Calco in Gréeke. Also laton is hard as brasse or copper for by medling of copper, of tinne, and of Auripigment, and with other mettall, it is brought in the fire to colour of golde, as Isid. saith. Also it hath coulour & like∣nesse of gold, but not the value. Also of laton be composed diners manner of ves∣sells and faire, that séeme gold when they be new, but the first brightnesse dimmeth some and some, and becommeth as it were rustie, and so both in colour and in smell of copper, the first matter thereof, is knowen. Meate and wine kept in such a vessell, taketh an horrible sauour and smell of the vice of brasse: but Colliria and medicines for the eyen be profitably kept in such vessell, and be made sharp by the strength of brasse, as Plat. saith.

¶Of Auripigmento. cap. 6.

AVripigmentum is a veine of ye earth, or a manner of frée stone that clea∣ueth and breaketh, and it is like to golde in colour. And this is called Lapis Ar∣cenicus by another name, and is double: redde and citrine. And as Dioscorides saith, it hath kinde of brimstone, or bur∣ning and drieng, & if it be laid to brasse, it maketh the brasse white, and burneth and wasteth all bodyes of mettall, except golde, as Diosc. saith. And Plat. saith, that Auripigmentum is hot and drye in the fourth degrée, and is a veine of the earth: and thereof is double kinde, red and ci∣trine: and the citrine helpeth to medi∣cine, and hath vertue of dissoluing and tempering, of drawing and of cleansing: and so it helpeth Tisike and Etike, and those that haue euill breth, that commeth of moysture, if they gaue thereon, & take the smoke thereof. Of Auripigment is made Pisilo cracium, an oyntment yt doth away haire and maketh them fall, when it is fodde in hot lime. Also it helpeth a∣gainst tetars and scabes, if the place be softly anoynted with sope and with Au∣ripigment: but the place must be washt anone, for if the oyntment lye long ther∣to, it will fret the good flesh as well as the euill, and stay away the shinne, and it hath kinde of slitting, taruing, and of fretting, and maketh soule and vnséemly nailes fall, that better nailes may grow, as Platea saith.

(*Auripigmentum, a coulour called Orement, of some Orpine or Arsenike, & daungerous poyson. The red and ftret∣ting Mercury is of the like operation.)

¶Of Siluer. chap. 7.

SIluer is called Argentum, and hath that name as Isi. saith of the speach of Gréeke, for siluer is called Argiron in Gréeke: and wonderfully it fareth. For though siluer be white, yet it maketh black lines and streakes in the body that is scored therwith or ruled therewith, as Isi. saith. In composition thereof is quick siluer and white brimstone, and therfore it is not so heauy as gold, as Richardus Rufus sayeth. There be two manner of siluers, simple and compounded & the sim∣ple is fléeting, and is called, quick siluer. The siluer compounded is massie & sad, and is compounded of quicke siluer pure & cleane, & of white brimstone not burn∣ing, as Aristotle saith.

¶Of Quicke siluer. chap. 8.

QUicke siluer is a watrye substaunce medled strongly with subtill earthy things, and maye not be dissolued, & that is for great drines of earth, that melteth not on a plaine thing, & therfore it clea∣ueth not to the thing yt it toucheth, as doth ye thing yt is watry. The substance therof is white, & that is for cléenes of cléere water; & for whitnes of subtil earth yt is well digested. Also it hath whitenes of medling of aire with ye foresaid things. Page  255 Also quicke siluer hath the propertie, that it cruddeth not by it selfe kindly; with∣out brimstone: but with brimstone and with substaunce of lead, it is congealed, and fastened togethers. And therefore it is sayd there; that quicke siluer and brim∣stone is the element, that is to wit, mat∣ter, of which all melting mettall is made. All this sayd openly, lib. Me∣theororum. And also Richardus Rufus, expoundeth it openlye, in this manner: Quicke siluer is matter of all mettall, & therefore in respect of them it is a simple element. Of the vertue and kinde there∣of, diuers men speake diuerslye: But what the meaning of the Phisitions is thereof, it maye be knowen by these words. Quicke siluer (as Plato sayeth) is hot and moyst in the fourth Degrée, though some men déeme that it is colde in the same degrée. That it is hot, it is knowen by effect of working: for it dis∣solueth, pearceth and carueth, but for it séemeth full colde in touch, some men déeme it amisse, and meane that it is colde. But some men meane, that Quicke siluer is made by great heate of a veyne of the earth: but it is know∣en that that is false, for by heate of fire, it is soone wasted away in smoke: but of earth it is gendred, and is kept as it were fléeting water, & is full long kept in a cold vessell & sound, & cleaueth so toge∣ther, & so strong yt it may to nothing be meddeled, but it be first quenched, and it is quenched with spettle when it is fro∣ted therewith: and namely when pow∣der is medled with spettle, and specially when powder of bones of an Henne is meddeled therewith: and quicke siluer passeth out by euaporation is séething & in smoking. The smoke thereof is most grieuous to men that be thereby, for it bréedeth the Walste and quaking, sha∣king and softening of the sinewes. If it be taken in at the mouth or into ye care, it thirleth and slayeth the members. A∣gainst that perill, Goates milke is best, dronke in great quantitie, with continu∣all mouing oof the patient: for the same speciallye wine is good, in the which, wormwood and Isop is sod. Huc vsque Plat. And it is called quicke siluer, for it coniealeth matter in which it is done, as Isi. saith li. 15. And also ther he saith more to this. He saith it is fléeting, for it run∣nenth, & is specialy found in siluer forges, as it were drops of siluer molten, & it is oft found in olde dirte of sinkes, & slime of pits: and also it is made of Minis put in cauernes of yron, and a patent or a shell done there vnder, and the vessell that is noynted therewith, shall be com∣passed with burning coales, and then the quicke siluer shall drop. Without this, siluer nor golde, nor latton nor copper, may be ouergilte: and it is of so great vertue and strength, that though thou put a stone of an hundred pound weight, vpon quicke siluer of the waight of two pound, the quicke siluer anone withstan∣deth the weight, and if thou doest there∣on a scruple of gold, it consumeth into it selfe the lightnesse thereof: and so it ap∣peareth it is not wayght, but Nature to which it obeyeth. Taken in drinke, it slayeth because of weight, & is best kepte in glasse vessells: for it pearceth, boreth, and fretteth other matters. Huc vique Isidorus lib. 16. chap. de metallis.

Then siluer is white and cléere, & soun∣ding and pure, and may well be wrought with hammer, but not so well as golde, and kéepeth and saueth well balme, and helpeth the vertue in the stone Iaspis, yt hath more vertue in siluer then in gold, as it is said in Lappidario, and it will melt: and when it is molt in the fire, it hath the colour of fire, neuertheles when it is colde, it is againe white and harde. And though it be of more great and boi∣stous matter then gold, yet among met∣tall it beareth the price after golde, in worthinesse and value: and is medicina∣ble, and helpeth against many euills. For the some thereof healeth wounds, & ful∣filleth the place, & fretteth away superflu∣itie of dead flesh, & letteth it not grow, & bringeth in the whole flesh, & cleanseth filth and hoare of bodies, a marking in∣strument of siluer, kepeth from stinking, and comforteth féeble members, and lay∣eth and maketh them stedfast, & rusteth, if it toucheth the earth, and taketh his co∣lour againe, if it be scoured with grauell, sande, and salt.

Page  [unnumbered]

Of Adamant. chap. 9.

ADamas is a little stone of Inde: and is coloured as it were yron, and shi∣neth as Christall, but it passeth neuer the quantitie of a walnut. Nothing ouer∣commeth it, neither yron nor fire, and also it heateth neuer: for of the Gréekes it is called, a vertue that may not be daunted. But though it maye not be ouercome, & though it despise fire and yron, yet it is broke with new hot bloud. Grauers vse the péeces thereof to signe and to rule, & to hollow precious stones. This stone is contrary to Magnes: for if an Adamas be set by yron, it suffereth not the yron to come to the Magnes, but it draweth it by a manner of vyolence from the Mag∣nes, so that though the Magnes draweth yron to it selfe, the Adamas draweth it away from the Magnes. It is sayd, that this stone warneth of venime, as Elec∣trum doth, and putteth off diuers dreads and feares, and withstandeth witchcraft. Huc vs{que} Isi. li. 15. ca. de Christallis. Di∣oscorides saith, that it is called a Preci∣ous stone of reconciliation and of loue. For if a woman be away from hir hus∣band, or trespasseth against him, by ver∣tue of this stone Adamas, she is the soo∣ner reconciled to haue grace of hir Hus∣band. And héereto he sayeth, that if a ve∣ry Adamas, be priuely layd vnder a wo∣mans head that slepeth, hir husband may know whether that she be chast, or no: For if she be chast by vertue of ye stone, she is compelled in hir sléepe to imbrace hir husband: and if she be vntrue, shée leapeth from him out of the bed, as one that is vnworthye to abide the presence of that stone. Also us Dioscorides saith, the vertue of such a stone borne in the left shoulder, or in the left arme pit, hel∣peth against enimars, against madnesse, chiding and strife, and against frends that anoy men that dreame in their sléepe, a∣gainst fantasie, against dreamings and venime.

(*Adamas, A Diamond, whereof ther be diuers kindes, (as in Pliny) and in other it appeareth. His vertues are to resists poyson, and witchcrafte: to put a∣way feare, to giue victorie in contention, to helpe them that be lunatike or phran∣tike. I haue proued (saith D. Cooper) that a Diamonde laide by a Needle, causeth that the Load stone cannot drawe the néedle. No fire can burte it, no violence break it, vnles it be moysted in ye warme blood of a Goate.)

(*The principall Diamonds are found in the first India, in a Kingdome of the Moores, named Decan, from whence they are brought to other regions. Ther are also found other Diamonds, which are not so good, but somewhat white, and are called Diamonds of the new myne, which is in the Kingdome of Narsinga. There are made other false Diamonds, of Rubies, Topaces, & white Saphires, which appeare to be fine. Of these, some are found, that haue halfe the coulour of Rubies, and other of Saphires, other al∣so of the colour of a Topase, other haue all these colours mingled togethers. Of the whitest of these, they make manye smal Diamonds, which cannot be know∣en from the true, sauing by touching of such are skilfull in that practise.)

Of the Agat.

(*In the borders of Scotland groweth and is found the stone that is called A∣gat, wherof some be with mixed colours of oaker red, blewish, and Icie coloured. Some like a reddish Amber, good to in∣graue anye feature, as for his vertue, if it be no more, than the estimation of the stone, it is little worth.)

Of Christalines.

(*Beyond Bristow, on ye hill called S. Vincents rocke, groweth manye: cléere stones, wherof some are very hard, & wil race on glasse. They cannot be counter∣set, because they grow natural: of little e∣stimation, as more worthier things are, that ought to be more set by: but farre fet, & déere bought, is good, for the foolish.

¶Of Ametisto. chap. 10.

AMetistus is a stone of Inde, & is chiefe among precious stones of purple co∣lour, as Isi. saith. Amatistus is purple in colour, medled with colour of violet, as it were a blasing rose, and tightly rasting out as it were glisning beames of light. Isidore saith that the other kinde there∣of Page  256 is much like to blewe, and is not all firie, but it hath colour of wine. And fiue kindes be thereof, as Isidore say∣eth. But as Dioscondes sayeth: The Purple red is most noble and bet∣ter then the other. For the vertue there∣of helpeth against dronkennesse, and ma∣keth waking: and remoueth awaye idle thoughts, and maketh good vnderstan∣ding, and is soft, so that men may graue and write therein.

(*Amethistus, a stone called an Ame∣thist, of colour purple: but the more Rose coulour the better.)

Of Achate. chap. 11.

AChates is a precious stone, and is blacke, with white veines, and hath that name Achates of a riuer, yt is called so: the which is in Cicilia. By the which riuer that stone was first found, as Isid. saith: and is now found in many regi∣ons and lands: and a manner kind of that stone is in Creta, as Dioscorides sayth, with bliew veines. And another kinde is in Inde speckled with red drops, as I∣sid. saith. Men beléeue that the first man∣ner thereof helpeth witchcraft. For ther∣with tempest is chaunged: and slinteth riuers and streames, as it is saide. Also Dioscorides saith, the same kind is good to the shape of Images of Kinges, and to shew likenes of sléepes. And the man∣ner kinde of Creta chaungeth perils, and maketh gracious and pleasing, and fayre shewing and speaking, and giueth might and strength. The thirde manner stone that is of Inde, comforteth the sight, and helpeth against thirst and venim, and smelleth swéete if it be nigh, as Diosco∣rides saith.

(*Achates, a precious stone, wheron are represented diuers figures. Some haue the Image of the nine Muses, some of Venus. It was one of the 12. stones, yt God willed to be put in Aarons vesti∣ment. It is supposed that the Magiti∣ans, by the smoake of that stone, did put away tempests & stormes. This stone is interlined with white, & light bleiwish lines, &c.)

Of Abeston. chap. 12.

ABeston is a stone of Archadia with yron coulour: and hath that name of fire: if it be once kindled it neuer quen∣cheth. Of that stone is made that craftye ingin, of the which nations taken with sacriledge wondred. For in a Temple of Venus was made a cādle stick, on which was a lanterne so bright burning, that it might not be quenched with tempest, nei∣ther with raine, as Isidore sayth, lib. 15. cap. de Gemmis.

Of Absciso. chap. 13.

ABscisus is a precious stone, black and heauie, straked with redde vemes. If this stone be heat in the fire, it holdeth heate seauen daies: as Isidore saith. cap. de Gemmis.

Of Alabandina. chap. 14.

ALabandina is a precious stone, and hath that name of a region of Asia, the which is called Alabandina: The co∣lour thereof is like to the stone Calcido∣nius: but it is more tare, as Isi. saith, cap. de Cristallis. And Dioscorides sayth, that Alabandina is a precious stone cléere & some deale red, as Cardius. The vertue thereof exciteth and increaseth bloud.

(*Alabandina, a red stone, mixt with bliew, prouoking bloud. D. Cooper.)

Of Argirit. chap. 15.

