Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.
Page  212

¶INCIPIT LIBR XV. DE PROVINTIIS.

OF the parts of the earth, & of diuers prouinces, by the which the world is gene∣rally departed, somewhat by the helpe of God shall bée shortlye added to this worke. Wée will singularly intreate of them all, but onely of such, of which holy Scripture maketh oft remembrance.

Of the world. cap. 1.

THe world wide is departed in thrée, as Isidore saith li. 15. For one part is called Asia, another Europa, the thirde Affrica. These thrée parts of the world were assigned not like much in old time, by mē, for Asia stretcheth out of ye south by the East vnto the North. And Europa out of the North vnto the West: But Affrica stretcheth out of the West & pas∣seth by ye South, & Asia conteineth onely one part, yt is the halfe part of ye land that men dwell in: & the other two countries contein the other halfe. The great sea cō∣meth out of the Occean, & stretcheth be∣twéene these parts, & departeth thē asun∣der: therfore if thou diuidest the world in two parts, of the East & of the West: In one part is Asia, and in the other is both Affrica & Europa. And so Noes sonnes departed and diuided the world after the floud among them: Sem with his ofspring had Asiam, and Iaphet Europam, Cam Affricam, as the Glose sayth super Ge∣nes. 10. and super Par., 1. Gregory sayeth the same, and Plinius also.

Of Asia. chap. 2.

ASia is taken for the halfe part of the world, and had that name Asia of a woman that helde the kingdome of the East in olde time, as Isidore saith lib. 15. This Asia disposed into the third part of the world, hath by the East the rising of the Sunne, and by South Occean, and stretcheth vnto our Sea, and endeth by North at lake or marreyes, that is called Meotides, and at the floud Tanay. And hath many prouinces and regions, and diuers nations, and wonderful in liuing, manners, and figures and shapes of body, & be wonderfully diuers, in will, heart, & thought. Theyr names and places wee shall shortly set, following the order of A.B.C.

Of Assiria. chap. 3.

ASsiria is a Country and prouince of Asia, and hath that name of Assur the sonne of Sem, that first dwelled ther after the floud. This Prouince hath Indie in the East side, and stretcheth to ye country of Media in the South side: and hath in the West the riuer Tigris, and in the North the hill that is called mount Caucasus. Where be the gates of Cas∣pic, as Isidore sayth liber. 15. Also out of that country came first ye vse of porpute, the ointmentes both of haire and of bo∣dies: also odours and smells: and there∣of sprang the lecherye of Romanes, and of Greekes, as Isidore sayth. And is a land most temperate in temperate coun∣tries: But in many places in the vtter∣most ends from distemperate places, the land is vnpassible in beasts and serpents, & also in manners of men, as Psini. saith li. 3. Where he discribeth the creenesse of the men. The Assinalis dwelled in this prouince, & hath that name of Assur: they were most mightie people, and helde in olde time the middle country of the land from Euphrates vnto the ende of Indie, as Isidore saith. li. 19.

(*Assyria, a region in Asia; called now Syria, in english Surrey, which marcheth on ye East vpon Indie, on ye West vpō yePage  [unnumbered] noble riuer of Tygris on ye south; it hath the country Media, on the North, the hil Caucasus. Assur a city in India, buil∣ded by king Salomon.

Of Arabia. Chap. 3.

ARabia is a Prouince of Asia, and is called the holy Prouince: for there groweth Thus, as Isidore sayth lib. 15. There is most plentie of Trées that beare frankensence, and other with swéet odour and smell. For the which fragrant and aromatike sauour, the Gréekes call it Eudemon, and the Latines Arabiam, that is vnderstoode blessed and holy, as he sayth there. And in farre parts of this Arabia growe most Mirre and Sina∣mum, and other medicinable things bee there in great plentie: There breedeth a Birde that is called Phoenix, and there is great multitude of other things, and of diuerse wilde beastes and Fowles. Al∣so in Arabia be diuerse precious stones, as Isidore sayth, Plimus and Orosius.

There is as these Authours saye, thrée manner of Sardomes, and a precious stone that is called Ires, and manye di∣uerse precious stones in number bee found. And there be sounde many Dra∣gons, and some Adders, and in the heads of them be sound diuers precious stones. And in that land is Saba, and is so cal∣led of the daughter of Iupiter. And is a parte of the land of Arabia, stretching vpon the sea that is called Persie, & end∣eth towarde the sea that is called Mare Arabicum. Looke within in Saba.

(*Arabia in Hebrew Saba, is a country in Asia, diuided into thrée regiōs, Petra, deserta, & Foelix, Petrea, (signifieng sto∣uie), marcheth on Aegypt and India. Plinie calleth it Nabathea, the chiefe Ci∣tie thereof is called Petra, now called A∣rach, in holy Scripture it is called Petra deserti. By this Countrey the children of Israel passed out of Aegypt, it is as strabo writeth, plaine, inwroned with Rockes of a greate height, wherein bée many springs of fresh water. Without the circoit toward India, the more parte of the Country is desarte without wa∣ter.)

(*There is the greate mountaine Sina, called of Ptholome M•••nes, where the olde lawe was giuen to Moses, and where the bodye of the holye Uir∣gin Katherin was buryed. Also ano∣ther mountaine called Casius, where the greate Pompeius is buried. Ara∣bia deserta, of Strabo called Senaetis, hath on the South the mountaine of Arabia soelix, on the North Mesopotamia, on the West Petrea. The people of this Country haue no certaine habitation, but dwell in tents, Arabia soelix on the South, lyeth betwéene the two Seas Arabicum and Persicum, which is so plentifull, that it bringeth forth corne and fruites twice in the yeare. They haue plentie of all fruite and cattell, ex∣cept Horses, Mules, and Swine: of all Fowles, except Géese, Cocks, and Hens. And there groweth all kinde of Spices, and swéete gummes. The Townes are vnwalled, because the people doe liue al∣waye in peace. D. Cooper in Thesaurus.)

Of Armenia. chap. 5.

ARmenia hath the name of Armenus, the companion of Iason of Thessali, ye which whē he had left king Iason, he ga∣thered together the folke yt were sparpled abroad & tooke Armenia, & called it after his owne name, as Isi. saith li. 15. This is the land of Ararath, into ye which Senna∣cheribs sons fled when they had flame him in his praiers in ye temple of his own God, as the story telleth li. Pe.pri. And ye mount, vpon the which Noes ship rested after the floud, is called Ararath: and this Armenie is set betwéene mount Taurus & caucasi, & stretcheth frō Capadocia, to ye sea Caspium. And hath on ye North side ye Mountains Ceraunos, of ye which ye ri∣uer Tigris ariseth, as Isi. saith. There is two Armenias, ye ouer & the neather. And ther is two Pannonia, & in either of them is oft found wōders, & things wōderfully shapen: But there, wher ye land of Arme∣nie toucheth ye brinks & brime, of Tigris & of Eufrates, it is most fruitful wt herbs, corne, woods, & fruit. But it is full of di∣uers kinds of wild beasts and cruell, and Page  213 Serpents and Adders, as Isidore say∣eth. And Plinius speaketh much heereof libro. 2.

(*Armenia, the name of two Regi∣ons. Maior and Minor Armenia maior hath on the North, Colehis, Iberia, and Albania on the West parte Capadocia: on the East part of the Hircan sea: on the South Mesopotamia: & the moun∣taine Taurus, Armenia minor hath on the North and West part CAPPADUCIA, on the East, the noble riuer Euphra∣tes, and Armenia minor, on the South parte the mountaine Taurus. The Ar∣menians were christened of late yeares, but now they be subiect to the Turkes, Latines, and Grecians: They haue one great Bishoppe, whom they call Catho∣licum, they kéepe holy neyther the Na∣tiuitie of Christ, nor his Baptisme, say∣eng, hee néeded not to be purged nor clen∣sed of sinne. Also they take from all Sa∣craments the vertue to conferre grace: They est-soones baptise those that 〈…〉 from the church of the Latines to them, sayeng, that they bée not of the Catho∣lyke sayth. They say that no man may bée christened, vnlesse he receiue the Sa∣crament of the Altar, and that infants néede not to be baptised, affirming that in them is no originall sinne: That the holy Ghost proceedeth of the Father, and not of the Sonne. That the Sacrament of the Altar maye not bee consecrate of bread cleane without leauen. Also in the consecration they put no water to wine: Moreouer, they saye that the receiuing of the Sacrament profiteth onelye the bo∣dye: That when Christ descended into hell, he led with him all the soules yt were there: That matrimony is no Sacramēt, and may be dissolued at the will of the man or woman: That Christ did rise the Saterdaye after good Fridaye: all these are saide to be their opinions, & are condemned as errours by sundrye coun∣sells.)

Of Aradia. chap. 6.

ARadia yt is called Aradine also, is an Iland yt is all one citie, & standeth in the sea of middle earth, not far from Ti∣rus, as ye Glose saith super locū illū s•••. 27. Children of Aradine in thine armie, &c. & be seemely men and cunning in bat∣taile of the sea.

They of Aruad were with thine host round about the walls. Psa. 11.

Of Albania. chap. 7.

ALbania is a prouince of ye more Asia, & hath that name of the colour of men. For they be borne with white haire: and is a more colder land then other lands of Asia. This Albania hath in the East side the sea Caspium, & riseth by the coasts of the North Occeane: & stretcheth forth by full barren places & desart, to ye marreis that is called Paludes Meotides. In this land be great hounds, so huge in body & so fierce in heart, yt they throw down bulls, & stay lions, & ouercome & throw downe Elephauts, yt be strongest of huge beasts: Plimus sheweth an ensample of an hoūd of Albanie, that was sent to Alexander, & ouercame in a furlong a Lion, a Bore, and an Elephant, as he saith li. 8. cap. de cambus Albanie. And the men haue eien painted, and yeelowe in the blacke, that they sée better by night then by daye, as he saith, and Isidore also libro. 9.

And Solinus telleth the same for mer∣uaile.

(*Albania a County in Asia, hauing on the East ye sea Caspium, on the West Iberia, on the North the hills Caecasus. The people ther were first poore and sim∣ple, & as shepheards: not hauing know∣ledge of money, nor of anye number a∣boue one hundred, liuing by exchaunge, not knowing weight, measure, nor hus∣bandrye, and yet ready in warres. They honoured for God the Sunne and the Moone, hauing among them (as Strabo writeth) sixe and twentie languages, and as manye Kings. Of these people are supposed the Albanises that dwell in Morea, sometime called Peloponesus which be nowe vnder the Turke, or vn∣der the great Cane.)

Of Attica. chap. 9.

Page  [unnumbered]ATtica is the same prouince, that was the olde Grecia, a parte or the Ci∣tie thereof was sometime called Athens.* And was sometime nourisher of Philo∣sophers, and mother of liberall lectures: and in Greece was nothing more noble, nothing more worthy, then that Citye, while it gaue businesse to study of loue of wit, and wisdome, as Plinius saith and Isidore li. 15. Plato of Athens was Doc∣tor of all the Prouince of Attica, yt was Grecia.

(*Athenae the famous Citie of A∣thens, betweene Macedoma and Achaia, in the Sea coast, it once was called Actae, and after Attica. This (as Hy∣ginus sayeth) was first builded by Ce∣cropt, and called Cecropia, afterward by Mopsus, Mopsopia, and last of all A∣thens, of Minerua, whome the Gréekes call Athenam, for they reporte that Neptune and Minerua contended for the name, that it was agréed betwéene them, that he shoulde haue the name that gaue vnto mankinde, the wor∣thyest and most profitablest GIFFE, where∣vppon Neptune brought foorth an horse, and Minerua an Oliue tree. The mat∣ter beeing put to voyces which was ye most profitable, Neptune was cast by one voice, and gaue place vnto Mi∣nerua. This Uniuersitie was the in∣uentour and diuisour of all liberall Artes and Sciences, and the mother and nurse of all auncient Philosophers, Oratoures, and Poets: and therefore was called as it were the mart towne of all good learing, whether they resor∣ted to studye, out of all partes of the worlde. D. Cooper. The∣saurus.)

Demosthenes with noble speaking made this Citye haue a great name, pas∣sing long time during, as Salustius say∣eth. But passing all other Ariopagita Saint Paules Disciple, commendeth and maketh famous this Citie. For by his greate wit and profounde wisedome hee lighted all partes of the worlde, as say∣eth Epiphanius in the commendation of Denis Ariopagite, and Isidore sayth the same.

Of Achaia. chap. 9.

AChaia a Prouince of Grecia in Eu∣rope, so named of a king, that was called Acheus in old time: This prouince is almost an Iland, for it is inuironed all about with the sea, except by North ther he ioyneth to Macedonia. For hée hath in the East side the sea Cirenen: & in the North East ye Gréekish sea, & in ye south the sea Ionium, & in the South & West the Ilands that be called Cassodie. And onely in ye North side it ioineth to Mace∣donia, and Achaia, that is Grecia. The chiefe Citie of that Prouince is Co∣rinthus, a place most strong, as Isidore sayeth. libro. 15. For vnneth is anye waye to come thereto for highnesse of place, and much solke, and for highnesse of the Sea, and also for strength of Walles. Corinthus, the sonne of Ho∣testes builded this Citie. And among the Gréekes this Citye is called Co∣rinthia, which is to vnderstande seruice of the common weale, as Isidore sayeth li. 16.

(*Achaia a parte of Greece, CONTAYNING these countries, Attica, Floetia, Me∣garis, Aetholia, and Phosis, it hath on the West Epire, on the East the Sea Ae∣grum, on the North Macedonia, on the South the sea Creticum. There is another Achaia in Peloponesus, now called Morea, where was the citie of Pa∣tras, in which Saint Andrew the Apo∣stle was martyred.)

(*Conrinthus, a famous, rich, and great city in Achaia, scituate in the nar∣row straight, entring into Peloponesus, nowe called Morea: By reason of the commodious scituation for resorte of merchaundise out of all Countryes, it was the greatest mart Towne in all the worlde, and thereby rose to so great wealth and power, that the Romanes beganne to suspecte and feare them, wherefore on a time, when with proude woordes they abused ye Romane Ambas∣sadours, (as Stra. writeth) they cast vrine on their heads, as they passed through the Citie, the Romanes taking therwith Page  214 great displeasure, sent there Captayne Mummius against them, who besieged the Citie, and within short space, so de∣stroyed it, that scantly anye token of so noble a citie which in few yéeres remai∣ned: At the burning of it, so many rich and costly Images, of sundrye sortes of mettall were melted, that thereof after was founde a kinde of precious brasse, called Aes Corinthum, which long time after was had in great estimation. This scornefull Corinth and rich citie was de∣stroyed about the yere of the world.3818 before the comming of Christ .1 45. yéers. Lanquet in his Cronicle.)

Of Archadia. chap. 10.

ARchadia is a Prouince set betwéene the Sea Ionium, and the Sea Egeum, as Isidore saith. Archas, Iupiters sonne put out the men yt dwelled in this land, and called the land Archadia by his own name. And afterward the land was cal∣led Sicionia, of a king which is called Sicionius, as Isidore saith. li. 15.

(*Archadia a Country in Gréece set in the middle of Peloponesus, or Morea, so called of Archas the son of Iupiter, who reigned there. It was also called Pelasgia, Parrhasia and Liconia, there was the Bagpipe fist inuented. Also the senne Leina, where Hercules slewe the Serpent Hydra, is there: with the riuer Grymanthus, a mountaine of the same name, there is also sound the stone Abe∣ston, which being once hotte may ne∣uer be quenched, and is of the coulour of yron.)

Of Alania. Chap. 11.

ALania is the first part of Cilicia, that is the first and most land & Country of Europa, the which Europa beginneth from the riuer of Tanay, and stretcheth downewarde and Westwarde by the North Occean, vnto the end of Spaine, ye Southeast part therof stretcheth vpward from the sea Pontus, & is ioyned all to ye great sea: And is ended at the Ilande yt be called Gads, as Isid. saith li. 10. And so Alania is the first part of Cilicia:〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Alania stretcheth frō ye marreis Paludes Meotides, vnto Denmarke, and is a sall broad lande, and conteineth many fierce and strong nations, and is vnder a colde Clima, and lyeth fromwarde the East to∣ward the North.

Of Amazonia. chap. 12.

AMazonia, womens land, is a Coun∣try, parte in Asia, and parte in Euro∣pa, and i nigh Albania, and hath that name of Amazonia, of women yt were the wiues of the men that were called Goths, yt which men went out of the ne∣ther Scithia, as Isidore saith li. 9. & were cruelly slaine, and then their wiues tooke their husbands armour and weapon, and téesed on the enimies with manly heart, & tooke wreake of the death of their hus∣bands. For with dent of woord they flew all the young meles, and olde men and children, and saued the females, and de∣parted prayes, and purposed to liue euer after without companye of males. And by ensample of theyr husbandes that had alway two kings ouer them, these women ordeyned them two Quéenes, that one was called Marsephia, and that other Lampeta, that one shoulde tra∣uaile with an hoast and fight against e∣nimyes, and that other should in ye meane time gouerne and rule the communal∣ties. And they were made so fierce war∣riours in short time, that they had a great parte of Asia vnder theyr Lordshippe nigh an hundred yeares, among them they suffred no male liue neither abide in no manner wise. But of nations yt were nigh to them they chose hus bandes be∣cause of children, and went to them in times that were ordeined, and conceiued children, and when the time was done that was ordeined to the office of con∣ception: then they would compell theyr louers to go from them, & get other pla∣ces to abide in, & would slay their sons, or sende them to theyr Fathers in cer∣taine times. And they saued their daugh∣ters, & taught them to shoot and to hunt. And for the shot of arrowes should not be let with great breasts, in the seauenth Page  [unnumbered] yeare (as it is sayde) they burnt off their breasts, and therefore they were called, Amazones, that is to vnderstand with∣out breasts, as Isidore sayeth lib. 9. In olde tune men called them, Vnimam∣mat. And as it is said, Hercules adaun∣ted first the fiercenesse of them, and then Achilles: but that was more by friend∣ship than by strength, as it is contay∣ned in déedes and doing of Greekes, and the Amazones wer destroyed & brought to death by great Alexander〈…〉 the story of Alexander sayth not so but it is sayd, that Alexander demaunded tri∣bute of the Quéene of Amazons, and she wrote to him againe by messengers, in this manner.

Of thy wit I wonder, that thou pur∣posest to fight with women, for if For∣tune be on out side, and if it happen that thou be ouercome, then art thou shamed for euermore, when thou art ouercome of women: and if our Gods be wroth with vs, and thou ouercommest vs, it shall turne thée to little worship, that thou hast the mastrie of women.

The noble King wondred on hir an∣swere, and said, that it is not séemely to ouercome women with sword and with woodenesse, but rather with fairnesse and with loue, & therefore he graunted them fréedome, and made them subiect to his Empire, not with violence, but with friendship and with loue.

¶As concerning the Amazones, for the better credite of so straunge a mat∣ter, I finde set forth in the Araso∣take, of Andrew Theuet: which booke, he dedicated vnto Monsig∣neur Francois, Gonte de la Roche∣foucand. Anno .1558. Chap. 63.

*THe Spaniards did so much by theyr iourneyes, that they arriued in a Countrey, whereas were inhabiting A∣mazones,* the which would neuer haue ben thought: for that Historiographers haue made thereof no mention, because they knew not this countrey late found out. Some may saye, that they are not Amazonists, but as for me. I iudge them such, séeing that they liue euen so, as we finde the Amazonists of Asia to haue li∣ued. You shall vnderstand, that these A∣mazones of which we speake, are rety∣red, inhabiting in certaine Ilands, which are to them as strong holds, hauing al∣wayes perpetuall warre with certayne people, without any other eterie, euen as those of whom former writers haue mentioned. These warlike womē of out America being fortified on Ilandes, are most commonly asseyled of their Ene∣mies the barbarous Indians, that aryue on the shores of these Amazones, with barkes and other vesselles of a straunge forme, whereof some are of the skinnes of beasts, set out & stiffened with a kinde of slender frame: with these they assay∣led their enimies, they fight with bowes and arrowes, the women defende them with the like courage, vsing a straunge kinde of our crieng noyse: they make their bulwarkes with the shels of Tor∣teyles, which be very great and strong. I finde by the 〈◊〉, that ther are three sorts of Amazones all alyke differing onely in places & dwellings. The most auncient sort were in Affrica, among yt which were Gorgonists, yt had Meduse for their Quéene. The other wer in Sci∣thia, néere to the riuer of Tanais, which since haue reigned in a part of Asia, néere to the riuer Hermodon. And the thirds sort of Amazones, are those which wée doe troate of. There is diuers opinions why they were called Amazones: the most common is, for because that these women did burne their breast ••• theyr youth to be more apt in warre, ye which I finde very straunge, and report me to medicines, whether they can burne those parts without death, knowing the ten∣dernesse of the flesh, and the restenesse to the heart. As concerning the Etimo∣loglae of this vowell. A priatiue, and of Maz that signifieth bread, for that they liue not with bread but with other things, which is as absurd as the other, for in that time they might ••ll manye that lyued without bread; Amazones, as the Troglodifes, and many others.

In like manner all the Indians. The word Mazo signifieth nourishes with∣out womans milke, the which is most Page  215 likest to be true. Howsoeuer it is, these women are named warlike. Moreouer, ye shall note, that the Scythians, which we call Tartarians, being driuen out of Aegypt, subdued the greater part of A∣sia. In the meane time, the Scythians absenting themselues too long frō theyr wiues, and although being requested to make returne: regarded more the hoped victorie in Asia, than the companye of their wiues, was the cause of so strange & diuision, as is now discouered of.

These wiues voyde of hope, and head strong in furie, chose two chiefe Gouer∣nours ouer them, Lampedo & Marthe∣sia, that they, not onely defending theyr country from inuasion of their enemies, in maintaning their libertie: but also made many Conquests in Europe and Asia, euen vnto the riuer Hermodon.

These women to maintaine their poste∣ritie, did offer themselues to their neigh∣bours, without any other kinde of ma∣riage, and of the fruite that procéeded, they killed the males, and reserued the females for warres, their weapons wer bowes and arrowes.* The Amazones of America inhabite in little lodgings, like boothes or Cotages. They vse the com∣pany of men secretly and by night (for increase) they kill the males,* and they traine vp the female children to the ex∣ercise of shooting. When in fight, they take anye of their enimies, they hang them vp, tied by one leg or arme to trées on the top boughs, and so shoote them through with many arrowes. These flocking together, greatly amazed the Spaniards, who saluted them with Gun shot, to ye spoile of many of those women.

¶Of Almania. Cap. 13.

ALmaine is a noble Countrey and a worthy in Europe, & hath that name of the riuer Lemanus beyond Danubiusoud, as Isidore saith, wher men of that land dwelled, & wer called Alemanni, & haue that name of the riuer Lemanus, & this land is called Germanie also, as Isi. saith li. 15: There he saith yt after Den∣marke, that is ye end of the nether Siria, cōmeth Germanie, & hath in ye East side the riuer Danubius, in ye South ye riuer Rhene, & in the North & west ye sea Oc∣cean. And there be two Germanies, the ouer that stretcheth to the high moun∣taines, that be commonly called Alpes, into the sea of middle earth or Adriati∣cum, where the great sea endeth & stin∣teth in the Country Aquilia, by ye mar∣rise therof. The other Germanie is a∣bout the riuer Rhenum. And either Ger∣many is a rich land & noble of strength, and of riches, and of men that be good warriers, and for plentie of gendring of people, it is called Germany, as Isi. saith li. 15. for it gendreth gerise & huge people. And Isid speaketh of them & saith: that the nations of Germany be many, and haue huge bodies, and be strong & migh∣tie, bolde and hardie of heart, and wilde, occupied with houndes turning on hun∣ting, faire of face, and well shaped with long haire and yeolow lockes, free of heart, mercy and glad, & namely Saxons, that passe other in those foresayd things. Isid. speaketh of them and sayth: That the nations of Saxons is set in the ends and cliffes of Occean, and be full swifte and mightie, and be called Saxons, for they are most strongest kinde of men; & better than other on the sea, for they pur∣sue not their enemies onely on land, but also on sea. They pursue them ye grieue them, as they were wood, they are strong and hardy, their lands be full of fruite, & moist with water, and with best riuers. Also in their mountaines be myned all manner mettals, except tinne. Also in ei∣ther Germany be other prouinces, that be not lesse worthy, as Astria, Bauaria, about ye riuer Danubius, & sueuia & Al∣satia about the riuer Rhenum, & manye other, yt it were too much to rehearse thē. Of the Saxons of Germany came ye En∣glishmen & their Ofspring, & had the I∣land Brittaine in possession. English mē follow their language & maners in ma∣ny things yet vnto this day, as Beda saith li. de gestis Anglotū. Looke with∣in this letter. S. de Saxonia.

(*Germany, is a country called of some Dutchland, of some Almaine. It is de∣scribed by Ptholome ye 12. cha. to be boun∣ded on ye west with the riuer of Rhene:Page  [unnumbered] On the North, with the sea Germanicus Oceanus. The Southwest part with the riuer Donowe, vnto the hills of Sarma∣tia. The name of Germany extendeth now farther: for there are contained, many great Countries and cities, which sometime were part, of Gallia Belgica, that is to say, from the riuer of Rhene, Westward, vnto our Sea, Mare Brita∣nicum.)

(*Ancon is a parte of the Riuer of Nilus: also a notable Citie and hauen in Italy, in the Country Picenum, which standeth vpon the sea Adriaticum: and was so called because the Sea-bankes there, doe bend in formelyke to an arme with the elbowe. It was first buyl∣ded by People of Syracusis, afore the incarnation of Christ .179. yeares. And the hauen was augmented by the noble Tra••nus Emperour of Rome. After it was destroyed by Saracens, and eft soones builded and inhabited, and is now a fa∣mous Citie.)

(*Anwarpe, a notable Mart towne, in Brabant, called Antwerpia, of sūptu∣ous & faire building, very rich in merchā∣dize. The inhabitants of late yeres, sur∣mounting in attire and banquetting, are somewhat giuen to drunkennesse and le∣chery.)

Of Anglia. cap. 14.

ENgland is the most greatest Iland of the Occean, and is inclosed all about with the sea, & departed from ye roundnes of the world, and was called sometime Albion: and had that name of white Rockes, which were séene on the Sea cliffes. And by continuaunce of time, Lords and noble men of Troye, after that Troye was destroyed, went from thence, & were accompanied with a great nauie, and fortuned to the cliffes of the foresaid Iland, & that by Oracle of theyr fained Goddesse Pllas, as it is sayd.

And the Troyans fought with Giaunts long time that dwelled therin, and ouer∣came the Giaunts both with crafte and with strength, and conquered the Iland, and called the Lande, Britaine by the name of Brute that was Prince of that Hoaste, and so the Ilande is named Britaine, as it were an Ilande con∣quered of Brute, that time with armes and with might. Of this Brutes Of∣spring came most mightie Kings.

And who that hath lyking to knowe their déedes, let him read the Storye of Brute.

And long time after the Saxons wan the Iland with manye and diuers harde battailes and strong, and their Ofspring had possession after them of the Iland, & the Britons were slaine or exiled & Sax∣ons departed the Iland among them, & gaue euery prouince a name, by the pro∣pertie of his owne name and nation, and therefore they called the Iland An∣glia, by the name of Engelia ye Quéene, the worthiest Duke of Saxons daugh∣ter, that had the Iland in possession af∣ter many battailes, Isid. sayth, that this land is Anglia and hath that name of Angulo, a corner, as it were lande sette in the ende or a corner of the world.

But Saint Gregory séeing English chil∣dren to sell at Rome, when they were not christened, and hearing that they wer called English children: according with the name of the countrey, he aunswered and sayd. Truly they be English, for they shine in face right as Angells, it is néede to sende them message with word of saluation: for as Beda sayth, the no∣ble kinde of the Land shone in their fa∣ces. But of this land Plinius and Oro∣sius speaketh much. Isidore sayeth and toucheth in some more opēly, than other, that speake thereof more darklye. Bri∣taine, that now is called Anglia, is an Iland set afore Fraunce and Spaine, & cōtaineth about xlviii. times .lxxv. miles. Also there be many riuers and great, & hot welles. There is great plentie of mettalls, ther be plentie of the stones A∣gates, and of Pearles: the grounde is speciall good, most apt to boare corne and other good fruite. There be namely ma∣ny shéepe with good wooll, there be many Harts and other wilde beasts: there bée fewe wolues or none, therefore there be many shéepe, and maye be safelye lefte without ward in pasture and in fieldes, as Beda sayth.

Page  216Therefore one describeth the Englysh land in metre, as it followeth.

Anglia terra ferox, & fertilis, angu∣lus orbis.
Insula praediues, quae toto vix eget orbe.
Et cuius totus indiget orbis ope.
Anglia plena iocis, gens libera, apta iocari.
Libera gens, cui libera mens, & libera lingua.
Sed lingua melior liberior{que} manus.

These verses shew, that England is a strong land and sturdie, and the plen∣teoust corner of the worlde, so rich a land that vnneth it néedeth helpe of any land, and euery other land néedeth helpe of England. England is full of mirthe and of game, and men oft times able to mirth and game, frée men of heart and with tongue, but the hand is more bet∣ter, and more frée than the tongue.

And he accounteth much other wor∣thinesse, both of the men and of the I∣land, which were too long to set héere all arowe. Looke within the chap. of Brit. (*Anglia, the realme of England, part of the Ile called Britaine. The people are called Angli, of a people of Saxony, which wer at ye time most of reputatiō, & therefore their name longest continu∣ed, as well in the people as in the coun∣trie. Read more thereof in Brit. as fol∣loweth cha. 28.)

¶Of Aquitania. chap. 15.

THe Countrey of Aquitania, Guyan, is a Prouince of Gallia in Europe, as Isidore sayth lib. 15. And hath that name Aquitania, of bending and wind∣ing waters of the riuer of Leyre, which is the boundes of that lande in manye places, and compasseth it nigh all about, and is a fruitfull land, merry and noble, with townes, cities, castles and towers, moyst with waters and faire Riuers, Woodes, fieldes, gardeines, and medes, set with vines and with vineyards, with trées and fruite of diuers kindes, riche with diuers riches.

