¶Of Petra. chap. 75.
A Stone is called Petra, and Petra is a name of Gréeke, and is to vnderstand sad or stedfast, as Isi. sayth: for the sub∣staunce of a stone is gendred, of sad and hard parts of the earth. A stone hath this name Petra of Penetrando,* pearcing: for he pearceth the foote, when it is harde thrast and trode on: and is also pear∣ced with drops of raine and of water, that falleth downe of spoutes and of gut∣ters. A stone hath another name, and is called Lapis, and hath that name of Le∣dens hurt and griefe: for it hurteth the foote with the hardnesse and sharpnesse thereof, as Isi. saith. But commonlye, a plaine; softe, or a round stone is called, Lapis.* And a stone that is hewen out of mountaines is called Saxum.* And a hard flint stone is called Silex,* and hath that name of Exihre, for fire leapeth out ther of Isid. saith, though a stone be most cold of himselfe, yet fire commeth out thereof when it is smitten with yron: For by strong violence and smiting of the aire, betwéene the yron and the stone, ye ayre lepeth sparckling out of the flynt. Quar∣to Metheor. Aristotle saith, that a stone gendreth not of earth alone, for drinesse hath mastry therein, and suffereth it not to run. Stones are made either by con∣gellation, or els by conglutination. By medling togethers of water and of earth is clay made, yt is meane betwéene earth and stone, and tourneth into stone some and some, by constraining and fastening of partes, and so slimie claye is most méete for such transmutation: for if it it be not fattie, it will all to fall by ma∣sterie of drinesse, and not containe and holde together.
Page [unnumbered]Then by strong medling and fastening of humour, earth tourneth into kinde of stone, and taketh diuers colours of the diuers qualitie of the earth. Also some∣time stone is gendred by fréesing of wa∣ter. In some place water shedde on the ground, turneth into stone of diuers cou∣lours, and that by some vertue of oare, that is in that place, and fréeseth the wa∣ter that is the matter of stones, as Ari∣stotle saith. Stone is bred of fat claye, by vertue of the sunne that maketh ye fenne priuely runne, and the parties cleaue and fasten together. Other stones be bred of water frosen, by some vertue of ore, that bringeth therein kinde & shape of stone, and be matter of stone, & some is soft and féeble of composition, and some strong: & some be gendred swiftly, and some slow∣ly, and some strongly, as the might of the qualities that worke more or lesse, and as the qualities that let and withstande, be lesse strong or more, as these qualities be medled in substance of stones. Stones be diuers in vertue and in kinde: For influence of heuenly vertue commeth in∣to their places, and putteth therein the effects therof, and after as it findeth mat∣ter more able and obedient to his work∣ing, the more noble impression it printeth therein. Therefore precious stones fol∣low vertues of kinde of Planets on ef∣fect and working, as it fareth of Topasi∣us, that followeth the M••ne, as it is said, as Ambrose, Basilius, Isidore, Dioscori∣des and other tell, as it shall be knowen héereafter. The knowen properties of stones be these: for generally a stone is colde and drye, sad and fast hard and he∣uie, and moueth downward by his own heauinesse and waight, and lyeth heauie on the earth, and ioyneth and mineth to∣gether the parts of the earth, for it shuld not breake and depart a sunder. There∣fore Ambrose saieth, that stones be the bones of the earth: for stones doe in diuers partes of the earth, as boanes doe in the bodye, for stones make the earth sad and sound, and holde the parts togethers; and helpeth that it falleth not nor departeth asunder, by ouermuch dri∣nesse thereof. Stones be not made softe with lauing and washing with water: neuerthelesse they be bored & made hol∣low with dropping of gutters, as Gre∣gory saith. Also if fire hot stones be quē∣ched in wine, they corrupt the wine, and turne it into vinegere, as Isidore sayth. Also in stones generally néedeth purenes of matter, vertue, and precious colours, diuers figure and shape, and many ma∣ner moe profites: for stones be néedfull and profitable, to making and building of houses and of walls, of pauements & of bridges, & to put off enemies, wolues, and hounds, and other euill beasts, and to draw mettall out of the substaunce ther∣of, and to healpe and heale men of di∣uers sicknesses and euills, and so make and to increase Towers of Kings, to buyld and to strengthen Cities, Castles and Towers, and for defence agaynst wilde beasts. Also stones are first taken out of the quarrie, and then be bewed, playned, and squared, and layd and set in order in work of building, the more vn∣der the lesse, and set together with Ce∣ment, and couered without, and playned with cement.
(*At a place called Sutton in Kent, and at Boughton, are found a kinde of stone, as if it were clusters of Periwrin∣kles growing togethers: which stone be∣ing wrought and polished, sheweth be∣yond Art, the shape of those shell fishes, after a curious and cunning manner. Which stones, if they wer not to be had, but farre off in some other Countrey, would héere be estéemed of great price, & hard and faire Marble gréet.)