ARgirites is a precious stone lyke to siluer with golden speckes. Andro∣maia is like thereto in coulour: and is a stone with coulour of siluer, as Isidore saith. And is foure cornered in shape, as the corner of a Diamond. And Witches beléeue that it hath that name for that it refraineth sodeine passions, and wrath of hearts, as Isidore saith, cap. de Gem∣mis aureis.

Of Astrione. chap. 16.

AStrion is a precious stone of Inde, nigh like to Christall. In the middle thereof shineth a star with cléerenesse of the full Moone: and hath that name of A∣stris, starres: for if it be set in the starres light, it taketh light of them, as Isidore saith, cap. de Christal.

Page  [unnumbered](*Astrios, a precious stone in Indie. Astroites, a stone lyke a Fishes eie.)

Of Allectoria. chap. 17.

ALlectoria is a stone that is found in the mawes of capons, and is like dim Christall: and the most quantitie there∣of is as much as a Beane. And as wit∣ches tell, it is supposed that in battayle fighting, this stone maketh men insupe∣rable, that they may not be ouercome, as it is said in Lapidario. Dioscorides spea∣keth of this stone, and saith, that Allec∣torius the stone exciteth ye seruice of Ve∣nus, and maketh a man gratious & sted∣fast, & vidor, wise and redie, and cunning in plea, and accordeth friends, and quen∣cheth thirst in the mouth.

(*Alectoria, a stone found in the maw or Gissard of a Cocke, of the bignesse of a Beane, and couloured like Christall: This stone is not to be found in euery Cocke, vntill he be olde, &c.)

Of Asterites. chap. 18.

ASterites is a precious stone, and is white, and conteyneth light there∣in closed, as it were a Starre going within, and maketh the Sunne beames white.

(*This Iewell is found in the mawe of a pure maid, that is fifty yeres of age, or els among the Troglodites.*Vesper.)

Of Amatides. chap. 19.

AMatides is a precious stone, if a cloth be touched therewith, the cloth with∣standeth fire and burneth not, though it put therein: But it receiueth brightnesse and séemeth the more cléere: and is lyks Alam, that may be brosed. And withstan∣deth all euil doing of witches, as Isidore sayth, li. 16. cap. 10.

(*Amatices, it is supposed that in the mawe of the Cocke Turtle done this stone is to be found, and hath vertue to increase concord and loue.)

Of Bitumine. chap. 20.

GLew is slimie gleab of the earth, and gleaming and gendering, namelye in marreis ground. And (as Isidore sayeth, lib. 16. cap. 2. it is a manner of gleaming earth, and is founde beside the lake As∣phalti in Iudea. The kinde thereof is burning and of firie kind, and holdeth so fast, and is so clongie, that it is not broke with water nor with yron, but onelye with menstruall bloud, and it is good to ioyning of ships. Of this Glew is men∣tion made in Plat. in this manner. As∣phaltis glew of Iudea is hot and drie in the third degrée,* and is earth of blacke coulour, and is heauie and stinking. And some men meane, that it is earth gende∣red of the foame of the dead sea, and is made hard as earth, and hath vertue of drawing, and sodering, and fastening, and consuming, and is full good to heale and cloase, and to sowder woundes, and Botches, if it bée beate to powder and put in a dry wound, though the wounde be full long and full wide. Also it is good to helpe the passions of the mother, that pearceth and thirleth the spiritual mem∣bers, if it be put vppon coales, & the stin∣king smoake therof be drawen in at the nose and at the mouth. Also it helpeth flu∣matike men, and sléeping Litergicis, that haue the sléeping euill: For it purgeth well fleame out of the head, as Platea. sayth.

(*Bytume, a kinde of naturall lime or claie, clammie like Pitch, in olde time vsed in stéed of Morteir, and in Lampes to burne in stéede of Oile, being of the nature of Brimstone, it is a good siment for earthen pots and cups.)

Of Berillo. chap. 21.

BEril is a stone of Inde, lyke in gréene coulour to Smaragde: but it is with palenesse, and is polished and shapen a∣mong the Indes in sixe corners shape: that dimnesse of coulour may be excited by the rebounding of the corners. And otherwise shapen it hath no bright sei∣ning. And of Berill be ten maner kinds, as Isidore sayeth, cap. de Viridibus Gemmis. Also there it is sayde, that Page  257 Crisoberillus is a manner kinde of Be∣rill. And the pale gréennes therof shineth towarde the coulour of golde. And this stone commeth to vs out of Inde. Dio∣scorides describeth the vertues of Berill and saith, that among Berill the stone that is most pals is best, the vertue ther∣of is good against perill of enimies, and against strift. And maketh one so that he may not be ouercome, and maketh him milde, and giueth good wit, and hel∣peth against diseases of the liuer, and against fighthings and sobbings, and a∣gainst bolkinges, and healeth moyst ei∣en, and burneth his hande that beareth it, if it be held before the Sun, & maketh a man great of state, & ioyneth wil loue of matrimonie.

(*I suppose that the Berill is none other than a grose Christall, ingendred of the colde aire and dry water hardened: as the North wind fréeseth the common streames, but with a more violent opera∣tion being either a thin gréene or yelow, is more earthie then airie, which is per∣ceiued by his peise and heauinesse.)

Of Calculo. chap. 22.

CAlculus is a little stone medled with earth, and is round and most harde, and pure, and most smooth and plaine in euery side. And it hath that name Calcu∣lus, for it is trod with féet without gréefe of his smoothnesse and plainnesse. And contrarie héereto is a lyttle stone that is called Scrupulus chesell, and is most tough and sharpe, and full lightlye if it still betwéene a mans foote and the shooe, it griueth full sore. And so such stones that be sharpe and hard are called Scru∣pea, as Isidore saith, lib. decimo quinto. ca. 3. And oft in the bodie of a beast, this stone bréedeth of hot humours and glea∣my, now in the bladder, and sometime in the reines, as Constantine saith. Looke before lib. 7. de Passionibus renum, cap. de Calculo.

(*Calculus is fallen. For the smooth Pibble stones, that net of many grose co∣lours, but to small effect.)

Of a Whetstone. cap. 23.

A Whetstone is called Cos, and hath that name, for it whetteth and shar∣peth yron to cut and to carue. For Cotis is Greeke, and is to say, caruing, as Isi∣dore saith. And there be diuerse manner of Whetstones. And some neede Water and some neede Oyle for to whet, but Oyle: maketh smooth, and water maketh the edge right sharpe, as Isidore sayeth, lib. codem. capitulo. 3. The Whetstone hath this propertie, that it serueth ano∣ther thing in wheting, and wasteth him∣selfe some and some, as Gregory sayeth. The powder of the Whetstone helpeth well in medicine, and hath vertue of dri∣eng, and of smiting againe repercussiue, and of staunching of bloud, as Constan∣tine saith.

(*The ponder of a Whetstone is as good for a fresh wound to stape the blée∣ding, as is a Pigges turde to the nose of him that bléedeth: for the gréet of the one is a pricking in the wound, & the stench of the other, anoyance to the head.)

Of Calce. chap. 24.

LIme is called Calx, & is a stone burnt, by meddeling thereof with Sand and with water, Cement is made. And lime is called hot, as Isidore sayeth. For while it is colde in handeling, it contai∣neth priuely within fire and great heat. And when it is sprong with water, a∣non the fire that is within breaketh out. In the kinde thereof is some wonder: For after that it is burnt, it is kindeled in Water, that quencheth fire. And lime is néedfull to building. For one Stone may not cleane to another stronglye, but they be ioyned with lime.

Lime that is made of white stone and harde, is best for walls: and Lime made of soft stone is best for roofes. Huc vsque Isidorus, lib. decimo quinto. ca. 3. And Plat. sayth, that Lime is hotte and drye in the fourth degrée: and Lime meddeled with Oile helpeth whelks and woundes that be rotted, and cloaseth and soudereth cutting, and fretteth su∣perfluitie Page  [unnumbered] of flesh in woundes, and suffe∣reth it not to grow. Hot Lime sod with Auripigment and water, maketh haire to fall: For it openeth the poores with sharpnesse thereof, as Constantine sayth and Plat. also.

Of Cemento. chap. 25.

CEment is lime, sand and water tem∣pered togethers and meddeled: And such meddeling is most néedfull to ioyne stones together, and to pergit & to white lime, walles. In painting and colouring of walls the first ground & chiefe to take colour is sement, & cleaueth to wet wals, and namelye if it bée plaistre stone. For as Isidore sayeth, lib. 16. cap. 13. the best sement made of all stones is of the flint stone, or of plaistre, that is called Gyp∣sis: the which stone shineth as it were Glasse, also it will be broke into manye small peeces.

Of Carbunculo. chap. 26.

CArbunculus is a precious stone, and shineth as Fire, whose shining is not ouercome by night. It shineth in dark places, and it séemeth as it were a flame. And the kindes thereof be twelue, and the worthiest be those that shine and send out beames, as it were fire, as Isidore sayth, libro. 16. cap. 3. There it is sayde that Carbunculus is called Antrax in Greeke, and is gendered in Libia among the Troglodites. Among these twelue manner kindes of Carbuncles, those Antraciles be the best that haue the cou∣lour of fire, and bée compassed in a white veine, which haue this propertie: If it be throwen in fire, it is quenched as it were among dead coales, and burneth if water be throwen theron. Another kind of a Carbuncle is called Scandasirus: and hath that name of a place of Inde in the which it is found. In this maner of kind as it were within bright fires, bée séene as it were certeine droppes of gold. And this precious stone is of greate price without comparison in respect of other. Another manner of kind there is that is called Signes, & hath that name of bright burning of lampes. And this precious stone is called Remissus Carbunculus. And there is two manner of kindes: That one is with beames, as purple, & that other is of the coulour of red silke. And if this be heated in the Sunne with froting of fingers, it draweth to it selfe strawe and leaues of bookes. It is said, that it with standeth grauing. And if it be sometime graued and printed with waxe, it taketh with him a parte of the waxe, as it were with biting of a beast, as Isidore saith there. Among manner of kindes of Carbuncles, Balagius is counted, that is red and bright, as Dio∣scorides sayth: and also it is sayde, that this manner Carbuncle is founde in the veine of the Saphire: & therefore through néerenesse of the Saphire, Bala∣gius hath a manner mist, as it were spar∣keling about ye fire, that compasseth him without. And this is openly séene if men take héede thereto.

(*The Carbuncle orient, is of the co∣lour of red Lead, and in the night spark∣ling like a coale.)

Of Crisoprasso. chap. 27.

CRrisoprassus is a stone of Ethiopia, & is hid in light, and seene in darknesse. For it is firie by night and goldish by daye, as Isidorus sayth. Therefore by day it is hid, as it were washed awaye, and léeseth his shining, and wareth pals as golde. And there is another manner, kinde that is called Crisoprassus, gende∣red in Inde: and this Crisoprassus is like in colour to a stone that is like to Pras∣sius, and is gréene as a Léeke and is be∣sprong with certaine, drops of gold, as it is said in Lapidario.

Of Calcidonia. chap. 28.

CAlcidonius is a pale stone, and shew∣eth dimme coulour, as it were means betwéene Beril and Iacinct, as it is said in Lapidario. And is gendered among ye Nasamos: and commeth and is gendered of the raine of our Lord, as it is sayd: & is found by shining in ye full of ye Moone, as Isidore saith, lib. 16. An〈…〉t found Page  258 but of thrée coulours, as the Lapidarye sayth. And all kindes thereof withstan∣deth grauing, and draweth strawe to it selfe, if it bée heated and chafed. Isidore saith, this stone pearced and borne about one, maketh him haue mastrie in cau∣ses, and helpeth against iapes & scornes of feends, and kéepeth & saueth vertues, as Dioscorides saith.

(*Mans coniecture is farre from the true operation of hidden properties.)

Of Crisolito. chap. 29.

CRisolitus is a little stone of Ethiopia, shining as golde, and sprinkling as fire. And is like to the sea in coulour, and somewhat gréene. If it be set in gold and borne on the lefte arme, it feareth féendes and chaseth them awaye, as it is sayd, and it helpeth night frayes and breades: And abateth an euill that is cal∣led Menlancholy, or doth it awaye. And comforteth the vnderstanding, as Dio∣scorides sayth. One manner of kinde of Crisolitus, is Crisolimphis, the coulour thereof is deemed golden by day, and firy by night. And another manner kinde of Crisolitus is called Crisolentus, & is co∣loured as gold, and is right faire in sight in the morrowe tide. And then as the day passeth, his coulour waxeth dimme. And this stone maketh most soonest heat: For if it be set by the fire, anone it wax∣eth on a flame, as Isidore saith, li. 15. ca. de Gemmis aureis.

Of Celidonio. chap. 30.

CElidonio is a little stone, but it is pre∣cious. Héereof is double kinde, blacke and redde: And be taken out of a Swal∣lowes mawe, and be little and vnséemly: But in vertue they be no lesse of value then more stones and greater. But they passe many other in vertue. For the red helpeth against the passion Lunatike and against woodnesse, & against old sorrow: and maketh a man kinde and pleasing. And the blacke helpeth against euill hu∣mours, and against Feauers and wrath. And if it be washed in water, it helpeth ore eien. And this is said in Lapidario.

(*As touching these stones. I my selfe trieng an olde rule, did finde in ye maws of the young Swallowes, a blacke stone as bigge as a Thistle séede, and another red, and a third gray, spelled blacke, and after gaue them away.)

Of Christallo. chap. 31.

CHristall is a bright stone and cléere, with watry coulour. Men suppose yt it is of snow or Ise made hard in space of many yeres. Therfore ye Gréeks gaue a name thereto. It is gendered in Asia, & in Cipres, & namely in the North moū∣taines, where the Sun is most seruent in Sūmer: and they make this dure long, yt is called Christall. This stone set in ye Sun taketh fire, insomuch if dry tow be put therto, it setteth the tow on fire. His vse is ordeined to drink, & worketh none other thing, but what cold thing may do. Huc vsque Isi. li. 16. cap. 13. Dioscorides speaketh of Christall & saith, yt it is hard∣ned & turned into stone, not only by ver∣tue & strength of cold, but more by earth∣ly vertue, and the coulour thereof is like to Ise. The vertue therof helpeth against thirst & burning heat: and if it be beaten to pouder & dronken with hony, it filleth breasts & teates full of milke, if ye milke faileth before because of colde: Also if it be dronkē, it helpeth against Collica pas∣sio, & against the passion of euill guts, of ye wombe be not hard. The stone is cléere, & so letters and other things that be put therin, be séene cléerly inough. That chri∣stall materially is made of water. Gre∣gory saith super pri. Ezech. Water (sai∣eth he) is of it selfe fléeting, but by strēgth of cold it is turned & made stedfast chri∣stall: and so in Eccle. it is written. The Northen wind blew and made christall fréese, &c. And héerof Arist. telleth ye cause in li. Meth. Ther he saith, ye stony things of substance of oare, be water in matter, as Richardus Rufus saith. Stone oare is of water, but for it hath more of drines of earth then things that melt, therefore they be not frore onely with coldnesse of water, but also for drynesse of earth that is mingled therwith, when ye watry part of the earth & glassie hath mastry on the Page  [unnumbered] water, and the foresayde rolde hath the victory & mastry. And so S. Gregory his reason is true, yt saith, that Christall may be gendered of water.