Many perticulars are contayned vn∣der this name Aquitania, as Plinius sayeth. This lande hath in the Northe west side the Sea Occean, as Orosius sayeth, and that Coast of the Sea is called the Gyanish Sea: & hath Spaine in the west side, and Gallia Lugdunen∣sis in the North and in the East, and stretcheth to the Prouince of Narbon, in the Southeast, and in the South, as Orosius saith.

(*Aquitania, Guyan, accompted to be the thirde part of Fraunce, hath on the West the Occean sea, on the North the riuer of Loyre, or (as Cesar writeth) the riuer of Gerond, on the East the parte of Fraunce called Lugdunensis: on the South, the mountaines Pireuei, which deuided Fraunce from Spaine. Albeit a parte thereof, containeth Gascoyne, Foix, Bigor, and a fewe Countreyes more.)

¶Of Andegauia. chap. 16.

ANgeo is a Prouince of Fraunce, and nigh to Gyan, and stretcheth vnto li∣tle Britaine, and the chiefe Citie there∣of is called Andegauis, and by the name of that Citie, all the Prouince about is called Andegauia, and this land beareth wine and fruite, and is rich of all fruite and goods, and is like to Aquitaine with vineyards and fruite.

¶Of Aluernia. chap. 17.

ALuerne is a Prouince of Fraunce Lugdunens, the chiefe citie thereof is called Mounte clere. This hath Germa∣ny in ye northeast side, & Italy is in the South side, & the prouince of Narbon in the west, & that part of Fraunce that is called Gallia Belgica in the north: & is a land with many woods & trées, with mountaines & pasture, and beastes tame and wilde, with fruite, corne & wine in many places.

Of Apulia. chap. 18.

APulia is a Countrey vpon the sea in Italy, that is a parte of Europe, and is departed from ye Ile of Cecilla, by an arme of ye sea, & is a land wt much folk, with gold & siluer, wt much swéet oyle, Page  [unnumbered] and wine, & is noble & strong with noble cities, castles & townes, & is plenteous, & beareth corne, & fruit, & is the end of Eu∣rope against the South, and is departed from Barbary onely by the sea. And it is sayd, that therein be hot wells, which be medicinable to sicke men. The chiefe citie of that land is called Brundusium. The Gréeks builded that citie somtime, and it hath that name of Brunda in Gréeke, that is to vnderstande, Hartes head: For that Citie is shaped as an Hartes head with hornes, and so dispo∣sed, as Isidore saith libro. 16. cap. de no∣minibus ciuitatum. Beside this land ly∣eth a land that is called Campania, mo∣ther of corne and of fruite: & by plen∣tie thereof, many prouinces be sustained both on this side of the great sea, and also on that other side.

(*Apulia, Puel a part of Italy, borde∣ring on the sea Adriaticum, a countrey populous, and hath in it manye townes and castles, abundaunce of Corne, wine, Oyle, and good Coursets for the warre. The chiefe citie therof, is Brunducium. There is also the mount of Saint Mi∣chael, called Garganus. This Countrey is called by other names, as Iapigia, Messapia, Calabria, and Salentina. The people are called Apuli.)

¶Of Affrica. Cap. 19.

AFfrica, as some men meane, hath that name, as it were Aprica: for it is cléere and open to heauen, and to the Sunne, for it receiueth no strong cold, as Isidore. saith lib. 15. Other men meane, that Affrica hath that maine of Affer, the sonne of Abraham, begot on Cethu∣ra. And it is sayd, that he conducted an hoast toward Libia, and ouercame his e∣nemyes, & dwelled there, & called them that came there afterwarde, Affros, as Isidore sayeth libro. 9. &c. And Affrica beginneth at the endes of Aegypt, and stretcheth by the South and by Aethio∣pia, vnto mount Athlante, and is be∣clypped in the North, with the sea of middle earth, and endeth in the sea Ga∣diad. This lande is called the thirde part of the world, and is diuided against Asia and Europa. In this Affrica bée many Prouinces, as Libia, Cyren, Tri∣pol, Bizaneicum, Carthage, Mauritania, Aethiopia, and many other. And that part of the world that is called Affrica, is lesse in space, than Asia or Europa: but to the quantitie thereof, it is more rich and more wonderfull in qualitie, for it is more rich of golde and of pre∣cious stones, and also of fruite, of Corne, and of Olyues. Also therein be manye wonderfull kindes, figures and shapes, of men and of beastes, which shall bée knowen, when the Countreyes of Af∣frica be described by their owne names. And is more burned with the heate of the Sunne, than other landes, and is in∣uironed with diuers endes of the Occe∣an, and is barraine in many places, be∣cause of heapes of grauell, and therein be Satires, Woodwoses, Tigers, and horrible beasts, as it shall be more kno∣wen after.

(*Affrica, the third part of the world, wherein is Carthage, Numidie, and all the countries now called Barbary, and also the great countrey called Aethio∣pia. Affrica semper aliquid noui ap∣portat. A Prouerbe applyed to vncon∣stant and wauering persons, neuer content with one state, but alwayes de∣sirous of nouelties. The most noble cap∣taine Scipio, was called Affricanus, be∣cause he subdued that country, and con∣quered Annibal, & the people of Affrica was named, Scipio Affricanus Maior. This Publius Cor, Scipio was a Ro∣mane.

¶Of Asturia. Cap. 20.

ASturia is a Prouince of the hether Spaine, in the march of Europe and Affrica, as Isidore saith lib. 15. And so they that dwell nigh the riuer Histuri∣um, be called Astures. Their country is closed about welnigh with woodes and mountaines, as he saith. Onely the peo∣ple of ye land, be more pleasing in heart and will, and more frée of heart, & more goodly than other. The Citie is called, Metro. In that lande is scarse of wine, of wheate, and of oyle.

Page  217For the land is colde and not full able to beare such corne and fruite, but there is passing plentie of myle and of chest∣ns. It is said that there growe many manner fruite and apples, of which they make them drinke in stéed of wine, and also they be most rich of beastes, wilde and tame. And (as it is saide) the people is more generallye and kindlye merry and glad, with noble voyce to sing, and swift in course and in running, strong and hardie in battaile, séemely of kinde, faire of shape, after the dispositi∣on of the country and of their land: they be light of tongue to speake to scorne o∣ther men.

(*Asturia a countrey in Spaine, be∣twéene Galitia and Portugall: which sometime was famous for mynes of golde, and ambling hackneies called A∣stureones. D. Cooper in Thesaurus.)

¶Of Aragonia. chap. 21.

ARagonia is a Prouince in Spaine, with plentie of Uineyardes, and of corne, moyst with Wells and with Ri∣uers. Aragothes dwelled therein some∣time, and of them the Country hath the name yet to this day. For the Nations of Gothes, dwelled in that Prouince sometime: and so Aragonia is sayd, as it were Aragotha, as Isidore sayeth.

The riuer Hiberus runneth there, the chiefe Citie thereof is called Cesar Au∣gusta.

(*Augusta Cesarea, a citie in Spaine, vpon the riuer Iberus. Iberia, the aun∣cient name of Spaine.)

¶Of Babilonia. chap. 22.

BAbilonia is a Prouince of Asa in Chaldea. In the head thereof is the Citie Babylon, of whom the lande hath the name, and is called Babylonia: and was so noble that Chaldea, Assiria, and Mesopotamia passed into the name ther of sometime, as Isidore saith li. 15. Most noble riuers run thereby, among whom the chiefe riuers are Tigris and Eufra∣tes, that spring out of Paradise. And it is the best lande to beare all manner of Corne and fruite, and wine, and it is ful of swéete spices, hearbes, and trées, and most rich of precious stones, and of di∣uers mettalls, with most plentie of Ca∣mells, Horses, Asses, and Mules, & other beasts. Therin is plentie of wild beasts and wonderfull, & wonderfully shapen, and namely in Desart place. The chiefe Citie thereof, was called sometime Ba∣bylon, that is to vnderstand, confusion: for the language was confounded of them; that buylded the tower Babel, as it is sayd, Ge. 11. Ierome super Esay. 11. describeth the greatnesse thereof, & saith, that Babylon is the chiefe Citie of the Chaldes, the walls thereof were xvi. M. paces in square from corner to corner, that maketh in all lxiii. M. paces, and so the wals were accounted for two leages and an halfe. Also there was a Tower, of thrée thousand paces high, which con∣taineth of high two leages batred in bredth. The matter thereof was made of vurnt tyle, that may not be departed nor vndound, & therfore it might not be destroied with fire nor with water: & for there was confusion of language, it was called Babel in Hebrew, and Babylon in Gréeke: and thereof all the lande a∣bout hath the name, and is called Babi∣lon. And there raigned somtime ye most mightie King Nabuchodonosos, among other nations of the world, that is made subiect to the Empire of Chaldes, hée made also Iewry thrall, and therefore in his Neuewes time Balthasar, Babylon was all destroyed by Cyrus and Darius Kings of Persia and Medes, and it was neuer buylded againe, but of the spoyle thereof were two Cities buylded, that one was called Sephon, as Ier. sayth. And the place that Babylon was in, is desart, and norisheth nothing but beasts wonderfully shapen. Looke afterward, in Chaldea.

(*Babilonia, the Countrey wher the Citie of Babylon stoode, on the North it is bounded with Mesopatamia: on the West, with Arabie the Desart: on the East, with Susian: on the South, with the Red sea. In this Countrie is Chal∣dea, on the which standeth the great Ci∣tie Page  [unnumbered] Babylon, and signifieth confusion or mixture. It was the name of a To∣wer builded by Nemroth, before the in∣carnation .2741. yeres. At the building héereof, was ye first confusion of tongues. This was done in the land of Sennaar, in the countrey of Chaldea. The Tow∣er was in height fiue miles, one hundred seauentie paces. Afterwarde the Citie was inlarged by Semiramis. It contai∣ned in compasse sixtie miles. The wals were in height thrée hundred féete, in thicknesse of breadth seuentie fiue féete, and had an hundred gates of Brasse.

There ranne through the middle of it, the famous Riuer Euphrates. D. Coo∣per in Thesaurus.)

¶Of Bactria. chap. 23.

BActria, is a Countrey in Asa, and hath that name of a Riuer, that is therein, that is called Bactrus, as Isido. sayth libro 15. The plaine parts there∣of that beare corne, are compassed about with mountaines. The contrarye parts to those, the riuers of Inde close about, and the other deale, the Riuer Ochus incloaseth. And therein are Camelles, most strong, that neuer stomble, as Isi∣dore sayth.

(*Bactria a Citie in the farthest part of Persia, the People whereof are cal∣led Bactri, and Bactriani, in whome is such inhumanitye, that when theyr Parentes be verye sicke or olde, they throw them vnto fierce Dogges, which doe rent them in péeces, and deuoure them.

The women of that Countrey vse sumptuous apparayle, with swéete Oyntments, and other riche attyre, and are of their Seruauntes more obayed, and reuerenced than the men are. They neuer come abroad, but on Horse back, with riche Ornamentes of Precious stones and Iewells. Chastitie they re∣garde not, but make themselues, com∣mon both to theyr Seruauntes, and to Straungers, theyr Husbandes finding no fault thereat, ouer whome they séeme to haue dominion.)

Of Braciana. chap. 24.

BRaciana, is a Countrey in Affrica, and hath that name, of two most noble Townes: that one is called An∣dromethus, and that other Byzancium. This lande is plenteous in Corne and in Oyle. The grounde thereof is so fat. that séede that is sowen therein, increa∣seth and multiplyeth it selfe an hundred folde, as Isidore sayeth, libro. 15.

¶Of Bragmanis looke in the end of this Booke.

(*Byzantium, a Citie of Thrare, now called Constantinople, sometime buylded by Pausanias Duke of Spar∣tans. The Inhabitants whereof were called Byzantij: afterward, it was aug∣mented by Constantine the Emperour, and was the chiefe and head of all the Empire Orientall. It is now vnder the Turke, who wanne it the yeare .1453.)

¶Of Brabantia. chap. 25.

BRabant is a Prouince in the ende of Germanye, and stretcheth to the Countrey of Fraunce, that is called, Gallia Belgica, and hath the Riuer of Rine & Frisia, in the East side, & Brit∣tish & Flaunderish Occean in the North side, and the nether Fraunce in the west side, and the higher Fraunce in the South side. And the water that is cal∣led Mosa runneth by this land, & Scal∣dia the Riuer, entering with floud and ebbe of the Sea, with diuers other smal riuers & fountaines, that moist the land.

This lande in much parte thereof is apte for Uines, it is heighted with Woodes, Downes, Meddowes, and Or∣chardes: it aboundeth of trées that beare fruite, of beastes wilde and tame, as hartes, wilde boares, hares and connies: & in this land be many famous townes. This lande beareth well fruit, and is ful of men of séemelye stature, and fayre of shape: and be men of warre, bolde & har∣die against their enimies, pleasing & qui∣et among themselues, deuout men, good∣ly and benigne.

Page  218(*Mosa Fluuius, a riuer which is cal∣led the Maze, and runneth betwéene the Dutchye of Brabant, and the lande of Luke.

¶Of Belgica. chap. 26.

BElgica is a Prouince of Fraunce in Europe, and hath that name of a ci∣tie, that is called Belgia, as Isidore sai∣eth lib. 9. This Prouince (Orosius say∣eth) hath Germany, and the Riuer of Ryne on the East side, and the moun∣taines that are called Alpes Pennine, in the North east side: and the Pro∣uince of Narbon is in the South side. Therein is the Citie of Arelatensis, & hath the Prouince of Lugdunensis in the West, and the Brittish Sea in the North west and Britaine, that is Eng∣land, in the North side. This lande is plenteous of corne and of fruite, and beareth wine in many places, and is ful of men, and is strengthened with Cities and with townes. And the men he fierce by kinde, as Isidore sayeth libro. 9. The men be bolde and hardye, the lande is moyst with waters and Riuers, and faire with plenteous fieldes, and woods, and meades, and full of noble beastes, with fewe beastes wonderfully shapen, with few venemous beasts except frogs & Adders. And generally and commonly this lande is peaceable and quiet, and this land of Belgica, hath many diuers people and countreyes, with somewhat diuers language.

(*Belgae, The people that inhabite the Countreyes and Townes, incloa∣sed with the Occean sea, and the Riuers of Rhene, Mame and Seyne, wherein be the Cities of Tryre, Coleyne, Ma∣gunce and Reynes. Also the Countryes of Flautiders, Hollande, Gelderlande, Iuliers, Cleues, Henawe, part of Fri••e∣land, Picardie, the greatest part of cam∣paine, and all the Forest of Arderne. It was sometime called, Gallia bel∣gica.)

¶Of Bithinia. chap. 27.

BIthinia, (as Isidore sayeth) is a Prouince of the lesse Asa, in the be∣ginning of the Sea that is called Pon∣tus towarde the East, and lyeth afore Th••••, and hath had manye names some time, for it was first called, Bi∣thica, and afterwarde Bithinia, and had that name of a King that was cal∣led Bithinius. This is the more Phri∣gia, and the chiefe Citie thereof, was called Nicomedia: thether Hannibal, Prince of Carthage fledde, and dyed with venyme, as Isidore sayeth libro. 15. Fenix buylded first Bithinia, that was first called, Miramunda, as Isi∣dore sayeth.

(*Bithinia, a Realme in Asa, which now the Turke hath: on the North, it hath the Sea called Ponticum: on the South, Mists, and Phrigis. It was called also Bebrytia, and after Myg∣bonia.

Nicomedia a noble Citie in Bithi∣nia, where Constantinus Magnus the Emperour dyed. It is now called of the Turkes, Nicho.

Hannibal the sonne of Hamilcar, the most noble and valyaunt Capitaine of the Carthaginensis who making warre with the Romanes sixtéene yeares, con∣tended with them in prowesse and pol∣licie, winning from them theyr Domi∣nions in Spaine and Italy. Finallye, béeing vanquished by Scipio, he fledde to Antiochus King of Asa, afterwarde to Prusias King of Bithinia; of whom vnder the coulour of amitie he was be∣trayed, and shoulde haue bene deliuered to Fleminius, that time Embassadour to Prusias: But Annibal perceiuing it, choosing rather to dye, than to come in∣to the handes of the Romanes, tooke poyson, which he had kept for that pur∣pose, sayeng: Let vs delyuer the Ro∣manes from the axe mid feare, which they haue of vs, with a fewe wordes of indignation, and so dyed, before he might be deliuered. D. Cooper.

¶Of Britania. chap. 28.

BRitaine is an Ilande of Occean, in Europe, and stretcheth foorth along, and hath Fraunce in the South side, as Orosius sayeth.

Page  [unnumbered]This lande hath in length the space of foure score myle, and in breadth two hundred miles, and in that place there is the endlesse Occean Sea. There are the Ilandes Orchades: twentie of them are Desarte, and thirtéene be inhabited. Then commeth the Ilande Tyle, seuen dayes sayling from thence, as Plinius sayeth libro. 4. and Isidore. 15.

*This Ilande Tyle, was thought to be the vtmost Ile in the West.

And this Ilande Tyle, is departed farre from the Ilande of Britains, as Orosius sayeth, towarde the North, Northwest, and standeth in the middle Occean, and is knowen but to few men, for it is so farre in the Sea, as Plinius saith libro. 4. chap. 17. This Britayne lyeth betwéene the North and the west, afore Germany, Fraunce and Spaine, with right farre way betwéene. First this land was called Albion, and hadde that name for cause of white rockes and cragges that be about the land. After∣ward it had another name of Brute, and was called Britaine. And at the last it was called Anglia, and had that name of Germaines that dwelled there. Lake before in Littera A. of Anglia.

Also another lesse Britaine is vpon the Occean of Gyan, in the countryes of Fraunce. In that lesse Britayne dwelte and doe yet vnto this daye, Britons, that lefte the more Britaine for fierre∣nesse of Germaynes, and yet there is the Nation and also the name of Britons. And though this Britaine bée worthye and noble in manye things, yet may not the daughter be pere to the mother, & so the lesse Britaine maye not be pere to the more: And is skilfullye called the lesse Britaine, for it maye not be pere to the more Britayne, in the number of People, nor in noblenesse of grounde and of lande.

Addition.

The resitall by D. Cooper, forth of his booke, Thesaurus lin∣guae Romeo & 〈…〉 of Britaine.

BRitayne the most noble Ile of the worlde,* wherein be contayned Eng∣londe, and Scotlande. It lyeth from Germany, West: from Fraunce and Spaine, West Northwest. The forme therof is lyke a Triangle: the length is extended into the North to the further∣most part of Scotland, called Calidonia, which Plinius, Solinus & Martianus do agrée to be 800. miles. The bredth of it after Martianus, is 300. Italian miles. The narrowest distaunce betwéene this Ile and Callis sands (called of Plinye, Gessoriacum in Gallia) is 50. Italian miles, it is now gessed to be 30. English miles. Of ye first naming of this Ile, is yet no certain determination: forasmuch, as there remaineth no auncient Historie making thereof remembrance, the olde Britaine bookes (such as were) being all destroyed by the Saxons: who indeuo∣red themselues to extinct (or blot out) vtterlye, the honourable renowme, with the name of Britones, lyke as ye Goshs dealt with the Romanes. Also the parte of Titus Liuius, where the Conquest of Britaine is remembred, with the Histo∣ries of Iulius Rusticus, and diuers o∣ther noble Writers, that wrote special∣lye of this Countrey, are vtterly perish∣ed.

Such as remaine, as the Commen∣taryes of Iulius Caesar, Cornelius Ta∣citus, Diodorus Siculus, and they that wrote of Cosmographie, haue omitted the originall beginning of the name.

The Historye of Gyldas the Briton can not be founde, who was after the Saxons had inuaded this Realme: and therefore might lacke such Bookes, as should best instruct him. As for Beda sée∣meth to haue séene nothing written of that matter. For where he sayeth, that this Ile tooke the name Britania, of the inhabitants of Britayne in Fraunce, it is nothing lyke to be true: For that Countrey, was (not long before the time of Beda) named, Armorica, and Armoricus Tractus, when this Ile was called of most auncient Wri∣ters, Brittania, and (as Solinus wri∣teth) séemed to be another worlde, Page  219 forasmuch as the West parte of Gallia, was thought to be the vttermost parte of this world. Also Iulius Caesar wri∣teth, that the places of this Ile were vnknowen to French men, sauing to a fewe Merchaunts: and yet they knew no farther, than the Sea Coaste next toward Fraunce. Moreouer the same Britons affirme, that it was lefte a∣mong them in remembraunce, that the innermost part of the countrey, was in∣habited of them, which had their first be∣ginning in the same Ile. This well con∣sidered, with the authoritie of the Wri∣ter, both an excellent Prince, and also a great learned man, and os himselfe in this Ile, it is not to be doubted, but that he most diligently searched for the true knowledge of the uncientie thereof, &c. And yet, because this Ile, excelled all the other in euery condition, it was of some priuately called Albion, that is to saye, more happie or richer. This coniecture, approcheth more nigh ye true similitude, than the other mentions, except there be any auncient historie, before the time of Gefferie of Monmoth or Beda, which may more probably consute that I haue declared: to such will I gladlye giue place.

Finallye, I thought it alwayes more honoroble, to haue receiued the first name by such occasion as I haue reher∣sed, and the generation of the Inhabi∣tants of this lande, to be either equall with ye most auncient, or mixed with ye most wise & valiant people of Greece, vanquishers & subduers, of Troians, thē to take the name & first generation of a vaine Fable, or of a man, if any such were, which after he had slaine his Fa∣ther, wandred about ye world vncertaine where so dwell. Also to aduaunt vs to come of the Troyns,anisers of their awne countries destruction, by fauola∣ring the adulterye of P••ée and Helena. Of whome soeuer procéeded anye other notable monument, but that they were also breakers of their oath and promise Yet this follye is founde almost in all people, which contend to ••aetheir P•• genitours comes first from Troy which fantasie maye well be laughed at among wise men. The faith of Christ was first receyued in this realme, after the incar∣nation. 156. yeares.

Britaine or Brutaine, which by two names is called Englande and Scot∣lande, is an Ilande in the Occean sea, sertuate right ouer against Fraunce.

One part of which Ile, Englishmen do inhabite, another parte Scottes: the thirde, Welsh men: the fourth parte, Coreth men. All they, either in lan∣guage, condition, or lawes, doe differ a∣mong themselues. Iohn Stowe in his description of England, &c.

The chiefest Citie is London, stan∣ding in Middlesex, on the North side of the Riuer of Tamise, over which Ri∣uer, is a great Bridge placed, of stone hauing buyldings verye rare, and mer∣uailous, &c.

Englande is fruitefull of Beastes, and aboundeth with Cattell, whereby the Inhabitaunts be rather for the most parte, Grasiers than Plough men, because they giue themselues more to féeding, than to fillage.

The originall from Brute, of the Realme of England, (notwithstanding Lanquer yéeldeth not that it was vn∣inhabited when Brute arriued (after common Historyes,) the yeare of the worlde, 855. and the yeare before the incarnation .1108.

Whereof after Brute, Locrine, hée hadde the middle parte of Britaine, nowe called Englande, with the superi∣oritie of all this Ile: vnto Camber hée gaue Wales, and to Albauact Scot∣land, &c.

Of Boetia. Chapt. 29.

BOetia is a Prouince and a parte of Hellades in Gréece, as Isidore say∣eth, libro.5. And hath that name of Bo••an Oxe, for this cause. For while Coamus the •••• of Agenor, by com∣maundement of his Father sought his Sister Etop, that Iupiter had ra∣uished, and might out finde for, and mading sae his Fathers wrath, hée determined in his mine to lyue of Ex∣ile, and while it happened that hée fol∣lowed Page  [unnumbered] the fore and trate of an Oxe, hée founde the place where the Oxe rested, and he named it Boetia, by the name of the Oxe, and there he buylded a Citie that was named Thebes, and there hée helde ciuill battailes some time, & there were borne Apollo and Hercules, the elder man of Thebes. This same is called Eumona, and hath that name of a Well that there is, that was hallowed to Apollo sometime, as Isidore sayeth, libro 15. In this lande is a lake of mad∣nesse, so that who that drinketh there∣of, he shall burne in woodnesse of leche∣rie, as he sayeth libro 14. chap. 3. De Aquia. ¶Looke before of Welles.

(*Boetia, is a Countrey in Gréece, wherein was the Citie of Thebes.

Now it is called Vandalia. It was sometime called Annia, Mesapia, Ogi∣gia, Cadmeis, and Hyantis.)

Of Boemia, chap. 30.

BOeme is a part of Messis, towarde the East side and West by Germa∣nie in Europe, and is cloased about, with most greate Mountaynes and thicke, and high woodes, and is depar∣ted from Germany and Pannonia, and other nations, with mountaines, woods, and Riuers, and is full straunge in ma∣ny places, with high mountaines, and is full faire in Plaines of fieldes, and of meedes, and most wholesome in the as∣pect of euery blessed land to beare corne, and fruite. And hath plentie of Wiues, and Uineyardes of Corne and of fruite, and most rich of golde, of siluer, and of Tinne, and of other mettalls: moyst with Welles and with Riuers, for a Riuer watereth and moysteth the lande that is called Albia, a most noble Ri∣uer that riseth out of the mountaines of Boemia, and also many Riuers, which runne together to Praga, that is a roy∣all Citie.

In the mountaines thereof, are plen∣tie of trées of Pines and of Fyrre. And there bée hearbes without number, not of Pasture, onelye and of léese, but also of swéete Spiceries and medicinable hearbes. These be many beasts of diuers kinde, as Beares, Hartes, Capreole, Tragollaphi, Bubali and Bisontes. And among these wilde beasts, ther is one as much as an Oxe, and this beast is strong and fierce, and hath great hornes, and large, and defendeth himselfe with them, and hath vnder the thinne a great bag, and gathereth water therein, and heat∣eth that water in that bagge wonder∣fullye, and in his running he throweth that water vpon hunters and houndes, that come too nigh him, and that water scaldeth off their haire, and burneth hor∣ribly all thing that it toucheth. And this Beast is called Bom in the language of Boeme. And this lande is compassed with Morauia and Panonia in ye East side, and with Polonia in the North, & with Austrich in the South, and is com∣passed with Bauaria Germanica, and with the matche of Misseneme in the West.

(*Boemia, a Realme called Beme, inclosed with the boundes of Germany, hauing on the East side, Hungarie: on the South Bauier: on the West the Countrey Noricum: on the Northeast, Polonia. It is equall in length & bredth, each of them being about thrée dayes iourney. It is inuironed with the fa∣mous Forest, Sylua Fierc••. Through the middle thereof, passeth the great Ri∣uer Albia, and the riuer Moltania: vp∣on the riuage whereof, is set the chiefe citie Braga or Praga: the language there is ye Slauone tongue. Notwithstanding in the churches, ye people are taught in ye Dutch tongue; in the churchyardes, they are taught in yeeme tongue: they vary from the Romane Church, in sundrye opinions, and do scorne all Ceremonies. In some places it is sayd, they priuelye obserue the sect of the Adamites, and Waldenses, in the act of lecherie. These Heretiks tooke their beginning of a Pi∣rard that came into the land of Boine, & said that he was ye son of God, & named himselfe Adam: he commanded all men & women to go naked, & as they liked in iust, so to goe together, &c. This horrible and most filthy sect began. Anno. 1412. Read Thesaurus.)

Page  220

Of Burgondia. cap. 31.

BVrgoyne is a parte of Fraunce Se∣nonens, and stretcheth vnto the mountaines that bée called Alpes Peni∣nos, and hath that name Burgun∣dia, of bourough Townes: For the East Gothes made there manye bou∣rough Townes and strong, when they shoulde goe into Italye. The lande is strong and full of mountaines, and of pasture, and of woode in manye places, and moyst with streames, Riuers, and waters: And beareth well in some pla∣ces fruite and corne, and is in many pla∣ces barraine and drye, and vnmoyst and colde nigh the mountaynes, by reason there is much Raine and Snowe. And they that dwell nigh the mountaynes, haue greate Batches vnder the chinne, of oft vse of the Snowe water. There∣in bée abundaunce of wilde beastes, as Beares, Boares, Hartes, and manye o∣ther.

Of Capadocia. chap. 32.

CApadocia is a Prouince in the more Asia, and in the ende of Syria, and toucheth stemenia in the East side, and the lesse Asia in the West, and the fieldes that hée called Consirij Campi, (the which the Amazones hadde some∣time,) in the North side and the Sea Tymericum. In the South side the mountaine that is called Taurus, and thereto belongeth, Cilicia and Isauria, euen vnto the Sea that is called Silicus sinus, that is afore the lande of Cypres, thereby runneth the Riuer Albis, that diuided sometime the Kingdomes of Li∣dia from the Perses, as Isidore saith lib. 15. and Orosius lib. primo. These men came first of Mosoch, the sonne of Ia∣phet: And so yet there is a citie among them that is called Moreta to this day, as Isidore sayth lib. 19.

Cappadocia a Countrye of A∣sia, hauing on the South Cilicia and the mountaine Taurus, one the East Ae∣menie, and diuerse other nations, on the North sea, ye Euxinum, on the west Ga∣latia, and is diuided from Armenie the more, with the famous Riuer Euphra∣tes. In this Countrye are bread plentye of excellent good horses. It was some∣time called Alba Syria, because the peo∣ple there bée whiter then in the other Syria. The people thereof bée called Cappadoces, whose conditions are repu∣ted so ill, that among the common peo∣ple, if one had béene séene to be of ill fashion, they woulde saye hée was of Cappadocia. In that Countrye were borne Basilius Magnus, and Gregorius Nazianzenus, two holy Bishops and ex∣cellent Doctours.)

Of caldea, chap. 33.

CAldea is sayde as it were Casidea, and hath that name of Caseth, the sonne of Nachor, that was Abrahams brother, as Isidore sayth libro. 9. And so Caldei is said as it were Cassedei, & hath that name of Casseth. And that land is most large, and lyeth beside Euphrates, therein is the holde that is called Du∣ran. In that fielde Gyauntes came toge∣thers after the floud, and did builde the Towre Babel by counsel of Nembroth, of that Towre the citie that there is builded hath the name, and is called Ba∣bilon. And afterwarde all the countrye a∣bout was called Babylonia, as it is sayd afore cap. 2.

