Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

Of Arena. chap. 1.

GRauell is called Arena, and hath that name of drinesse. And if it were thrust and brused together in a mans hande, it should rattle & make noise for drinesse & hardnes. And if grauell be throwne on a white cloth, it defileth it not, as Isi. saith li. 15. ca. 4. Also grauell of the sea is wash∣ed of all manner slime and wose, and of gleamie fenne, as Aristotle saith liber de proprietatibus elementorum. And there∣fore because of great drinesse it runneth not, nor turneth not perfectly into stone. Also li. 4. Mcth. he saith, that pure earth turneth not perfectly into stone: for it cō∣tinueth not, but breaketh. And therefore drines euercōming all moisture, suffreth not earth to turne into sadnesse of stone. Therefore it is ye grauell & sand is more harde in substaunce then common earth, & more soft then a stone, and may be de∣parted in many parts. And so grauel and sand is colde & dry & small, & most heauie in weight when it is thrust togethers, & though of it selfe it be small & baraine for defalt of heat & of moisture, & mastry of cold & drines, whē a showre falleth ther∣on, it breaketh not, but sennye things is washed away & wasted, & grauell & sand is more pressed togethers, & is more pure & sad: for the parts cleaue more together. Also the waues of the sea is letted with multitude of grauel and sand, & withstood with heaps thereof, & constrained that it passeth not the meares & boundes yt God hath ordeined thereto, as Hierome saith super le. cap. 5. He set grauel & sand mark & meare to the sea, &c. Also he hath vni∣uersally kind of during and of cleansing. And so water that runneth through gra∣uell is most clene and fresh, as Constan∣tine saith.

Also it hath vertue to cleanse mettal, and to cleanse alwaye the rustinesse of mettall. Gold, Brasse, and Yron is made bright with froting of Grauell and Sand.

Page  [unnumbered]Also it hath vertue to coole and to smite inward, and to stop and to swage swel∣ling, as it fareth of Thimalia, that is, grauell and sande shauen or brused of a Smithes stone, which is good for all the foresayde things, as Constantine saieth plainly, and hath vertue like to oare of mettall. And so among grauell and sand both of riuers and of the sea, is founde golden grauell oft times, and also bright polished stones, and precious stones are found in the sea cliues among grauell. Also grauell of riuers and of the sea, bée gathered to heapes with contrary winds, that reaseth parts thereof hetherwarde and thetherward, and stoppeth and tary∣eth oft the waters of the riuers, of course and running into the sea, as Iero. saieth super Amos. 8. Ibi destuct sicut riuus Aegypti, &c. There it is openly sayde, that the water of Nilus is lot with heaps of grauell, that are gathered together in the month of the riuer, and suffereth not the water of Nilus to runne into ye Sea: but constraineth it openly, and maketh it turne againe and ouerflowe the plaines of Egipt: but the more the water is let∣ted, and compelled to turne againe with those heapes of grauell, with the more course and might it runneth and falleth into the sea: and it is said that it falleth the more déepe into the sea, when those heapes be departed and auoyded, as Ier. saith there. Also it is hard and most pe∣rill to fall and smile on heapes of gra∣uell, hid in the sea vnder water, as it is rehearsed before, where it is shewed of perills of the sea.