Of Ceraunio. cap. 32.

CEraunius is a stone like to Cristall, and is infected with bliewe coulour, and is in Germania. Another is of Spaine, and shineth as fire. These stones fall out of the place of Thunder. And it is sayde that they helpe against the strength of lightening, as Isidore sayth there. The same is said in the Lapidari. Where it is said that when it thundreth horribly, and the firie aire lightneth, and when clowds smite together, their stones falleth from heauen. Who so beareth this stone chastely, shall not be smitten with lightning, nor house nor Towne where this stone is therein. Either hath vertue of helping in battailes, and to haue mastrie in warre, and in causes of strife, and to make swéete sléepes, as it is sayd there.

Of Corallo. chap. 33.

COrall is gendered in the red Sea, & is a tree as long, as it is couered with water, but anon as it is dra∣wen out of water, & touched with aire, it turneth into stone, and vnder water the boughs therof be white and soft, & waxe redde and turne into stone when they be drawen out of the water with nets, as Isidore saith, cap. de gemmis rubeis. And if followeth there: as precious as ye Margarite of Inde is among vs, so pre∣cious and more is Coral among the In∣des. Witches tell, that this stone with∣standeth lightening, Isidore sayeth, the same is sayde in Lapidario. His might and vertue, as sayth Zorastes, is wonderfull, for it putteth off lightning, whirle winde, tempest and stormes from Shippes, and houses that it is in. And it is double, white and redde. And is neuer founde passing halfe a foote long. And the redde helpeth against bleeding, and agaynst the falling Euill, and against the feendes guile and scorne, and against diuers wonderous dooing, and multiplieth fruit, and spéedeth begin∣ning and ending of causes and of needs.

Of Corneolo. chap. 34.

COrneolus is a red stone and dim, but it is full good and precicus, if it be hanged about a mans necke, or borne on a finger. In strifes it alay∣eth wrath that rise, and it stauncheth bloud that runneth of a member and all maner running. And namely such a run∣ning as women haue, as it is sayde in Lapidario.

Of Dioniso. chap. 35.

DIonisius is a blacke stone or browne sprong with redde veines, and hath that name, for if it be ground and med∣led with water, it smelleth as wine: and yet it withstandeth dronkenesse. And that is great wonder in that stoue, as I∣sidore sayth, li. 16.

Of Diadoco. chap. 36.

DIadocus is a pale stone: bright as Be∣rill, and is apt to obteine answeres of féends, for it exciteth féendes and fan∣tasies. And if it happeneth that it touch∣eth a dead body, it is sayd that it léeseth anone his good vertues, for it is ye stone that hateth and is squeimous of the thing that is ouercome with death, as it is said in Lapidario.

Of Ere. chap. 37

BRasse is called Es, & hath that name of shining of aire, as Isidore sayth. For in old time ere the vse of yron was knowen, men eared land with brasse, & fought therewith in warre and battaile. That time golde and siluer were forsa∣ken, and golde is now in the most wor∣ship, so age that passeth and vadeth, changeth times of things. Isidore sayth these wordes libro. 16. Brasse and Cop∣per is called Fa, for either is made of the same stone by working of fire, for a stone resolued with heat turneth into Brasse. Page  259Iob. 28. Brasse & Copper be made in this maner, as other mettalls be of brimstone & quick siluer, & that hapneth when ther is more of brimstone then of quicke sil∣uer, & the brimstone is earthly & not pure, with red coulour & burning, and quicke siluer is meane and not subtill. Of such meddeling Brasse is gendered, as Arist. saith, and as Isidore saith, ca. de Ere. If Brasse be meddeled with other mettal, it chaungeth both coulour and vertue, as it fareth in Latton & in Brasse, that is cal∣led Conchium, that is ioyned to diuerse mettalls, and some is white as siluer, & draweth some deale to browne colour, & séemeth golde, the third in which is tem∣peratnesse of all. And another manner of Brasse ther is, yt which is called Corona∣rium, that is beaten abroade into shinne plates of brasse, wrought with hammer, & is died with Buls bloud, and is like to gold in crowns among posturing & pain∣ting Therfore it is called Coronarium, And Brasse yt is wrought with hammer is called Regular. And Brasse, ye onely is melted, is called Fusile, but Brasse that is fusile & molt, is brittle vnder the ham∣mer: And when Brasse is well purged & cleansed of all vices, then it is made able to be wrought with hammer & Regular. And all Brasse is best molt in great cold: Brasse rusteth soone but it be nointed wt oile. Also among al mettal Brasse is most mighty. Huc vsque Isi. li.16. And Brasse accordeth most to the vse of trumps and Belles, for sounding and during thereof. The stone of the which Brasse is blow∣en, is most sad and hard. And it breaketh not easily, but it be burnt first with strōg fire in the rocke, it is burnt: eight or nine times ere it be perfectly drawen out of the stone and pured, as they that cleanse Brasse in places where it is made, tell certainly. Brasen vessells be some redde and rustie, but they bée oft stoured with sand: and haue an evill seuond and smell, but they be tinned. Also Brasse if it bée without Tin, burneth soone, as Isidore saith, cap. de Stanno, and Platea, sayeth, that Brasse burnt to pouder hath vertue of dissoluing, of washing, of cleansing, & of purging of euill humours. And that powder healeth woundes, and cleanseth dimnesse of cien, and fretteth superfluity of flesh; and suffereth it to growe no more, as Platea sayth, and Dioscorides also.

(*Of the rust of Brasse commeth a bliew substance called Verdigrese, which as it is a colour for Painters, so it is a fretting poison, vsed in ointments, on fe∣stured sores.)

Of Electro. chap. 38.

ELectrum is a mettall, and hath that name, for in the Sunne beame it shi∣neth more cléere then gold or siluer. For in the Sunne beame Electrum is effec∣tual. And this mettal is more noble then other mettalls. And héer of be thrée man∣ner of kindes: One is such, that when it runneth first out of the trée, it is flée∣ting and thin Gumme, but afterwarde with heate or with colde it is made hard as a cléere stone, as it wer christal. That other manner kind is called mettall, & is founde in the earth, and in and in price, The third manner is made of the thrée parts of golde, & of the fourth of siluer: and kinde Electrum is of that kinde, for in twinckling & in light it shineth more cléere then all other mettall: & warneth of venim: for if one déep it therein, it ma∣keth a great chirking noise, & chaungeth oft into diuers colours, as the rainbow, & that sodeinly. Huc vsque Isi. lib. 15. de Metallis vlti Et super Eze. is mention shade of Electrum artificiall. Greg. saith, that if hard gold be medled with siluer, then the filtier wiseth more cléere, & the gold tempered with clóerenesse of siluer, looseth not his vertue, but only it wareth somewhat pale, & lesse faire by medling of siluer. And some men cal very Glectrū Arpago. For if it be heted with fingers, it draweth to it selfe all leaues & straws, & hems of clothes, as Magnis draweth yron, as Isid saith; li. 16. ca. de rubiis Ge∣mis . And receiueth soone colour & hiew, in what manner a man will. And so it is soone died with the rote of Auense, with Couchinello, as he 〈…〉eth there.

Of Echites chap. 39.

Page  [unnumbered]EChites is a stone of Inde & of Persi, & is found in ye cliffes of occean, both in ye coasts of the sea of Inde & of Persy, & is a stone with red colour, as it is sayd in Lapidario, & there is two sorts, as Hil. sayth, male and female, & so alwaye two be found in the Eagles neast, & the Eagle may not bréed without these stones. And therfore ye Eagles kéepeth these stones in her neast. The male thereof is hard, & is like to a gum that is called Galle, & this male is somewhat blasing. And the female is soft. And these stones bound to a wo∣man that trauaileth of child, maketh her soone to be deliuered: and maketh them sometime to beare dead children, if it bée too long there, & somewhat passeth of the priuy choice of the woman, except these stones be soone taken from her that tra∣uaileth of childe, as Isi. saith, li. 16. cap. 4. Also this stone Echites conteineth & brée∣deth another stone within him, like as it were a woman with child: as Dioscori∣des saith. And in Lapidano it is said: that this stone conteineth another stone, as a woman with childe. The vertue of this stone Echites maketh a man sober, and augmenteth & increaseth riches, and so it doth loue, & helpeth greatly to obteine & conquere victory, & fauour. And letteth and withstandeth the falling of them, which haue the falling euill. If there be any man suspect of fraude of poisoning, if he be guiltie, this stoud put vnder his meat will not suffer him to swalow his meate; and if the stone be withdrawen, he shall not tarry to swallow his meats.

Of Emachite. chap. 40.

EMachites is a red stone and reddie and rustie, & is sonne in Affrica and Iuda & in Arabia. And hath that name, for if it be broken with bloud, it tourveth anone into the colour of bloud, as Isido. saith. And is god against fluxe of the bladder, and for sore eien, and against venim and against the biting of an Adder, and stan∣cheth, the fluxe of the womb▪ & restraineth all bléeding, & namelye the bloud of wo∣men: & of the gums, as Dioscorid. saith. And in Plat. it is sayd, that it is of cold & drie complection, & hath vertue to stanch bloud. And hath that name Emachites, of Emach, that is bloud, and Chites, that is stint. And so it helpeth Emopto∣ces, men that spue and cast bloud, and is speciall remedie for the bloudie flixe.

Of Eliotropia. chap. 41.

ELiotropia is a precious stone, and is gréene and sprong with red droppes and veines of the coulour of bloud, and hath that name of effect and dooing. For if it be put in water before the Sunne beames, it maketh the water séeth in the vesell that it is in, and resolueth it as it were into mist, & soone after it is resolued into rainy drops. Also it séemeth that this same stone may doe wonders, for if it be put in a Basen with clére water, it chan∣geth the Sunne beames by rebounding of the aire, & seemeth to shaddowe them, and bréedeth in the aire red and sanguine coulour, and as though the Sunne were in Eclipse and darked, the Moone set be∣twéene vs and the Sun is darkned, and for it seemeth that it maye chaunge the cléernesse of the Sun, it is called Elitro∣pia, that is turning away of the Sun, as Isidore saith expresly & Dioscorides also. And in Lapidario the same meaning is said in this manner.

Ex re nomen habens est in elitropia gemma,
Quae solis radijs in aqua subiecta vacillo.
Sanguineum reddit mutato lumine solem.
Eclipsimque nouam terris effundere cogit.

And Isidore saith, that this stone disco∣uereth the soily of inchauntenes of wit∣ches, that haue liking and pride in theyr owne wonders, for they begnile mens sight in those thinges that they worke, as the foresayde stone doth: and hée set∣teth an ensample thereof, and sayeth, that an hearbe of the same name, with certaine inchauntmentes, beguile the sight of men that looke thereon; and ma∣keth a man that heareth it not bée séene. In many other things thie stone is good and commendable, for it stauncheth bloud, and putteth awaye venimme, and hée that beareth this stone maye not his beguiled.

Page  260

Of Enidros. chap. 42.

ENidros is a little stone, and drop∣peth alway, and melteth not, nor it is neuer the lesse in any wise, and so it is sayde in Lapidario: Enidros that stone, weepeth alwaye as it were by springing of a full well with dropping teares and welleth alway. And there it is sayd, that it is hard to tell the cause of these doings. For if the drops were of the substance of ye stone, why is not the stone lesse, or mel∣teth awaye? And if a thing entereth into the stone, why is it that that thing that entereth, putteth not againe that thing yt goeth out, but as séemeth me, it maye be, that the vertue of the stone maketh the aire thicke that is nigh thereto, and turneth it into water. And so it seemeth that it commeth out of the substaunce of the stone. Neuerthelesse it commeth of the substance of the aire that is about the stone.

*Perpetui fletus lacrimis distillat Eni∣dros.
Qui velut ex pleni fontis scaturigine manat.
Dissoluing drops and teares full oft, that Enidros the stone doth drop,
Which as out of a fountaine full, doth alwaies runne and neuer stop.

Of Episte. chap. 43.

EPistes is a litle stone bright and red∣die, and maketh a man safe that bea∣reth it in the hart side. And ceaseth guiles and decrites, and putteth of long Flyes and barren foules, and mist & haile from the fruit of the earth. And if it be set in the Sunne, firie beames some out there∣of. And if thou doest this stone in seething water, the seething thereof ceaseth, & the water cooleth soone, as Isidore sayth, and Dioscorides also.

Of Excoliceros. chap. 44.

EXcoliceros is a little stone, so named to: it is distinguished and diuersed with fortie colours, and is full little, and maketh mens euen that looke thereon to quake. And it is found in Libia among the Treglodites.

Of Yron. chap. 45.