¶But héere is to vnderstande, what Orosius sayth of Babylon libro. 2. The first King (he sayth) among the Assyries, that might passe other, was Ninus. When Ninus was slayne, his wife Semiramie Quéene of Asia, made the Citie of Babylon more, that Nembroth had begunne, and shée resto∣red the Citie, and ordeyned that Citye to be head and chiefe of the realme of As∣syries. And that kingdome stood strong∣ly M.C. lxiiii yeares, vntill the reigne of Sardanapalus him slewe Arbates, Pre∣sede of Medes and then beganne the Realme of Assyaies to perish. But it vtterly perished when by Cyrus & Da∣rius Babylonia was so destroyed, that vnneth men might thinke, that so Page  [unnumbered] strong a Citie might be taken. For that citie was disposed as a castle with walls lyke long and square. The greatnesse & strength of the wals may vnneth be sup∣posed. For the walles were fiftie cubites thicke, and as much in height, and the ci∣tie about was foure hundered and foure score furlongs. The walls were of burnt tiles tempered with glewe, and without was abroad Ditch and large séene farre thence. Into that ditch ran the riuer all about the citie. And in the Front of the walles were an hundred Gates, and a∣bout the walls were dwelling places for them that shoulde defende the Citie, and those places of defence were wonderfully strong and huge. And though that Citye were so strong, yet it was soone ouer∣come, taken, and beate to the earth. For Cyrus diuided the Rider in thrée hun∣dred and thrée score channells, as hée had before diuided the Riuer Ganges, when he was wroth with the riuer, he diui∣ded it in thrée hundreth and thrée score parts, for one of his knights was drow∣ned therein. And so when this riuer was withdrawne, that ranne about the Ci∣tie, the citie was the sooner taken, as saith Orosius. And ye same yéere in which Ar∣bates began to destroy Babilonia, Rome began to be sounded: and so in one accord of time, that one citie fel downe, and that other arose. And when ye first kingdome of the East failed for age, then the king∣dome of the West beganne to arise and to striue.

(*Chaldea, a Country, which (as Stra∣bo writeth) ioyneth to Arabia and to the Sea Persicum, Solinus and Plinius name that country Chaldaea, where the greate Citie of Babylon stoode. In the newe Cards and mappes, it is set in this wise: On the West it ioyneth on Mesopota∣mia, on the North vppon Assyria and Media on the East vppon Persia, on the South vpon Arabia deserte, and so it is farre from India. They haue a proper language somewhat like to Hebrew, but their letters are vnlyke to anye other. Strabo meaneth the Country where the people Calybes dwell, Chaldea.)

Of Cedar. chap. 34.

CEdar is the name of a Countrye, in which dwelled the Ismalites, that were the children of Cedar, that was Is∣maels eldest sonne. For Ismael was A∣brahams sonnè, otten on his seruaunt Agar, a woman of Aegypt. And more truely they be there called Agareni then Savaceni, though they mistake the name of Sara in vaine, and be proud therof, as though they were gendered of Sara, as Isidore sayth li. 9. These men builde no houses, but goe about in large wilder∣nesse, as wilde men, and dwell in tents, and liue by prayes, and by Uenison. And therefore Ismael was called Onager, a wild Asse: as the Glose saith: super Ge∣ne. 16. This was a fierce man, &c. And he saith, that he shall passe the woodnesse of all beasts, and gréeue sober men and easy. For, as Methodius sayth, yet hereafter they shall once be gathered together, & go out of Desart, and winne and holde the roundnesse of the earth, eight wéekes of yéeres, and theyr way shall bée called the waye of anguish and of woe. For they shall ouercome Cities & kingdomes. And they shall slay Priests in holy places, and lye there with women, and drinks of ho∣ly vessells, and lie beasts to Sepulcres of holy Saintes, for wickednesse of chri∣sten men, that shall be that time. These & many other things he doth rehearse, that Ismaelits men of Cedar, shall doe in the wide worlde.

Cedar a Region in Arabia.*

Of Cancia. chap. 35.

CAncia,sent, is a prouince of Eng∣land vpon the British Occean. The chiefe citie thereof is called Eusterbu∣rye, and the land beareth well to me and fruite, and hath many woodes, & moist with welles and riuers, and is noblye endowes with Hauens of the Sea, and rich of riches, and chiefe in wholsomnesse of heauen.

(*As concerning the setting forth of Rent, a prouince worthy of praise, as al∣so Master W. Lambert for his singular penning of the same, with others, in the booke intituled, The Perambulation of Page  221 Kent, is sufficiently set downe the ferti∣litie of the soile, the good disposition of the inhabitants, and their modestie: the one∣lye platforme and beautie of Englande, whose customes and manners are of greatest antiquitie, libertie, and seruice: Kent lieng in ye Southeast region of this realme, hath on the North the riuer of Thamise, now called Temmes, on the East the Sea, on the South the Sea and Sussexe, and on the West Sussexe and Surreye, it extendeth in length from Wicombe in the frontires of Surrey, to Dele, at the sea side .50. miles: And retch∣eth in breadth from Sanhirst (néere Ro∣berts-bridge in the edge of Sussex) to the North point of the Ile of Greane, almost 30. miles, & so hath in circuit .150. miles, or thereabout.

Of Cantabria. chap. 36.

CAntabria is a Prouince of Spaine, and hath that name of a Citie, and of the Riuer Hyberus. The men thereof bée vnsteadfast in heart, apt to steale and to robbe, and gladde for to striue, and alwaye readie and prest for to re∣ceiue strokes, as Isidore saith libro. 9. Nigh to this lande is Celtiberia, and hath that name of Gallis Celticis and Hiberis.

(*Cantabria people of a Countrye in Spaine called now, Biscay.)

Of Chananea. cap. 37.

CHananea is a Country in Siria, that was after the sloud in the possession of the children of Chanaan, that was the sonne of Cham. And of them were tenne Nations, as Isidore sayth lib. 9. And 8. Nations of them were of the children of Chanaan, in which the curse that was gi∣uen to them by Cham was ordeined, as it were by heritage: and therefore by bidding of our Lord, ye children of Israel put them out, and occupied their lands, as Isidore saith li. 9.

(*Cham, called also God Cham, is the name of dignitie of the greate Empe∣rours of Tartarians, called the greate Cham of Cathay, or Cambalo, whose dominion extendeth from the furthest parte of the East, vnto the Countrye of Russia North West, and so vnto the North west, and so vnto the North Sea, on the South east, vnto Persia: so that by the mappe appeareth, there is vnder him as much maine lande, within litle; as is the residue of all Asia, Europa, and Affrica.)

Of Campania. cap. 38.

CAmpania is a Prouince of Italye, betwéene the Territorie of Rome and Apulia. The chiefe Citie thereof sometime was Capua, builded by Sil∣uius king of Albanes. And hath that name of Capacitas: For the land there∣of receiueth all manner of fruite of su∣stinaunce, and is the head of all the Ci∣ties of Campania, and this Citie, Rome, and Cartage, were reckoned thrée of the greatest Cities: and sometime all Italy had the name of this citie, and was cal∣led Campania. Many ether Cityes fa∣mous and full of men and rich, pertei∣ned to the Prouince of Campania, as Neopolis and Penteolis, where Uir∣gills Bathes were in worshippe some∣time. And is a land with plenty of corne, of Wines, of Oliues, of wilde beastes, and of diuerse manner of fruite. There is another manner Campania called Ci∣salpina, and is a prouince of Fraunce Senonens, the chiefe citie therof is Tre∣ueris.

(*Campania a country in the realme of Naples, which was accompted the most fertile and pleasaunt country of all the world.)

Of cauda. chap. 39.

CAuda is called an Iland yt is narrow and straight in the beginning, and then breader, and hard entering and tra∣uailous, as it is saide in Actibus Apost. ca. 27. And this Iland is betwéene Ciria and Italye, by Creta and Sardina.

(*But anone after ther arose by a stor∣mye wind called Euroclidon, that is the North cast wind, or euery East winde that is stormie. And when the Shippe Page  [unnumbered] was caught, & could not resist the wind, we let her driue, and wer carried away: And we ranne vnder a little Ile named Clauda (this Ile was West & by South from Candie, straight toward the goulfe Sirtes, which wer certaine boling sands that swallowed vp all that they caught) and had much a doe to gette the Boate. Act. 27. vers. 14.15.16.

Of Cilicia. chap. 41.

CIlicia is a Prouince of lesse Asia, and hath that name, as men tell, of Iupi∣ters eldest sonne, as Isidore saith lib. 15. This prouince hath Liciam in the west side, and the Sea Mare siculum in the South, and in the East the toppes of mount Taurus, in the North the Riuer Cignus runneth through the land. The chiefe Citie thereof is Tharsimonia, that is called Tharsis: there was Saint Paule borne. And Coroscos is a towne thereof, and there is much Saffron and best smel∣ling, and passing golde in colour, as Isid. saith lib. 15.

*Cilicia a country in Asia, partly inclo∣sed with the highest part of ye mountain Taurus, and hardest to passe by, Strabo diuideth Cilicia into two partes, one cal∣led Tracher, that is to say, rough or roc∣kie. The other Campestris, that is to say, plaine. Iosephus writeth, that it was of olde time called Tarsus, or Tarsis, one of the sonnes of Iaphet, the youngest son of Noe, Herodotus sayth, the people were called Cilices of Cilix, the sonne of Agenor king of Phaenicia, where before it was called Hyppateus. Saint Hie∣rom interpreteth Cilicia, a congregation, a lamentation, an assumption, a lamenta∣ble challenge or vomit. The people were by nature inclining to lyeng and stea∣ling, whereof growe this Prouerbe, Cy∣lix non facile verum dicit. The Cili∣cian not lightly sayth true. A Prouerbe applyed to a couetous man, which alway lieth for his perticular aduantage, as now a daies most men doe which liue onelye by stealing.

Of Ciprus. chap. 41.

CIprus is an Iland, & hath that name of Ciprus, a Citie that is therein, as Isidore sayth lib. 15. This land is called Paphon, and was sometime hallowed to Venus, and was full famous sometime, & namely of mettal of copper. And the vse therof was first found there, as he sayth. The land beareth wine, and the wine of that place is full strong. Now many Ci∣ties be therein full noble: Among whom the chiefe Citie is called Nichosia. The land is inuironed all about with the sea, and is within all ful of woods and fields, of modes, of viniards, of corne, & of fruit: and is moist with wells and riuers: and rich of many riches and liking. Oft this land is called Cethim in holy writ, as I∣sidore saith lib. 11. And hath that name of the sonne of Iosan, the nephew of Ia∣phet, as Isidore sayth. Orosius li. 1. spea∣keth of this Iland, and sayth: that the I∣land Cyprus is inuironed with the Sea yt is called Mare Siriacum in ye west side, & with the sea that is called Mare Pam∣philicum in the North: and with Aulone & Cilicio. And is inuironed in the South, with the sea of Siria, and of the prouince Fenix, and conteineth in length an hun∣dred thrée score, & fiftéene thousand paces, and in bredth a leuen hundred paces and fiue and twentie.

(*Cyprus an Ile in the Sea called Carphathium, against the country called Syria, on the North it hath Cilicia, on the South and the East Aegypt. It is in length after the description of Strabo. 175. miles, after eight furlongs to the mile: Some suppose it was at the first a portion of Syria, diuided by Earth∣quake. This country aboūdeth in wine, Oyle, mettall, Uitrioll (called Copporas) and Canes, whereof Suggar is made. Also Venus was there had in greate re∣uerence, insomuch that men, before they did sette forth theyr daughters in marri∣age, offered them to such straungers as came into the Countrye, to bée by them deflowred, and afterwarde (with the game so gotten) married thē to husbands.

Of Creta. chap. 42.

Page  222CReta is an Iland of Gréece, and hath that name of one Crete a king, yt dwel∣led there: and stretcheth in great length betweene the East and the West, and is washed with waues of Gréece in ye North side, and with waues of Aegypt in the South side: And was sometime posses∣sed with an hundred noble Cities. And therefore it is called Centapolis, that is to vnderstand, a land with an hundred ci∣ties. And this land was first enable with eares, armours, and arrowes. This was the first land that wrote lawe, and gaue lawe written with letters, & taught first companies of horse men. Therein was studie of musicke first found of Ideis, and taken to other men in the worlde about, and there musicke was vsed, & the studie thereof increased and made more. Therin be many beasts, Goats and Hartes, and right few wilde Goates, Wolues, Fox∣es, and other noiful beasts be none ther∣in. There are no Serpents nor noyfull Wormes. And if they bée brought the∣ther out of other Countryes they dye a∣none. This land is friend to Uines, and beareth trées and medicinable hearbes, as Diptanno & Alnos, and such other: and al∣so that land bréedeth precious stones, and also a stone that is called Iothed actili∣cus, as Isidore saith lib. 15. And though it be an Iland free and cleane of any nota∣ble venim, yet neuerthelesse therin bréed Spalangie, that be venimous Spiders. Huc vsque Isidorus. li. 15. Plinius telleth the same at all points. li. 4. Orosius spea∣keth of the same Iland, and saith. Creta endeth in the East at the sea Carpaceo, & in the West & in the North at the Sea Creticum, & in the South at the sea Li∣bicum, that is also called Adriaticum: and hath in length of paces. M. C. lxxx. vii. and in bredth a M. and fiftie. Looke the dispo∣sition of Dedalus house in Creta. Isido∣rus liber. 16. in capitulo de Ciuitati∣bus.

(*Creta, an Ile lyeng betwéene Pe∣loponnesius, and the Rhodes, it hath on the North parte the sea Aegeum and Cretense: on the South the sea of Ae∣gypt, and Asric. It is now called Can∣dic. In this Ile was Iupiter nourished, whom the Painims named their chiefe God. There Minos reigned, & Radaman∣thus gouerned vnder him most exquisite iustice: Of whose lawes, other countries tooke their first patrone: yet notwithstan∣ding the people of that countrie wer no∣ted to be bicious, & shamefull liers, as E∣pimenides wrote in a verse; resited by S. Paule, in his Epistle to Titus, saieng. ca. 1. The Cretians are alwayes liers, e∣uill beasts, and slow bellies. This wit∣nesse is true: This is nowe vnder the Turke.)

(*Daedalus the name of an exellent Carpenter of Athens, which first founde the Sawe, the Twible, and the uger, & made the place in Crete called Laby∣rinthus, or a Maz, as for pleasure are made diuerse in Gardens, but this was a strong hold.)

Of Ciclades. chap. 43.

CIclades were sometime Ilandes of Greece, as Isidore saith lib. 15. And men thinke that they be called Ciclades, for though they be farre from the Iland Delos, yet they be scituate about Delim: for ye Greeks called it the round Ciclum. But some men mene, that they haue that name Ciclades, because of rocks & crags, that be about them: These Ilands stande in the sea that is called Hellespontus, betwéene the sea Egeum and Malcum: And be inuironed with the sea Indicum, and be in number 54. And stretch from the North toward the South fiftie thou∣sand paces, and fiftie thousande from the East toward the West, as Isid. saith: and after Orosirus M. CC. And as hée sayeth, the first of these Ilandes Eastwarde is Rodus, and Northward is Cenedo, and Southward Capaduce, and Westwarde Citeras, and these lands end Eastward at ye cleaues of Asia, Westward at the Sea Icatum, Northward at the Sea Legeū, and Southward at the Sea Charpati∣um.

(*Cyclades, the fiftie Iles in the Sea called Aegeum.)

Of Choa. chap. 44.

Page  [unnumbered]CHoa that is called Choes also, is an Iland, and belongeth to the Prouince of Athica: therein Hippocrates the phi∣sition was borne. And this land was first endowed with cloth making, as he saith. Also in that Ilande be noble horses, of whom Salomon had greate ioye in olde time, as it is said 3. Reg.* wher it is said, that horse were brought to him out of Choa.

(*Salomon had horses brought forth of Aegypt, and of Coa, which in the Eng∣lish translations is lefte out. (The Ile Coa.)

*Hippocrates the name of a most excellent Phisition, scholler to Democra∣tes, & liued in the time of Perdicas king of Macedonia, in his court. Artaxerxes king of Persia, wrote of Hippocrates in this manner, to Hystanes his liuetenant of Hellespont, as Gwydas witnesseth. The greate king Artaxerxes to his liue∣tenant Hystanes sendeth gréeting. I haue heard of the same of the noble phisition Hippocrates, sée therefore that thou giue him as much mony as he wil desire, wt al other things necessary, & send him to me: he shalbe in as great honor wt me, as the best in all Persia, &c. He died béeing. 104. yeres of age. Ther wer also of the same name and stocke fiue other, all notable & famous men in Phisicke, but this, farre passed thē all, he flourished about ye yere of the worlde. 4760. after Munsterus of his discréete manners and stature, forth of the Cronicle, Cronicarum. folio. 73. hée forbad all volnptuousnesse, which he a∣horred: of graue manners the onely orna∣ment to his Disciples, hée was of small stature, faire & wel fauored, but great he∣ded, not easily moued nor hasty to speak, saieng: He that will bée frée, let him not desire that which he cannot haue: Hée that will have that which he desireth, let him desire that which he may haue: He that will liue peaceably in his lyfe, lette him be like vnto him that is bidden to a feast, who giueth thanks for all yt is set on the table, & grudgeth not for the want of any thing.)

The horses that were bred in this Coa were of great price, whereof 6. where ioy∣ued in euery chariot, & euery horse valued at 100. cicles of siluer, which amounteth after 15. pence the cicle, & euery cicle halfe an ounce, to ye sum of 6. li. 5. shillings e∣uery horse, notwithstanding there were vsed sundry cicles of diuers values, which I omit, & the horses might be of greater value.

Of Corsica. chap. 45.

COrsica is an Ilande wt many prouin∣ces, & is corner wise in shape, & hath ye sea Tyrenicum in the East side, & the ha∣uen of ye citie of Rome: and Sardinia in ye South side: & Belliares in the west, & the sea Ligusticum in the North: and cōtey∣neth in length. C. ixi. thousand paces, and 26. thousand in breadth.

(*Corsica an Iland in the middle sea, be∣twéene Gean & the Ile of Sardina called Cors. It is nowe vnder the citie of Gean or Genua, which citie hath ben oftētimes reedified, the people are called Ianewaes, Romane Italians.

Of Dalmacia. chap. 46.

DAlmacia a Prouince of Gréece by olde departing of land, and hath that name of Delim, the greatest citie of that prouince. This prouince hath Macedonia in the East side, & Messia in the North, & Hystria in the West, & endeth at the Sea Adriaticum in the South, as Isi. saith li. 15. & Orosius saith the same: Men of that land be mightie & strong, & giue them to prayes, to robbing and stealing, & manye of them be Sea théeues.

(*Dalmatia a part of the great coun∣try called Illiria or Slauonia: it hath on the west Croatia: on the East Bossina, on the North the great mountain Alba∣nus mons, and the country called Seruia: on the South the sea Adriaticum, or the goulfe of Uenice.

Of Dacia. chap. 47.

DEnmarke is a Countrie in Europa, and was first occupied with Greeke Danes, as it is sayde: And is diuided in many prouinces and Ilands, and stretch∣eth to Germania. The men thereof were Page  223 sometime fierce and right great warri∣ours: and therefore they were Lordes of Britaine. of Norway, and of many other Ilands and countries: But li. 9. Isidore saith, that the Danes came of Gothes. And some suppose that they be called Da∣cos, as it wer Dagi, men come of Goths. But of what nation the Danes be come of first, this is certaine, that there bée many of them, and be séemely of stature, and faire of haire and of face, and gene∣rally faire of body and shape. And though they be fierce against enlinies, neuerthe∣lesse they be kindlye milde of heart and pleasing to all innocents.

(*Dacia a country beyond Hungaria: they doe not well which call Den∣marke, with this name, which is Da∣nia, Danes. Denmarke is also cal∣led Danomarchia, a people quicklye moo∣ued to reuenge, wary in buieng and sel∣ling, regarding their lawes, which being once established, may in no wise be tyed to their purses: sometime the olde con∣querours of England, a people wel min∣ded to religion, their originall is suppo∣sed to come of a people called the Goths.

Of Delos. chap. 48.

DElos is an Iland of Gréece, in ye mid∣dle of those Ilandes that bée called Ciclades, & hath that name, as it is said, for that yt after the floud, when the night was darke many moneths, that Ilande was lightened with the Sunne beames, before all other lands. And for yt he was first shewed, it is said it hath that name Delos, for Delon is Gréke, and is vn∣derstood, openly shewed. Also that lande is called Ortigia, for the Curlewes were first séene, and the Gréekes called them Ortigias. In this land Latone bare Ap∣pollo, as Isidore saith lib. 15. And Delos is the name of an Iland, and of a Citye also.

(*Delos, an Ile by Gréece, where A∣pollo and Diana were borne, and is one of the Iles called Cyclades.)

Of Dedan. chap. 49.

DEdan is a country in Ethiopia in the West side, as Isidore saith, liber. 9. there be many Elephants, & much abun∣daunce of Iuorie, and woods of Firre, as the Glose saith super Eze. 7.

Of Europa. chap. 50.

EVropa is called the thirde part of the worlde, and hath that name of Euro∣pa, the daughter of Egenor king of Li∣bia. Iupiter rauished this Europa out of Affrica, and brought her into Creta: And called the most part of the lande by her name Europa, as Isidore saith, li. 15. Orosius speaketh of Europa, and sayth, yt the country of Europa & people therof be∣gin at ye mountaines that be called Mō∣ces Riphei, & at the marreis that is called Paludes Meotides, that be by East. And come downward toward the West by ye banks of the North occean, vnto ye coun∣try that is called Gallia belgica, and vnto the riuer Renum, that runneth to ye occe∣an, & then ye countries stretch to the riuer Danubius, yt is called Hisirius also, that is by South, & passeth Eastward into the sea that is called Pontus, & is a coast of the great sea. And li. 15. Isidor. sayth, that Europa beginneth at the riuer Tanay, & stretcheth westward by the north occean vnto the ends of Spaine. The East and the South parte thereof ariseth from the sea that is called Pontus, & is all ioined to the great sea, & endeth at the Ilandes of Cades. The first Country of Europa is the nether Scithia, & beginneth at the marreis Meotides, and stretcheth be∣twéene Danubius & the North Occean, vnto Germania, as Isidore sayth lib. 15. And for straunge nations the land is spe∣cially called Barbaria: and the nations be in al 54. as Orosius saith. Among whom the first is Alania, that stretcheth to the marreys Meotides, and following is Go∣thia, then Denmarke, and after Germa∣nia, then Gallia and the land of Britain, Orchades, and many other Ilandes, & at last the lesse Spaine. In the ends wher∣of Europa endeth Westward. And in the ouer part of Europa in ye South be ma∣ny great coūtries and lands: As Pano∣nia, Page  [unnumbered] Messia, Tracia, Grecia, with her boundings, & Italia, with the countries & Ilandes thereof. And though this part of the worlde be lesse then Asia, yet it is pere thereto in number & nobles of men. For as Plinius saith, it nourisheth men that be more great in bodye, more strong in might and vertue, more bold of heart, more faire & seemely of shape, then men of the countries and Ilands of Asia, or of Affrica. For the Sunne abideth long o∣uer the men of Affrica, and burneth and wasteth humours, and so maketh them more short of bodie, more blacke of face, with crispie haire: and for yt the spirites passe out at poores that be open, they bée more coward of heart. And the contrarie is of men of the North land, for the cold∣nesse that is without stoppeth the pores, and bréedeth humours of the bodye, and maketh the men more full and great, and the colde that is mother of whitenesse, maketh thē more white in face & 〈…〉 skin. And for ye vapours and spirites 〈…〉 smit∣tén in ward, it maketh them hotter with∣in, & so the more bolde & hardie. And the men of Asia be meanly disposed in that: And their first land is by East, as Plini∣us saith.

(*Europa, the thirde parte of the world, diuided from Asia, with the great Seas, Hellespontus, Propontis, Bos∣phorus, Thracius, and Pontus Euxinus, and hath the vttermost boundes in the North east, the riuer Tanais. And from Affrike it is diuided by the middle Sea. It was also the name of a faire may∣den, daughter of Agenor, King of Phoe∣nicia, whom Iupiter (transforming him∣self into ye likenesse of a Bul) did rauish, as Poets writ) that is, forgetting kind∣ly vertue, béeing ouercome in the Uir∣gins beutie, setting all humanitie aside, vsed the force and violence of a tyran∣nous beast,) it is also saide, that Iupiter carried her away by force in a Ship, in the decke or most whereof was a Ban∣ner or streamer, wherein was painted a Bull.)

(*It is better that Princes bée repro∣ued for theyr faultes, béeing aliue, then after theyr death to bée so reported off, yt the concealing of their wickednesse for the time present, afterwardes is become more ignomious and shamefull, to theyr continuall reproch for euer.)

(*In the later and of this booke, you shall finde a farther discourse of this Eu∣ropa forth of Ortelius.)

Of Eiulath. chap. 51.

EIulath is a prouince in the ouer In∣de, & beginneth in the East, & stretch∣eth by long space of landes towarde the North: and hath that name Eiulath of Eiula, oue of the children of Hebe, Pa∣triarke of Hebrues, as the lose sayeth super Genes pri. and on: where Eiulath is rehersed among the children of Hebar, yt came of him and of his sonne lectane The riuer Ganges runneth by this land, and that riuer hath another name, and is called Phison in Genes. lib. 4 cap. 20. Plinius lib. 3 cap. 20. praiseth that riuer wonderfully, & saith that Ganges is a ri∣uer of Inde, and receiueth into himselfe many, & as it were endlesse riuers great inough to rowe and to saile in, as Idap∣sen, Cantabeian, Bisepin, & many other, and is neuer broader then fifty furlongs, neither déeper then 15. paces. This riuer runneth about the lande of Eiulath, in which land is much gold and spicerie, as Bedelium, and precious stones, as Oni∣chius, Carbuncles, and other such, as hée sayth, and the Glose super Genesis. In this lande be manye speciall Countries, in whome be many Elephantes, as it is sayd.

(*In the second of Genesis, the rier Pison compasseth the whole land of He∣uilah, where there is golde, and the gold there is very good, there is Edelium and the Onix stone. Euille or Heuilath, a coū∣try in the Orient, about the which the ri∣uer Pison, which we call Ganges, yt com∣meth out of Paradise doth runne. D. Cooper.

Of Ethiopia. Chap. 52.

EThiopia, Negroes lande, hadde first that name of coulour of men. For the Sunne is nigh, and roasteth and Page  224 toasteth them, as Isidore saith li. 15. And so the coulour of men sheweth ye strength of the starre, for there is continuall heat. For all yt is vnder the South pole about the West is full of mountaines, & about the middle full of grauel, and in the East side most desart and wildernes: and stret∣cheth from the West of Athlant toward the East vnto the ends of Aegypt, and is closed in the south with ye occean, & in the North with the riuer Nilus. In this land be many natiōs with diuers faces won∣derfully and horribly shapen: Also therin be many wilde beasts and Serpents, and also Rinocerots, and the beast that is cal∣led Camelion, a beast with manye cou∣lours. Also there be Cocatrices and great Dragons, and precious stones be ta∣ken out of their braines. Iacinctus, and Chrisophrassus, Topasius, and many o∣ther precious stones be founde in those parts, and Cinamum is there gathered. Ther be two Ethiops, one is in the east, and the other is in Mauritania in the West, and that is more néere Spaine. And then is Numedia, and the prouince of Cartage. Then is Getula, and at last against the course of the Sunne in the South is the land yt is called Ethiopia a∣dusta, burnt, & fables tell, yt there beyond be the Antipodes, men yt haue their féete against our féet, as Isid. saith lib. 15. His wordes be set héere before de Ethiopia. Also he saith li. 9. yt the Ethiopiās haue ye name of Chus, of whom they tooke their beginning. Chus in ye Hebrue tongue is called Ethiops. These men came sōtime frō the riuer Nilus, & dwelled beside Ae∣gypt, betwéene the riuer Nilus & occean: in the South nigh vnder the Sun: of thē be much people, as Esperes in the West side Garamantes, & Troglodites, & other, of whom Plinius speaketh li. 5. ca. 10. The men of Ethiopia haue their name of a blacke riuer, & that riuer is of the same kind with Nilus, for they bréed réedes & bull rushes, & rise and ware in one time: In the wildernesse there be many men wonderfully shapē: some oft curse ye Sun vtterly in his rising & downe going, and they behold the Sun & curse him alway; for his heate gréeueth them ful sore: and other as Troglodites dig them dens and caues, & dwel in them in stéed of houses: & they eate serpents, & all that may be got, their noise is more feareful in sounding, then the voice of other. Other there bée, which like beasts liue without wedding, & dwel with women without law, & such bée called Garamanis, other goe naked & be not occupied with trauaile, & they bée called Graphasants. There be other, that be called ennj, & it is said, they haue no heads, but they haue eyes fired in theyr weasts. And there be Satyres, and haue onely shape of men, and haue no man∣ners of mankinde. Also in Ethiopia bée many other wonders, as he saith lib. 6. cap. 11. there be Ethiops (saith he) among whom all foure footed beasts bée brought forth without eares, and also Elephants. Also there be some that haue an hounde for their king, & diuine by his moouing, and doe as they will. And other haue three or some eyen in their forehead, as it is said, not that it is so in kinde, but that it is feigned, for they vse principall looking and sight of arrowes. Also some of them hunt lions and panthers, & liue by their flesh: and their king hath onely one cie in his forehead. Other men of E∣thiopia liue onely by honny suckles dried in smoake, and in the Sun, and these liue not past fortie yeares.

(*Aethiopia, a great country in Af∣frike, containing two regions, the hether and the further Aethiop. The hether, that is aboue Aegypt, hath on the north Aegypt, Marmarike, and Libia, on the West the inner Libia: on the South the further Ethiop, on the East the red sea: In this country is the Ile Meroe, where Saint Mathewe is reported to haue preached ye Gospell. The further Ethiop hath on the North the inner Libia, & the hether Aethiop: on the West and South ye occean sea, on ye East the goulfe called Barbaricum, in this country be ye moun∣taines out of which Nilus (in whose brinks and banks the Crocodiles bréede, which are the destroiers both of men and beasts) issueth.)

