Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

Of Yron. chap. 45.

YRon is called Ferrum, and hath that name, as Isidore saith, of Ferrendum smiting: for it beateth and smiteth, & by hardnesse thereof, ouer commeth all kinde of mettall. And though yron come of the earth, yet it is most hard and sadde, and therefore with beating and smiting, it suppresseth and dilateth all other mettal, and maketh it stretch on length and on breadth. And as Isidore saith, it hath the name of the lande that it is digged in. And therefore it is diuers, for by reason therof it is found more harde or soft. And after ye minde of Aristotle, Yron is gen∣dered of quicke siluer, thicke and not cleane, full of earthie hoales, and of brim∣stone great and boistous, and not pure. In composition of yron is more of the foresayd Brimstone, then of quick siluer, and so for mastrie of colde and dry and of earthy matter, yron is dry and cold, & ful well harde, and is compact togethers in his parts. And for yron hath lesse of airy and watry moisture then other mettall: therefore it is hard to resolue and make it againe to be soft in fire, as Ric. Rufus saith. It is the manner to temper yron ware with Oile, least by coldnesse of wa∣ter it be too much hardned, as Isid. saith. Yron taketh soone rust by touching of bloud, and if it entreth into the substance thereof, vnneth it is clensed, as Isi saith. The rust is a vice fretting yron, & com∣meth therto either of vncleannes of sub∣stance, or of touching of earth, & of nigh lieng therto, or else of touching of blood, or of some other qualitie that is infected. And he saith also, that with yron mans bloud is spilt, and mans bloud taketh wreake of yron: For yron taketh rust of nothing so soone as of mans bloud, if it be ••ointeb therewith. Yron hath agree∣ment with the stone Adamas, & so that stone Adamas draweth yron to it selfe: and so yron drawen, by meane of siluer vessel or of Brasse, followeth ye stone, & is subiect & obedient therto. Yron well fur∣nished, & annointed with Alam or with Page  [unnumbered] vinegre, shall be most like to Brasse. And yron furbushed shall not rust, if it be a∣nointed with Sewet, or with marrowe of an heart, as Isidore saith. Firie hotte yron if it bée oft quenched in Wine or in milke, maketh that wine or milke me∣dicinable to them that haue the euill of the splene, and also to other sicke men, as Constantine sayth. Also as Isidore sayth, yron that is made firie hot is cor∣rupted, but it is hardned with strokes. Yron that is redde in the fire, is not profitable to carue nor to cutte, till it be∣ginne to waxe white. Use of yron is more néedfull to men in many things then vse of golde: though couetous men loue more gold then yron. Without yron the comminaltie be not sure against eni∣mies. Without dread of yron ye common right is not gouerned. With yron inno∣cent men be defended: & full hardinesse of wicked men is chastised with dread of y∣ron. And well nigh no handiworke is wrought without yron: no field is cared without yron, neither tilling crafte vsed, no building builded without yron. And therefore Isidore saith, ye yron hath this name Ferrum, for that therby Farra that is corne and seede is tilled and sowen. For without yron read is not wonne of the earth, nor bread is not departed, when it is readye, without yron couena∣bly to mans vse. Also yron is whet with yron, as Salomon sayth. For when the coge of yron is dulled and blunted, with great froting it is oft made thinne and sharpe and couenable to cut all thing the more easily. Sinder is called Scoria, and is the saith of yron that is cleansed ther∣from in fire: and hath that name Sco∣tia, see it is smitten and departed from the yron by violence of the fire, as Isidore sayth.