YRon is called Ferrum, and hath that name, as Isidore saith, of Ferrendum smiting: for it beateth and smiteth, & by hardnesse thereof, ouer commeth all kinde of mettall. And though yron come of the earth, yet it is most hard and sadde, and therefore with beating and smiting, it suppresseth and dilateth all other mettal, and maketh it stretch on length and on breadth. And as Isidore saith, it hath the name of the lande that it is digged in. And therefore it is diuers, for by reason therof it is found more harde or soft. And after ye minde of Aristotle, Yron is gen∣dered of quicke siluer, thicke and not cleane, full of earthie hoales, and of brim∣stone great and boistous, and not pure. In composition of yron is more of the foresayd Brimstone, then of quick siluer, and so for mastrie of colde and dry and of earthy matter, yron is dry and cold, & ful well harde, and is compact togethers in his parts. And for yron hath lesse of airy and watry moisture then other mettall: therefore it is hard to resolue and make it againe to be soft in fire, as Ric. Rufus saith. It is the manner to temper yron ware with Oile, least by coldnesse of wa∣ter it be too much hardned, as Isid. saith. Yron taketh soone rust by touching of bloud, and if it entreth into the substance thereof, vnneth it is clensed, as Isi saith. The rust is a vice fretting yron, & com∣meth therto either of vncleannes of sub∣stance, or of touching of earth, & of nigh lieng therto, or else of touching of blood, or of some other qualitie that is infected. And he saith also, that with yron mans bloud is spilt, and mans bloud taketh wreake of yron: For yron taketh rust of nothing so soone as of mans bloud, if it be ••ointeb therewith. Yron hath agree∣ment with the stone Adamas, & so that stone Adamas draweth yron to it selfe: and so yron drawen, by meane of siluer vessel or of Brasse, followeth ye stone, & is subiect & obedient therto. Yron well fur∣nished, & annointed with Alam or with Page  [unnumbered] vinegre, shall be most like to Brasse. And yron furbushed shall not rust, if it be a∣nointed with Sewet, or with marrowe of an heart, as Isidore saith. Firie hotte yron if it bée oft quenched in Wine or in milke, maketh that wine or milke me∣dicinable to them that haue the euill of the splene, and also to other sicke men, as Constantine sayth. Also as Isidore sayth, yron that is made firie hot is cor∣rupted, but it is hardned with strokes. Yron that is redde in the fire, is not profitable to carue nor to cutte, till it be∣ginne to waxe white. Use of yron is more néedfull to men in many things then vse of golde: though couetous men loue more gold then yron. Without yron the comminaltie be not sure against eni∣mies. Without dread of yron ye common right is not gouerned. With yron inno∣cent men be defended: & full hardinesse of wicked men is chastised with dread of y∣ron. And well nigh no handiworke is wrought without yron: no field is cared without yron, neither tilling crafte vsed, no building builded without yron. And therefore Isidore saith, ye yron hath this name Ferrum, for that therby Farra that is corne and seede is tilled and sowen. For without yron read is not wonne of the earth, nor bread is not departed, when it is readye, without yron couena∣bly to mans vse. Also yron is whet with yron, as Salomon sayth. For when the coge of yron is dulled and blunted, with great froting it is oft made thinne and sharpe and couenable to cut all thing the more easily. Sinder is called Scoria, and is the saith of yron that is cleansed ther∣from in fire: and hath that name Sco∣tia, see it is smitten and departed from the yron by violence of the fire, as Isidore sayth.

Of Ferrugine. chap. 46.

FErrugo is the pouder that falleth from the yron with filing, as squama is that thing that leapeth away from ye fire with heating, and hath vertue to make dry and thin, and therefore it is good a∣gainst stopping of the splene. Neuerthe∣lesse it exciteth casting and spuing, when it is dronken, insomuch that sometime it bringeth to death, but if the violence therof be ceased with pouder of the Ada∣mas stone, or with water, in which the stone lyeth all night. Also it is sayd, that the pouder therof is best remedy against Emoroides: and also it stancheth the flixe of the wombe, as it is said in Platea. Also filing or pouder of yrō is called Rubigo, also Corrosio, & hath that name of Cor∣rudendo, fretting and gnawing: but it is properly called Erugo, and hath ye name of Erodendo, filing, and not of Eramen∣to, as Isidore saith. And it infecteth and defileth the hand that toucheth it, and maketh it soule. The more pure and po∣lished that yron is, the more rather it is defiled with rust, and worst to be clen∣sed. And rust is not soone done awaye, but in thrée manners. By burning of fire, or by fretting of a Salue or a File, or by froting of an hard stone, or by scouring of grauell and sand, and pullishing. And rust hath this propertie, that infection thereof commeth againe by light occasi∣on to the place in which it was first mo∣red and rooted.

Of Gleba. chap. 47.

A Clot is gathering together of pou∣der in a clustre, as Isidore sayeth li∣bro. 15. capit. primo. For earth bounde and clonged togethers, is a clotte, and if it be broken and departed, it is powder: Earth hardned into a clot, receiueth no séed, neither suffereth the seed that is ther sowen to growe and to spring. A clotte broken, couereth and nourisheth séed, and if it be then tempered with raine, it gen∣dereth a manner of fatnesse. & therof séede taketh nourishment and féeding in roots. And groweth and springeth, as Gregory sayth. Also sometime a clot conteineth in it selfe a manner of kind of oare. Ther∣fore diuerse kindes of things be gendred and come of clots, as Gregory saith, su∣per illum locum. 24. Iob. Saphire stones is the place thereof, and clottes thereof is gold.

Of Gemma. chap. 48.

Page  261A Precious stone is called Gemma, and hath that name, for it shineth as Gum, as Isidore saith. Precious stones adorne well gold, & make it well fayre in diuers coulours. Therefore Isidore saith, that they bée precious, for they be deare & scarce. For all that is scarce and seldome had, is called great and precious, as it is written. The word of God is precious, that is to saye, scarce. Isidore saith, that no man shall wene, that it is doubtfull or false, that God hath set vertue in precious stones. For it is sayd in Lapidario. In∣gens est herbis virtus sed maxima gem∣mis. That is to saye, Greate vertue is in hearbs, but most in precious stones. Of which precious stones some be found in veines of ye earth, & be digged with met∣talls. Some be cast out of the bottome of the sea, and the place of their generation is unknowen. And alway such precious stones be found in cliffes of the sea, & in sand and in grauell of riuers. And some bréed in bodies of soules and of créeping beasts. But frō whence so euer precious stones come, they be found endued by ye grace of God with passing great vertue, when they be noble & very. For Isidore ca. de Gemmis urens saith, in some kinde of precious stones if is harde and greate difficultie to know betwéene ye very pre∣cious stones and false. For oft those that be false & guilful, séeme most like to them that be true & very, so that vnneth men may know betwéene the true and guil∣full. For as he sayth, sometime men by craft aray the stone that is called Vitrū, and put it forth in stéede of Smaragdos, and beguile some mens eyen with false likenesse of true & very Smaragdus. For no life of men is without guile, as Isido. saith. And we vse to cal al manner of pre∣cious stones that bée not precious & shi∣ning, blinde. For they be dimmed with their owne thicknesse and boistousnesse. Isidore saith, that they that déeme so, bée oft beguiled: for oft more vertue is hid in a little Adamant with coulour of yron and darke, then in Sardio that is most bright, or in Berall.

Of Gagite. chap. 49.

IEat is called Gagates, and is boi∣stous stone, & neuerthelesse it is pre∣cious: And was first found in Cicilia by the riuer that is called Gagas: and was throwen vp to the brinke by the course of water. Therfore it hath ye name ther∣of, though most plenty & best be in Bri∣taine, as Isi. saith: and is double, that is to say, yeolow and blacke. The blacke is plaine and light, & burneth soone in fire, & driueth away adders with smell ther∣of, when it is kindled, right as Thus or insence. This gineth monition of them yt haue séendes within them. And is helde contrary to séens: and giueth knowledge of maydenhoode. For if a maide drinke of the water thereof, she pisseth not: and if she be no maide & drinketh therof, shée pisseth anon, and also against her will, as Dioscorides saith: And so by this stone a maiden is anone proued, as diuerse Au∣thors affirme. Moreouer the same stone both black & also yeolow, being made hot with rubbing in ye fingers, draweth light strawe and leaues to it selfe if it bée put thereto, & a drinke thereof helpeth them yt haue the dropsie: For it wasteth euil a∣pours. And it is sayd, that it comforteth the liuer, & that is perchance by drynesse therof, & also by priuy vertue & qualitie. Also the pouder thereof is good to féeble téeth & wagging, & strēgthneth & fastneth them. Also it is sayd, that this stone hel∣peth for fantasies, & against veration of féends by night. Also fumositie thereof exciteth Menstrua, if it be withdrawn by any day. Also it is said, that it swageth womb ach, when the stomack is mistur∣ned by any way. Also it helpeth against witchcraft, & fordoth hard inchantments, as it is said in Lapidario: and it spéedeth fast birth, & helpeth her that trauaileth of child, as it is said in Lapidario. And so, if so boistous a stone doth so great won∣ders, none should be despised for soule co∣lour without, while the vertue that is hid within is vnknowen. And Isidore spea∣keth of this stone & saith, that this stone is kindled in water, & quenched in Oile, and that is wonder.

Of Galactile. chap. 50.

Page  [unnumbered]GAlactiles is a stone with coulour of Ashes, and hath swéete tast and sa∣uour. If it bee smit, a manner of white milke commeth out thereof, as Isidore saith. This stone closed in the mouth di∣stroubleth the wit. And if it be borne a∣bout the necke, it maketh breasts full of milke: and if it bée bound to the thighes, it maketh easie birth, and if it be medled with water and salt, and sprong aboute the field: then the shéepe be full of milke, and cleanseth them of scabs, as Diosco∣rides saith.

Of Gelacia. chap. 51.

GElacia is a white precious stone, sha∣pen as an haile stone: & it is so cold that it neuer heateth with fire, as Isidore saith, and Dioscorides also.

Of Geraticen. cap. 52.

GEraticen is a blacke stone, but it pas∣seth ye colour in vertue. For if a man wash cleane his owne mouth, & beareth the stone therein: he* may anone tel what other men thinke of him, as it is said in Lapid. And maketh a man that beareth it well beloued: his vertue is prooued in this manner. If a man be nointed with hony, and is set among many flies, if the stone be present, the flies grieue him not; & if the stone be away then ye flies grieue, bite, sucke, and hurt the body.

Of Iaspis. chap. 53.

IAspis is a precious stone, & is gréene like to Smaragdus: but it is more dim of coulour. And there be seuentéene kindes thereof, as Isidore saith. For Ias∣pis yt is greene, is called Gemma Pinna∣sin, and though the chiefe coulour thereof be gréene, yet it hath many other colours meddeled among. The vertue thereof de∣stroyeth feaners and dropsie in them that beare him chastlye: and helpeth in tra∣uailing of childe: and driueth awaye fantasies: and maketh a man sure in pe∣rill, and abateth heate within, and staun∣cheth bléeding and sweat, and withstan∣deth lecherye, and letteth conception, and stauncheth menstruall bloud and Emo∣roides, if it be in pouder, and tooke with milke, it helpeth and healeth olde Tor∣ches and viles, and cleanseth the eyen of foulenesse and filth: And sharpeth and comforteth the sight, and withstandeth witchcraft and inchauntments, and is more vertuous in siluer then in gold. In the head of an Adder that is called Aspis, is found a little stone that is called Ias∣pis: and men suppose that it is a stone of wonderfull vertue. And some men sup∣pose that it hath that name, as it were Aspis, and men suppose, that it hath as many vertues, as diuerse coulours and veines, as Dioscorides saith. And ye best Iaspis is found in the mountaines of Sci∣thia, & Griphons kéepe this stone, as they doe Smaragdus, as Isidore saith.

Of Iacincto. chap. 54.

IAcinctus is a bliew stone some deale, & nigh of the coulour of a Saphire, and hath that name of his owne coulour, as Isido. saith. The stone Iacinctus that is found in Ethiopia is best, and is not too cléere, neither too dim, but meane & tem∣perate betwéene twaine, shining. Isidore saith, this stone shineth not alwaye like, for in cléere wether it is cléere before the eien, and in darke weather it is dim and darke. Isidore saith, in the mouth it sée∣meth colde, if it be therein, and is most hard to graue in. Neuerthelesse it maye be grauen and written, and marked with the stone Adnae, as Isid. saith. Diosco∣rides sayeth, that the stone Iacinctus is now bliew, nowe reddish, nowe pur∣ple, & now bright bliew. And thereof bée thrée manner of kinds, some be citrine, & some bliewe, but among such manner stones, the bliew is best. The stone is wonderfull, for it consumeth it most to the aire. For in dimme weather it is dim, and in dright weather it is bright. And this stone hath a singular vertue, as Authours write: for it giueth gladnesse, and is contrarye to melancholy quality: and hath vertue of comfort, as Isidore saith in the kind thereof. Iacirctus hath vertue of comfort, & doth away eleignesse Page  262 and sorrowe: and also vaine suspition. And withstandeth diuers pestilences that come ofte of corrupt aire, and giueth strength and vertue to members, and life to the sinewes, and giueth good sauor and swéete and wholsome, and is most lyke to the Saphire. And Dioscorides saith, that all men that treate of preci∣ous stones, meane, that the more lyke the Iacinct is to the Saphire in colour & in substaunce, the more vertuous it is. And such Iacinctus withstandeth venim, and is contrary to poyson, as Dioscori∣des saith. Also an hearbe of ye same name is like therto in colour; and equall ther∣to in manie things, though it be not all alike thereto in valewe, as Isidore sath.

(*Iacinthes grow in the Iland of Zey∣lam, they are tender stones and yeolow, they are best that are of déepest colour: a Iewell of small value in Calicut, where they are polished, ye cléerest are best, Bar∣tholome hath mistaken the color, in that he saith it to be a blew, when it is yeo∣low. Decades of the West In∣dies, fo. 426.)

Of Iride. chap. 55.

IRis is a sixe cornered stone, as Isidore saith, and was first found in Arabia, by the red sea, and is now found in ma∣ny a place, as in Germany, in Ireland, and many lands of the North, & is bright and cléere in colour, & like to Christall, as Isid. saith, and hath name Iris of the likenesse of the raine bow, for if it be in a house in the Sunne, it maketh the like∣nesse of ye colour of the raine bow, in the wals of the next house, as Isi. saith. Men suppose that this stone hath the same vertue that Berill hath, but that is not found in quantitie, as Dioscorides saith. Also it is sayde, that this stone helpeth women that trauell of childe, that they may the sooner be deliuered, & better suf∣fer their throwes, and dread perill the lesse.

¶Of Ienia. chap. 56.

IEna is a precious stone that is founde in the eyen of a beast that is called Hi∣ena, & if this stone be put vnder a mans tongue, they say, that he shall tell many things that shall befall, as Isidore say∣eth.