Of Aegypto. chap. 54.

Egipt was before called Esea, & after Egiptus of Danaus brother that after Page  [unnumbered] reigned therein. In the East side vnder the red sea, this lande ioyneth to Siria, and hath Libia in the West side, and the great sea in the North side: and passeth in¦ward in the South side, and stretcheth vnto the Ethiops, as Isidore saith, lib. 15. and is a country not vsed with dew, and wherein falleth no raine. And onely Ni∣lus moysteth that lande, and tunneth there about, and maketh it plenteous with rising and waxing: and hath plen∣tie of wilde beasts, and féedeth a greate deale of the world with wheat and with corne & fruite, & is so plenteous of other merchaundise and chaffer, that it filleth nigh all the worlde with ndfull mer∣chandises. In the end of Aegypt is Cano∣pia, that hath that name of Canope, that was Menelaus gouernour, and was bu∣ried there. Huc vsque Isidore. li. 15. And was first called Mepphayna of the sonne of Cham, as Isidore saith lib. 9. In this land be many perticular Prouinces, and full famous cities, as Memphis ye Epha∣sus builded: that was Iupiters sonne, and Raphnes the chiefe citie of Aegipt, He∣liopoleos, & Alexandria, & many other, as Isidore saith li. 16. And Oosius saith, that there are two Aegipts, the ouer and the neather. The ouer stretcheth into the East in length, & hath in the North side the sea of Arabia, & occean in the South. For it beginneth out of the West & of ye nether Aegipt, and stretcheth Eastward, and endeth at the redde sea. And contey∣neth 24. Nations. In the ouer Aegypt be many diuers desartes, in whome are many monstrous and wonderfull beasts. There be Perdes, Tigres, Satires, Coc∣katrices, and horrible Adders and Ser∣pents. For in the endes of Aegypt and of Ethiopia, fast by the wel where men sup∣pose is the head of Nilus that runneth by Aegypt, bée bredde wilde beastes, that be called Cacothephas: the which beast is little of body and vncrafty of members & slowe, & hath a full heauy head. And ther∣fore they beare it alway downeward to∣ward the earth, & that by ordinaunce of kind for saluation of man kinde, for it is so wicked & so venimous, ye no man may behold him right in the face, but he die a∣none without remedy. For he hath the same mallice that the serpent Cockatrice hath, as Plinius saith, li. 8. cap. 22. Also in Aegypt be full many Crocadiles & Hip∣potami, that be water horses, & namelye about the water of Nilus.

(*Aegyptus, a countrie called Aegypt: on the West it is bounded with Libia, and the Countrye called Cyrenaica, on the North with the sea Mediterraneum, and part of India, on the East with Ara∣bia, and the Arabian sea: on the South with Athiopia. This country although it raine there but seldome or neuer, yet by the ouerflowing of the riuer Nilus, it is made so fertile, that it hath abundance of all things sauing vines, and bringeth sorth strange beasts. Canopos is an Ilé at the entrie of Nilus, and took his name of Canapus, that was maister of Mene∣laus ships. Memphis a great and famous citie in Aegipt, &c. This country tooke his name of Aegyptus, sonne to Belus, king of Babylon, Aegypti nuptiae, & prouerbe spoken by vnluckie marriage, because the fiftie sons of Aegyptus, married the fifty daughters of his brother Danaus, were the first night all sauing one, slaine of their wiues by the counsaile of their fa∣ther.

Of Ellade. chap. 54.

ELlas Elladis is a prouince of Gréece in Europa, and had that name of king Hellena Deucalions sonne, after him the Gréekes were first called Elle∣nes. In this Prouince is the Countrye Attica, wherin sometime was the noble Citie Athens, mother of liberall artes, nourysher of Philosophers: sometime Gréece had nothing more worthye, nor more noble then this citie. Next thereto is the Prouince Achaia, as Isidore say∣eth libro 15. In this one Countrie Ellas be two Prouinces, Boetia, and Pelopo∣nensis. Of the first, that is to wit, Boe∣tia, it is spoken before. To this Country Ellas, belongeth the coast of the sea, yt is called Hellespōtus, wherin be many great wounders, as Plinius saith, li. 6. ca. 3. By Hellespōtus Tranges, Pergamcus saith, that there be many manner of men, that he called Ophioges, that hele smiting of Serpents with their téeth and groping, Page  225 and onely with their hand laide to, they drawe out slayeng venimme. Also Varro sayth, that yet there bée some whose spit∣tle is medicine against the stinging of Serpents. Hellespontus, is a coast of the sea of middle earth, as Isid. saith lib. 13. in the North turning and going in great goings and turnings beside Greece and Illiocum, and is drawen by straightnesse of 7. furlongs, where Xerxes the King made a bridge of ships, and so hée went into Greece for to warre there. The same water spreadeth and maketh the coast of the sea the which is called Propontides; the which anone is constrained into ••∣tye paces. That coast of the sea hath the name of Helles the sister of Frixus, shée fledde the mallice of her stepdame, and fel into ye sea & was drowned: and of that falling, the sea & the lande about had the name Hellespontus.

(*Ophiogenes people of Hellespont, which heale the stinging of Serpentes with touching the place.)

Of Eola. chap. 55.

EOla is an Ilande of Cicilia, & hath that name (as it is sayde) of Eo∣lu the sonne of spote, which Eolus P•• els faigne was king of Winds.* And that was sayd, as Varro saith, because he was ruler of ye Ilands yt he called Eolas and for that of mistes and fumeus va∣pours hee told to vnwise man of windes that should rise: and therfore they thought that he held the windes n ••s: power, and had might ouer them, as Isidore sai∣eth lib. 15. The Iles that he called Eola bée nine, and haue that name of him, and hée also called Vulcan, for the fire burneth therein, as in mount Ethna, as he sayth. And each of those Ilands hath his owne name, the first is called Lip∣pata, the second Gtha, of most high cliffes so called; the thirde is called Strogile, the fourth, De•• and so of o∣ther.

(*Eola is a region of the Gréeks in A∣sia, betweene Ionja & sodae, it is also a region conteining seauen ••• betweene Italy and Cicilia Aeolia the daughter or néece of Aeolus, also a countrey néere vnto Hellespont, called sometime My∣sia

Of Franconia. chap. 56.

FRanconia is a prouince in Germania in Europa, & hath that name of men yt dwelled therein, & were called Franci: the chiefe citie thereof is called Herbipolis, & standeth on a greate riuer that is called Mogun. That prouince hath in the East side. Thing••Sancon,* in ye South side ye riuer Dt••id, & B•••va in ye west, the countries: Sutula & lsacia, & in the North the country of ye Ryu. The chiefe •••y therof is Mg•••tia, & stādeth vpon ye Kind, •• the riuer Migs commeth into ye Kine. This Freeconia is a full good land & plentie of corn, of woods, and strong of Castles and Towne, and full of peo∣ple.

Of Francia. chap. 57.

FRaunce is called Francia and Gallia also, and hath first that name Francia, of men of Germania, that were called Franci, as Isidore saith: & hath the Kine and Germany in the East side, and in the North east side, the mountaines Alpes Po••oni, & In ye South ye prouince of Nar∣bon, & in ye North west the British occe∣an, & in the North the Iland of Britaine. traudre was called Gallea bulgica, and has ye name of city Belgis, as Isi. saith. li. •• 15. This last of Fe••ure is a ran coun∣try, & plentifull of trees, of vines, of corn, and of fruits, & in noble by the affluence of Riuers and fountaines, through the borders of which anderun side most no∣ble riuers; that is to wite Roden, and thens, as Isidore saith lib.5. Therin be noble charmes & stones both to build & to eate 〈…〉 uses vpon, & speriti 〈…〉 special 〈…〉 stories, & •••ely in the growne about Partes, that is most pas∣sing namely by 〈…〉 faite & •• called Gip•••, ye me of that Counti•• is call Plas∣stre in their l•••g••e, for the growne is glasse & bright, & •• ye minerall vertue tur∣neth into st•••h b••ist •••ed ••• water and ••• into ••∣ments and to thereof is made d•••res & Page  [unnumbered] vautes, wals, and diuers pauements: and such ciment laide in worke, waxeth hard anone againe as it were stone, and in Fraunce be many noble & famous cities, but among al Paris beareth the price,* for as sometime the citie of Athens, mother of liberall artes & of letters, nourisher of Philosophers, & well of all sciences, made it solempne in science & in conditions a∣mong Gréeks, so doth Paris in this time; not only France but also all ye other deale of Europa. For as mother of wisdome, she receiueth all ye commeth out of euery country of the world; & helpeth thē in all that they néede, & ruleth all peacably and as a seruaunt of truth,* she sheweth her selfe debtie to wise man & vnwise: this ci∣tie is full good & mightie of riches, it re∣ioyseth in penee there is good aire of ri∣uers according to Philosophers, that bée faire fields, medes emditalhs to refresh & comfort the eien of them yt he weary in study, ther be couenable streets & houses, namely for studiers. And neuerthelesse ye citie is sufficient toxiteius & to sld all other yt come therto. And pusseth al other cities in these things, & in such other like.

Of Flandera. chap. 58.

Flanders is a prouince of Gallia bel∣gica, by the eliffes of the occean, & hath Germania in the east side, and the Iland of Britaine in the North and the French sea in the West, & in the South ye parte of France that is called Gallia Se••onen∣sis, and Burgoine. Though this prouince be little in space, yet it is wealthy of ma∣ny speciall things and ••• For this lands is plenteous, and full of pastures of eatiell and of beastes •••yall and reth of the best townes, haneris of the sea; and of famous riuers, and well nigh all about is moisted with Scaldeli. The 〈…〉 ther∣of be séemely: and faire of dy & strong, and they get many children. And they bée rich of all 〈…〉•• chaften, and generally faies and ser•••lye of face, milde of will and faire of speach, sad of beering, honest of clothing, peace∣able to their owne neighbours, true and trustie to straungers, passing withyr in Wooll craft, by their carftie working, a great parte of the worlde is succoured and helped in woollen clothes. For of the principall Wooll, which they have out of Englande, with theyr subtill crafte bée made many noble clothes, and bée sent by sea and also by land into many diuerse Countries. And the lande is plaine, and beareth good corne. In many places ther∣of grow many trées, but not many woods. There be in some places marrises and moores, in which they digge turues and make fire thereof in stéede of wood, often times therof is made hot fire and strong, and more effectuall then of wood, but that fire is lesse profitable touching the ashes, and heauie sauour and smell.

Of the Prouince Fenicia. Chap. 59.

FEnix is a prouince, & hath that name at Fenice the brother of Cathini. For Fenix was put out of Glebis The bis in Aegipt, & driuen into Sir••, & reigned in Sidon, and called the land after his own name Fenicia. It is the land wherin Ti∣rus is, against the which spake Esay, as Isid. saith li. 15. & 9. This lande hath A∣rablam in the East side, and the red Sea in the South, & the Sea of middle earth in the West, and mount Lebanian in the North. And so this land is best in trées, chiefe in corne & fruite, with most plen∣tie of •••ke, of Olle, and of bonnye: In this land be 〈…〉 ye mou••• fields moisted with wells, and other Gaters. In those most it••ies bee •• into •• of diuers ine.

(*Phoenicia, or Phoenice, a region in Siria nere to India:)

Of Phrigia. chap. 60.

FRigia is a prouince of the lesse Asia, and hath that name of Frigra the daughter of Europa. This Countrye is nigh to Ga••• in the North side; and Liddonia in the South: & femeth in some part to Liddia in the East side: & endeth at Hellespont•• in the North, as Isidore saith, libro. 15. There be two lands, and either is called Frigia•• the thore Frigia hath ther in Smirinam, & Hillium is in yePage  226 lesse. The riuer Hernicis departeth Li∣caonia and Phrigia as he sayth. And Phrigiacis called Dardanica, and hath that name of Dardanus, he came out of Greece with his brother Dracius, and warne Phrigia, and reigned therein, and called the lande Dardanica by his owne name: and Dracius occupyed Dra∣chiam.

(*Phrigia, a Realme in Asia the lesse, hauing on the East, Cappadoria: on the South. Lycaonia: on the West, Troas on the North, Galatia, Dar∣danus the name of a Prince, raigning in that parte of Phrigia, where Trota stedde, which was of him called Dar∣dania.)

¶Of Frista. chap. 61.

FRista is a Prouince in the lower partes of Germanye, and stretcheth full long vppon the Clyffe of Occean, and beginneth from the end of the Kine, and endeth at the Danish Sea. The men of Germany, call men of this land, Frisones, & betwéene them and ye Ger∣maynes is great difference in cloathing, and in manner.: For welnigh all men be shorne rounde, and the more noble they be, the more worship they account to be shorrse the more nigh. And the men are high of body, strong of vertue; statue and flerce of heart, and swifte, and nimble of body, and they vse yron speares in stéeds of arrowes.

The lans is plaine with much léese, and pastures, and with grasse & hearbs, and without trées and woode, and they make fire of ••rwes full of glowe, and of the ouge or Deni and Kine dried and burned. The minde free, and not sub∣iect so Lordship of other Nations, & put them in perill of death euss of r•• duttie, and they had rather dye, than bée vnder the 〈…〉. There∣fore they for sae dignitie of ••• end suffer short ••• and to bée grea∣ter among them; vnder the Liti of ••ig••g••〈…〉 but they•• subiect to iud∣ges that the 〈…〉 house of themselues from yere so yere which 〈…〉 be Communni∣tie among them. They loue 〈…〉∣tie, and punish all the vnchast, right gre∣uously: and they keepe their Children chast, vnto the time that they are of full age, and so when they be béedded, they got manly children and strong.

(*Frisij, People of Holland, where∣of the Countrey is called Friseland.)

¶Of Insulis Fortunatis. ca. 62.

THe fortunate Ilandes stand in the Occean, afore the lefte side of Mau∣ritania, and be full nigh to the West. And be departed a sonder with the sea, as Isidore sayth, lib. 15. And be called the Ilandes of Fortune, for plentie of all manner of good and namely of Corne & of fruits. And for noble ground and plen∣teous, the errour of Nations & makings of Poets déemed, that these Ilands wer Paradise, as Isidore sayth libro. 15. and Plinius saith the same li.. ca. 53. And he saith that there grow trées of Tlt foote. Therein to plentie of apples, and multi∣tude of Byrdes, and much hony & milke, and namely in the Ile that is called Ca∣prana, which hath that name of Goates and of Wethers, for full many be ther∣in. There be wonderfull strong hounds, and namely in the Ile that is called Ca∣naria, the which hath that name of the huge number of great mightie hounds.

(*Fortunatae Insulae, the fortunate Iles which wet in ye great Occean sea, & of Pliny are heeried to be & of Solinus•• of Ptholome a which he calleth also, ye Iles of ye Gods: for ye wholsomnes of ye aire, & winds blowing ther. Also ye plen∣tie of good fruits; & fertiltie of ye grow. It is thought of soone mē, to be those Iles, which are now called Canaria, distaunt from spaine toward ye west. 12 do. miles, after ye account of Petrus Martir. Of these Iles are founde to be 7. in number. First about ye yere of our Lord 405. a French more called Betimlio,•• ye cō∣maundement of Katheren, then Dulicite of Castell, found two of them, and called the one Launcelor, and the other, Fa••e Vn••u. South after, one 〈…〉 in this He∣〈…〉 & his wife found other two, & called ye〈…〉Forream, & the other Gomera. Af∣ter yt the great Canaria was found, by •••fus de Vris, & Michael de MoxicoPage  [unnumbered] Last of all, by commaundement of Fer∣nando; & Elizabeth, late king & Quéene of Spaine, Teneriph and Palma, were found by Alphonsus Lugo, so that now all the seauen Iles, be vnder the Domi∣nion of the King of Spaine. Notwith∣standing, some suppose, that these be not the Iles, which were called Fortunatae, but rather those, more south, called now of the Portugals, Insulae capitis viri∣dis. D. Cooper.)

Of Galilea. chap. 63.

GAlilea is a countrey in Palestina, and hath that name, for that the men thereof: he more white than men of o∣ther countries of Palestina: and Gali∣lea is double, the ouer and the neather, and they ioyne togethers, and stretcheth vnto Siria, and so the Prouince of Fe∣rus. In either is grounde: very apte is be are corne and fruite. There is plentie of dines, and of olyues and of water, for in some part thereof, the riuer Iordane runneth thereby. There be most noble lakes, profitable and healthfull, and bée there called seas for hugenesse and mul∣titude of Fishes. And (as Isidore sayth) ther is the lake that is called Lacus Ti∣beriadis, and hath that name of a iowne that so is called, and is more wholsome than all the other, and more effectuall to health and preseruation of bodyes. And containeth ten, forlongs, Looke before in the Lake Tiberiades and in Lacus Ge∣nesar 〈…〉ractatu de A••• & stag•••t.

*Galilea, a countrey which ••cheth on Synas Arabia, & A••yps.

Of Galatia. chap. 64.

GAlatia is a Countrey in Europe, and hath that name of French men that dwelled therein and were called Galles as Isidore, sayeth, libro.•••. & ••. The King of Bithinia, called the Gallen to helpe him and he had the victorye, and departed, the kingdome with them, and the Galles were afterward 〈…〉 & with the Greekes, and were called Gallograth but now they haue name of the olde Galles, and he called Galli. This land is full ide and large, and most plente∣ous, and containeth a great deale of Eu∣rope, and is now called Kufenea of ma∣ny men.

(*Gallatia, or Gallogrecia a Coun∣trey in the lesse Asia, is ioyning to Phri∣gia and Lidia)

Of Gallitia. chap. 65.

GAllitia is a Prouince in Spaine, and hath that name of whitenesse of: the men that dwell therin, for they be more white, than men of other Countryes of Spaine, as it is sayd. This land beareth well corne and fruite, and is nigh to the Occean, there is plentie of much good & cattell. The men say, that they come of the Gréekes: and so they be strong in kinde wit, as Isidore sayeth libro. 9.

For after the battaile of Troye, manye of the Gréekes, came into Gallitia, and abode there.

¶Of Gallia. chap. 66.

GAllia is a Prouince of Europe, be∣twéene the mountaines Alpes Pn∣nine, and the British Occean, and hath that name of olde time of whitenesse of men: for Gallia Gréeke, and is sayd, milke. Therefore Sybel called them Gal∣les, that is to say, white: and shée sayd, that milke necks should be wreathed in golde: for by diuersitie of heauen, face and colour of men, appeare the diuers qualyties of their stomacks and bodies, Rome gendreth beuismen, Gréece light, Affrica nylesalt, and Fraunce, kindles ere men, and sharpe of 〈…〉Isidore sayeth lib. 9. This land hath Germanye in the East side: Spaine in the West, Italy in the South, and 〈…〉 in the North, at the British Occean, as, Isid. sayth. Sometime this lande was diui∣ded in thrée ports that was called To∣g•••, Celtica and Belgica: but now French man dwell in these Prouinces and, of them the doubt hath that name, and is called F•••: 〈…〉 is Litters.〈…〉 and of Francia.

(*Gallia at noble Region, set be∣twéene S•••〈…〉 the Page  227 bordereth on the mountaines Alpes. That which ioyneth to Germany, was called Belgica, and was contained be∣twéene the riuers Scalde and sequana, or Seyne. That parte which marcheth to the mountaines, was called Celtica, or Lugdunensis, and was contained be∣twéene the riuers Seyne and Garumna, or Geronde. That which bordereth on Spaine, called Aquitania, was bounded with the mountaines Pyrenaei, Caesar boundeth the parte called Celtica, with the riuers Rhene and Gerond. Agtip∣pa describeth Gallia betwéene the riuer Rhene, the mountaines Pyrenei, the Occean sea, and the mountains Geben∣na, and Iura. Moreouer, that which is now called Lumbardie, was called Gal∣lia Cisalpina.)

¶Of Gadis. chap. 67.

GAdes is an Ilande in the ende of Spaine, and departeth Affrica from Europe, wherein Hercules set wonder∣full and noble Pillers, in token of con∣quest. And thence commeth springing of the Sea Tirrenum, out of the wells of the Occean, and is departed from the next land sixe score paces. The Tyres came from the red sea and occupied this Iland, and called it Gadis in theyr lan∣guage, that is to vnderstand, separated; for that Gadis is compassed with ye Sea about. Therein groweth a trée that is like to Palme, the gumme thereof lyke glasse, maketh a precious stone, that is called Ceramina, as Isid. saith li. 15. And this land maketh many countries of the world, rich of fruite and spicerie, and namely Countries of the west.

(*Gades, two Iles in the further part of Spaine beyonde Granate, which in worthinesse of men before time haue ex∣celled. For at one time, there were in Rome 500. men of this Countrey Citi∣zens of the order and state of Gentle∣men. In the lesse of those two Ilands, it is reported that grasse is so battling, as the milke of the beasts doth cast no whaye, nor can haue any chéese made of it, vnlesse it be mixed with much wa∣ter. It is written moreouer, that vnlesse the beastes there féeding, be often let bloud, they will within thirtie dayes be stiffeled and dye with fat. Which ferti∣litie may séeme to giue occasion of the Fuble of Gerions beasts, that Hercules droue away.

¶Of Grecia. chap. 68.

GRecia hath that name of Grecus, & King that dwelled therein; and gaue thereto his owne name, as Isido. saith, lib. 15. The Prouinces thereof he eyght, Dalmatia in the West, then is Epyrus, after Helladas, then Thessalia, after that Macedonia, and after Achaia: & twaine in the sea, creta and cyclades, and is a Countrey most wide and large, and hath many other names, and is full plentifull of riches both of the sea, and of lande, & is Lady of many Kingdomes, nourisher of chiualrie, mother of Philosophie, fin∣der and mistres of all good sciences. In olde time, men thereof, were the best warriors, and indued •••th giftes of wit and of wisedome: they were faire & most eloquent speakers, subiect to latre, milde to strangers, peaceable and easie to men of that land, and were wroth and high hearted to men that would do wrong to their neighbours, and would not suffer it, but withstood such wrongs, with all their might, as Varro telleth, in libr. de laudibua Grecorum.

(*Grecia, (the fountaine of prowesse and doctrine, and nourse of eloquence) a great and famous Countrey, containing these noble Regions, Epyrus, Acarna∣nia, Aetolia, Phocis, Locris, Achais, Messenia, Laconia, Argos, Megaris, At∣tica, Boetia, Doris, Phthiotia, Thessalia, Magnesia, Macedonia, and Thracia. All the which of late yeares, were vnder the yoke of Christs religion, and now alas, to the great discomfort of all perfect chri∣stian men, are vnder the most cruell sub∣iection and seruitude of the great tirant the Turke, & become barbarous, liuing in the beastlye superstitions, of the false Prophet Mahomet.)

Addition.

GEre I haue thought good for ye better vnderstanding of ye christian reader,* to note what Mahomet was, which the Page  [unnumbered] great Turke so highlye extolleth. Ma∣chumet was first a poore man, & a buyer and seller of Camells. Afterward he fell acquainted with an Heretike Monke, called Sergius, by whose meanes he de∣clared himselfe to be a Prophet, & tooke vpon him as well to reforme the olde Lawe, as the newe. He wonne great Realmes, and at the age of fortie yeares dyed (as some suppose) of the falling sick∣nesse, which he long time did dissemble faining, that the Angell Gabriel, was sent to him in message, whose brightnes he might not sustaine.

Mahomete or Machumet, had to his father, one Abdalla, by stocke an Aun∣cestrie, a Persian or Arabian borne, and had to his mother Emma a Iew, & was borne in Iesrab, on a munday, being the 12. daye of the moneth Rabe, about the yere of our Lord 597. or .621. his father dyed a litle before his birth.

His geneologie is reuolued with mon∣strous and blasphemous sables, vnto the time of Seth and Adam, he was borne without any doloust or paine felt by his mother: and when he was circumcised, he was merry and laughing, but whe∣ther this is to be beleeued, iudge you. At the very houre and time of his death, the Idolls fell downe by themselues, & Lu∣cifer was taken of Angells, and drow∣ned in the déepe Sea Alcazum, from whence after fortie daies, being escaped, calling together a counsaile of Diuells, he complained of the destruction of his kingdome, beside many other friuolous and lyeng wonders.

As touhing his education, that the Birdes and Windes did strine for his bringing vp, and that he was commit∣ted to one Halima: and that an Asse, inclyning hir selfe downe said of Ma∣homet, Hic est sigillum Prophetarum, also how thrée men drew out his bow∣ells, and cleansed the Diuells porcion, out of his heart, &c.

Mahomet coulde neyther read nor write, as he himselfe testifieth, In Al∣carono Azoara .17. being vtterly vnskil∣full and vnlearned in his youth. He had a great ioulte head, a face mixed with white and red, a long beard, and he was swift, and of very nimble féete. He had a quicke, subtle and craftie wit: and ler∣ned all manner of sects. Simoneta li. 4. cap. 36.

Sergius the Bestorian Heretike com∣ming to Mecha, instructed him, worshi∣ping Idolls with his error, and delyue∣red vnto him, certaine rules out of the olde and new Testament.

Mahomet maried one Eadiga, a rich widowe, whom he allured to loue him by Art Magieke, or witchery. And be∣cause he was often troubled with the falling euill, he made his wife beléeue, that so often as he fell, the brightnes of the Angell Gabriel was ye cause, whose presence his bodely force, could not a∣bide. Of his function, of his workes, of his doctrine, of his prophecies of his cō∣flicts, of his filthy lusts, and of his death: read the booke tituled, The Poore mans Librarie, set forth by Master William Alley, Bishop of Exceter .1560.

Of Gethulia. cap. 69.

GEthulia, is a prouince of Affrica, and hath that name of Gréeks, the which descended either of the Gréekes, or els of those men that remained of the Na∣tion of the Gothes, as Isidore sayeth, lib. 9. They gathered a great hoast, and sayled into the parts of Libia, and those there their place, and be there to this daye, and for they come of Greekes, by deriuation of name, they be called Getu∣li. And therefore is an opinion among the Gréekes, that that Nation is néere of kinne vnto them, as Isidore saith lib. 9. Beside these men, dwell Gelones, peo∣ple, that stretch from the South to the Hesperie Occean, which men goe about and straye in Desarte. This name Ge∣lon came of an Iland Gaulon, that is beside Aethiopia, where no Serpent is bred, nor may liue therein, as he sayeth. Also in the ende of Affrica, be as it were beastiall men that be called Gara∣mantes, and haue that name of Gara∣mant the King, the sonne of Apollo. He buylded there a Towne, and called it Garama, by his owne name.

Plynius speaketh of them and saith, Page  228 that they be verely departed, and farre from company of mankinde.

(*Getae, a People which some suppose to be those, which are in Norwaye and Gothia. Some say that they be more in the Northeast in Scythia, pertaining to Europe: some thinke that it is ye Peo∣ple of the Countreyes Valachia, and Transylu••ia.)

¶Of Gorgones. Cap. 70.

GOrgones be Iles of Occean, afore the forland that is called Vesperaserus. Therein dwelled women that wer cal∣led Gorgones Feminine, and they are said Alith•• Veloci, in English swifte, for roughnesse and sharpnes of body, &c. and of them the Glandes had the name, as Isid. saith li. 15.

(*Gorgones, monstrous women, which were vanquished by Perseus, a noble Knight, which delyuered a faire Lady, called Andromada from a Whale, and also slew Medusa, which turned men in∣to stones: whether by hir pride, hir hayres were tourned to Adders, or by lecherous lust she brought all hir louers to a shamelosse forgetfulnesse, for that Serpents signifieth pride, and lecherye, shamelesse hardinesse.)

¶Of Gothia. cap. 71.

GOthia is a Prouince of the neather Scythia in Europe, and hath that name as men suppose of Magog the son of Iophet, as Isidore sayth libro. 9. And so he sayth, that those old Nations wer called both Gethas and Gotos, and wer sometime most strong men and huge of body, & vsed most dreadfull maner of ar∣mor and wepous. And men déeme, that children that came of them occupied the most part of Europe and of Asia: For their children be Danes & manye other Nations in the West. Getuli in Affri∣ca, and Amazones in Asia, came of the Children of the Gothes, as he sayth li. 9. & 15. And this land is yet full wide, and hath in the North side, Norwaye, & Denmarke, and is compassed with ye sea Occean in the other sides.

To this Countrey belongeth an I∣lande that is called Gothlandia, and is called the Iland of Gothes: for Gothes dwelled there sometime. The Iland bea∣ceth well Corne, therein is much Pa∣sture, and fish, and occupied in manye manner merchaundises and chaffer: for many manners skinnes and plentie of money other merchaundise and chaffe are brought out of diuers landes and Countrayes in Shippes to that Iland. And bée dde thence by Occean into Germanye, Fraunce, Britaine, and Spaine.

(*Gothi, and Gotthi, an Ile by Den∣marke, called Gutland, not farre from Norwaye, from whence the people first came, vnto whom resorted a great mul∣titude of other people, as well out of the Countreyes now called Prussia, Liuo∣nia, Russia, and Tartaria, as diuers o∣ther parts called Scythia, and making sundrie Kings, did deporulate and bring in subiection, the more part of Europe, and finally destroyed Rome, and inha∣bited the parte of Italy, now called, Lumbardye, and lykewise subdued the Realmes of Castile, and Arra∣gon.)

¶Of Gnydo. chap. 72.

GNidum is a Countrie in an Iland a∣gainst Asia, betwéene Siria & Italia, toward Pamphiliam and Ciliclam, ly∣eng against Creta, as it is sayde in the Glose super Acta Aposto. 27.

Gnydus, a Citie in Licia.*

¶Of India. chap. 73.

INde is a Countrey in East Asia, and hath that name of the Riuer Indus, and is cloased therewith in the West. This Countrey stretcheth from the South side into the East, and out of the North vnto the Mount Caucasus. Therein are manye manner of men, and Townes, and also the Ilande Tra∣bo, fult of precious stones, and Ele∣phauts.

Page  [unnumbered]Therein be also the Ilands Grisa, and Arge, that are plenteous and rich of gold and of siluer, and also profitable in trées that neuer léese their leaues. And in In∣die be most noble riuers, Ganges, Indus, and Hippanes, that adorne the Coun∣tries of Inde. Also Inde is most whole∣some in Westerne winde, and beareth corne twice a yeare. Therein be men of dyed coulour, and great Elephants, and Unicornes, and Popiniayes, and Hebe∣ous a trée, that so is called, Cinamom, Pepper, and a réede that smelleth full •••éete. It sendeth out thereof precious stones, Berillus, Chrisoprassus, Carbun∣cles, Adamantes, Margarites, and Uni∣ons, that great Ladies so feruentlye de∣sire. There be hills of golde, and it is impossible to come thereto for dragons and Griphous, and for many manner of men wonderfully shapen, as Isido. saith: and all these foresaid words be his, libro decimo quinto. Also among all Coun∣tries and landes of the world, Inde is greatest, most rich, most mightie, & most full of people. Therefore Plinius. li. 6. ca. 19. telleth wonders of the might & mul∣titude of the Indes. And he saith, that in Inde be many kings, and some of them hath vnder him foure hundred thousand men of armes, and some sixe hundred Cuneos of horsemen, and 9. thousande Elephants, that take wages euery daye, and so the land is most full of riches.

And some one hath sixtie thousand foote men, and a thousand horse men, and sea∣uen hundred Elephants, & alwaye these men be arayed to warre and to battell, and so the land is strong, mightie & rich. And as it is sayd there, some of the In∣dies till the earth, and some vse chiualry, and some vse merchaundise and lead out chaffer,* some rule and gouerne The comminte at best. And some be about the kings, and some be Iustices & domes men, some giue them principally to Re∣ligions, and to learning of wit and of wisedome: and as among all Countries and landes Inde is the greatest & most rich: so among all landes, Inde is most wonderfull. For as Plinius saith li. 7. chap. 3. Inde aboundeth in wonders, by a long space toward Aethiopia. In In∣de be many huge beasts bred, and more greater bounds, than in other lands. Al∣so there be so high trées, that men may not shoote to the top with an arrowe, as it is sayd, and that maketh the plenty & fatnesse of the earth, and temperatenesse of weather, of aire, and of water. Figge trées spred there so broade, that manye great companies of Knights may sit at meate vnder the shadowe of one trée. Al∣so, there are so great réedes and so long, that euery péece betwéene two knottes, beareth sometime thrée men ouer ye wa∣ter. Also there be men of great stature, passing fiue Cubites of height, and they neuer spet, and haue neuer head ach, nor tooth ach, nor sore eyen, nor they bée not grieued with passing heate of the Sun, but rather made more harde and sadde therewith. Also their Philosophers, that they call Gimnosophistae, stande in most hot grauell from the morning till euen, and behold the Sunne without blemish∣ing of their eyen. Also there, in some mountains be men with the soles of the feete turned backward, and the foote also, with eight toes in one foote. Also ther be some with houndes heades, and be cloa∣thed in skinnes of wilde beasts, & they barke as hounds, and speake none other∣wise: and they liue by hunting and fow∣ling, and they are armed with theyr nayles and féeth, and be full many, aboue sixe score thousand, as he sayth. Also a∣mong some nations of Inde, be women that beare neuer childe but once, and the children were white haired, anone as they be borne. There be Satires and o∣ther men wonderfully shapen: of them it is spoken in the treatise of monstrous beasts. Also in the ende of Inde, about the rising of Ganges be men without mouths, and they be cloathed in mosse, and in rough hairy things, which they gather of trées, and liue commonly by o∣dors & smell at the nosethrills. And they neither eate, neither drink but only smel odors of floures and of wilde appples, & liue so, & they die anone in euill odor and smell: and other there be, that liue full long, & séeme aged neuer, but dye as if were in middle age. Also some be hore in youth, & black in age. Plini. rehearseth Page  229 these wonders and many other moe.

Addition.

*INdea, a great rich Countrie, called in English Indv, lieng on the South part of ye world, which as Ptholomeus wri∣teth, is diuided into two parts. The one is called Indie within the riuer of Gan∣ges, which on the west is bounded with Aracosia and Gedrosia: on the East, hath the great riuer called Ganges: on the North with the hill called Imaus: on the South and West, with parte of the Indian sea. The other part of Indie wt∣out Ganges, is bounded on the west with the sayd riuer Ganges: on the North, with part of Scythia and Setica: on the East with the Region called Sinaruni: on the South with the Indian sea.

Nearchus, great Alexanders Admirall, affirmed (as A••anus writeth) that it was foure months iourney by ye plaines of Indie, Megasthenes saite, that the breadth of Indie, from the East to the west, cōtaineth 16000. furlongs, which is 2102. miles. The length frō ye North to the South 22000 furlongs, which is 2850. miles. Caesias affirmeth it to bee as much as the residue of Asia: but O∣nesicritus which wrote the actes of A∣lexander, denieth it to be the third parte of Asia. There are alwayes two Sum∣mers, and fruites and graine twice ga∣thered. The windes be alwayes tem∣perate, the beastes and Fowles much greater, than in other Countreyes, and of more diuers kindes. The names of the Countreyes and Cities there, be now otherwise, than they were in the time of the auncient Writers. They which bee now knowen, shall bée de∣clared in their places, with the moun∣tants and riuers which are great aboue all other.

(*Of the thrée principall riuers in In∣die, Ganges, Indus, and Hyphasis: Ganges, a great Riuer that diuideth Indi, called in holye Scripture Phi∣l••. one of the foure riuers which come soorth of Paradise. Iosephus doth in∣terpert if Inundation The bredth ther∣of (as Sohos writeth) is in the nar∣rowest place eight miles, in the brodest, twentie miles. Ananus writeth, that where it is narrowest, it is in bredth one hundred furlongs, which is eight miles. In many places, it spreadeth so wide, that where the gerunde is most plaine, nor any high place appeareth, no man may discerne anye thing of the o∣ther side: in the shallowest place, it is an hundred foote deepe. There runneth into it, seauenteene great Riuers, euerye one of them able to beare a shippe. In this Riuer of Ganges is an Ile, and therein a great Citie, called Palibetia, the Country is called Phrasia, the king whereof as Plyme writeth lib. 6. cap. 19. hath alwayes in wages 600000. foot-men, 30000. hors-men, and 9000. Elephants.)

(*Indus is a notable Riuer, that commeth from the great Mountaine Taurus, and incleaseth Indie on the West, and runneth into the Indian sea. Into this Riuer runneth nineteene great and famous Riuers, the least of them is more, than the great Riuer of Donowe. Where he is broadest, Stra∣bo sayeth, that they which doe write most moderately of Indus, doe affirme, that he is in breadth fiftie furlongs, which is twelue miles and a halfe. The water thereof causeth great fertilitie, when it ouerfloweth, and thereof many sundry pleasant and wholsome fruites, doe spring without labour.)

(*Hypasis, or as some doe write, Hypanis, Arianus calleth it Hyphasis, a great Riuer, which runneth out of the mountaines of Scythia into Indie, and commeth into the famous riuer of Gan∣ges, and is in breadth seauen furlongs, as Diodorus writeth, libro. 17. The streame thereof is so swifte, that no man may passe euer it, by the space of fiue dayes sayling. The water is fresh: af∣ter that it commeth within foure daies sailyng of the sea, it is wonderfull bit∣ter, by reason of a bitter Fountayne, which runneth into it. At this Riuer, the great Alexander finished his iour∣ney, and went no farther into Indie, but did there set vp twelue Altars of Stone, euerye of them fiftye Cubites Page  [unnumbered] in greatnesse. D. Cooper.

¶Of Hircania. chap. 74.

HIrcania, is a Prouince in Asia, vn∣der the mount Caucasus, and is a lull wide countrey: and there be manye men of diuers Nations and tongues, as Isidore sayth lib. 15. Also Orosius saith, that the land stretcheth from the mount Caucasus vnto Scythia. Therein are fortie foure Nations, that passe right far and wide for plentie of the lande. Some of them till lande, and some liue by hun∣ting, and some be cruell and beastiall, and wonderfullye shapen, and lyue by mans flesh and drinke mans bloud, as Isidore sayeth libro. 15. And he sayeth there, that Hircania hath the name of a Woode, that is called Irrana, and ly∣eth toward Scythia, and the Sea Cas∣pium is in the East side, and the more Armenie in the South, and Albania in the North, and Hiberia in the West. And it is sharpe of woodes, with plen∣tie of many great wilde beastes, Par∣tes, Tigres, and Panters. There brée∣deth birdes that are called Hircanic, their feathers shine by night, and such birdes are founde in Germany, as Isi∣dore sayeth. In the time of Macha∣beus Iohn Hircanus, the sonne of Si∣mon the chiefe Priest, ouercame ye men of this Hircania. And the sayde Iohn was called Hircanus because he ouer∣came that Countrey, as the master say∣eth in his historie, in the beginning of the storie of the Gospell: and Hierome saith the same.

(*Hyrcania, a Countrey in Asia, Hyrcanum mare, the Sea now called, Marc Abacucke, or Mare de Sala.)

¶Of Idumea. chap. 75.

IDumea is a Countrey in Arabia, and hath that name of Edom, that was Esau Isaacs sonne: for Esau Isaacs sonne was called so. Also Esaus children that was also called Edom, did expulse, and put out the Amorreis, and dwelled in that lande, and called it Idumea af∣terward. Idumea is to vnderstande, the lande of Edoms children. And Idumea and Palestina, are departed by certaine Desarts. The bordets of Idumea stret∣theth vnto the Red sea, and this lande is strong, and full of mountaines, and is scituate vnder strong heat of ye Sun: therefore people of that Country, make them houses and caues vnder the earth, to héepe them from strong heate of the Sunne, as the Glose sayeth super Ab∣diam.

(*Idumea, a Region in Syria, ioyn∣ing to Aegypt, and bordering vpon Pa∣lestine.

Of Iudea. chap. 76.

IVry is a Countrey in Palestina, and hath that name of Iudas Ia∣cobs sonne. Men of his lygnage, were Kings therein. This land was first cal∣led Canaan, & had that name of Chams sonne: or els of ten Nations of Cha∣naneis, the which being expulsed & put out, the Iewes possessed that lande.

The length thereof beginneth at the stréete Arpha, and stretcheth vnto the stréete Iuliatem, whereas is the com∣mon dwelling of Iewes and of Tires. The breadth thereof stretcheth from mount Libanus, to the side of Tiberia∣des: & in the middle of this Iudea, is the Citie of Ierusalem, as it were the na∣nell of all the Countrie and lande, and is rich of diuers riches, and beareth well corne and fruite: and is onely endow∣ed with waters and riches of Baume. Therin be many trées, Cedars, palmes, Cipres, and other noble trées. Therein be many vines and vineyards, Pome∣granardes and Olyues. The lande is rich of milke and of honny, therefore, by the grace of Elementes, the Iewes suppose that this land was promised to their forefathers, and that it flowed milke and honnie, for it was promised to them by aprerogatiue of name, as Isi. sayeth libro 15. cap. 4.

Plinius speaketh of this land & saith, that Iudea is a part of Siria, & stretch∣eth farre and wide, and is next to Egipt Page  228 and Arabia, and the countreyes therein be departed with sharpe mountaines, & the Riuer Iordan runneth there, and de∣parteth Galile from other Countreyes of Iudea. In Iudea is Ierusalem, and is the most noble Citie of all the Cities of the East, and in Iudea be hot wels, and healthfull. Also in the ende thereof is the dead sea, that is called, Latus Asphal∣tes, and is so called, for it bréedeth no∣thing that hath life: but therein is glewe, and nothing liueth therein: if a∣ny thing aliue be throwen therein, it swimmeth aboue, and this dead Sea, swalloweth the riuer of Iordane, and spilleth good water medled with water of pestilence.

(*Iudea, a Countrey in Asia, which hath on the West, Mare Cyprium, on the North, Phoenitia, and Syria: on the East, Arabia: on the South, the Lande of Aegypt. It receiued the name of Iudas the sonne of Iacob, the Patriarke, where before it was cal∣led Chananaea, of Chananaeus the fourth sonne of Cham.

Of the miserable estate of these peo∣ple, remaining a common example vnto all nations of the world, to beware (that they likewise giue not ouer themselues, to open resisting of the truth of Iesus Christ, against the Maiestie of God, lest they come likewise to be dispearsed, and made a scattering generation) which for their common contempt of Christ, as va∣gabonds, driuen forth of euery Christi∣an Kingdome.

Iudei, not onely the people of Iudea: but also they be so called, which doe ob∣serue their superstition. They were ex∣pelled out of the Realme of Englande, in the time of King Richard the first, for their crueltie in slaieng of Chri∣stian Children: lyke as they haue bene out of Fraunce, and Spaine, and now of late out of Portugal.)

(*In Iurye is God knowen, his name is great in Israel. At Salem is his tabernacle: and his dwelling in Si∣on. Psal. 76. Iurie the lande of promise wherein Christ was borne. Israel are the faythfull congregation. Salen is Ie∣rusalem. Sion the place of Dauid, on mount Sion aboue Ierusalem and in Ierusalem was the holy temple.

Of Iberia. chap. 77.

IBeria is a Country in Asia, and nigh the sea that is called Pontus, & ioyneth to Armenia. In this land grow hearbs, that bée good for Diers, as Isidore saith lib. 15.

(*Iberia the auncient name of Spaine, also another Countrye nigh to Armenia, it is of some written with H.

Of Italy. chap. 78.

ITaly is a greate Countrie in Eu∣ropa, and sometime Gréekes dwel∣led therein, and was therefore called the greate Grecia, as Isidore saith, lib. 15. And after that lande was called Sa∣turnia, and had that name of Satur∣nus the King. For when Saturnus was put out of his place by Iupiter, hée hidde himselfe there. And this land was called Italia at last, and had that name of Italus King of Cicile, that reigned therein. The length thereof is more then the breadth, and stretcheth out of the North north West, to the East North east, and is closed in the South with the sea Terrenum, and in the North with the sea Adriaticum, and endeth in the West at great mountains called Alpes. This land is most fayrest in all things, most kind ground to beare plentye of foode: therein be noble wa∣ters and lakes, as Benenatum, Auer∣num, and Lucrinum, and many other Riuers, as Eridamis, or Padus, Tibe∣ris, Herianus, and other such. There∣in bréede precious stones, that is to wit, Ligurium, Gagates, Pearles, and Corall.

Also there are bread Boa, the ser∣pent, and Linx the wilde beast, and many other singular kindes of Birdes. Also this Countrye is called Hespe∣ria, and hath that name of a starre that is called Hesperus, as Spaine is cal∣led. For Gréekes sayling into Ita∣laye and into Spaine, take héede of that starre.

Page  [unnumbered]But Spaine is called the last Hespe∣ria, for Spayne is in the last place vn∣der the West. Huc vsque Isidorus, libro. 15.

Among all the West countryes and landes of Europe, Italye beareth the price. Therein are noble Ilandes, and solempne hauens of the sea, and those Prouinces be full of riches, and Cities most full of people, & most strong wals and Ditches, with other araye of warre, with plentie of golde and of siluer. Lib. 2. Plinius sayth, that therein be twelue famous and most mightie perticular Countryes, besides the Ilands, of whom he treateth largely. And this lande is cloased all about in the East, North, & West, with full high mountaines cal∣led Alpes, out of which Mountaines, spring noble riuers, the Rine and Da∣nubius, which runne by Germany, and Rodanus and Secana, and many other, that runne by Fraunce, that moisten the Countreyes all about, and namelye, the parts of Fraunce, that be called, Gallia Lugduniensis, and Gallia Narbonensis, and Gallia Belgica.

(*Italia, a noble Countrey, which is inuironed on the West, with the moun∣taines Alpes: on the North, with the Sea Adriaticum: on the East and the South, with the Sea Mediterraneum, and Fretum Siculum. It also contayn∣eth these Regions. Liguria, Ethruria, Vmbria, Flammia, Larlum, Apiutium, Campania, Apulia, Venetia, Picenum, Gallia cisalpina, called Lumbardie. The length thereof (after Plynie) is 1020. miles: the breadth in some pla∣ces betwéen the two seas foure hundred and ten miles. It was sometime named, Magna Grecia, because it was inhabi∣ted with Gréekes, as Mirsilius writeth. Solinus resembleth the figure thereof to an Oaken leafe, extending more in length, than in breadth, toward the end being diuided, as it were into two hornes, whereof the one lyeth towarde the Sea Ionicum: the other looketh to to the narrowe Sicilie, called Fretum Si∣culum. In the narrowest place, it passeth not in breadthe, twentye myles.

Italica, a Citie in Italy, which by another name, is called Confinium. There is another in Spaine, where Si∣liue Italicus was borne.)

¶Of Hispania, chap. 79.

THe countrey of Spaine, was first called Hiberia, and had that name of the riuer Hiberus, and was after∣warde called Hispania, and hadde that name of the Riuer Hispalus, (as it it sayd). And this lande was called His∣pera, and had that name in olde time of the West euening starre. And this land is betwéene Affrica and Europa, and is cloased in the North side with ye moun∣taines Pyreneis, and is closed with the Sea all about in the other sides, and the aire there is very healthy, ther is a∣bundance of all corne and fruite, & most rich of precious stones and of mettall. Most noble Riuers runne through this land, as Betis, Minius, Hiberus, Ta∣gus, and Pactolus, that draweth golde. Therein be sixe Prouinces, as Terra∣conis, Cartaginensis, Lusitania, Gal∣licia, and Betica: and in the other side of the arme of the sea in the countrey of Affrica Trangitania. And there be two Spaines, the hether and the farther. Huc. vs{que} Isido. li. 15.

Orosius sayth, that Spayne is as it were a thrée corner to the roundnesse of landes: for it is beclypped nigh all a∣bout with the sea Occean and Tirreni, and is welnéere made an Iland: the next corner thereof is Eastward, and in the right side thereof is the Prouince of Guyan, and in the lefte side it is strai∣ned in with the Sea Balearicum: and nigheth the borders of Narbon. The se∣cond corner thereof, is toward ye North Northwest, where is Bernagicia, a Ci∣tie of Gallia, & reareth toward the sight of Britaine. The thirde corner thereof is toward ye Ilands Gades afore mount Athlant, that is in Affrica, in the other side of an arme of the Occean. Huc. vs∣que Orosius.

Also Plinius prayseth Spaine in ma∣nye things, and namelye in mettall, and Page  231 sayeth, that nigh in all Spayne is plen∣tie of golde and siluer, of brasse, copper, and yron, of tinne and lead, both white and blacke. Therein be men and Nati∣ons great warriours, and strong. It is sayd, that some of them descended of the Greekes, and it is said also, that some of them were descended, & were successours of the Wysigothes, the same saith Isido. For therein be many speciall prouinces, that we know, and there is Galitia. Men of that countrey tell, that they came of the Greekes as Isidore saith lib. 9. Ther in is Asturis, and hath that name, for it is closed all about with mountains afore the riuer Asturius, and ther is Celtibe∣ria, and hath that name of Gallis Gelci∣cis, that bwelled vpon the Riuer Hibe∣rius.

(*Hispania, a Countrey in the West part of Europe, called Spaine, somtime called Iberia, and Hesperia. It is muy∣roned on the South part, with the Sea Mare Meditaraneum, which diuideth Europe from Affrike: on ye North part, with the Sea, Mare Cantabricum: on the west, with the great Occean Sea: on the East with the Mounines Pyre∣nael, and the parte of the Realme of Fraunce, called Aquitania and Narbo∣nensis. This Countrey is diuided by Ptholome into three Regions: Bethica, wherin is Granado, Syuil, Cordubia, &c. Lucitania, wherein is Portugall, Galle∣tia, &c. Tarrhaconensis, wherein is Ca∣style, Lyons, and Arragon. At this time it containeth slue Realmes, Granado on the South part toward Affrike, Por∣tugall on the West, Gallecia and Bis∣kaye on the North, Arragon on the East, Castile and Lyons in the middle. Much of the West parte, by reason of Yorkes, Forrests, and for lacke of wa∣ter, is not fertill, nor well inhabited. The North part by reson of much cold, is not plenteous. The South parte is wonderfull fruitfull. It is in length, as Strabo writeth, 6000. furlongs, which is 850. miles: in bredth, 5000. furlongs, which is 625. miles. Plinius next vnto Italy, extolleth it in fertilite aboue all o∣ther Countreyes, in plentie of graine, wines, oyle, siluer, golde, and yron.

Statius and Claudius doe no lesse com∣mend it. As touching for golde, and sil∣uer, Spaine is beholding to the Indies, from whence commeth yearely an infi∣nite masse of treasure: which if slouth and distrust, had not bene Pilates of England in finos past, those Indies had serued England and not Spaine, for the most part, as more plainly appeareth in the booke tituled, the Decade of ye West and East Indies, and Andrew The∣uer.

¶Of Hibernia. Cap. 80.

IRelande is called Hibernia,* and is an Ilande of the Occean in Eu∣rope, and is nigh to the lande of Bri∣tayne, and is more narrow and straight than Britaine, but it is a more plente∣ous place. This Iland stretcheth out of the South into the North, as Isidore sayth libro. 15. The first partes thereof are toward the sea that is called Hybe∣rum Cantabricum Occeanum. And al∣so this Iland hath that name Hibernia, of the sea that is called Hyberum Oc∣ceanum. In this lande is much plentie of Corne fieldes, of wells and of riuers, of fairs meades and woods, of mettall, and of precious stones: for there is gen∣dred, a sixe cornered stone, that is to say, Iris, that maketh a Raine bowe in the aire, if it be set in the Sunne. And also there is sound a stone that is called Ga∣gates. And there is Iet sound and white Margarites. And concerning the whol∣some aire, Irelande is a good temperate countrye. There is litle or none passing heat or cold. Ther be wonderfull lakes, pondes and wells, for there is a lake, in which if a staffe, or a pole of trée be pight, and tarieth long time therein, the part that is in the earth turneth into yron, & the part that is in the water, tourneth into stone, and the part that is aboue the water, abideth still in his kinde of trée. There is another lake, in which if that thou throwest roddes of hasill, it turneth those roddes into Ashe, and againe ward, if ye cast ashe roddes therin, they tourne into hasill. Therein be places, in which Page  [unnumbered] dead Carrions neuer rot: hut abide there alway vncorrupt. Also in Ireland is a little Iland, in which men dye not but when they be ouercome with age, they be borne out of that Ilande to dye without.* In Ireland is no Serpent, no Fragges, nor vencuious Spider, but all the land is so contrary to venemous beasts: that if the earth of that lande be brought into another lande, & sprong on the ground, it slayeth Serpenies and Toades. Also venemous beasts flieth I∣rish wooll, skinnes and fells: and if ser∣pents or Toades be brought into Ire∣land by shipping: they dye anone. Ma∣nye other wonders are in that land.

Solinus speaketh of Ireland and sai∣eth, that Irelande is nigh asmuch as Britaine, but the inhabitants thereof, be fierce, and lead an vnhumaine life. There is no Adder séene except it bée seldome. The people there vse to har∣bour no guests; they be warriours, and* drinke mens bloud that they slay, and wash first their faces therewith: right and vnright they take for one. There be no Bées, for if men throwe power or stones that is brought out of Irelande, into hiues, the swarmes forsake the ho∣ny combes. The Sea Hybernicum to∣ward Britaine, is full of waues, & vn∣quiet, and is in all the yeare vnneth a∣ble to sayle in, except it be fewe dayes, it is an hundred and thirtie thousande paces broad, &c. Huc vs{que} Solinus, De Mirab. mundi.* Men of Ireland are sin∣gularly cloathed, and vnseemely arayed, and scarcely fed, they be cruell of heart, fierte of chéere, angry of speach & sharpe. Neuerthelesse they be frée hearted and faire of speach, and goodly to their owne Nation, & namely those men that dwell in woodes, marreyses, and mountaines. These men are plesed with flesh, apples, and fruite for meate, and with milk for drinke, and giue them more to playes & to hunting, than to worke and trauell.

*As concerning Ireland, read Policro∣nicon lib. pri. cap. 32.

¶ Of Icana. chap. 81.

ICaria is an Iland, one of Ciriades in the West side, and the sea Icari∣um hath the name of this land Icaria, & this lande is betwéene Samum and Cin∣thonum, and is not able to dwell in for high rocks and cragges, and also for it is hauenlesse in euery side, and hath this name Icaria, of one Icarus of Creta that was drowned therein, as Isidore sayeth libro. 15.

(*Icaria, an Ile in the Sea Icarium, which is also called Icarus. Icarus the sonne of Dedalus, who hauing winges, (made by Arte) with his Father flewe out of the Ile of Crete, but when hée flew higher than his Father commaun∣ded, the ware, wherewith the fethers of his wings were glewed, melted with the heate of the Sunne: and ye feathers falling off, Icarus was constrayned to fall into the sea, afterward called, Mare Icarium, Icarus is also the name of the father of the chast Penelope, which was wife to Vlysses the Gréeke, and is also the name of a mountain in the Region of Athens: the Ile Icarus, is called Ich∣thicusa.)

¶Of an Iland. chap. 82.

AN Iland is called Insula, and is a land compassed about with the sea, or with a riuer, or with a water, as it were set in the sea, as Isidore saith lib. 15. An Ilande is beaten all about with waues of waters, but it is not broke, nor destroyed with such beating, but by shouing and beating of water, and of waues on the sides of an Iland, the car∣thie parts be driuen and fastened toge∣ther, and so an Iland is made the more sadder and stedfast in the vtter oes.

The vtter parts of Ilands be wasted, & vndermined with beating of waters: but about the inner parts they ioyne the faster together, because of wasting with∣out. Also Ilandes be some time heyted with waues and floudes of water, & bee made more by bringing thereto of earth and of sime. Ilands be gréene and plen∣teous, by sucking in at hoales of moy∣sture of waters and of humours.

Of Caria. chap. 83.

CAria a region in Asia,* hauing on the North side the great riuer Meander: on the west the great riuer Icarium: on ye East Licia, & diuers other countries: toward the South, the mountaine Tau∣rus. Page  232 The people therof called Cares, were good men of war, & therfore euery where retained for soldiers, as Suizars, or Sut∣theners be now.

(*Caunus a citie in Caria, by the riuer Calbis, this citie is verye queasie and daungerous to dwell in, both at other times of the yere, & specially in summer; and Autumn, as well for ye vntemperats heat of ye aire, as for the great abundance of fruites. Therefore it is reported, that the scituation is very vnwholesome, and the aire outragious. When Stratonicus a pleasant musttion, and merry conceited man, beheld the inhabitaunts thereof so wanne and ill coloured, he scoffed at them with this sentence of Homer, Tale qui∣deni genus est hominum, quale est foli∣orum: The men and the leaues of this Countrie looke verye lyke: that is, both man and pale without linelye coulour. For which scoffe, when the people were much gréeued, and bitterly railed at him, why (sayth hee) may I not iustlye call this a sicklye and queasie Citye, where dead men walk: with which aunswere, hée far more sharpelye nipped their dead∣ly coulours and wearish looks then he had done before.

Of Carthage, chap. 84.

CArthage is the name of a Citie and of a prouince of Affrica in Hispania: and there be two Carthages, the more and lesse: and Dido made both, shée went out of the Prouince of Fenir, and builded a citie on the cliffe of Af∣frica, and called the citie first Carca∣da in the language of Fenicia. And af∣terward the name was chaunged: and the citie was called Cartago. This citie when it was most famous, and not lesse renowmed then Rome, Sci∣pio with his Romane hoast destroyed and beate it to the grounde: as Isidore saith liber. 16. And nowe the Romanes haue builded it againe, as Isidore say∣eth. And another Cartage is in Affrica betwéene Bisantium & Numidia, & ioy∣neth in the North to the Sea that is cal∣led Mare Siculum, and stretcheth in the South to the Countrye of Getules. The next parte thereof beareth aboun∣dauntlye corne: and hath greate plen∣tye of Oyle and of fruite, and is full of mettall. In the farther parte towarde Nomidia is greate plentie of beastes, Serpents, and great wilde. Asses, that go aboute in desart; as Isidore sayth. lib. 15. Also there be many Elephants and other beasts, as plinius also affirmeth liber. 5. cap. 5.

(*Carthago) a famous Citie in Af∣frike called Carthage, almost enuironed with the Sea: which City was in com∣passe about the walles .360. furlonges; which are .45. Italian miles: whereof seuen miles and an halfe ranne in length on the ridge of an hill which went from sea to sea, where were set the stables of Elephauntes, a very large place, almost in the middle of the Citye was a Castle or Towre called Byrs, on the top wher∣of stood Aelculapius Temple, (the sonne of Apollo and Cotonis, and was called the God of Phisicke; and honoured in the forme of a Serpent) vnderneth were ha∣uens or Keyes of the Castle, and a lyt∣tle round Ile called Cothon, standing as it were in a great ponde, about which were set the houses, yt serue for the nauy of Carthage. This Citie continued wars with the Romanes fortie yeares, and had many excellent men of warre, of whome Anibal was the most noble and famous. That Citye had in subiection, a greate parte of Affrike, Scicile, the more parte of Spaine, and the Iles of the middle Sea. It was at last destroyed by Sci∣pio, before the incarnation of Christ .144 yeares. The country where it stoode is now called Thunyse.)

Of Carinthia. chap. 85.

CArinthia is a little Prouince of Ger∣mania in Europa, and hath Pano∣nia in the East side, and Italye in the West: and the Riuer Denubius in the North: Dalmacia and Salmonia in the South. And is closed with moun∣taines in the one side, and endeth at the Sea Adriaticum in another side.

And this is a plentious lande in ma∣nye places: and hath manye wilde Page  [unnumbered] beasts and tame. The men do great war∣riours and strong, and mightely streng∣thened with Castles and townes. The land is cold for high mountaines be nigh therto, there is oft raine and Snowither about the mountaines for coldnesse of Snow water, manye haue Botches vn∣der the thinne, as it is sayde. There be many Beares, Bisoums, and other won∣derfull beasts and wilde. Also there bée glifes, & men eate them, for though they séeme to be a kinde of Mice, yet they bée eaten, to they flesh is both sauoury and far.