(*The beast Hiena is a kind of wild greyhound, very great and strong, & sel∣dome ouercome and taken: and it may be when one may take him, whereas vi. men dare not assault him, that the stone which is in his eye, may haue a working vertue, such as is reported: But it is doubtfull. Read Gesner.)

¶Of Kamau. cap. 57.

KAmau is a stone, now white, now browne, now reddish, now diuided with diuers colours, and hath that name Kamau of Kamatis, that is to say, bur∣ning or kindling, for it is founde in pla∣ces of brimstone and of heate. And Di∣oscorides saith, the vertue therof healeth the Dropsie, and is grauen with diuers Images and shapes.

¶Of Kalbrate. cap. 58.

KAlbrates is a passing shining stone, like to Christall: and men suppose, that it giueth faire speach and facunditie, worship and grace, and defendeth from griefes, and from noyous things and ve∣nemous, and cureth and healeth swelling of the liuer, and of the splene, as Diosco∣rides sayth.

¶Of Kalcophano. cap. 59.

KAlcophanus is a black stone, & ma∣keth cléere voyce, and defendeth the griefe of hoarcenesse, if it be borne in the mouth, as it is sayd in Lapidario.

¶Of Ligorio. cap. 60.

LIgorius is a stone lyke to Electurus in colour, and hath that name, as I∣sidore sayeth of a beast that is called, Linx. This stone Ligerius is gendered among the grauel of the brine of ye beast, and the vertue thereof, draweth strawe to it selfe, and helpeth against ach of the stomack, & stancheth flixe of the wombe, Page  [unnumbered] that is grieued. And helpeth them that haue the iaundes, and that be discoloured: for it restoreth coulour, that is lost, as Dioscorides saith.

Of Lipparea. cap. 61.

LIpparea is a precious stone, and com∣meth out of the countries of Sirtes. The propertie thereof is, that all kinde of wilde beasts come to his presence, & behold thereon. And those beasts, yt hun∣ters maye not take with running of houndes, they take and allure to them, with the sight and shewing onelye of this stone Lipparea, as it is sayd in La∣pidario.

¶Of Margarita. chap. 62.

*MArgarita, is chiefe of all white pre∣cious stones, as Isid. sayth, and hath that name Margarita, for it is founde in shells and in shell fish of the sea. It brée∣deth in flesh of shel fish, and is sometime found in the braine of the fish, and is gendred of the deaw of heuen, the which deaw shell fish receiue in certaine times of the yeare. Of the which Margarites, some be called Vniones, and haue a co∣uenable name, for onely one is found, & neuer two or moe together. And white Margarites are better thā yelow, & those that be conceiued of the morrow deawe, be made dimme with the aire of the euen side. Huc vs{que} Isido. li. 16. And some are found kindly pearced, and those be better than other: and some be pearced by craft, as Plat. saith. And they be best, that are white and cléere, bright and round. And they haue vertue comfortatiue, either of all the whole kinde, as some men saye, or els because they are besprong with cer∣taine specialtie, they comfort the lyins. for by constrayning and coarting, they cleanse them of superfluous humours, & they helpe against the Cardiacle passion, and against sounding or fayling of hart, against féeblenesse that commeth of the bloodie flire, & against flire of the wombe, as Plat. saith. And in Lapidario it is said, that Margarites be gendred of dew, and the more of deawe and aire that is drawen in, the more and the greater they be. The Margarite is gendered of the deaw, but it is supposed, that no Marga∣rite groweth passing of halfe a foote. Al∣so it is sayde there: if that lightning or thundering fall, when the Margarite should bréed of the deaw that is drawen in, the shell closeth by sodaine feare, and so the gendering falleth and is cast out. The best Margarites come out of Inde, and out of the olde Britaine, as it is said.

¶Of Magnete. cap. 63.

MAgnes is a stone of Inde,* coloured somwhat as yron, and is founde in Inde among the Troglodites, & draweth to it selfe yron in such wise, that it ma∣keth as it were a chaine of yron rings, as Isidore saith. Therefore in the com∣mon speach, this stone is called, quicke yron. Also it is sayd, yt it draweth glasse molten as it doth yron. The might and vertue thereof is so great as Austen sayth, that if that stone be set vnder a vessell of golde, or of brasse, and yron set therevpon, by mouing of the stone that is beneath, the yron shall moue that is a∣boue. And also there it is said, that in certaine Temples is made an Image of yron, and it séemeth, that that Image hangeth in the aire. And in Aethiopia is another kinde of Magnes, that forsaketh yron, and driueth it away from him: al∣so the same Magnes, draweth yron to it in one corner, and putteth it away in a∣nother corner, and the more blewe the Magnes is, the better it is. Huc vs{que} Isid. And Dioscorides saith, and also it is said in Lapidario, that this stone reconcileth and accordeth men and their wiues, and increaseth grace and fairenesse, in speach and in words. Also with drinke made of honie and of wine, it healeth the dropsie, and the splene, and falling euill, & burn∣ning. If the powder thereof be sprong and done vpon coales, in foure corners of the house, it shall séeme to them that be in the house, that the house should fal anone: and that séeming is by mouing, that commeth by turning of the braine. Also Magnes is in likewise as Adamas, if it be set vnder the head of a chast wife, Page  263 it maketh hir sodainlye to imbrace hir husband: and if she be a spouse breaker, she shall moue hir out of the bed sodain∣ly by dread of fantasie. Platea saith, that witches vse this stone namelye. This stone Magnes is hot & drye in the third degrée, and hath vertue of drawing of y∣ron, and there be mountaines of such stones, and therefore they draw to them and breake ships, that be nayled with yron. Also namely the powder thereof layde to woundes, helpeth such as bée wounded: for if it be layd to ye wound, it draweth out yron. Also the powder of Magnes in the quantitie of two dragmes, with iuyce of fenill, is good against the drotsie, and against euill of the splene, & against fayling of the heart, as Auicen∣na sayeth.

¶Of Melonite. chap. 64.

MElonites is a stone, and hath that name, for swéete iuyce commeth out thereof, as it were honie, as Isidore say∣eth: & hath two colours, for it is gréene in the one side, and lyke to honie in that other side.

¶Of Menophite. chap. 65.

MEnophites is a stone, and hath that name of a place of Aegypt, and is of the kinde of precious stones as Isid. saith. If this stone be brused and ground, and laide vpon the place that should bée burnt or corued, or els with vineger sme∣red therevpon, it stonieth so the bodye, that it féeleth no sore neither griefe of the burning, nor of caruing.

Of Mirite. cap. 66.

MIrites is a precious stone, and hath that name, for it is like to Mirra, in colour. And if it be wrong and pressed, it smelleth swéete, as Nardus.

¶Of Medo. chap. 67.

MEdus is a precious stone, & is found in the lande of Medes, and is some∣time greene and sometime blacke, as Dioscorides saieth. The vertue of this stone is against blyndnesse of eyen, and helpeth Podagre, if it be tempered with the milke of a woman that hath a male childe. Also it is good for ache of ye reines and for frensie, and if the blacke stone be resolued vpon a skinne, and in hot wa∣ter, and that water be giuen some man to drinke, it slaieth spewing and ouertur∣ning of the stomacke: and if the fore∣head be washed therewith, it strippeth wonderfully of the skinne, and grieueth the sight, and taketh it away euery deale, as it is said in Lapidario.

Of Merochite. cap. 68.

MErochites is a gréene stone lyke to Smaragdus: but it is more boyst∣ous gréene than Smaragdus, and so it hath the name of the colour of mallows, as Isid. saith: and is bred in Arabia, and is full soft in substance, and neuertheles it is full profitable, as Dioscorides saith. And it kéepeth and saueth children, from noyfull and euill happes.

Of Marmore. chap. 69.

MArble is called Marmor, and hath that name of the Gréeks, for gréen∣nesse, as Isi. saith. And he saith also that marble stones be noble stones, and are praised for speckles and diuers colours: for of marble be endlesse many manner of kindes, but they be not all hewen out of rockes. But many manner of marble, is found in diuers manner of places vn∣der the earth: as marble of Lacedemo∣nia that is gréene and precious. And mar∣ble is called Ophites,* for it is speckeled like an Adder, & hath therfore that name: & there is double kinde, soft & white, and blacke and hard.* And marble Purpurites commeth out of Egypt, & is reddie with white poynts among: & hath that name Purpurites, for it is redde as Purple.

There is other manner kindes, as Ala∣bastrum and Parium: thereof we shall speake innermore. Also another manner kinde is called Coraliticum, and is found in Asia, and passeth not two cubites in measure, and is white nigh as yuorye, Page  [unnumbered] and some blacke speckles, in diuers pro∣portiens. Also another kinde is called, Thebaicum, and is sprong with goldish speckes, and is found among Aegypti∣ans, and is kindly apt to grinde colours therevpon, and Colliria oyntments that helpe the eyen. Other kindes of marble breedeth in quarries and in rockes, as Marble that is called, Marmor Corin∣theum. Thereof is made great Pillars, pauements, and Towers. Also there is another maner kinde, as Caristium, and is greene and best: and hath that name, of aspect, for men that graue loue it wel, for greene colour comforteth the sight. Another kinde is called Numidicum, & breedeth in Numidia, and maketh a thing that is froted therewith lyke to saffron, and hath that name therefore. Lib. 16. Isidore setteth ensamples of manye o∣ther diuers Marbles: but these are suffi∣cient at this time. But Marble is more hard and sad, more strong and faire, and more profitable than other stones. In veynes thereof is diuers master found, and precious stones, and for hardnesse thereof, it is most hardly grauen & poly∣shed, and for coldnesse and solidiousnesse thereof, it is best to kéepe in spicerie, and oyntments. Ouer all things we maye wonder, that Marble stones be not hew∣ed neither clouen with yron neither with steele, with hammer nor with sawe, as they be with a plate of lead, set betwéen soft shingles or spones. For with lead & not with yron, Marble stones be hewen, and clouen, and plained, as shingles or small stones.

¶Of Nitro. chap. 70.

NItrum (as Isidore saith) is a stone some deale white, and maye be he∣wen and clouen, and is full cléere. The vertue thereof dissolueth and tempereth, draweth and cleanseth, and wasteth su∣perfluities of humours. Lib. 16. cap. 2. Isidore saith, that Nitrum hath ye name of the countrey of Nitria that is in Ae∣gypt. Thereof is medicine made, & there with bodies and clothes be cleansed and washed. The kinde thereof is not farre from the kinde of salt, for it hath yt kind of salte, and is made right as salt in dri∣nesse in olde cliues.

The foame thereof, is called Af∣fronitom, and is gendred dropping down in the countrey of Asia, and then dryed with heate of the Sun, and what is best dryed, is least heauie as Isidore sayeth. And Platea sayeth, ye Nitrum is a veyne of the earth, and is hot and drye, light, red, or white or citrine, & is bitter, sowre, and some deale salte in sauour. Nitrum abateth falnesse. If it be taken in the mouth, and consumeth and wasteth glei∣mie humours. Powder thereof consect in honie, clarifieth & maketh the face faire, & cleanseth scabs and matter of the sto∣macke and of the guts, if it commeth of a postume, and cleanseth lyce, and head scabs, and slayeth wormes of the eares, cleanseth most perfectlye the matter and scabs thereof. Fome thereof with vine∣ger, healeth gnawing and swelling, and helpeth against the dropsie, and cleanseth dimnesse of eyen, if it be meddeled with honie, and slayeth venime, and destroyeth it, and withstandeth mightely the palsie of the tongue, as Plat. saith and Diosco∣rides also. And Nitium is hot and drie in the ende of the third degree, and laxeth and cleanseth, as Isidore saith.

¶Of Noset. cap. 71.

NOset that is Orapondine, is a pre∣cious stone, some deale white, or of diuerse coulours. It is sayde that this stone is taken out of a Toads head, and is cleansed in the same head, & in strong Wine and water, as Dioscorides saith: and sometime the shape of a Toade see∣meth therein with sharpe feet & broade. This stone helpeth against biting of Serpents and of creeping Wormes, and against venim. For in presence of ve∣nimme, the stone warmeth and burneth his finger that toucheth him, as Diosco∣rides sayth.

¶Of Onichino. chap. 72.

ONichinus is a stone of Inde, and of Arabia, and hath in it selfe colour medled like the naile of mankinde.

Page  264The Onix of Inde hath coulour of fire, with white veynes & strakes, and the stone Onix of Arabia, is blacke of cou∣lour, and hath white veynes. And therof if fiue manner of kindes: one is Sardo∣nix, and hath that name of companye of two, of whitenesse of the Onix, and rednesse of the Sardonius, as it is she∣wed innermore of Sardonice. It is said, that this stone Onix hath many noyfull effects, for as Dioscorides saith, if it bée borne about the necke, or on the finger, it exciteth sorow, eleingnesse, and dread, and multiplieth plea and strife, and moo∣ueth the heart to contention and debate, and exciteth in children noyfull superflu∣itie of spettle, and may not grieue in pre∣sence of the stone Sardius. This stone Onix is cléere of the kinde of mirrors, & therefore images & figures be séene ther∣in, as it were in a mirrour, but that is darkly, as Dioscorides saith.

¶Of Optallio. cap. 73.

OPtallio is called Oppalus also, and is a stone distinguished with colors of diuers precious stones, as Isid. saith. Therein is the firie colour of ye Carbun∣cle, the shining purple of the Ametistus, the bright gréene colour of Smaragdus, and all the colours shine therein, with a manner diuersitie, and hath the name of the Countrie. This stone bréedeth onely in Inde, and is déemed to haue as many vertues, as blewes and colours. Of this Optallius, it is said in Lapidario, that this stone Optallius kéepeth and saueth his eyen that beareth it, cléere and sharp and without griefe, and dimineth other mens eyen that be about, with a maner clowde, and smiteth them with a maner blindnesse, that is called Amentia, so that they may not sée neither take héede what is done before their eyen. There∣fore it is said, that it is the most sure pa∣tron of thieues as it is sayd in Lapidar.

Of Orite. chap. 74.

ORites is a precious stone blacke and rounde, and mother manner kinde therof is gréene with speckles. The third manner of kinde is white in the one side and plaine in the other, & is in substance as it were a plate of yron. This stone borne vpon a man, kéepeth him from bi∣ting of créeping wormes, and of wylde beasts and other. Also this stone letteth a woman to conceiue, if she beareth it about hir, and maketh hir to be deliue∣red anone without due manner, if she be with childe.