(*Carinthia a Country by Oustrike, ioyning on the South to the mountains Alpes and Italy, on the East and North to S••na. The election of a new prince or gouernour there is verye straunge. Pius writeth in his Cosmographie, that in the towne called Sanctiviti, is a great val∣ley where in a meddowe is set a stone of Marble, of a good height, wherevpon as∣cendeth a husband man, vnto whom that office by inheritaunce belongeth: on his right hand standeth a blacke Cowe: on his left hand an ill fauoured Mare. A∣bout him standeth a great multitude of Carles, common people. On the other side of the medowe commeth the Duke accompanied with his noble men; in their roabes of estate. Before him goeth the Earle of Goritia, the great master of his house, betwéene .12. Banners, bearing the Princes standard: The other noble men followe with the Prince, cladde lyke an husband man, with a sheepe crooke in his hand, as he were a shepheard: As soone as the Carle on the Marble stone percei∣ueth him comming, he asketh alowde in the Slauoine tongue: Who is this that commeth with so proude a gate. They that stande about aunswere: It is the Prince of this Countrie. Then sayth hée oftentimes: is he a righteous Iudge, sée∣king for the weale of the Countrie, a frée man borne, and worthy to haue honour: is he a true christian man, and defendie of Christs faith: They all answere, yea, he is, and shall be: Then sayth ye Carle, by what right may be put me from this place: Then aunswereth the Earle of Goritia, thou shalt haue for thy place .60 groafes, these two beasts (the Cowe and the Mare) and the Princes apparol, which he did late put off. Also thy familye or kinne shall be frée, from all manner of tribute. Then the Carle giuing ye Prince a little blowe on his chéeke; bindeth him be a good Iudge, and comming downe from the stone giueth him place, & so de∣parteth taking with him the Cowe and the Mare. Then the Prince goeth vppon the stone, and holding a naked swoord in his hande, shaking it, tourneth to euerye part of the stone, promising equall iudge∣ment to all the people. Then is there brought to him colde water in a hus∣band mans cap, which he drinketh, signi∣fieng that he condempneth drinking of Wine. Then goeth he to a Church ther∣by, where after he hath heard diuine ser∣uice, he putteth of his rusticall raiment, and putteth on apparell of honour: And dining with his nobilitie sumptuouslye, he commeth often to the medowe, where he heareth matters, and ministreth iu∣stice: The Duke of this Country is as it were chiefe master of the Game to the imperiall maiestie.)

Of Cathay. chap. 86.

CAthay, a greate region in the East part of the worlde,* extending to the East Occean sea: on the soath to yt ouer India: and is also called Siuarum Re∣gio; it is diuided into nine Realmes: all bée vnder ye great Cham. This Country is wonderfull rich in golde and silke, a∣bounding in grain, wines, & other things necessarie for mans sustenance. The peo∣ple for the more parte honour: Christ as God, but they are not baptised: They are curteous and reasonable, & very cunning Artificers.

As concerning further discourse of Cathai, or Cataia, read the booke tituled, A discourse of a discouery for a new pas∣sage to Cataia, written by Sir Humfrey Gilbert, Knight Anno. 1576. wherein thou shalt finde many learned and com∣mendable notes.

Of Corcica. chap. 69.

Page  233COrcica is an Ilande, and hath that name of a certaine Duke, and is .30 mile from Sardinia by the sea afore I∣taly: and is an Iland with most plenty of pasture. And that is knowen by a Bull that oft swamme thether out of Liguria because of Pasture, & came againe in no∣ble point. For a woman yt is called Cor∣sa kept that bull and other beasts by the sea cliffes, and saw that Bull euery daie go from his fellowes and swim into the sea: and came again in noble point & wel fed. Then she wold know what pasture the bull had found. And on a time when the bull went from the other beasts into the sea, shée followed him in a Boate vnto the Iland, and came againe, & tolde how plenteous the Ilande was. Then men sayled thether, and called the Iland Corcica by the name of the woman that found the Iland and was their guide & leader. The Iland hath many corners, and forlandes, and beareth best léese and pasture. And therein is gendered a noble stone, which the Gréekes call Bacem, as Isidore sayth, li. 15.

(*Corsica an Ile in the middle Sea, betwéen Gean, and the Ile of Sardinia, called Cors: it is now vnder the Citie of Gean.)

Of Lacedemonia. chap. 88.

LAcedemonia is a prouince in Euro∣pa, in ye ends of Gréece, beside Thra∣cia, and hath another name and is called Spartania: The men of that countrye be called Lacedemonians, and haue that name Lacedemonians of one of the sons of Sem: These Lacedemons went out and warred against the Messenes: and feared that the war should long in∣dure, and they shuld be without ofspring, and commaunded that their maidens at home should take younlings that were left at home with them, & get and bring forth children. And the children that wer got in that manner were called Sparta∣ni, of the shamelesse doing of their mo∣thers, as Isid. saith li. 10.

(*Lacedemon a noble Citie in Gréece, called also Sparta, in the region of A∣chaia. This Countrye is called Lacede∣monie.

Of Lectonia. chap. 89.

LEctonia is a Prouince of Scithia: The men thereof be called Lectini, & be men of comely stature, strong warri∣ours and fierce. The soile of the country of Lectonia beareth wel corne & fruit, & is full of moores and marreis in diuerse places, with many woods & riuers, wa∣ters, and beasts wilde and tame: and is strengthened with woodes, moores, and marreis, and hath little other strength but woods, moores, and marreis. There∣fore vnneth that land may be assailed in Summer, but in winter when waters & riuers be store.

Of Liuonia. chap. 90.

LIuonia is a speciall Prouince of the same countrie & language, and is de∣parted frō Germania with a long space of the Occean. The man thereof be cal∣led Liuones, & haue wonderful maners & vsages: and the Germaines turned them from the false beléefe of féends, to ye wor∣ship & faith of one God. For they wor∣shipped many Gods, and asked aun∣sweres of féends with mil beléeued & cur∣sed sacrifice. And vsed auguries, & diui∣nations, and they vsed not to burye the dead carcased, but the people made a great fire, & burnt them that were dead all to ashes. After the death of one of their friends, they clothed his kinsmen in new clothing, and gaue them shéepe & neate, and other beasts, as he was wor∣thy, his seruants, men, and women, with other things, and them all together they would burne with the dead man. And supposed that they that were so burnt, should graciouslye come to that lande of life with multitude of seruaunts, and of beasts that were so burnt, for his sake, & finde the lande of temporall lyfe and of wealth. With such errour of ••ends, this land was bewitched in olde time: now it is supposed, that by the grate of God, & by strēgth of Germans this land is de∣liuered of the foresaid errors, and many countries and lands that belong therto. Page  [unnumbered] (*Liuonia, a part of Sarmatia, beyond Luten, Northward, hauing on the West the Sea called Germanicum.)

Of Licia, chap. 91.

LIcia is the name of a coast and of an hauen of the sea, the chiefe citie ther∣of is called Listra. Out of that city men saile my Siria and Pamphilia into Ita∣ly, as it is sayd Act. 28. This land by the true name thereof is called Licaonia, & the Cities thereof were Listra & Der∣ben. To these cities Paule and Barnabas fled out of Iconius, and healed and saued a man in Listra, and then the men of that country called Barnabas, Iupiter, and Paule, Mercurius, and would haue worshipped them, as it is written. Act. 14.

(*Lycaonia, a Countrye in Asia, af∣ter some writers, it is a parte of Archadia.)

Of Lidia, Chap. 92.

LIdia is an olde place of Kingdomes, the riuer Pactolus adorneth this land with tokens and brookes of golde. Be∣fore this lande was called Aurea Me∣nea, and might not suffice two brtheren that were kings, Liddus and Cirenus: Then by lot Cirenus went out of that land with great strength of men, & occu∣pied countries in Gallia, and called the country Cirrenea. And Liddia hadde the name of Liddus the other brother, that abode and reigned there. This land ioy∣neth to the lesse Phrigia in the west side, and hath the citie Smirma in the East side: and the riuer Helles commeth a∣bout it. By the fieldes thereof runneth Pactolus and Herinus, two rich riuers, with golden grauell, as Isidore sayeth, libro. 15.

(*Lydia a Country in Asia, on the East ioyning to Phrigia, on the North to Mysia, on the South vppon parte of Caria. In this region is the hill called Tmolus, out of the which commeth the riuer called Padolus. Tmolus is a mountaine in Lydia, whereon did grow great plentie of Suffron and bines: a∣mong the grauell of the riuer Pactolus is founde greate plentie of graines of golde.)

Of Libia. chap. 93.

LIbia is a greate lande in Affrica, and hath that name, for that Libe ye Sou∣therne winde bloweth from thence, as Isidore sayth lib. 15. Other men meane, that Epscisus Iupiters sonne that buil∣ded Nephim also in Aegypt, & get on his wife Casorta, a daugther yt is called Li∣bia, yt was after quéene of Affrica: & by her name that land was after called Li∣bia. And Libia is in the beginning of Affrica, & in the East side thereof is Ae∣gypt, and in the West bée Sireos, Ma∣iores & Trogodites, & in the North side is the sea Libicum, and in the South is Ethiopia and Barbaria: Therein bée diuerse nations and wildernesses: to whome men maye not come for wilde beasts and sierce, for Serpents and for Dragons that bréede Cocatrices. Huc vsque Isid. li. 15.

¶Libia is a full hot lande, and bur∣ning, and bréedeth in diuerse places ma∣ny venimous beasts, and beasts wonder∣fully shapen, and many precious things in diuers places, as precious stones, gold, and siluer, much wheate, wine and oile, and diuerse manner of spicerie. Men of Libia came first of Puthericus the sonne of Cham. Therfore a riuer that runneth by the sea coast of Libia is called Path: & all the land is called Puthensis: as the Glose saith super Gen.

(*Lybia was among the Gréekes, the generall name of all Affrica: Not∣withstanding it is of the Romanes ta∣ken onely for that part of Affrica, which is from Aegypt, to the West Occean, containing Syrenaica, Affrica minor, Numibia, and Mauritania. The Spani∣ards do commonly call them all Moores, Libia interior is bounded on the North, with the two countries called aurita∣nia, with ffrike the lesse, and Cerenai∣ca, on the East with Ethiop, on ye South with Ethiop the further, on the West with the Occean sea. In this country are the people called Caramantes and Ga∣tule D. Cooper.

Page  234

Of Lothoringia, chap. 94.

LOthoringia is as it were the last pro∣uince and end of Germania, & hath that name of Lotharius the king. In the East side thereof is Recia: yt is Beaban: In the South side is the Rine, & Alsaci∣a, and in the West Gallia Senonensis, and in the North side is Gallia Belgica. By this land runneth the riuer Mosa, & in this land is ye citie Metis, & is a coun∣try bearing in many places fruit & wine, and is moisted with wells and riuers: therin be mountaines, woodes, & groues, and many beasts wilde and same. The people of this countrye be meddeled of French men & of Germains. Therein are wonderfull wells & medicinable to help men of diuerse euills if they drink therof. Lothoringia, a country called Loraine.*

Of Lucitania. cap. 95.

LVsitania is a prouince of Spaine, & there is the riuer Paeum, & the town Masia. The country is full of mettall of gold & siluer, yron, and Lead, white and blacke, as Plinius saith, li. 7. cap. 72.

*Lucitania, the Realme called Portu∣gall.

Of Mauritania. cap. 96.

MAuritania hath that name of the coulour of men, as it were to vnderstand, the country of blacke men. For Mauron is Gréeke, and is to vnderstand black. For as French men be called Gal∣li, & have that name of whitenes of men. So men of this land be called Mauri, & haue ye name of blacke colour. The first prouince therof is Stiphensis: wherein is scituate the town Stiphis: and the coun∣trie hath the name of that towne: and the other part & prouince is Mauritania Cesariensis: yt is also called Colonia Ce∣saris, & the prouince hath ye name therof: both prouinces ioyne togethers, & haue ye country Numidia in ye East side, & Mare∣magna in ye North side, & the riuer Ma∣lum in the west, & the mount Astrixis in ye south. And ye mount departed the good land from grauell. 112, that lieth toward the sea occean. Ther is another Mauri∣tanta called Tingitana: & hath that name of the citie called Tingi. This is ye last part of Affrica, and riseth out of seauen mountaines, and hath the riuer Malua in the East side, and the sea Caditanum in the North and the Occean Athlanti∣cum in the West, and Glansasium in the South: The men be spread into the sea occean Hesperum. In ye country be wild beasts, Apes, Dragons, Strucions, E∣stridges, & Elephants. Huc vsque Isi. li. 15. Also lib. cap. 2. Plinius saith, that in Mauritania be many men that be called Ancoles: & they dwell beside the mount Athlant in a place full of woodes, with plentie of waters and of wells, where groweth all manner of fruite without trauaile of men, so the men that dwell there lacke neuer plentie of liking. The place is high above the clowdes, & nigh to the circle of the Moone. And hée tel∣leth that oft by night in that place is fire séene, and burning brands, and won∣derfull sightes. Also there is heard, song of liking, melodie of pipes, of timbers, Labours, and Cymballs, as solempne Authours tell:* also there growe won∣derfull high trées, and the gum of them smelleth full swéete, & bée like Cipres. And some be growen as it wer wr haire or with wooll, & thereof be clothes made by craft, as it were Bombex. Also there groweth an hearbe, called Euforbia, and hath that name of him that founde that hearbe, the white iuyce thereof is won∣derfully praised in cléerenesse of sight, & in helpe against stinging of adders, and other venim, as he faith there.

(*Mauritania, the country now called Morisco, of Moores, lieng on the West part of Astrike, betwéene the sea called Mare Mediteraneum, on the North, & Libia on the south, Martianus saith, yt in length it is 10.times 38.miles, which is 380. miles: It is divided into two coun∣tries, Tingitana, & Caesarencis, Tingita∣na hath on ye west side the occean sea, on the north yt straight of Marroche, called Fretū Herculeum, vnto ye riuer Masus, on the East Caesariensis, on the South Getulia & Libia. Caesariencis hath on ye west Tingitana, on ye north the sea Sar∣doum, vnto the riuer Amphagus, on the south the mountains of Libia, and the country of Getulia.)

Page  [unnumbered]

Of Macedonia. chap. 97.

MAcedonia had the name of Emaci∣us the king, and was called at the first time Emacia: But after that Mace∣de the nephew of Deucalcon, was ruler thereof, he changed the name, and called the land Macedonia by his owne name, as Isidore saith, libr. 5. This land stret∣cheth to the sea Egenin in the East side, and to Achnia in the South side, and to Dalmacia in the West, and to Messia in the North, as he sayth. And was the great Alexanders Country, and is best country in vemes of golde and siluer. It broedeth a stone that is called Uiren: In that country is mount Olimpus: and is so high that no clowdes nor winde for raine come on the top therof, as he saith.

Libet, 4 cap 20. Phinus speaketh of Macedonia, and sayeth, that Macedonia was sometime called Emacia, and is set first of Empires of lands. This land conquered Asia, Armenia, Hibernia, Al∣bania, CAPPADOCIA, Siria, Aegypt, Tau∣rus, and Caucasus. This lande was Law among the Eactris, Pedes, and Persis, and had in pussession all the East landes. This land is nurse of Inde, that followed the steppes of Liber Pater, and of Hercules. This is that Macedonia, of whom in one daye the Emperour Pau∣lus Emilias tooke and solve 70. Cities, as he sayth.

(*Macedonia a realme of Gréece, first called Aemathia, on the North it bound∣deth (as Ptholomeus writteth) vpon the sides of Dalmacia, Mysia superior and racia: on the West it Reticheth to ye sea Ionium. Puts deseribeth it to ioyné South and West to Thracia, and that the south side on the bankes of Thella∣ba and Magnetia, the North on Phoe∣nea and Paphlayonia. That it hath also on the south Epirus, on the north Illy∣ria, which varyeth not much from Soli∣mus, who sayeth that it is diuided from Thracia, with the riuer Strimon, it is now vnder the Turke.)

Of Magnesia, chap. 98.

MAgnesia is a prouince of Gréece, in the middle betwéene Thessalis and Macedonia: and conteineth many nati∣ons, cities, and townes, as Phanus sayth li. 4. cap. 10.

Magnesia a part of Macedonia.*

Of Messia, chap. 99.

MEssia hath the name of Messis ripe corne, and is the first prouince that the riuer Danubius closeth vnto the sea of middle earth, as Isidore saith lib. 15. This land ioyneth to the mouth of Da∣nobius in the East side, and to Tracia in the North East, and to Macedonia in the south, and to Histria in the West, as he sayth. And this country conteineth ma∣ny nations, cities, and townes, and bea∣reth good corne and fruite. Therein is plentie of veines, of oare, of Rones, and mettall.

(*Ptholomeus writeth of two Coun∣tries called Mysia, the more & the lesse, and both in Asia, beyond Eithinia, not farre from Ida.)

Of Mesopotamia, cap. 100.

MEsopotamia hath Etimelogia of Gréeke, for it is inuironed with two riuers, Tigris in the East, and Euphra∣tes in the West. And beginneth out of the North betwéene mount Laurus, and Caucasus: and in the south side ther∣of is Babylonia and Chaldea, as Isido, sayth, lib. 15. This is a country in Asia, and is a huge land in length & in bredth, plenteous of corne, of pasture, of beasts fame and wildeifull of mettall, and other RICHES.

(*Mesopotamia, a countrye in the East, lieng betweene the two noble Ri∣uers. Tigris and Euphrates, and hath on the south Babylomon the North the greate mountains called Caucasus.)

Of Media, chap. 101.

MEdia hath that name of Medue the king that first assayled that Pro∣uince. And Modia hath the kingdomes Page  235 of Parthia in the Wiest side, and is in∣uitaned with Armenia in the North, and hath the mountaines Caspios in the East, and Bersida in the South side. On∣ly in this Country groweth a trée that is called Medira, and groweth in none other land noor Countrie; as Isidore say∣eth, libro. 15. This Country is full rich, it is moysted with many riuers, and is noble and strong with Cities & Towns. In olde time Kings of this lande ouer, came the great Babylonia, and the Em∣perours of Caldeis. Also the men of this land and the Perses sayled into Affri∣ca, are medled themselues with the U∣baes, men of Libia, and the Libees called them Mauros, in their corrupt & strange language of Barbarie, notwithstanding that Mauri in the Greeke language are called at blacke coulour, as Isidore sayth libro. 9.

(*Media a country in Asia, hauing on the North, the sea called Hiremum, on the West Armenie the more, and Assy∣ria or the south Persia on the East Hir∣caia and Parthia.)

Of Melos, chap. 102.

MElos is an Ilande of the Ciclades, 〈…〉 to most rounde of all Ilandes, and is therefore called Melos, that is to saye, 〈…〉, as Isidore saith, libro, 15. And this lande is full of much good, as Plinius sayth. And what lacketh in this lande in quantitye of space, is rewar∣ded and recouered in the goodnesse of the ground.

(*One of the Iles of Sicilla, where inhabited huge Gyaunts, hauing but one eue in their forehead.)

Of Midia, chap. 103.

MIdia is an Ilande in the Prouince of Irelande, and standeth in the middle place, as it is aide. And hath that name of a thing that departed the lande, euen in this partes among fiue daugh∣ters. And kept that parte of the Ilande, as his 〈…〉 vse, vs best and most noble place of the Countrye: And therefore as mouing Irish men that portion is s eal∣led Media, as it were in the middle of other landes about. In this Countrye is good grounde to beare corne and fruit. Therein is plentye of pasture and of beasts, of Fish and of Flesh, of But∣ter and Chéese, and of milke, and of other victualles. Therein bée good River, Wells and lakes, of manye effectes and vertues, as it is sayd, and ther is liking, aspect, good nyre and wholesome: And is right strange in the vtter partes with woodes, and marreys, and multitude of strong Castles and townes: for the com∣mon speach: this Countrie is called the chamber of Ireland. For peace is there continually.

Mydia, an Ile named also Delos.

*Of Misena. chap. 104.

MIsena a Prouince of Germania, and hath that name of a Citye that is called Missena: and ioyneth to Boe∣mis, and to Polonia in the East side, and to Baionia in the South: To Saro∣nia and to Turingia in the West: To Recia and to the bordes of Rhenam in the North. And is a right wide lande and a large: héere plaine and there full of mountaynes, and is good lande and full of pasture, and moysted with best Ma∣ter. For that principall Riuer. Albia runneth foorth in the more parte by the length, thereof. Also therein he strong Ci∣tyes, Castles, Tobones, and for〈…〉. And generallye the people thereof be rich of Cattell, of corne, of heasen, and of mettall. And though the man hée long and very fayre strong and séemely of sta∣ture, yet neuerthelesse they ••• go•••e and peaceable by kinde, and ••••••e sierce in all thing the ••enance her.

(*There are two Riuers of this name Albis, the one in Bosmia, which commeth to all Gisle of Prae, the other in Germany.

Of Moseouia. chap. 105.

*MOscouia, a long continued sayle, rich of F•••s, Tallows, Hiuers, and Hempe. There is also good Tarrs Page  [unnumbered] and Mane. The comfort people b•• of a onerly stature, and of condour. Urwn; superstition, and verye lecherqus, the rest of their manners traitable, the Most thaiter affirme, that their nation in old time was called Russia, the speach is Slauoine tongue: Of the Princes that now reigne in Russia, the chiefe is the greate Duke of Mascouts yt who possess with the greatest parte thereof. The se∣cond is the Duke of Lithuania: and the third the king of Polome, who now obteineth the dominion of Polonie and Lithoania: In authoritie and dominion ouer: his sabiectes, the Prince of Mos∣ecuie, passeth all the Monarchies of the worlde, for hée depriueth all his noble men and Gentlemen of all their holdes and munitions at his pleasure. Hée also vseth lyke authoritie ouer his Priestes, and what hée commaundeth is done, without acception of persons: hée is ve∣rye tyrannous in punishing. Moseo∣ur is dained of the riuer Mosco. Read Sebastian Munster.

Of Mithilene, chap. 105.

MIthiline is an Iland in the sea A∣〈…〉 by the which lande men 〈…〉 Cipred into Italye, and •• is ••• to come to this Ilande Iy Bithala •••h it a cliffe stret∣ch dignitie the Sea, and the Sea is de∣parted and decade as it were double by esting in ••••th or of grauell. And so∣shi 〈…〉 on the grauell be soone bo••〈…〉in Act. A∣post 〈…〉 in the text and in the 〈…〉 though the ••• of that ••e be••••••• be they shawn and cure∣tions to 〈…〉 that goe there to worke, as mention is made there〈…〉Paule when he sai∣led ••• ar••ne,* there e scaped the 〈…〉 called 〈…〉 leaped out of the fire, & hung on Paulas hand, and be swang the Adder into ye fire, and so the Aper was adt. And also Paule did there many miracles, as it is said Act.••.

(*This owe the called Mitheline of the 〈…〉 of thier books in his •••e doth declare hat baroinesse of the speath then vsed. The Ile is nowe called after the Gréekes phrase Meteline, and Mel∣ta, and last of all, Maltatnowe vnder the gouernement of the Turke. In this Ile was the Apostle Saint Paule bit∣ten of the Uiper, and escaped, death Act. 18.)

Of Nabathea. chap. 106.

NAbathea is a prouince of Arabia, & hath that name of Nabeleisma. els sonne: And is in the middle betwéene Arabia and Judea; and riseth from Eu∣pharates, and strecheth to the red Sea, as Isidore sayth, lib. 15. This land is ful fat, and beareth welt corne and fruit, and sée∣deth many beasts. Therein; he many pre∣cious stones and mettall.

Lib. 6 〈…〉 Plinius speaketh of men of this prouince, and sayth, that Nabe∣theis dwells dirts. Towne that is called Betravita a ualley, & is almost two mile broad, and is inuironed with high moun∣taines that be hard to come to, & a riuer runneth betwéene them, an〈…〉 paces from the towne that is called Gaza, and 132: from the sea Petcisim.

(*Nabäthaer, people inhabiting the country called Arabia foeli , very contie∣nent, and in preparing and kéeping, theyr commodities, right prudent, he trobo w••tes, in whome you may reade shore abundauntlye of their manners, not much expedient to bée declared in this place.)

Of Norwegia, chap. 107.

NOrwaye is the largest Prouince of Europa, and is compassed with the Sea wolting hall •• out, and is vu∣net the Northnd rethesh towarde the Countreye of Outhear. 〈…〉 South and in the East it is departed from Gothia by 〈…〉 table Albi and is a right change and colde Coun∣treye 〈…〉 Mountaines of W••des, and of Croues. The men of this lande had more by Fishing Page  236 and hunting then by broad: for corne is scarce there because of great cold. There be many wild beasts, as white Beares: Also there bée Caslors; beastes, that liue both in water and in land, and they geld themselues whē they be hunted. Therin be many beasts and rough wonderfully shapen. There be wells, and all Lea∣ther and woode that is pat therein, turne anone into stone. In the North side of that land many dayes space in the sum∣mer, about the stinting of the Sunne, the Sunne is not séene goe to couert or glaade. And so many dayes in the win∣ter about the stinting of the Synne, the Sunne is not séene to shew there. And so that time men of that lande most worke by Candle. There is no Wheats, neither any Oyle, but, if they come out of other lands. The men be of great bo∣dies and of stature, of fayre shape, and of great might and strength: And hée strong skumours and sea théeues, and mightie and bolde of hearts. This land hath Gallacia in the East side, and Ile∣landia in the North side, wher the sea is frore alwaye, and Irish & British occe∣an is in ye west, & endeth in the South, toward the Countries of Denmarke & of Gothia.

*(This land is beyounde Denmarke bearing towarde Russie, and Froze∣land.)

(*Norwegia or Norway, this was somtime a flourishing kingdome, whose dominion comprehended Denmarke, Friesland, & the Ilāds far about, through discord it came to subiection, & is nowe vnder ye dominion of Danes: frō whence commeth the dried Haake called Stock∣fishrthe whales resort vnto those northen coasts that beare vpon Wardhus, an I∣land, where ther kéep such a strange noise, comming to ingender, that it is oftentimes daungerous to ships, and there are many taken, and of their flesh is made the common Oile. They are commonly thirtie yards in length. The Ilands about Norway, are of such fruit∣full pastures, that they bring, not theyr beasts into stables before the moneth of Nouember.)

Of Normania, chap. 108.

NOrmanop is called Normania, and Nuestria also, and hath that name of the proper Norwaies that came say∣ling out of Norwaye, and got the cliffe of the French occean, and dwelled in the prouince ther, about, & called the prouince Normania. That country hath the Bri∣tish occean in the East Northeast side, and the sea of Gyan in the West, and Fraunce in the South, and occean in the North. The soile thereof beareth well corne, and is fat, and is noblye indued with fieldes, woodes, and meades: And is ful strong of hauens of the sea, and with most noble cities & townes. The chiefe city thereof is called Rothomagus, Roan, a noble city vpon the riuer ye men of the country call Seyn: The men therof bée strong and greate warriours, gentle in clothing, sober in speaking, milde in heart, and will, and peaceable in compa∣ny.

(*The people and inhabitants of this Prouince or countrie were the last that with William Duke of Normandy,* sub∣dued England.)

Of Numidia, chap. 109.

NVmidia is a country in Affrica, & stretching to Carthage, and begin∣neth at the riuer. Arnisiga, and endeth in the land of Cogitanes. And hath the place that is called Sires minores in the East side, and stretcheth to the sea in the North, and is afore Sardinia, and hath Mauritania Stiphensis in the west side, and Ethiopes in the South side. And is a faire country with fat fields in many places, and wilde beasts in weeds: there it is drie, it bréedeth horse and wild As∣ses. The further parte thereof is full of Serpentes and of beastes. In that lande is proper Marble that is called Numedium, as Isidore sayeth, libro 15.

(*Numidia, a country betwéene Car∣thage and Mauritania in Affrike, and nowe is called Barbaria, where Masi∣nissa did sometime reigne. In that Page  [unnumbered] Countrie is found most excellent Mar∣ble. The chiefe Citie there was na∣med Cirta, which was very strong, and so puissaunt of men, that in the time of Strabo, it might arme .10000. horsemen, and 20000. footemen.

Of Narbonia. chap. 110.

A Part of Fraunce that lyeth vppon the sea of middle earth, is called Narbon, as Isidore sayth, and hath that name of the riuer Narbo, that depar∣teth that lande and Italy in one side, and mountaines Alpes departe that lande and Italye in that side. And now some men call that lande Gallia Bra∣chata. No prouince is worthy to bée set before Narbon in araye of men, in worthynesse of manners and thewes, in plentie of riches: and shortlye to speake, it should more fréelye be called Italye thén a prouince. Therein be most noble riuers: among whom the French Rodan is most plenteous. And com∣meth out of ye mountaines and runneth by the Prouince of Narbon: therein bée many ponds and hauens and forlands: a∣mong whō Marcel is chiefe. The length of all the prouince of Narbon conteineth thrée hundred & tree score thousand pa∣ces, as Agrippa saith, Hue vsque Pli∣nius.

(*Narbonensis prouincia, a parte of Gallia, hauing on the East the moun∣taines Alpes: on the South Mare Gal∣licum: on the West the mountaines Pi∣renei: on the North, the mountaines Iura. It conteyneth the countryes cal∣led Sauoy, Dolphyny, Prouince, and Languedocke. It was in the olde time called Gallia grachata.)

Of Ophir. chap. 111.

OPhir is the name of a Prouince in Inde, and hath that name of one Ophir, which was a man that came of the children of Heber: and this lande was in olde time called Terra au∣rea, The golden lande. For therein be golden mountaines: in the which bée Lyons, and most cruell beasts. And so there dare no man come but in this manner. A Shippe standeth nigh to the cliffe, and men goe on lande and gather the earth that Lyons and other beasts digge with their clawes, and they beare that earth to the Shippe.

And if they sée that beastes come, they take the Sea with hast, as Rabanus sayth Super illum locum: Cum venis∣set naues Salomonsis in Ophir sump∣tum Inde aurum, &c. 3. Regum. 9. cap. and Plinius sayth nigh the same. Some∣time this Prouince sent out golde and precious stones, Crisoprassus, and A∣damants, and trées Thinum, and E∣benum: and Birdes, Popiniayes, and Perockes and Iuorie, and Apes, and o∣ther beasts wonderfully shapen, as I∣sidore saith, and Plinius also. Men come into this Countrie Ophyr from Iudea by long sailing about in the redde sea by the Ilande Osiongaber: the which the greate Alexander destroyed afterward. The men of the lande of Ophir came of the lignage of Heber, and dwelled and occupyed the Countrie and lands from the riuer Capue, vnto the Countrie of Inde, that nowe is called Rhetia, as Io∣sephus sayth. And all the Prouince hath that name Ophir, of one Ophir the ne∣phew of Heber, as Rabanus sayeth su∣per 2. Para. cap. 8. This Ophir was the sonne of Jectan, the sonne of Heber, as it is sayde Genes. 10. This Countrye is nigh the lande Eulath, about the which runneth the riuer Gyon, as it is sayde Genesis .2. And it is lyke thereto in golden mountaines and swéete spicery, and in rich pirreye, as Plinius say∣eth.