¶Of Petra. chap. 75.

A Stone is called Petra, and Petra is a name of Gréeke, and is to vnderstand sad or stedfast, as Isi. sayth: for the sub∣staunce of a stone is gendred, of sad and hard parts of the earth. A stone hath this name Petra of Penetrando,* pearcing: for he pearceth the foote, when it is harde thrast and trode on: and is also pear∣ced with drops of raine and of water, that falleth downe of spoutes and of gut∣ters. A stone hath another name, and is called Lapis, and hath that name of Le∣dens hurt and griefe: for it hurteth the foote with the hardnesse and sharpnesse thereof, as Isi. saith. But commonlye, a plaine; softe, or a round stone is called, Lapis.* And a stone that is hewen out of mountaines is called Saxum.* And a hard flint stone is called Silex,* and hath that name of Exihre, for fire leapeth out ther of Isid. saith, though a stone be most cold of himselfe, yet fire commeth out thereof when it is smitten with yron: For by strong violence and smiting of the aire, betwéene the yron and the stone, ye ayre lepeth sparckling out of the flynt. Quar∣to Metheor. Aristotle saith, that a stone gendreth not of earth alone, for drinesse hath mastry therein, and suffereth it not to run. Stones are made either by con∣gellation, or els by conglutination. By medling togethers of water and of earth is clay made, yt is meane betwéene earth and stone, and tourneth into stone some and some, by constraining and fastening of partes, and so slimie claye is most méete for such transmutation: for if it it be not fattie, it will all to fall by ma∣sterie of drinesse, and not containe and holde together.

Page  [unnumbered]Then by strong medling and fastening of humour, earth tourneth into kinde of stone, and taketh diuers colours of the diuers qualitie of the earth. Also some∣time stone is gendred by fréesing of wa∣ter. In some place water shedde on the ground, turneth into stone of diuers cou∣lours, and that by some vertue of oare, that is in that place, and fréeseth the wa∣ter that is the matter of stones, as Ari∣stotle saith. Stone is bred of fat claye, by vertue of the sunne that maketh ye fenne priuely runne, and the parties cleaue and fasten together. Other stones be bred of water frosen, by some vertue of ore, that bringeth therein kinde & shape of stone, and be matter of stone, & some is soft and féeble of composition, and some strong: & some be gendred swiftly, and some slow∣ly, and some strongly, as the might of the qualities that worke more or lesse, and as the qualities that let and withstande, be lesse strong or more, as these qualities be medled in substance of stones. Stones be diuers in vertue and in kinde: For influence of heuenly vertue commeth in∣to their places, and putteth therein the effects therof, and after as it findeth mat∣ter more able and obedient to his work∣ing, the more noble impression it printeth therein. Therefore precious stones fol∣low vertues of kinde of Planets on ef∣fect and working, as it fareth of Topasi∣us, that followeth the M••ne, as it is said, as Ambrose, Basilius, Isidore, Dioscori∣des and other tell, as it shall be knowen héereafter. The knowen properties of stones be these: for generally a stone is colde and drye, sad and fast hard and he∣uie, and moueth downward by his own heauinesse and waight, and lyeth heauie on the earth, and ioyneth and mineth to∣gether the parts of the earth, for it shuld not breake and depart a sunder. There∣fore Ambrose saieth, that stones be the bones of the earth: for stones doe in diuers partes of the earth, as boanes doe in the bodye, for stones make the earth sad and sound, and holde the parts togethers; and helpeth that it falleth not nor departeth asunder, by ouermuch dri∣nesse thereof. Stones be not made softe with lauing and washing with water: neuerthelesse they be bored & made hol∣low with dropping of gutters, as Gre∣gory saith. Also if fire hot stones be quē∣ched in wine, they corrupt the wine, and turne it into vinegere, as Isidore sayth. Also in stones generally néedeth purenes of matter, vertue, and precious colours, diuers figure and shape, and many ma∣ner moe profites: for stones be néedfull and profitable, to making and building of houses and of walls, of pauements & of bridges, & to put off enemies, wolues, and hounds, and other euill beasts, and to draw mettall out of the substaunce ther∣of, and to healpe and heale men of di∣uers sicknesses and euills, and so make and to increase Towers of Kings, to buyld and to strengthen Cities, Castles and Towers, and for defence agaynst wilde beasts. Also stones are first taken out of the quarrie, and then be bewed, playned, and squared, and layd and set in order in work of building, the more vn∣der the lesse, and set together with Ce∣ment, and couered without, and playned with cement.

(*At a place called Sutton in Kent, and at Boughton, are found a kinde of stone, as if it were clusters of Periwrin∣kles growing togethers: which stone be∣ing wrought and polished, sheweth be∣yond Art, the shape of those shell fishes, after a curious and cunning manner. Which stones, if they wer not to be had, but farre off in some other Countrey, would héere be estéemed of great price, & hard and faire Marble gréet.)

¶Of Pario. chap. 76.

PArius stone is a kinde of noble mar∣ble and precious, as Isidore sayeth. This stone is founde in the Iland Pa∣ron, and is therefore called Parius. The quantitie thereof, passeth not Lances and Crateras, and is good to kéepe mens spi∣cerie and oyntments. The Glose super Esay saith, that Parius is a kind of most white marble, and betokeneth therefore chastitie.

¶Of prassio. chap. 77.

Page  265PRassius is a stone as gréene as a léek, and comforteth the feeble sight, and is sometime found with red drops, and is sometime distinguished with white drops. Of this stone it is sayd in Lapid. that no profite is therewith, but that it is gréene, and maketh gold séemely.

¶Of Pirite. cap. 78.

PIrites is a redde bright stone, like to the qualitie of the aire: much fire is therein, and oft sparkles come out there¦of, and this stone burneth his hand that holdeth it right fast, therfore it hath that name of Pir, that is fire. In Lapid. it is sayd, that he will easelye and softly bée handled and held, for it burneth if it bée hard wrong.

Of Pionite. cap. 79.

PIonites is a stone that is sayde to bée of female kinde, as it is said. At cer∣tain time it conceiueth and beareth such another stone, and helpeth women with childe as Dioscorides saith.

¶Of Panteron. cap. 80.

PAnteron is a stone of diuers colours, sprong and distinguished, for it is séene blacke, red, gréene, pale, purple, yeolow, & also bright gréene in coulour. This stone maketh a man bold and hardy, so that he shall not be ouercome that daye that hée séeth this stone early at Sunne rising, as it is said in Lapidario.

¶Of Plumbo. cap. 81.

LEad is called Plumbum, & hath that name, as Isid. saith de mettal, lib. 16. for first with balles of lead, men assaye déepnesse. He saith that of lead are two manner kindes, white and black, and the white is the better, and was first found in the Ilands of the sea Athlant in old time, and is now found in many places, for in Fraunce & in Lusitania is a man∣ner blacke earth full of grauell, and of small stones, and is washt and blowen, and so of that matter commeth the sub∣staunce of lead. Also in golde quarryes, with matter of golde, be small stoanes found, and be gathered with the golde, & afterward departed from the golde, and blowen by themselues, and tourneth all to lead, and therefore golde is as heauye as lead, as Isid. saith. But of black lead is double kinde, for black lead commeth alone of a veyne, or is gendred with sil∣uer in medled veynes, and is blowen, and in blowing, first commeth tinne, & then siluer, and then what remaineth, is blo∣wen and turned into blacke lead, as Isi. saith. But in Inde is neither brasse nor lead found: but Inde is rewarded again with Margarites and precious stones.

Isido. saith blacke lead is best in trauel∣lous workes, as in pipes and plates, and that Spaniards and Britons haue proo∣ued. Huc vs{que} Isid. Quarto li. Metheo. Arist. saith, that of brimstone, that is boi∣stous and not swiftly pured, but troubly and thicke, and of quicke siluer the sub∣staunce of lead is gendred, and is gende∣red in minerall places, so of vncleannesse of vnpure brimstone lead hath a manner softnesse, & smoocheth his hand that tou∣cheth it. And with wiping and cleansing this vncleannesse of lead may be taken away for a time, but neuer for alway, a man may wipe off the vncleannesse, but alwaye it is lead though it séeme siluer. But strange qualities haue mastry ther∣in and beguile men, & maketh them erre therein. Some men take Sal Armonia∣cum, as Aristotle saith, and assigneth cause of this vncleannesse, and saith, that in voystous lead is euill quicke siluer, heanie and sennye. Also that brimstone thereof is euill vapour and stinking.

Therefore it fréeseth not well at full. In li. 5. Alchimie Hermes saith, if thou hang lead ouer vineger, it hurteth it, for vine∣ger shall pearce the substaunce thereof, & turne it into pouder, and into white co∣lour of floure of lead: and if thou pow∣rest vineger thervpon, it commeth white, & destroieth the might of vineger. Burnt lead bréedeth red colour and dim, and if the fire be too strong, it turneth into Ci∣trine, and thereafter, with stirring, dry∣eng, and tempring with vineger, it tour∣neth into white colour of floure of lead.

Page  [unnumbered]And if then makest strong fire, it tourn∣eth all into the first matter of lead, & is made earth, as it is said there. Also lead medled with other mettall, gathereth to∣gethers the kinde parts of the mettall, & departeth and cleanseth away the other parts. Therefore lead is put with sil∣uer in the furnaice, that the siluer may be sooner cleansed: for the lead saueth the siluer parts from wasting, and the lead is wasted and burnt, and cleanseth the sil∣uer, Ier. saith the same in Glosa super. 6 ca, Fere ibi consumptum est plumbum, &c. Also Hermes saith, the lead in boy∣ling, vndoeth the hardnesse of all sadde and hard bodies, and also of the stone A∣damant. And in li. Meth. Arist. speaketh of lead and saith that lead without doubt when it is molten, is as quick siluer, but it melteth not without heate, and then all that is molten séemeth red. Wonder it is, that though lead be pale or brown, yet by burning or resudation of vineger, ofte it gendreth séemly colour and faire, as tawnie, red, and such other: therewith women paint themselues, for to séeme faire of coulour. And Lead is good for medicine: For Leade is colde and moyst in the second degrée, as Constant. saith, and helpeth wonderfully agaynst burning of fire and hot postumes, and stauncheth bleeding wounds, and staun∣cheth and abateth running of the eyen, & swageth smiting of Scorpions & Dra∣gons, and letteth the seruice of Venus, if a plate of lead be laid to the 2. reynes, and hath other medicinable reasons.

Looke thereof innermore De coloribus, of the colour that is called Stibium and Cerusa, and is also called floure of lead.

¶Of Puluere. chap. 82.

POuder is called Puluis, and hath that name for it is pufe with the winde, as Isi. saith, for lightnesse therof ye winde taketh it vp and bloweth it abroad.

Contrary windes commeth into pouder, and beareth it about, & maketh ye whirle winde as Beda sayth. Powder beaten, sheweth the kinde of the thing that it commeth of: now by sauour, now by colour, now by odour and smell. There∣fore pouder is made of spicerie, that the inner vertue thereof may shew it selfe, that by medlyng and oning of partes, it maye receiue the larger vertue, that it may giue foorth the more fragrant smell, and cause the swéeter taste, and that it may the more effectually dry and clense putrified wounds, & eate and fret awaye the dead flesh, that it grow no more, as pouder of burnt lead dryeth and clean∣seth away superfluitie of wounds, & gen∣dreth and saueth quicke flesh, as Const. saith. And therefore of pouder plaisters, be made confections that be called Thi∣miamata, & other diuers medicines, and oyntments: Pouder is made of Thus, and of Mirrhe: with burning into pou∣der, beasts were offred to our Lord God. Also of pouder is made noble electuaries, that helpeth and healeth bodies that be aliue: also of pouder is oyntment made, that kéepeth and saueth dead bodies, that they rot not, nor fall into pouder: also sen is made by medling of pouder and of moisture, and turneth into a clot by working of drinesse, as Isid. saith. Also pouder defileth the face and grieueth the eyen, and many manner wormes bréede of pouder and be sed therewith, and pou∣der is bread to the serpent, as Esa. saith li. 12. Of pouder, bodies with soule haue beginning, and endeth and tourneth into that it commeth off, as it is saide to man. Pouder thou art, and into pouder thou shalt tourne. Also pouder infecteth the aire, and letteth ofte the eye, that it may not sée the cléernesse of the Sunne, for of pouder medled with moist aire, oft the myst is gendred betwéene vs and the Sunne, whose comming hideth ye sunne, that it is not cléerly séene. Also moies in the Sunne beame commeth of pouder, and the pouder is not séene in the sunne beame that commeth in at the window.

¶Of Quirin. cap. 83.

QVirin is a stone that is founde in Lapwings neasts, as Dioscorides sayth. This stone bewrayeth and disco∣uereth in sléepe counsayle and priuitie: for this stone laid and set vnder a mans head that sléepeth, maketh him tell as Page  266 he thinketh sléeping, & multiplieth won∣derfully fantasies. Therefore Witches loue that stone, for they worke Witch∣craft therewith.

Of Quandros. cap. 84.

QVandros is a stone of vile coulour, but it is of great vertue, as Diose, saith, and is found in the head of a vul∣ture: and helpeth against all euill cau∣ses, and filleth teates full of milke.

¶Of Rabri. cap. 85.

RAbri is a stone, & hath another com∣mon name, and is called Bolus Ar∣menicus, and is a stone or a veyne of earth, & is of colde and dry kinde, & hath a red colour, and is found in Armenia, & hath vertue to constraine & make harde the wombe, and to staunch bloud out of what place of the body it runneth.

Of Rubies.

*THE Rubies grow in India, and are found for the most part in a riuer named Pegu. These are of the best kind and finest, which they of the land of M∣labar call Nunpuclo, and are well sold, if they be faire and cleane without spots. In the Iland of Zeylath, being in the second India, are found many Rubies, which the Indians name Manecas: the most part of these, are pale, and fleshlye coloured, and very few in perfect beautie, which is as the red Rose and orient. If abiding their first triall in the fire, they grow to a sparklyng cléere coale shining, called of the Gréekes Anthrax, which signifieth a coale of the Latines called, Carbunculus. Their values in the In∣dies are 50. shillings, but being brought hether, are solde for much more.