(*Arniensis ege, the Countrye a∣bout Naruia (a Towne in Italye as some write) where the grounde with raine waxeth dustie, and in drie wether durtie.)

(*Neapolis, a noble Citye of Campania, sette in the borders of the Sea called Mare Mediteraneum, and was first called Parthenope. Of this ci∣tis the countries of Campania, Apulia, and Calabria, bée nowe called Regnum Page  237 Nepolitanum, the Realme of Naples. There is also a Citie of this name in Affrike, and another in Cana.)

Of Hollandia. cap. 112.

HOlland is a small Prouince by the mouth of the Rine, wheras the Rine runneth into the sea, and stretcheth tō Braban, and is nigh to Phrigia in the South side, and to the Occean in the East side, and ioyneth to the British sea Westwarde, and is nigh to the neather Fraunce that is called Gallia Belgica in the North side: and to Flaunders in the West side. This land is full of marreys and of water, compassed nigh all about with armes of the Sea, and of the Rine, as it wore an Iland, Ther∣in bée lakes and many pondes, and is full of good léese and pasture. And is therefore full of diuers beasts in many places thereof. The saile thereof beareth wel cone, and in many places is full of woods wt many manner of good venson. Also in many places the ground is gle∣wie, and of it they make good fuell: and the lande is rich of merchaundise that passe by the sea and riuers. The chiefe citie thereof is called Inferius Traiec∣tum in Latine, and the neather Verich in the language of Germania: for it be∣longeth to Germania touching the sci∣tuation, manners, and lordships, and al∣so in language and tongue. The men be séemely of body, strong of might, har∣die and bolde of heart, faire of face, ho∣nest in manners, deuout to God, peace∣able and true to men: and take lesse héed to praies and to robbery, then other na∣tions of Germany.

Of Orchada. chap. 113.

ORchada is an Ilande of Occean by the British sea in Europa: Thereof many other Ilands that bée nigh therto haue the name, and bée called Orcades and be 33. in all .20. thereof be in desart, and men inhabit nigh .13. as Isidore say∣eth, libro. 15. cap de Insules.

(*Orchades, 30. Ilands in the sea by Scotland.)

Of Paradiso. chap. 114.

PAradise is a place in the partes of the East, the name thereof is turned out of Gréeke into Latine, and is vnder∣stood an Orchard, and is called Eden in Hebrew: that is vnderstoode liking a∣mong vs, as Isidore sayth lib. 15. cap. 2. For Paradise is an Orchard of liking, as he sayth. For therin groweth al man∣ner trées, & all manner trées beare aples, therein is ye trée of life. There is no pas∣sing cold nor passing heate, but alwaye temperate weather & aire. In the middle thereof springeth a Well, that findeth water inough is that place: that well is parted in foure streames and riuers, the way thereto is stopped & vnknowne to mankinde, after the sinne of ye first man. For it is closed and compessed al about with a firy wal, so that the burning ther∣of reacheth nigh to heauen. And there is ward and defence of Angelics to kéepe Paradise, vpon the front wall, ordeined of God to hold of wicked spirits. And so fire is ordeined to hold out wicked men, and good Angells to holde out euill An∣gells: So that there is no way for euill spirits, nor for euill men to come to Pa∣radise. Huc vsque Isidorus li. 15. cap. 3. Vbi tractat de regionibus.

Also ca. 2. super Gen. the master of sto∣ries, saith in this manner: God from the beginning of the world ordeined and a∣raide a place of liking with hearbes and trées, and in the beginning of the world, that is in the East, & that place is most merrie and far in space of land & of sea, out of the country that we dwel in: And is so high that it reacheth almost to the circle of the Moone: Where also by reson of the height, the water of the greate floud could not come, as he saith. Iohn Damascene speaketh of paradise & saith: because God would make man after his owne Image & likenesse of vnséene and séene creatures, he create & made him as a King and Prince of all the earth, and of all things in the earth, and so hée made a Country and a lande for him: in which man shoulde abide and leade a blissefull lyfe. And this lande and Page  [unnumbered] Country is called Paradise: and is set in place of liking with Gods owne hande, and planted with pleasure in the East, and that lande is higher then all other lands, and shineth with most tem∣perate aire & cleere alway, full of plants, flourishing; and leaues of good smell, and full of light bright shining of fairenesse, ioye, and blisse, it is the oeser, passing the wit and vnderstanding of sensible creatures the kingdome of God, wor∣thy for him that is after his Image: in which nore vnreasonable beast dwel∣leth but onely man Gods owne hand∣worke.

Also Serabus sayth and Beda also, that Paradise is a place set in the East, & is departed from countries and lands that men dwel in, with occean & moun∣taines that be betwéene. And is most farre, and stretchet in height as it were to the circle of the Moone, and was most conuenient place to an innocent man: for there is most faire wether & temperate. And there is neuer passing colde nor pas∣sing heate, but euerlasting faire weather and temporate, as Isidore saith. Also for plentie of all good. For as Austen de ci∣tate Dei. 14. ca. 10. saith: What might they dread, where might they be sorry in so great plentie of so much good, ther no∣thing greeued, there was all that good will desired: there was not that should offend or grieue the flesh nor the soule of man yt loued blisse. Also for most mirth, for ye place was eller of all sairnesse, as Damascene saith: And that witnesseth ye euerlasting fairenesse of trées, of flow∣ers, and of spraies: For the trees wither not, nor their leaues nor flowres fade. Also for most solace and mirth, and that witnesseth fairenesse of fruit: for ther is all manner trées faire to sight & swéet to eating. Genesis .2. Also that witnesseth beautifulnesse of light. For cléerenesse of light is proportioned to purenes of aire, as Beda saith. Also for noble grounde & plenteous, & that witnesseth the multi∣tude of springing wells. For it is sayde Genesis .2. That a wel sprong & moisted Paradise, the which well is diuided in foure riuers. Also for surenesse of place, & that witnesseth the highnesse thereof: for it toucheth the circle of the Moone, 〈…〉Beda saith and, Isidore also. That is to vnderstand, that it stretcheth to the aire that is quiet aboue, after this troublous aire, where is the end and bond of moist erhalations and vapours. The passing forth and the rising of such exhalations & vapours is listened to the body of the Moone, as Alexander expoundeth: For Paradise reacheth not fully to the circle of the Moone, but it is sayde that it tou∣cheth the circle of the Moone by a manner figuratiue speaking, yt is called Hiperbo∣li loqoutio: yt it might be knowne that the most highnesse of Paradise passeth yt neather earth without comparison. Also for continuall being without corruptiō: & that witnesseth their long life therein. For ther is Elias & Enok yet aliue with∣out corruptiō, as the master saith in sto∣ries. For nothing aliue may there die: and that is no wouber of Paradise. For we know that in Ireland is an Iland, in which dead bodies rot not: and ano∣ther in which men many not die: but in the last end they must be borne out of ye Iland. Looke before in Ibernie, in lite∣ral.

Of Paradise, & of the scituation there∣of was opinion among nations, as Plin. saith, where he speaketh of the Ilands of Fortune, of which Isi. speaketh also li. 15 Among the which Ilands in one yt bea∣reth all good: There the grounde bea∣reth al manner of fruit without tilling. On downs trées be alway clothed with faire gréene twigs & spraies with swéete fruit and good, where corne groweth as hearbs & grasse. Therfore errour of nasi∣ons & ditie of secular prophets, for good∣nes of ye ground meaned, yt these Ilands were Paradise: and yt is errour. For the foresaid Ilands be in ye west afore ye left side of Mauritania in the occean, as Isi. saith, li. 15. And Paradise is in the East. And in the top of the highest mountaine of thē falleth waters, & maketh there a right great lake or pond: and maketh so great noise in ye falling, that men of the country by ye lake be deafe borne: because of passing huge noise yt corrumpteth the wit of hearing in children, as Basilius saith in Exameron & Ambrose also and Page  238 from that other place, as stoin one well head, come these foure riuers, that is to wit, Phison, that is likewise called Ga∣••• Gion, that is also called Nilus, Ti∣gris, and Euphrates. Of ye which riuers is speciall mention made in Gen. Looke before sir F•••stach de fluminibus.

¶Of Parthia. chap. 115.

PArthia, is the greatest Countrey in Asia, and stretcheth from the Borders of Inde, vnto the ende of Mesopotamia. And for the great strength of the Par∣thians, Assiria and other countryes tooke the name of Parthia. Therein are ma∣ny particular Prouinces, that is tolwit, Acathsia, Parthia, Assiria, Meosa & Per∣sia. The which Countries ioyne toge∣thers, & begin at the riuer Indus: and be closed with the riuer Tigris. There in many places be shārpe the huaines and many riuers, & the prouinces haue their owne boundings, and haue the names of their Authors, in the manner: for Ara∣usia hath that name of a towne of that lande. Men that came out of Scithia into Parthia, and dwelled therein, gaue to their owne name. In the South side thereof is the Red sea, and in the North Hircania, and in the west Media. Eigh∣téene regions thereof stretch from the sea espy to the Scithians. In Parthia are beasts wonderfully shape, as Plini, saith li. 5. for therein be fierre beasts, Perdes, Tigers, Linces, & Adders that be called Alpedes, and Serpents most cruell and sterce by kinde. Also the people be harde and cruell and scarse in vittailes, & holde them content with salt and Cardamoni∣um, for all manner posage and foode, as he saith there. And ther it is said in Glo. super Dan. de Persarum regione & Par∣thorum, es. 7. of a beast that is like to a Beare. TREVISA. He that will know Cardanomium, looke after in 17. booke ca. de Cardamonio.

(*Parthia, a countrie in Asia, which hath on the South the Red sea: on the North, the sea called Hircanum: on the East, the people called Arijon ye west, the talme called Media.

¶Of Palestina. chap. 116.

PAlestina is a prouince of Siria, and was sometime called Philistea, and now the chiefe Citie thereof is called, Aschalena, and was in olde time called Philistim, and of that citie all the coun∣trie had the name in old time, & was cal∣led Palestina or Palestia, as Isid. sayeth li. 15. and saith the same li. 9. in vocabul, grdium, Philistei (saith he) be they that were called Palesteni. Hebréwes haue not the letter P. but they take thereof, a letter of Gréeke that is to wit Ph. that is in latine. Fi. And so they say, Phili∣steis for Palestins, and so they be cal∣led Philistei of their owne Citte, that was sometime called Philistin. And they were sometime called Alophth, that is so vnderstande, alyens and straungers: for alwaye they were straunge to the children of Israel, for they were depar∣ted faire out of their company & kinred, as he saith ther. And as Isid. saith li. 15. this land hath the Red sea in the East side: and nighesh to Judea in ye South side: & is closed in the North side with the borders of Tiriis: and endeth in the west at ye bounds of Egipt, as it is sayd there. The Philistei came first of Cha∣naas sonne, that was called Chenlusim. The Philistines came first of him and Chaetratinie also, as it is said Gene. 10. As Flerodotus saith, men be alway false & guilefull & wily and grieuous E∣nemies to the Kingdome of Israel, and that for they had enuie at the prosperi∣tee of the Iewes, and also for they were proud of the welth of their owne land, & of great Ilands that they had won with might and with strength, as he saith.

¶Of Pamphilia, chap. 117.

PAmphilia is called Isauria also, for yt it standeth in all blasts of winds, as Isi. saith li. 15. and is a prouince in the lesse Asia. The chiefe citie thereof is cal∣led Seleucia, as he saith. Seleucius Anti∣ochus builded that citie, & Antiochia al∣so, as Isi. sayth li. 15. And this country is nigh the sea betwéene Silicia, & Bithinia: out of this country men saile by the I∣lād Cipres into Italy, as we find. Act. 17

Page  [unnumbered](*Pamphilia, a Region in the lesse Asia, lieng on the South side of ye moun∣taine Taurus, & Marcheth on ye Realmes of Phrigia and Caria.)

¶Of Pannonia that is also called Hungaria. cap. 118.

PAnnonia, is a Prouince in Europe, wherein dwelled the Hunies some∣time: and hath the name of the same people, and is commonly called Hunga∣ria, and is double, that is to say, border∣ring neere another Prouince, as Oro∣sius sayth, the more and the lesse. The more is in the farther Siria, beyond the marreys Meotides. The Hunies came first out of that land because of hunting, and followed the trace of Harles and of other beasts farre wayes and space of marreys and of lands, & found the land of Pannonia at the last, & turned home againe, and gathered company, and came againe into Pannonia, and put out the men that dwelled first there, and gaue a name to the lande and to the men, and called the land Hungaria, as Herodotus saith. This Prouince is a part of Mes∣sia, and the Riuer Danubius lieth ther∣by, and ouerfloweth it, and maketh it plenteous, as Isidore saith. This lande hath Gallitia in the East side, and Gre∣cia in the South, Dalmatia and Italye on the West, & Germania in the North, as he sayth, and is most greatest lande, and plenteous, & most strengthened with woods & with mountaines, & moysted wt many riuers & waters, & most rich with veynes of golde and of other mettall. Therein be most great mountaines, in whom is found diuers kinde of marble. Also in some mountaines thereof is best salte digged. Pannonia is full of beastes wilde and tame, for plentie of léese and of pasture, and the soyle thereof beareth well corne and wine in many places. Therein be manye Nations that differ greatly, not onely in language & tongue, but also in manners and in liuing, as Herodotus saith. Also lib. 15. Isido. saith, that Pannonia hath that name of the mountaines yt be called Pennini, which mountaines depart Pannonia from Ita∣ly. The Countrey is strong, & glad and merry, and is compassed in with thrée Riuers, that is to wit, Danubius, Sa∣na and Tycia.

And this land hath Messia in ye East side, Histeich in the Northeast, and the mountains Alpes Pennini in ye South: and that part of Fraunce that is called Gallia Belgica, in the West: and stret∣cheth to the Riuer Danubius in the North, which Riuer runneth by Ger∣mania. And this Riuer is called Hy∣ster also, and runneth about a lande be∣side Pannonia, that is named Hy∣stria.

(*Pannonia, the Countrey now cal∣led Hungaria, which tooke the name of another Hungaria, now called Iulira. It lyeth in the North parte of the worlde, not farre from Tanai, and is tributary to the Moscouites. The bounds of Hun∣gary are now much larger, that they were of olde time, and hath on the west Ostrike and Beame: on the South, the part of Slauonie, that lyeth on the Sea Adriaticum: on the East, Seruia: on the North, Polonia and Mosconia. The Country is fertille of graine, and rich of golde and siluer: and as the Inhabi∣tants doe report, there is a Riuer, wher in if yron be oftentimes dipped, it will be tourned into Copper. This noble Realme is now destroyed, and vnder the captiuitie of the Turkes, which is much to be feared, all Christendome shall re∣pent: for it was sometime repeated, the puissaunt Bulwarke of all Christian Realmes, against the intollerable vyo∣lence of Saracens and Turkes.)

(*Pannonia superior, the Countrey called Austria & Styria. In this Coun∣trey standeth Vienna. Pannonia infe∣rior, hath on the North Dunowe & Ger∣many: on the West, Pannonia superi∣or: on the South, Liburnia: on the East Iazyges. This Countrey is al∣most wholly vnder the Hungares.)

¶Of Paron. cap. 119.

PAron is an Ilande, and hath that name of Paranto the sonne of Planto, that called the towne Paros by his owne name, and the Iland also, as IsidorePage  239 saith li. 15. Therein is most white mar∣ble, that is called Parium, & ther grow∣eth à stone called Sarda, that is better than Marble, and most profitable among precious stones, as he saith.

¶Of Pentapoli. chap. 120.

PEntapoli is a countrie in the march of Arabia and Palestina, & hath that name of fiue cities of euill men, yt were desroyed with fire of heauen. That land was sometime more plenteous, than is now the country of Ierusalem, & is now desert and buried: for because of trespasse and sinne of men of that Countrey, fire come downe from heuen, and burned the country to ashes, that lasteth euermore: the shadow and some likenesse thereof, is yet seene on trees. For there growe gréene apples, and seeme so ripe, that men desire to eate of them, and if they take them in their handes, they chaunge and fall into ashes and smoke, as they were yet burning. Hue vs{que} Isido. li. 15. This prouince was so rich before the destruc∣tion thereof, that among stones thereof were Saphires founde and other pre∣cious stoanes. Among the earth there∣of gold was found, as Iob toucheth sai∣eng: The place of Saphire, the stone thereof, and the soyle thereof is golde. Iob. 28. But afterward all that countrie was turned into a dead sea, and is called the dead sea. For it gendreth nothing that is aliue, nor receiueth nothing aliue, for therin it suffereth neither fish nor foules, neither ships, nor boates: for all thing therein that hath no life, sinketh to the ground. A lanterne with light therein, fleeteth aboue the water: and sinketh to the ground, if the light be extinct, as Isi. saith, li. 14. Looke before, De marl mor∣tuo, in tractatu marium & aquarum.

In the brinke of this sea, about the countries that be nigh to Sodoma, grow the foresaid apples, & be faire to sight, & stinking and bitter in the toast, as the Glose saith sup. 2. Epi. Pet. cap. 2.

Also another Pentapolis is in Affri∣ca, in the prouince of Libia, & hath that name of the fiue Cities, that is to saye, Beruice, Centria, Apolonia, Polo, and Tholomais: of the which Tholomais, & Bernices haue the name of Gréekes.

This Pentapole is ioyened to Libia Ce∣renensis, and belongeth to the Bordets thereof, as Isid. saith li. 15.

(*Pentapolis, a countrie betwéen Pa∣lestine and Arabia, wherein were ye Ci∣ties of Sodome and Gomor, burned by the vengeance of God, for sinne against nature.)

¶Of Persia. cap. 121.

PErsia or Persida, is a countrey in A∣sia, counted among the kingdomes of Parthes, and stretcheth downward from the East to the Indes, and hath the Red sea in the West side: and toucheth Me∣dia in the North, and hath Germania in the South, that ioyneth and belong∣eth to Persida, and their noblest towne is Incussa. In Persida, Art Magike was first found. Thether Nemroth the Gy∣ant went, after the confusion of langua∣ges, and taught the Perses to worship the Sun, for men nigh those countries, worshipped the Sunne that they called Hel in their language, as Isi. saith li. 15. Persia hath the name of Perseus ye king, that came out of Gréece into Asia, and daunted ye strange nations with strong warre and long lasting, and was victor at the last, and gaue his name to ye men that were his subiects, as Isi. saith li. 9. & ca. de vocab. gentium. And he saith, that before Cirus time, the Perses were ac∣counted vnworthy, and as it were of no reputation among Nations, and the Medis were alway most mightie, as hee saith. Persida is full wide and wealthy yt of people: ther in is the noble citie, that is called Elam, and hath that name of Elam the sonne of Sem: of him ye Per∣ses came first, as Isidore saith. And the first Perses were called Elamites, and had first that name of Elam. In Persi∣da is a Citie most noble: that was cal∣led Elemaida, and now is caled, Persi∣polis, thereof is mention made. 1. Mac. 6. & 2. Macha. 9. In Persia, was the Citie Elemaida, most noble and most rich of golde and of siluer.

And therin was a full rich temple, & Page  [unnumbered] plates of golde, habourioynes & shields, that Alexander of Macedonia the King lefte, &c.

(*Persia and Persida, a Countrey in the East part of the world, which hath on the North, Media: on the West, Su∣hana: on the East, Carmania: on the South, the Persian sea, called Sinus Persicus, where now the Sophy reig∣neth.)

¶Of Pirenea. chap. 122.

PIrenea, is a prouince in Europa, an high lande and full of mountaines. The mountaines thereof, are called, Montes Pirenei, and they stretch from the South toward the West, and depart full great Countreyes a sunder: For those mountaines called Alpes Pirenei, depart betwéene Spaine & Fraunce, as wel France Narbonens as Lugdunēs, & hath Germania in the East side, & I∣taly in the South, and Spayne in the West, and Fraunce in the North. And the mountaines Pirenei haue ye name of ofte fire of lightning: For Pir is Gréeke, and is to say fire, & these moun∣taines Pirenei, be ofte smit with lygh∣tening, as Isidore saith lib. 15. cap. 3. De montibus. Pirenea is head and well of many great riuers, mother of most great woodes, nourse of manye beastes wilde and tame, and containeth veynes of mettall. Therein be strongly fortifi∣ed Cities, Castles and Townes: and therein be nourished many diuers Na∣tions and people, that be diuers both in manners and language, as Herodotus sayeth.

*Pyrenei montes, Mountaines which doe diuide Fraunce from Spaine, & are of a meruailous height.)

¶Of Pigmea. chap. 123.

PIgmea is a Country in Inde toward the East, in the mountaines about the Occean. Therein dwell the Pig∣meis, men little of bodie, vnneth two Cubites long, as Isidore sayeth & Ply∣nius also.

The Pigmeis gender in the fourth yeare, and age in the seauenth. These ga∣ther an hoast, and ride vpon Weathers, and fight with cranes, and destroy their neasts, and breake their egges, yt theyr enemies be not multiplied, as Plin. saith lib. 5. ca. De hominibus Indie monstru∣osis. Looke before.

*Pigmei a dwarfish people in the vt∣termost mountaines of Indie (as Plynie sayth) inhabiting in a very wholesome, fertill, and pleasant countrey. In height they are not past one cubite: and their women the fifth yere of their age, beares children, and in the eight they were old. The report is, that riding on Wethers and Goates, armed with bowes and ar∣rows, they go in ye spring time in great companies toward the sea side, to de∣stroy the neasts, egges, and young bréed of Cranes: which otherwise would in∣crese to such multitudes, that they shuld not be able to resist them. Their houses in stéede of tile and thatch, are couered with claye and egge shels.)

¶Of Pictauia. chap. 124.

PIctauia, Poydow is a Prouince of Fraunce Narbonens. Pictes, Eng∣lishmen and Scots sayled thether in old time, and dwelled there, and gaue at the last the name of their ofspring to ye men and to the land. as Herodotus writer of stories telleth. The which men came sayling out of the Countreyes of Bri∣taine, and they sailed along the sea coast of the Occean of Guyan, and obtained a place in the country at last, against men of the land, not without strong battaile, and builded & called the chiefe Towne, Pictauium by the name of Pictes, as Herodotus sayth: and now that towne is called Poycters, and they called a great Countrey about Pictauia, that is Peyto. Laire runneth by this land, and this land stretcheth along vpon the sea Occean, and hath Spayne in the East side, & the Brittish Occean in ye South, and the lesse Britaine in the North, and the coast of Gyan in the West. This lyttle Prouince is noble and solempne in diuers things. For it is sayde that the grounde beareth welnigh all manner Page  240 Corne, fruite and wine, and is rich of all good that the ground bréedeth. There be solempne hauens of the sea, and noble ci∣ties and townes, riuers and wells, most merry flews, meades and woodes, and is most strengthened with Rockes on the Sea side, as it fareth at Rochell, vn∣neth men may come to that towne, see straightnesse of place and of the sea, as be with. The men thereof be meddeled w〈…〉treth men in tongue and in ma∣nets therefore, though they haue of the first Pictes, that men of that Nation, should be kindly strong of body, & séem∣ly of shape: yet of French men, they take, that they be fierce; and more sharpe of wit, than other Nations nigh about them. And no wonder for as Isi. saith li. 9. by diuersitie of heuen, face of men and colours, quantities of body, wit of harts be diuers. Therefore we fair, that Ro∣manes be sad, the Gréekes light, the A∣trées guilefull, and French, men kindlye fierce and sharp of with that maketh kind of climes; as it is sayd there. Therefore men of Peyto be strong of body, faire of face, bolde of heart, guilefull and deceiua∣ble of wit, as Herodotus saith.

¶Of Picardia, chap. 125.

PIcardia, is a prouince in France Bel∣gica, also hath that name of a towne or of a Castle that is called Ponticon, us Herodotus saith, De regionibus, for it is sayd, that the town that now is cal∣led Pichen, in the march of that lande, had Lordship vnto the Brittish Occean, in olde time. And it is supposed, that ad the men of that countrie had afterwarde the name of that towns. Their lande, & soile beareth well corne and fruite, and is moyst with welden and riuers, and full of people, and to strengthened with noble cities, and most 〈…〉 famous castles came townes as Belgue, yt is called Bel∣gie count, and Amblanis. Arrabatum Ma∣rium, and Lord••um, as he faith. This prouince hath the Riuer of the Rine of Germany, in ye East side, couer France in the Southward the Occean of France at the West, and the more Britaine, that is England in the oeth Picardy is dou∣ble, the ouer, that is next to France: and the other that is the neather land, yt ioy∣neth néere to Flaunders & to Brabau, & is called Baipula. Of both countries the men be séemly of stature, faire of face, bold of heart, light & sharpe witted, cléere of vnderstanding, ulde of will and affec∣tion, and more great and boytous of language and tongue, than other Nati∣ons of Fraunce.

¶Of Ramathea. chap. 126.

RAmathea, which also is called Cha∣nir, is a region besides Derabilum, & hath that name, of the citie Ramatha, in the, which Samuel ye Prophet was borne, and hath another name, and is called A∣rimathia. Of that citie was Ioseph the righteous man, that with Nichodemus annoynted our Lords bodye, and buried it, worshipfully, as the Glose saith super Lucica 24. And this citie is in the lina∣ges of Ephraim, in Iurie, in the most high mountaines: and is therefore called Ramathea, that is to say, high: for Ra∣ma is high, as Ierome saieth. Though this land be full of mountaines: yet it heareth well corne and fruite, vines and Olyues, and is moist with wells, & most healthfull with cleane and pure aire, and is full strong and stedfast in high places, as Ierome sayth, and is full couenable place to stand in, to waite and espy farre about.

Ramathea, called Chanir in the olde Copie.*

¶Of Rencia. cap. 127.

REncia, is a prouince by the Rine, & is that Countrey, about the which the Rine runneth & hath that name Rencia, for it is nigh the Rine, as, Isi. saith li. 15. And is a Countrey that hath manye full strong cities & townes. The ground ther of beareth well corne and, wine in many places. The men be strong and hardy, ac∣cording with Germaines in life & man∣ners: but then loue not theft & robbery.

(*Rhenus, a notable, riuer in Germany, called the Rheyne.

¶Of Riualia. chap. 128.

Page  [unnumbered]RIualia is a little Prouince, and was sometime strange, and farre from g••• beleefe, and is now vnder the beleefe of Christ, and is subiect to the Kingdome of Denmarke. A part thereof is called Vi∣ronia; and hath that name of Virore, gréenesse, for therin grow many hearbs and grasse. There is good pasture & léefe, and woods in many places: the ground thereof beareth meanly corne. This land is moyst with waters and ponds: there is plentie of fish of the sea, and of lakes & ponds: there are many flocks & heards, & beasts. And this land is ioyned to Sci∣thia, and is departed from the Norpeges and Megardes, onely with a Riuer that is called Narua, as Herodotus saith.

¶Of Rinchouia. chap. 127.

RInchouia is a little lande, and stret∣cheth from the citie Maguncia vpon the brinke of the riuer of Rine, betweene mountaines vnto the towne, which is called Pinguia: and is called Rinchouia, of the riuer Renum, that runneth tho∣rough the middle thereof. And though the land be little, yet it is in each clyffe of this Rine, meruailous merry and right plenteous: for it is so faire and goodly; & so incredible plentifull, that it is high delight, pleasure and comfort, not only to them that dwell there, but also to them that passe that waye, and pleaseth and féedeth them as an Ortharde of passing liking, and the ground thereof is so sweet and so fat, that it bringeth foorth right swiftly, fruite and corne, in right great plentie. There in the same field growe apple trees of diuers kindes, and nufs al∣so: & yet notwithstanding so great plen∣tie of fruite, in the same fielde, groweth well good corne. Also diuers trées let not the vines: but in the same little fielde, grow together corne, wine, nuts apples, Corbas, peares, and many other fruites. There be hot wells néedfull medicine to bodies, that spring out of the grounde.

There is much good néedfull to mankind, that were to long to rehearse.

¶Of Romana prouintia, cap. 128.

THe prouince of Romanes, as Varro sayth, is nigh containing of all the world wide, whersoeuer were any coun∣tries and lands that men dwell in. For might and power of the Romanes sub∣dued all the parts of the world wide, and there was no corner of the world wide, but it felt the sword fo ye hoast of Rome, as he saith. But sometime a part of Ita∣ly was called Romulea in olde time, and had that name of Romulus, that builded the Citie of Rome, and gaue the name to the men and to the Citie, as Isi. saith li. 15. And there it is sayde, that the Coun∣trie was first called Saturnia, & had that name of Saturnus ye king, ye first tought men of that countrie to till land: and for the passing plentie that they had, they called him Saturnus, and worshipped him at the last, as it were a God, among the starres. And afterwards they were called Latini, and had that name of La∣tinus the King, which after they were called Romani of Romulus that inlarg∣ed and fortified the Citie. And there af∣ter they were called Quirites, for ye Ro∣mulus was called Quirinus, for he vsed alwaye a speare that is called Quirie in the language of Sabins, as Isi: saith lib. 9. cap. 1. de gentium non-inatione. A pen may not write at full the praising of this kingdome, and of the Kings thereof, nei∣ther a booke may containe at full, ye great déedes of Romanes. Who that hath ly∣king to know their déeds, read he in the first booke Machabeorurt. & or here de wonders shortly rehearsed at their ver∣tues and of their might.