Of Reyben. cap. 86.

REyben as Auicen saith, is a little stone and is found in a Crabs head, and is sometime whife, and is sometime some deale yeolow, and is softe in sub∣staunce, little harder than the blacke of a fishes eye, and is in shape round & plaine without, and some deale hollow within, and is in vertue kindly cold & moist, and helpeth against biting of Scorpions, and of the wesell, if it be beaten & laid ther∣to in plaister wise. Also it is sayd, it hel∣peth against the biting of a mad dogge, if the pouder thereof be taken in drink. If the pouder thereof be burnt, it clean∣seth téeth, and drieth wounds, and help∣eth scabs, and letteth teares.

¶Of Saphiro. cap. 87.

SAphirus is a precious stone, and is blew in colour, most like to heauen in faire wether and cléere, and is best a∣mong precious stones, and most preci∣ous and most apte and able to fingers of Kings, and is found in many places, but that that is found in the East or in In∣de is accounted best, and namelye if it haue as it were pouder of golde medled therein, and this Saphire stone is thick and not passing bright, as Isi. saith. This stone is most praised in Lapid. And for it is so noble and so excellent, it is called Gemma gemmarum, as it were chiefe of precious stones, for it lighteneth the bo∣die, and kéepeth and saueth lims whole & sound, and hath a bright starre, and by brightnesse of that starre, his vertue is knowen. Another manner Saphire is called Sirtites, and is found fast by the place that is called Sirtes, among ye gra∣uel of the sea Libicum, as Diosc. saith, & is also found in the veines of mines, where Lasurium is also found, and in the same veynes of Saphire, in the middle, as it were in the wombe, is a certaine kinde of Carbuncle found. Therefore manye men déeme, that the Saphire is the Car∣buncles mother, for manye men meane, that the Carbuncle is gendred in ye Sa∣phires veynes, and many men meane, that the Carbuncle is some deale besha∣dowed with a certaine blewe sparcle of the kinde of the Saphire, as Diosc. saith: & Diosc. saith yt the Saphire hath ver∣tue to rule & accord them yt be in strife, & helpeth much to make peace & accord. Also it hath vertue to abate vnkind heat, therfore in Lapid. it is said of ye saphire, Page  [unnumbered] that it cooleth heate of ye body within. For the Saphire cooleth much the heat of bur∣ning feuers, if it be hanged nigh the pulse & the veines of the heart. Therefore hee saith, y it helpeth against much feauers, y haue time of chāging in accesse time. Also it hath vertue to cōfort & to glad y hart, therfore it is said, yt it helpeth against the Cardiacle, & against all melancholik pas∣sions. Therfore it stancheth running and sweat yt cōmeth of anguish, & other sweat also, as it is said in Lap. He stauncheth sweat that runneth swift, &c. Diosc. saith the same, & hath vertue to staunch bloud. And so a Saphire of the East stancheth bleeding at ye nose, if it be laid to ye tem∣ples. Also he hath singular vertue to swage blowing: For certeine it is, yt the Saphire abateth & swageth swelling of postumes, if it be soone laid therto in the beginning of noiful drawing. Also ye Sa∣phire helpeth against an euill postume, yt is called Antrax, for it putteth out the might of ventosity & mallice of that Po∣stume, for it ouercommeth & putteth out the woodnesse thereof, & suffereth not the smoak therof come to the heart, nor the malice therof to infect the spirits, as Di∣oscri. saith. His vertue is contrary to ve∣nim, & quencheth it euerye deale. And if thou put a Spider in a boxe, & hold a ve∣ry Saphire of Inde at ye mouth of ye bore any while, by vertue thereof the Spider is ouercome & dieth, as it were sodeinly, as Diosc. saith. And the same I haue séene proued oft in many & diuers places. His vertue keepeth & saueth the sight, & clean∣seth eien of filth without any greefe: ther∣fore it is written in Lapid. that it taketh away filth out of eien, and ach of the for∣head. Also this vertue healeth biles and botches: For as Dioscor. saith, this stone beaten into pouder, & medled with milk, healeth wounds, & this also hath ben pro∣ued in wounds by experience. Also this stone was of so great authoritie in olde time, that men held that it it was most worthy stone to their God, & so it was singularly hallowed to Apollo, for when natiōs asked coūsel of Appollo in time of sacrifice, they hoped to be certified, & to haue aunswere sooner, if a Saphire stone were present, as Dioscorides saith. And this is touched in Lapidario.

And they that vse Nigromancie meane, yt they haue answere of God more ther∣by, then by other precious stones. Also Witches loue well this stone, for they wéen yt they may work certain wonders by vertue of this stone, and also this is touched in Lapid. where it is sayd. This stone bringeth men out of prison bonds, & vndoeth gates and bonds that it touch∣eth. Authours write those doings and many other of the singular vertue of the Saphire, & al Authors accord in this point & say, yt the Saphire is a precious stone, & loueth chastity, & therfore least ye effect thereof be let in any wise by his vnclean∣nesse yt him beareth, it néedeth him that beareth it to liue chast, as this story mea∣neth, but he that it beareth, is commaun∣ded to be most chast. Also in Lapidario it is said, that this stone doth alwaye en∣uy, & putteth off dread & feare, and ma∣keth a man bold and hardy, & master and victor, & maketh the heart stedfast in good¦nesse, and maketh méeke & mild, and good∣ly. I wéene that all this is saide more in disposition then in effect and doing. But this sufficeth at this time.

(*In the Iland of Zeylam, are found the best & most true Saphires, being ve∣ry hard & fine, and of the coulour of A∣zure. Bliew: ther are diuers sorts of Sa∣phires found in Calicut.)

Of Smaragdo. cap. 88.

SMaragdus of al gréene precious stones is the chiefe, as Isidore sayth. Men in olde time gaue thereto the thirde digni∣tye after Margarites and vnions. Sma∣ragdus hath that name of gréene colour, as he said there. For it is sayde that all gréene things is bitter. In no hearbes nor in precious stone is more gréennesse then in the stone Smaragdus. It passeth hearbes & grasse, twigs & braunches: And infecteth the aire about it with passing gréene colour: And his gréene coulour a∣bateth not in the Sunne in any manner wise. Nothing comforteth more their ei∣en that be grauers, then this stane: If the bodie thereof be straight and clean∣sed or polished, then Images bée séene Page  265 therein as it were in a mirrour. Cesar Nero vsed to see fighting of sword play∣ers in this stone, as Isidore saith. Ther∣of be 12. manner of kindes, but the most noble are found in Scithia, and in Bac∣tria holdeth the second place: and Sma∣ragdis be found among & vnder stones, and in chinnes thereof, when the Nor∣therne winde bloweth, for then the earth is vncouered, and Smaragdis shineth a∣mong the stones, for in such winde gra∣uell and sand is most moued. The Ae∣gyptians haue the third. Other be found in metall or oare of brasse, but they be gleyming, for they haue speckles like to brasse, or to lead, or to salt. Though the Smaragdus be gréene by kinde, yet if it be medled with wine or with oyle, his gréene colour increaseth. There is a ma∣ner Smaragdus that goeth out of kinde though it be gréene, for it is somewhat vnseemly by beines of brasse, and is cal∣led Calcesmaragdus. Hue vs{que} Isid. li. ca. de viridibus gemmis. This stone is ta∣ken of and from Griphons, and plentie of Smaragdus may not be found: for great Griphons let the comming of men by the way that goeth thereto, as Isid. saith li. 13. cap. 3. And this stone multi∣plieth his gréene colour, of him commeth a beame that dieth the aire about him, and maketh it gréene. The body there∣of is cléere and of glassie kinde, & shew∣eth figures, images and shapes of things that be nigh thereto, and hath of gifte of kinde & goodnesse of vertue to heale di∣uers sicknesses and euills. Dioscorides saith; it increaseth riches, & maketh men haue good words and faire euidence, in caose and in plea. If this stone be hang∣ed about the necke, it helpeth the falling euill, and saueth and comforteth féeble sight, and represseth wanton motions of lechery, and maketh good minde, and hel∣peth also against al fantasies & iapes of fiends, and ceaseth tempest, and staunch∣eth bloud: and it is saide, that it hel∣peth them, that vse to diuine and gesse what shall befall, as it is sayd in Lapid.

(*Smaragdes grow in ye countrey of Babylon, where the Indians call ye sea Diegnn. They grow also in other parts of India. They are stones of faire gréene coulour, and are light and tender. Of these stones many be counterfaite: but looking on them warily toward ye light, the counterfaits shew certaine burble, as doth glasse, but in the true there is no such seene.)

¶Of Sardio. cap. 89.

SArdius is a precious stone of red colour as it were red earth, & hath that name, for it was first found in Sar∣dis, as Isid. saith, and the Glose sup. A∣poc. Though this stone be precious & faire, yet many account it least in value of precious stones: for as they meane, ex∣cept shining, there is no profit therwith, but onely that the stone Onix maye not grieue in his presence: for as it is sayd, Onichinus, that hath some euill proper∣ties, may not shewe them in déede, in presence of the stone Sardius. And Dio∣scorides saith, that ouer this vertue, Sar∣dius hath many other vertues. Of Sar∣dius be fiue manner of kindes, but the best commeth out of Sardis, and is good: for it increaseth ioyes, and putteth away dread, and maketh men bold and hardy, and sharpeth the wit, and in his presence Onix may not grieue. Also he saith, that Sardius, that is all red, saueth his bearer from inchantment, and from witchcraft.

¶Of Sardonice. chap. 90.

SArdonix hath that name, of company of two stones, of Sardius and Onix. as Isi. saith, and is of thrée colours. For blacke is lowest, white the middle, redde as vermilion is highest. This stone only taketh nothing of the substaunce of the waxe, when it is printed therein, and is found in Arabia and in Inde. Héereof be fiue manner of kindes, but which of them hath most coulours and most diui∣ded, & the thickest, is best. It is said that it putteth of lecherie, and maketh men méeke and chast.

¶Of Solis gemma. cap. 91.

THe Sunne stone is called solis gem∣ma, and is white shining, and hath Page  [unnumbered] that name for it shineth with beames, as the Sunne doth shine in the world, as Isidore saith De candidis gemmis.

¶Of Silenite, cap. 92.

SIlenites is a stone of Persia, & is gréen as grasse. His colour is like to ye stone Iaspis, as it is sayd in Lapidario, and shineth with a white specke, as though in brightnesse it contained the shape of the Moone: and the stone Silenites fol∣loweth the Moone, and wexeth and wa∣neth as the Moone doth, as Isi. sayth, and Diosco. also. His vertue reconcileth loue and accord. It is supposed that it helpeth Tisike and sicke men.

¶Of Stanno. chap. 93.

TInne is called Stannum, and is a met∣tall, and hath that name of Etimolo∣gic of Gréeke as Isid. saith. Tin depar∣teth, for in fire it departeth mettalls of diuers kinde, and it departeth lead and brasse from gold and siluer, and defend∣eth other mettall in hot fire: and though brasse and yron be most hard in kinde, yet if they be in strong fire without tin, they burne and wast awaye: if brasen vessells be tinned, the tinne abateth the venim of rust, and amendeth the fauour. Also mirrours be tempred with tinne, and white colour that is Cerusa is made of tinne, as it is made of lead. Huc vs∣que Isidorus li. 16. cap. de Metallis.

Lib. Metheororum Aristotle sayeth, that tinne is compouned of good quicke siluer and of euill brimstone. And these twaine be not well medled but in small parts compounded, therefore tinne hath colour of siluer, but not the sadnes there∣of. In li. Alchemie Hermes saith, that tin breaketh all mettalls, & bodies that it is medled with, & that for greate drinesse of tin. And destroieth in mettall the kinde that is obedient to hammer worke. And if thou medlest quicke siluer therwith, it withstandeth the crashing thereof, and maketh it white, but afterwarde it ma∣keth it blacke and defileth it. Also there it is said, that burnt tin gendereth redde coulour, as Lead doth: and if the fire bée strong, the first matter of tinne commeth soone againe. Also though tin be more soft then siluer, & more hard then Lead, yet lead may not be soone soudred to lead nor to brasse, nor to yron without tin: neither these may be soudered without greace or Talow, and Rosen.

Of Sulphure. cap. 94.

BRimstone is a veine of the earth, and hath much aire and fire in his compo∣sition, therefore it is called Sulphure, as it were Solum vrens burning of the grounde. Fire is called Vr. for the firye vertue of brimstone is known in feruent waters, for water that runneth and pas∣seth by veins of brimstone, taketh white∣nesse or heate thereof, fauorinesse, effect, and smell. And héereof it commeth that hot wels springing out of ye earth bring therewith ye qualities of veines of brim∣stone. And nothing is so soone set a fire as Brimstone, and bréedeth in the hotte I∣land Eloijs betweene Cicilia and Italy, and some men meane, that those Ilands burne, and Brimstone is found and dig∣ged in other places, as Isidorus sayth: of Brimstone there be foure kindes. One is called Viuum, the which when it is digged shineth and flourisheth, the which all onely among all the kindes thereof, Phisitions vse, as Isidore saith. Another is called Gleba, and serueth only for ful∣lers. The third is called Liquor, and is good and profitable to cast and sparple on Wooll: for therewith they make soft and white: the fourth serueth to light of lan∣ternes, as Isidor. saith. And sayth there∣to, ye the vertue of brimstone is so great, ye certaine sicknesses are perceiued with brightnes thereof. If the flame therof cō∣meth straight into a mās face, it bréedeth foule and euill palenesse to their sight that looke theron, to the likenesse of dead men, as Isid. saith, li. 16. cap. 1. Auicen & Pla. meane, that brimstone is hot & drye in the fourth degrée, & is turned into kind of brimstone in part of water, of earth, & of fire, and that brimstone is sometime great & boistous, & full of drosse, and som∣time pure, white, cléere and subtill, and sometime meane betwéene both.

Page  268And by this diuers disposition, diuerse mettall is gendered of Brimstone and of quicke siluer, as it is saide 4. Metheoro∣rum. There it is shewed that Brimstone and quicke siluer is the matter of met∣talls. Some Brimstone is called quicke brimstone, such as it is when it is taken out of the earth: and some is dead Brim∣stone or quenched, and is made by craft, and put in pottes or in other vessells for medicine. The best is the quick with heat bright & shining white, or gréene with∣out stone, and that maketh gréene colour, and if it bée put in the fire, it hath ver∣tue of tempering and departing, of con∣suming and wasting, and of making sub∣till and thin, and of restoring. Therefore it letteth the cough, and helpeth them yt haue the falling euil, and cleanseth scabs, and withstandeth venim, and awaketh men that haue the sléeping euill, and hel∣peth for the gowtes, Podagre, & the pal∣sie, if the remedie thereof be vsed in due manner and medicinable, as Auicen, Di∣oscorides, Platearius, and other Authors say.

Of Sale. chap. 95.

SAlt is called Sal, and hath that name of Saliendo, leaping: for it leapeth out of the fire, and flieth the fire, though it be firie kinde, as Isidore sayeth. Other men meane, that it hath that name Sal, of Sale, or of Sole, of the sea, or of ye Sun. For it is gendered of sea water by wor∣king of the Sunne: for some of the Sea abideth at cliffes, and is dried with the Sunne, and is sometime drawne out of salt pits, and sodde till water turne into hardnesse of salt, that was fléeting before, and so made hard and thicke with heat. And is somtime gathered among grauell and Sande in waring of the Moone by night. For oft in Cerenia salt is founde vnder Grauell and Sand. Also in some places be rockes of Salt, and out therof stones be hewen with yron, that turneth afterwarde into kinde of Salt. As it fa∣reth in Arabia, & in Pannonia. Also those stones be so harde, that they make hou∣ses of them, and the common salt craketh & sparketh in fire, leapeth out there∣of, but Sal agrigentinum of Cicilia suffe∣reth fire, and melteth in fire against kind, & starteth and leapeth out of water. And salt is diuers in colour: for Sal memphi∣ticum is red. In a coūtry of Cicllia, wher mout Etna is, is pure salt. In ye same Ci∣cilia in Pathmos is so bright & cléere salt, ye Images be séene therein. In Capado, is yeolow salt digged and mined, as I∣sidore saith. Also salt varieth, and is di∣uers in sauour as he sayth. For in some place it is swéete in sauour, and in some place most salte, and in some most bit∣ter. And the more bitter salt is, the more hot it is, or is the more hotter déemed, as Auicen saith. Salt is most néedfull, for without Salt nigh all meate is wearish and vnsauory. Salt maketh Potage and other meate sauorie, and exciteth good ap∣petite in all meate. With salt al meat is made sauory and liking. Men wéene it hath this name Salt of the Sun: for no∣thing is more profitable then the Sunne & salt. And so we sée diuerse beasts come to pasture most for liking of Salt. Also milke and théese be the more abundant, for goodnesse of salte. Also salte hardneth and drieth things, and kéepeth and saueth dead bodies from rotting: Huc vsque Isidorus. libr. 16. cap. 3. Also Plat. and A∣uicen tell, that Salt hath generally ver∣tue to vndoe, cleanse, and wast rotted hu∣mours. Also to depart and destroy vento∣sitie, and namely if powder of salt be sod and layd all hot in a bagge to the mouth of the stomacke. Also this vertue ioyneth and saueth kinde moisture in the body, & wasteth & destroyeth vnkinde moysture therein. And so water of Salt wells dis∣solueth and wasteth swelling and boy∣ling, and also the Dropsie, as he sayth. Also salt fretteth awaye dead flesh, and namely if the Salt be burnt. For then it withstandeth best rotting: and dryeth, cleanseth, & thirieth into the inner parts, as he saith. Also salt softneth the wombe, and bringeth out supersluitie, & namely salt that is called Gemma, and hath that name, for it is cléere as a precious stone, & worketh wonderfully in ordeining of the guts. And softneth what is harde, and putieth out superfluitie, and so doth Ar∣moniacum & common salt also. Also salt Page  [unnumbered] medled with honie, bread, and wine, hea∣leth the Postume Carbunculus or An∣trax, as Auicen sayth. Also Salt doth away speckles of the face, if it be tempe∣red with water, and Camphora, and the face bée washed therewith. Also Salte cleanseth the bodie of scabbes and Tra∣ters, namely if it be medled with Sope. Also Salt healeth the venimous biling and stinging of Scorpions and créeping wormes, if it be meddeled with honnye and nuts, and with other certain things, as Aucien sayth. Salt hath these ver∣tues and many moe, that were too long to reckon all arowe: but these shall suf∣fice at this time.

(*The last that is made at the Wi∣ches is most wholesomest.)

Of Topazio. cap. 96.

TOpazius is a precious stone, & hath another name Topazion indeclina∣ble, as Isidore sayth, lib. 16. And is of shi∣ning kind, and shineth with all colours, and was first found in an Ilande of A∣rabia in which Iland when the Troglo∣dites were diseased with hunger & tem∣pest, they digged vp rootes of hearbs, and they found this stone therewith, and cal∣led it Testam nebulis. After that shippe men sought and found the stone, and cal∣led it Topazim in the language of Tro∣glodites. Therefore this stone that was so sought & sound is called Topazius, and hath that name of the Iland. Topa∣zim in their language, is to saye Siche, & is greatest of precious stones. Plinius wrote, that a stone of this kinde was found so greate, that Philadech made thereof an Image of foure cubites long. In the Glose super fixem Apost. it is sayde in this manner. The more scarce Topazius is, the more precious it is. And hath two coulours, as it were of golde and of cléere aire, and shineth most when it is smit with the Sunne beame, & passeth in cléerenesse all other precious stones, and comsorteth men and beastes to beholde and looke thereon. And if thou wipe this stone, thou darkest it, and if thou leadest him to his owne kinde, hée is the more cléere. And in treasurye of kings, nothing is more cleere nor more precious then this precious stone. For cléerenesse thereof taketh to himselfe the cléerenesse of other precious stones that be about him, and it is sayd, that hée fol∣loweth ye course of ye Moone: and helpeth against the passion Lunatik. And so it is sayd, ye as ye Moone is more full or lesse, so his effect is more or lesse, as it is said in Lapid. and stauncheth bloud, and hel∣peth them that haue Emoroides, & swa∣geth seruent water, & suffereth it not so boile, as it is said in Lapidario. Diosco∣rides saith, that it swageth both wrath and sorrowe, and helpeth against euill thoughtes and phrensie, and against so∣deine death. And hath the shape of a mir∣rour, aud the Image that is therein, is séene in a hollow mirrour.

(*The Topaseis grow in the Ilande of Zeilam, and are named of the Indi∣ans Purceragua: It is a harde and fine stone, and of equall estimation with the Rubie and the Saphire, because al these thrée are of one kinde: the perfect coulour of this is yeolowe, like vnto fine beaten golde, whereof some be more pale & some white, and therefore of lesse value. And of these are small Diamondes, coun∣terfeit.)

Of the Turquesses. cap. 97.

TVrquesses are founde in Exer,* in a place of Siech Ismael. Their mine is a drie earth, that is found vpon a blacke stone, which the Moores take of in small péeces, and carrye them to the Ilande of Ormus, from whence they are brought to diuers parts of the world by sea and by land. The Ilands call them Perose. They are soft stones, of small weight, & not much colde, and to knowe that they are good and true, in the day they shall ap∣peare like the cléere skie bliewe, and by candle gréene, and the best sortes are not without some blacke spotte of the Mine whereon they grewe. The Indians know none other vertue but this fayre∣nesse.

Of Turgote. chap. 98.

Page  269TVrgotes that is called Torcois also, is a white yeolowe stone, and hath that name of the Countrie of Turkie, there it is bred. This stone kéepeth and saueth the sight, and bréedeth gladnesse and com∣fort.

Of Terra Sigillata. Chap. 98.

A Certaine veine of the earth is called Terra sigillata, and is singularly cold and dry. And Dioscorides calleth it Ter∣ra saracenica and argentea, and is some deale white, well smelling & cléere. The chiefe vertue thereof bindeth and staun∣cheth. And pouder thereof tempered with the white of an Egge, stancheth bléeding at the nose: and helpeth against swelling of the féete, and against the gowte, if it be laide in a plaistre thereto, as it is said in Lapidario.

Of Tartaro. chap. 99.

TArtarum is Wine drastes, and lyke to a soft stone, cleaning harde to the sides of the tunnes. Whose kinde is hot and drie in the third degrée, and is good a∣gainst scab and scall, and vncleannesse of the head: and it hath vertue to make thin, to wast, to cleanse, and to laxe, as it is said in Plat.

Of Vitro. chap. 100.

GLasse (as Auicen sayeth) is among stones, as a foole among men. For it taketh al manner of colour and painting, and is called Vitrum, as Isi. saith. For by his vertue he is bright and cleere, & light shining, there through all that is contei∣ned inwarde in other mettalles and in veines of earth is hid. In glasse all maner licour is séene outward such as it is wt∣in, & is shewed as it were to closed eien, that looke thereon, as Isidore saith. And glasse was first found beside Tholomei∣da, in the cliffe beside the riuer that is cal∣led Vellus, that springth out of the foote of mount Carmelus, at which shipmen a∣riued. For vpon the grauell of that riuer shipmen made fire of clots medled with bright grauell, & thereof ran streames of new licour, that was the beginning of glasse, as Isi. saith. Now glasse is made of ashes of trées and of hearbs, with strong blast of fire, with the which it is medled, now glasse, now brasse, & now both, & so turneth into glasse. When glasse is molt in the furnaice & perfectly cleansed, then it taketh purenesse, brightnesse, & cléernesse. Glasse is died with all manner of colour, so yt it followeth Iacinctus, Smaragdus, & other precious stones in colour & bright∣nesse. Also it is so pliant that it taketh a∣none diuers and contrary shapes by blast of the Glasier, & is sometime beaten, and sometime grauen, as siluer, as Isid. saith: and no matter is more apt to make mir∣rours then is glasse, nor to receiue pain∣ting. But most workmanship is in white glasse, yt is next to Christal in colour. For it is often chosen before siluer & golde to drinke in as Isi. saith. Also there he saith, yt the stone Obseanus is reckoned among kind of glasse. And this stone is somtime greene, & sometime blacke, & is cléere and bright. And is called Specularis, and is with fatly sight. Of this stone many men make precious stones, as Isidore sayth. And all maner glasse hath this property, that it is most pliant, while it is melting hot and softe, and most brittle when it is colde and hard. And if it be broken, it may not he amended without melting a∣gaine. But long time passed, there was one that made glasse pliant, which might be amended and wrought with an ham∣mer, as Isidore saith. And brought a Ui∣ole made of such Glasse before Tiberi∣us the Emperour, and threwe it downe on the ground, and was not broken, but bended and folded. And he made it right and amended it with an hammer. Then the Emperour commaunded to smite off his head anone, least that his craft were knowen. For then Golde shoulde be no better then fen, & all other mettall should be little worth, for certaine if glasen ves∣sels were not brittle, they shoulde be ac∣coūted of more value thē vessels of gold, as Isid. saith. Then glasse is cleane and pure, and specially bright & cléere. And I∣mages & shadowes be séene therein, and Page  [unnumbered] is pliaunt when it is melting hotte, and brittle when it is colde and harde. And receiueth all colours, and followeth pre∣cious stones more in coulour then in va∣lue, and cleanseth away superfluitie and filth as Auicen sayth. Pouder thereof cleanseth the téeth, & doth away weue of the eyen, and helpeth greatly against the stone of the bledder and of the reines, if it bée dronken with Wine, as Auicen saith.

*(But the pouder of glasse must bée very fine, else will it frette a sunder the guts and sodeinly kill the patient, for the pouder made of glasse mixed in But∣ter, writ and Mice, it maye as soon kill men, take some other medicine)

Of Ydaci. cap. 101.

YDachites is a precious stone of redde coulour, and round in shape. And hath another stone within him, and soundeth by tinking thereof. Neuerthelesse wise men meane, that tinkling is not the in∣ner stone, but some spirit that is within, as Dioscorides saith: This stone swea∣teth water, so that it séemeth that it con∣teineth a manner well spring within it selfe. Therefore some men tell, that this is the stone that is called Enidros. Looke before in the same booke.

Of Yrachite. cap. 102.

YRachites is a stone, the man that bea∣reth it shall not be bit wish any flies, neither stung with Bées, as Dioseorides saith. And so men wéene, that it helpeth against venim.

(*That is when he can get such a stone, that hath such a vertue.)

Of Zimiech. chap. 103.

ZImiech is a stone or veine of the earth, whereof Lapis Lazurij is made; as it is salde in Lapidarie. The more lyker this stone is to the coulour of heauen, the better it is, and hath small péeces, as it were of golde medled there∣on. Those that be whitest be most ear∣thie, and therefore they be not so preci∣ous. These may be long kepte without corruption: and help against many euils, and against sounding, that commeth of melancholike fumositie, if they be giuen in due manner to ye patient. It shal neuer be giuen without it be ground ful final, & oft washed ful cleane. And the signe of perfect washing thereof is, if the water that it is washed in, bee little or naught died. This stone cleanseth & looseth won∣derfully the quarteine, and shal not be gi∣uen with the decostion. For then it shuld fall to the bottome, but after or before, & that, with whey, as Dioseoriders saith, as it is said in Plat. And as Cerusa is made of plates of yron: so is Lazurum made of plates of siluer with vineger. Oft ye stone Lazurius is founde among siluer oare, & among gold oare. And oft in the veines of Lazarius be found Saphires, Iacincts, and other such bliew stones.

Of Zingutte. cap. 194.

ZInguttes is a stone with glassie colour, if it be borne about ye necke, it helpeth against Victipolā. And stancheth bloud, and putteth off rauing and phrensie. And if it be held to a trée that burneth, it quen∣cheth the flame therof as Dioscor. saith.

(*There are many mo stones, whose hidden vertues are vnknowne for want of experiēce, which grow in fishes, beasts, birds, & men, as the stone in the Crabs head, the stone that groweth in ye Snaile, and the stone called Bulgoldo••, sorth of a beast in Indes, and there are good a∣gainst all posons, the stone that growes in the maw of an Oxe; or in the gall, the stone that is dred in the kindness of a man, and all these serue to great and se∣cret vses.)

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