(*Romulus, as the Romane stories af∣firme, the sonne of Mars by Isia yt daugh∣ter of Numitor, but more berely ye son of Amuhus his great b••h with of pur∣poses ranished Illa in the darke, being a virgin actuall, to haue asquartall to put on to death: for king Numitor, h•• a brother named Amulius, of nature wic∣ked, fleirs and cruell, who not ••ving con∣tent to take the kingdome from his el∣der brother and cast him in prison, did also murdere his sonne Laulus; and vnder colour of honour, made his daughter Ila a virgin vestall, vnder the hands of per∣petuall Page  241 chastitie, that she might not haue any issue. But the being afterward found with childe by Mars, as the Romanes would haue men beléeue, was delyuered of two somies: which Amulius com∣maunded to be cast into Tyber, & theyr mother according to the lawe of the Ue:stalls to be baried quicke. Is it happe∣ned at that time the riuer of Tiber was swollen ouer the banckes, so that men could not come to the déepe of the chan∣nell: wherefore they that had the charge of drowning the children, cast them into the land floud, where the water sodain∣ly falling, lefte them aliue, and so were they founde by Faustulus ye Kings, shep∣hard, who brought them home to be kept and nourished, of his wife Laurensia, which because she was a strumpet, was named of the shepheards Lupa, whereof rose the Fable, that the founders of the Romane Citie, were nourished of a the Woolfe. When these children came af∣terwards to age, being instructed by Fau∣stulus of their stocke, and beginning, they gathered a bande of shepheardes, killed Amulius, restored Nursitor to his kingdome, and on the mount, Palatine, where they were brought vp, began to builde them a newe Citie. And because they were Twinnes both of one age, there fell controuersis betwéene them, which should giue name to theyr newe Citie: This contention so grewe, from words to tumult and strokes, that in the vickering Rhemus was slaine, although the more common opinion be, that hée was put to death, because that scornful∣ly he lept ouer the newe walles of the Citie.

Romulus being then king alone, peo∣pled his Citie by erecting a Sanctuarie, for sauegarde of all transgressours, that would come thether: ordained an hun∣dred Senatours, called Fathers: procu∣red wiues for his people, by rape of all the maydens of the Countrey, resorting thether, to solempne gaines and playes: ouercame the people of Cenina, and slewe their King: vanguished the Sa∣bines & people of Atemna, and receiued them into his Citie. with other diuers valiant actes. Which when he had done, on a time calling an Assemblye, at the Marrice called Caprea, in a great Tem∣pest sodainly was gone, no man coulde tell how: as it was thought, for his stearne gouernment murdered priuelye of the Senatours, who to please the People, fained that he was a God, and named him Quirinus. Under which name, the Romanes euer after wor∣shipped him.)

¶Of Romania. chap. 131.

ROmania, is called the newe Nation of Romanes: for Ne is Gréeke, and is to saye newe. For since that time that Constantine translated the seate of the Empyre of Rome, out of Rome to Con∣stantinople, a Citie of Thracia: all the Countrey and Regions of Gréekes were called Romania, that is as much to say, as newe Rome, as Rabanus sayeth. Therefore vnto this daye, the Gréekes call not themselues Gréeks in their com∣mon language, but rather Romanos. Looke before De Gree, in litera G. wher thou shalt finde manye other things of the Gréekes.

¶Of Rodo, chap. 132

ROdus is the first Ilande of the I∣landes Ciclabes in the East side, where the Capitoil of Robus was first found, while the Citie was there first buylded. In this Citie was one Cold∣sus of Brasse, seuentie Cubites high. In this same. He were an hundred lesse Co∣losus, as Isidore saith li. 15. cap. 1. de vo∣cab. Ciuitatum. Rodus is the same Iland that is called Ciprus, as Isidore sayth, in the same place.

(*In times past, manye Christians resorted thether to defend Christendome from the Saracens: but after through treason the Turke wan it.)

¶Of Ruthia, chap. 133.

RVthia or Ruthenia is a Prouince of Messa, in the Marche of the lesse Asia. And hath the Countreyes of Ro∣manes in the East side, and Gothia in Page  [unnumbered] the North: Pannonia in the West, & Grecia in the South. And this land ac∣cordeth most with Boemes and Scla∣uones in language and tongue: and this Countrey hath the name of some parte thereof, and is called Galatia, and the men thereof were sometime called Ga∣lathe. To whom it is sayd, that Paule the Apostle sent his Epistle. Looke be∣fore De Galatia.

(*Ruthem, a people beyonde Liuo∣nia, of whom the Countrey is now cal∣led Russia.)

¶Of Sabea. chap. 134.

SAbea, is Countrey in Arabia, and hath the name of Saba the sonne of Thus. This Countrey stretcheth in straight length Eastward, toward the sea Persicū: & is nigh to Chaldea in ye north: & endeth at ye sea of Arabia, in ye west: & is to Lethiopia in the South. And this land beareth Frankencense, and giueth good smells: for in woodes and landes there∣of growe Mirrhe, Cinamom, Thus, and other swéete spicerie, as Isidore sayth li∣bro. 15.

This lande is rich of swéete Spi∣cerie, of precious stones, and of mettall. There is a Birde, that is called Phe∣nix, and other wonders that Authoures recken in ye region of Arabia, of whom it is shewed before of Arabia. The Quéen of Saba, was speciallye Ladye of this Prouince, and neuerthelesse in hir time, she had principate of all Affrica, as He∣rodutus sayth, for she was Quéene of Aethiopia & of Aegypt: as ye Close saith super li. Reg. 10. And so it is supposed, that she had other Kingdomes of the West in that time.

(*Sabaea or Saba, a Countrey in the middle of Arabia toward the East, inui∣roned about with great Rockes, wherein is a great woode of precious trées, some of Cinamom and Cassia: some bringing foorth Frankencense and Mirrhe. The length of that Woode is twentie of their myles called Schaeni, which comprehen∣deth of Italian miles, one hundred and fiftie, Plinius. lib. 12. Theophrastus. lib. 9. De histo. Plat.

Solinus writeth that the region brin∣geth foorth Frankencense, is from a Towne there named Atramicae eight mansions, which indéede containeth two hundred twentie foure miles. Mancio, or stathmos, being of eight and twentie Italian myles. The chiefe Citie of that Realme, is called sabeta, D. Cooper.

¶Of Samaria. chap. 135.

SAmaria, as Isidore sayeth libro. 15. is a Region of Palestina, and hadde that name in olde time of the chiefe Towne and Citie thereof, for Samaria was sometime a royall Citie of Israell, and is now called Sebastia, & hath that name of Augustus the Emperour. This Region is in the middle betwéene Iudea and Galilea: and beginneth from the fréete that is called Eleis. The scitua∣tion thereof, is like to the kinde of Iu∣dea, and hath no difference thereto in vertue, as Isidore sayeth. And had the name first of a mount that is called, Somer, as mention is made 4. Regum chap. 3.

Of this Countrey afterwarde came the men that are called Samaritani, that passed out of Assyries, and dwelled in Samaria, that is to be vnderstood, kéeping: For when the men of Israel were taken Prisoners, the Kings of As∣syries lefte them there to kéepe the Countrey, as Isidore sayeth libro. 9. chap. De vocabulis regionum.

¶Looke before De eodem, de Sama∣rio monte in littera S.

(*Samaria, a Countrey and Citie in Syria, ioining to Iudea, which was the chiefe citie of the ten Tribes of Israell, who being taken Prisoners by the King to Syria, and ledde away Captiues: the∣ther were sent from Assyria, Panimes for them, to inhabite the Countrey: which were afterwarde called Sama∣ritani: and they mixte the Lawe of Moyses, with abhominable Pola∣trye. Page  242 the citie was afterward called Sebaste.)

¶Of sambia. chap. 136.

SAmbia is a prouince of Messia in Eu∣ropa, and is set in the lower Scithia, as it were in the middle Countrey be∣twéene Pratenes, Estenes, Ofiliances, Liuenes, and Turones, that wer al sub∣iects to the puissance of the Goths in the olde time, as Varro telleth, and Herodo∣tus also. And they dwelled on the cliffes of Occean, and haue the forelonges and coasts of the Sea, afore the sides of the North, as he saith. Sambia is a plente∣ous land, and beareth well corne, & hath much marreys, and woodes, and is com∣passed about with many lakes & riuers. Among other strange Nations, the men be séemly of body, bold of heart, and passe other nations about them with crafte, & in curious working.

(*Read Ortelius, and also this Ile is called Sanibria, and not Sambia, as ap∣peareth in the olde Copie.)

¶Of Sabaudia. chap. 137.

SAuoye, is called Sabaudia, as it were a bold way & safe, as old men say, for that way of old time men by goodnes of Princes, were safe to trauell by moun∣taines and desart of countrie, to passe out of the country of Fraunce into Italy, for alway there was most righteousnes: and therfore as by common fame, alway ye wayfaring men wer safe in high waies, without dred of spoyling & robbery. And is a part of Pirene, the mountaines ther of, depart betwéene Fraunce and Italy. Looke before De montibus pireneis, in litera P. This land hath another name, and is called, Prouintia.

¶Of Sardinia. cap. 138.

SArdinia is an Iland in the sea of mid∣dle earth, beside Sicilia, and hath that name of one Sardus, begotten of Hercu∣les, that came out of Lybia with a great multitude, and occupied Sardinia, & gaue thereto his owne name. This lande is seene in the sea of Affrica, to the likenes of the print of a mans foote towarde the East and toward the West, and more broad in euen sides toward the South & toward the North: and therefore of ship∣men of Gréece, it was first called I∣thos.

The lande is séene in length of sea∣uen score mile, and in bredth of fortie. Therein bréedeth no Serpent neyther Woolfe, but onely a little beast that is called Solifuga,* that is noyfull to wicked men. Therein bréedeth no venyme: but an hearbe named Apium risus,* that draweth and shrinketh together ye iawes of men, and slayeth as it were laughing. There are hot welles that heale sicke men, and blindeth théeues, if they sweare vppon the Water, and touche their ey∣en there with, as Isidore sayeth Li∣bro. 15.

(*Sardinia, an Ile in the Sea called Ligusticum by Gean, not passing seauen miles from Corsica.)

¶Of Sarmata. cap. 139.

SArmata is a land of strange men, that be called Sarmate, & haue that name of studie and businesse of armour: for they went armed, and spoyled many Prouinces, before that Lentulus with∣stood them, and would not suffer them to passe ouer Danubius, as Isidore sayeth, li. 9. These men be descended as well of Gothes as Gipides: and they vse to fight, as well on horsebacke as on foote, and therefore they were so called, as Isi∣dore saith.

(*Sarmatia, a Countreye of Europe, which bordereth on the North, vpon the sea called Sarmaticum: on the west, vp∣pon the riuer Vistula and Germanie: on the South, vpon Sibenburgh, Dacia, and Mysea inferior: on the East, vpon the Sarmatia, which is in Asia, the riuer Ta∣nais, and the Marish Meotis. Vnder this be many Countreyes contayned, Polo∣nia, Rhussia, Frussia, Lituania, Li∣nonia, Moscouia, &c.

The greater parte of this Coun∣trie, is now vnder the King of Pole.)

Page  [unnumbered]

¶Of Samo. chap. 140.

SAmo is an Iland in the sea Aegeum, where Iuno was borne: thereof was Sybel of Samia, and Pythagoras Samius, that first founde the name of Philoso∣phers, as Isidore saith libro. 15. It is said that earthen vessells were first made in this Iland: and therefore they be called Vasa Samea, vessells of Samo, and so it is knowen, that claye of that Ilande is tough as glewe, and therefore the more able to make such vessells of, as Isidore saith.

(*Samos, The name of two Iles in the sea called Aegeum, one by Thracia, and therefore it is called Samothracia, and the other lyeth against Ephesus.)

¶Of Saxonia. chap. 141.

SAxonia is a Prouince in Germa∣nia, and it is sayde, nien of that Prouince came of the Gréekes: & dwell now in those parts that they arriued in by ship. And they expulsed and droue out the Thuringes, that then there dwelled, and occupied vnto the cleue of Occean. The Saxons gate and wannē them pla∣ces there with many battailes & strong, and dwell in the same Prouince to this daye. And the men were alwaye the gre∣test warriors, séemely of shape, of stature high, strong of bodye, hardie and bolde of heart.

Saxonie is a land most plenteous in Corne, and beareth well Corne, and all manner fruite, and is full of woodes in mountaines, and is full of fruite and of léese and of fieldes, rich of beastes and of flockes, of siluer, and of Copper, and of other mettall. And there are solempne mountaines, in the which stones be dig∣ged, the which being stronglye resolued by fire, turne into the substance of brasse. Ther be most noble riuers and famous, as Wesera, Limia, Albia, Sala, & Ode∣ra, and many other that runne thereby, ouer and beyond Albina. There are salt wells in many places, in whom best salt and most white is sodde and made.

Therein be many strong Cities, Castles and Townes, both in plaines and in mountaines. Beside the mountaine in the which Copper is digged, is a great hill, and the stones thereof smell as vyo∣lets. There, in some mountaines is fai∣rest marble digged, and namely beside the riuer Danubius, and that stone is called Saint Michaels stone. In those moun∣taines is most plentie of venison and of wilde beasts, of Beares, of Boares, and Hartes: and therefore in those moun∣taines full of woodes, is manye manner of hunting vsed. These and many other noble things be founde in the Countrey of Saxons. Looke before De Germania in littera G. & in litera A. de Alema∣nia. Saxonia hath Boemia, & Polonsa, in the East side: Westualia, in the west: and the side of Frisons toward Occean, and men of Thuringe in the North: and French-men in the South. The men are noble and strong, and not ouer∣come before this daye, as Herodutus sayeth.

(*After the time of Arthur King of Britaine, ye Saxons greatly molested the Britons, and helds them in subiection, a long time.)

¶Of Sclauia. chap. 142.

SClauia is a parte of Mesia, and con∣taineth many Regions: for Boemes, Paloni, Metani, Wandali, Ruttheni, Dalmate, and Charinthi be Sclaues, for all these vnderstand each other, and ac∣corde in many things touching language and manners, but yet they be diuers in rites and vsage: for some holde yet the faith of Panims, and some the vsage of Gréekes, and some the vsage of Latines. In all these regions is noble grounde, & beareth well corne, and also wine in ma∣ny places. All these Nations for yt more part haue their bush cut round, excepte the Ruthens, and those that be meddeled with Dutch-men, and with Latines.

Sclauia is double: The more, which is called Selauonia, containeth Dalmatia, Saruia, Carinthia, and many other Re∣gions. And some men of this Sclauia, dwell vpon the sea, and some in high mountaines and in thicke woodes.

Page  243And some care and till fields and plaines. The men be fierce and sharp & vnseemly, without deuotion in Gods seruice, and lead their life in robbing on the sea, and vse to take praies by the sea and by the land, and namely those that dwell vpon the sea.

The other lesse Sclauia, from ye borders of Saxony, stretcheth to Pruse, and to Wandales, and to the Boemes. And this Sclauia, is departed from Pruse, with diuers riuers and waters, & from the Gothes and Danes with an arme of the sea Occean: which sea, when it is departed, the lesse Sclauia endeth at the cliffe thereof. And this region beareth well corne and fruite: and is moyst with riuers and ponds. Therin is much wood and pasture, and milke & hony. The men be strong of body, earth tillers and fish∣ers, and more deuout to God, and more peaceable to neighbors, than those that dwell in the more Sclauia. And that for medling and company that they haue all daye with the Germaines, as Herodo∣tus saith. Sclauonia.

¶Of Sparta. chap. 143.

SParta is a Region besides Grecia, and is called Lacedemonia by ano∣ther name, of one Lacedemon the sonne of Semele. Looke de Lacedemonia in li∣tera L. The men be called Lacedemones and Spartian also, as Isidore sayeth li∣bro. 9.

¶Of Seres. chap. 144.

SEret is a prouince in the East, & hath that name of a town that is called Se∣res. There cotton is gathered of trées, & silke is made of that cotton. The Poet syenketh of men of that land and saith. Ignoti facie, sed not vellere Seres.

(*Seres, a people in Asia, hauing great plentie of silke, first increased of the silke worme, called Bombax, and also much cotten wooll called Bombazi. In the olde copie, Ignoti facie, voce fere mille Seres.

¶Of Selandia. chap. 145.

SEland is a land by the sea side, com∣passed about with riuers and armes of the sea, as it were an Iland. And hath Holland in the East side, and Flaunders in the South, and Occean in the West, & Britaine in the North. And are manye Ilands departed a sunder with armes of the sea, and those Ilands be compassed a∣bout with strong heapes of grauell, and quarries, and so warded and defended a∣gainst waues and strength of the sea.

The soile of those lands beare wel corne and is bare of trées, for because of salt∣nesse of the sea, trées may not haue déepe mores and rootes, and therefore when they be set and planted, they faile & drye anone. Seland is full of men and people and of riches. The men be of great sta∣ture, strong of body, and bolde of heart, denout in Gods seruice, easie and softe among themselues, beneficiall to many, & greuous to no men, but when they must néedes withstand wrongfull risers of e∣nemies.

(*Zeland is next adioyning to Eng∣land, ouer against Ipswich. Brill, Dort, & Midelbrough, are their chiefest holds, strongly fenced with the sea.)

¶Of Semigallia. chap. 146.

SEmigallia, is a lyttle prouince beyond the sea Balticum, beside Cilica and Li∣uonia, in the low Asta, & hath that name, for Gallache dwelled therein, meddeled with men of that lande, and so they are called Semegalli, as it were halfe Gal∣lis: For they come of the Gallis, and of men of the lande. The lande is good, and beareth well corne, and is rich of Pa∣sture and of méedes. But the men be straunge and vnséemelye, and sharpe and cruell.

¶Of Gallia Senonensis. Chap. 147.

GAllis senonensis, is a Prouince of French-men, and hath Germania Treuerensis, in the East side: in the South, the oner Burgoyne, and the Mountaines Pennsnes: in the West, Page  [unnumbered] the part of Fraunce, that is called, Gal∣lia Engdunēsis in ye North, Gallia Bel∣gica. The land beareth wel corne, fruit, and vines also. Therin be diuers wels, riuers and streames. These Galli Seno∣nes were sometime called Zenones: for they receiued freely into harborow. After∣ward that Z. was chaunged into the let∣ter S. and called Senonens, as Isid. saith, Libro. 9. And had that name of the Citie Senonensis, that is theyr chiefe Ci∣tie. The land is full of people, and hath manye Cities, and manye strong walled fownes, and a riuer runneth thereby that is called Serana.

*Senones, a people in Fraunce.

¶Of Siria, chap. 148.

SIria hath the name of Sirus, Abra∣hams neuely, got on Cethura, as Isi∣dore saieth libro. 9. & 15. This lande endeth at the riuer Eusrates in the East side: and at the great sea and Egipt, in the West side: and stretcheth from, the North to Armenia and Cappadocia: and from the South to the sea Arabicum, as he, saith. The space thereof stretcheth in great length, and is more narrowe and straight in bredth, and containeth manye prouinces, as Comagines, Fenicia, & Iu∣dea is a part thereof, besides Saracens, Nabathes. And it is a region most full of people, and most plentifull of corne & fruite, neate, shéepe and great horses, As∣ses, and Camells, and is most rich of waze and swéete spicerie, and of metall, most strong with cities & castles, moyst with most noble riuers, lakes, & pondes, and hath noble hauens of the sea, name∣ly in Palestines, Maritimie and Feni∣cis. The men be sterne and great war∣riours, and occupie in diuers countreyes and lands with diuers chaffer and mer∣chaundises: therein be diuers Nations, the which as they differ in faces, so they varie in language, minde, and manners, of the which, some dwell, in Desart, as Nabathei and Saraceni: some dwell in mountaynes, and some in woodes, and greaues, of the which there are full ma∣ny, among the nations of those Regions and lands, as Herodotus telleth.

(*Siria, a great Realme in Asia, which hath on the East, the riuer Euphrates on the West, the middle sea, & the Realme of Aegypt: on the North, Cilicia and Cappadocia: on the South, Arabia.

Syria, called also Assyria, a great Coun∣trey in the East, hauing on the North part, Armenia: on the West, Mesopo∣tamia: on the South, Susiana: on the East, Media. It also containeth, Phoe∣nicia, Palestina, and Babilonia.

¶Of Sichima. cap. 149.

SIchima, is a little lande in Samaria in the middes betwéene Iudea & Galilea: and hath the name of Sichem the sonne of Emor, that builded therein a citie that was called Sichem that now is named, Neopolis. (Neapolis. There are three ci∣ties of this name, one in Naples, one in Affrike, and the other in Caris.) And the Countrey thereabout is called Si∣chima, as Isidore saith libro. 15. Ierome saith super Genesis. 18. This was the portion of that land, that Iacob gaue to his sonne Ioseph ouer the lot. And so that land was in the linage of Ephraim, and there Ioseph was buried, and there his tombe is shewed vnto this daye, as Ier. saith. Iacob got that land, & bought it with money gotten with great trauel, and gaue therefore an hundred Lambes, as it is said Genesis 24. Ier. saieth, that for that trauell Iacob sayd, that he tooke that land out of the Amorteis hand, with bowe and with sword. There nigh was Terebintus a trée, vnder the which Ia∣cob bid the mawnets of his sonnes. And then he went vp out of Sichima into Lusa, that is called Bethel. Also as it is saide Genesis 25. In this place Iosephs bretheren fedde and kept flockes: but when Ioseph cought them, he found them not in Sichem, but in Dotaym: where they spoyled him, and solde him to Aegyptians. And afterwade Abimelech the sonne of Ieroboal, destroyed Sichi∣ma, and slew the men that dwelled ther, and sowed salte in the Countrey about, as it is sayd Iudie. 10. In this field was Iacobs well, by the which our Lorde re∣sted, when he was wearie of the waye, and badde the woman giue him drinke of the water of the Well, as it is sayde Iohn. 4. This place is most fertile, Page  243 and wonderfull merry and most stedfast.

OF Scithia. chap. 150.

SCithia is the greatest Region, and the ouer part thereof is in Asia, and the neather in Europa. And this neather part beginneth at the marreis Meotides, and stretcheth betwéene the riuer Danubius and the North Occean to Germania, as Isidore sayth, libro. 15. The first parte thereof is Alania, thē Meotides Paludes, then Gothia, Dacia, Rhetia, the Germa∣nia, where Sweues dwell, and occupye a greate deale thereof, as hée sayeth. In Scithia bée many regions and landes some thereof bée rich, and some bée inha∣vitable, and no men dwell therein. For in many places is much golde and precious stones, but for great griphons men come there but seld. There is best Smaragdus and most pure christall, as he saith, Ther in many places in Scithia be many men, wonderfullye shapen, and greate wilde beasts, as Linces, Tygers, and most cru∣ell Beares and Lions, and namely in the desarts and regions of Hircana. Looke be∣fore de Hircanis.

(*Scythia, a greate Countrie, nowe vnder the dominition of the great Cane of Cathaie, a sauage and wilde peo∣ple.)

Of Sicionia, chap. 151.

SIcionia had that name in olde time of Sicion the King, by his name it was called ye kingdome of Sicionia. Archas the sonne of Iupiter and of Calissa, af∣ter hée had subdued Pelasgis to his obi∣saunce, hée called that kingdome Archa∣thadia by his owne name. Archadia yt is called Sicionia,* is ye bosome of Archaia, as it were set betwéene the seas Egeum, and Ionium, and hath a greate riuer kei∣mantum, & bréedeth Abiton a stone that, neuer quencheth, if it be once kindeled. There be gendered most whife Merules mau••• as Isidore sayth, li. 15.

(*Sugonia, a citie in Achaia, not farre from Corinth, called nowe Clarencia, where is great abundance of mettall.)

Of Sicilia, chap. 152.

Sicilia was sometime called Scicania, & had that name of Sicanus the king, and was afterward called Sicilia, & had that name of Siculus the brother of Italus: and this land was in old time called Trina∣cria, for thrée furlongs that be there, & be called Pelorum, Patheum, & Libeum, for Trinacria is Gréee, and is to saye, three square, for it is diuided thrée squares. This land is departed from Italy with a little sea, & is afore the sea Affricum. The land beareth well fruit & is rich of gold, and full of dens, chins, and caues, & is ful of wind and of brimstone. And ther bur∣neth the heat of the mount Ethna. In the sea therof is Scilia & Caribdis, in which shiue be swallowed, or sinke, or be bro∣ken. This was the country of Ciclopes, & afterward nourisher of Tyrants: And it beareth well, corne, and is eared & sowen with séed first of all lands: The chiefe ci∣tie thereof is Siracusa: there is a wel A∣racusa, and the riuer Albius, that nouri∣sheth horse: Therein was first found the Iland of Comedia. In the riuer of Agath in Sicilia was the stone Achates first found: And in ye sea of Sicilia is white co∣rall ingendered, and salt that is called A∣grigentine, a wonderfull manner salt: for it melteth in fire & sparkleth in water: al this lande about conteineth the space of three thousand furlongs.

Also Salustius saith, that Sicilia ioyned to Italy somtime: but ye space that now is betwéene, was broken & consumed with strength of the sea. Huc vsque Isi. lib. 25. ca, de Insulis: ther al these forsayd things be rehearsed, & Plinius telleth the same.

(*Sicilia a noble Ile, first called Trina∣cria. afterward Sicania, & at ye last Sici∣lia, it is in forme 3. cornard, & therefore hath ye name of Trinacria: the one corner called Pachinus, extendeth toward ye part of Gréece, which was called Peleponensi∣us, now Morea: the second corner called Pelorus lieth toward Italy: the third cal∣led Lilyhens, it extedeth toward Affrica, of the which Pelarus, excéedeth in the temperance of ye earth, for with no wet there, may be any nure: nor by any drieth dust. This Ile containeth in circuite (as Solinus writeth, (3000. furlongs Page  [unnumbered] which is of Italian miles .373. as Dio∣dorus Syculus writeth .4360. But Plini∣us sayth, that the thrée corners be distant from Pelorus, to Pachinus by land .165. miles: from thence to Lilybeum .200. miles: from thence to Pelorus 170. miles, and sayth also, that Agrippa affir∣med it, to bée in circuit .618. miles, which doe not agrée with Solinus nor Diodo∣rus, which may happen to be by the di∣uersitie of furlongs called sir Latine Sta∣dia. The fertilitye of this Ile in all graine, beautie of medowes, delicatenesse of waters colde and hot, mountaines and caues myraculous, and other things ther excéeding notable, many Authours haue written and wondered at, both Gréekes, and Latines. D. Cooper in The∣saurus.

Of Sirtes. chap. 153.

AS Isidore sayth, libro. 14. Sirtes bée places in the sea full of grauell, and hath that name of drawing. For Salusti∣us sayth, it draweth therto all thing. For Siren is Gréeke, and is to vnderstande, draught or drawing. And such drawing maketh the ground and the sea vneuen. In some place déepe, and in another place shallowe: and therefore it is perillous to passe that waye. Sirtes that induce such perill, are by the Sea of Aegypt, and are meddeled therwith in many places, as he sayth.

(*Syrtes are those which we call quick sands, whose bottomes are ful of springs, but of a meruailous depth, that shippes lighting thereon, without a quicke floud, doe sinke out of sight, or vtterlye pe∣rish.

Of Scotia. chap. 154.

THe land Scotia hath ye name of Scotis, that dwell therein, and is a long stretching Countrye, as it were furlong in the Ilande of Britaine: and is depar∣ted from North Englande with riuers and armes of the Sea, and is closed a∣bout with the Occean in either side: and is also departed from Ireland with the sea Occean and the same nation that was sometime first in Ireland, and all accor∣ding thereto in tongue, in manners, and in kinde. The men are light of heart, fierce and couragious on their enimyes. They loue nigh as well death as thral∣dome, and they account it for slouth to die in bed, and a great worship and ver∣tue to die in a field fighting against eni∣mies: The men bée of scarce liuing, and many suffer hunger long time, and eate seld before the Sunne going downe, and vse flesh, milke meats, fish, & fruits, more then Britons: and vse to eate the lesse bread, and though the men bée séemelye though of figure and of shape, and faire of face generally by kinde, yet their owne Scottish clothing disfigure them full muth. And Scots be sayd in their owne tongue of bodies painted, as it were cut and slit: For in olde time they were marked with diuers figures and shapes in their flesh and skinne, made with y∣ron pricks, as Isidore sayth, lib. 9. cap. de Vocabilis gentium. And because of med∣deling with English men, many of them haue chaunged the old manners of Scots into better manners for the more parte, but the wilde Scots and Irish account greate worshippe to follow their forefa∣thers in clothing, in tongue, and in liuing, and in other manner dooing: And de∣spise some deale the vsages of other men, in:cōparison to their owne vsage. And so each laboureth to be aboue, they detract and blame all other, and enuye all other: they deriue all other, and blame all other mens manners, they be not ashamed to lye: and they repeite no man, of what na∣tion, bloud, or puissaunce so euer hée bée, to be hardie and valiant but themselues, they delight in their owne: they loue not peace. In that land is plenteous ground, merry woodes, moist riuers and welles, many flockes of beastes. There be earth tillers for quantity of the place inow:and is not unequall to the land of Britaine, as Herodotus saith. And is a sage insear∣cher of the worlde, as Plinius saith.

Looke before in Hibernia in litiera H. There Isidore saith the same of Ireland, in many things.

(*Scotia, Scotland, the part of Brita∣nia from the Riuer of Twéede to Ca∣tanes: Page  245Scot, Scots, or Scottish men, of whome Saint Hierome writeth in this wise: Quid loqua de caeteris nationi∣bus, quum ipse adolescen tulus in Gallia viderim Scotos, gentem Britanuicam humanis vesci carnibus, & quum per syluas porcorium greges, & armentorū, pecudumque reperiant, pastorum nates, & foeminarum papillas solere abscinde∣re, & has solas ciborum delitias arbitra∣ri? What shall I speak of other nations, since that when I was a boye, I sawe in Fraunce, Scots, & people of Britaine, cut mans flesh, and when they found in the forrests heards of Swine, beasts, and cat∣tell, they would cut off the buttockes of the baies which kept them, and also the womens paps, and tooke that to be ye most daintie and delicate meate. Notwithstan∣ding the Scottes were in S. Hieromes time, which is néere 1195. yeares past, af∣ter the computation in Lanquet, so rude a people. It seemeth although they be not all come home to constancie, yet are they now abhorrours of such humans spoile, and tractable inough with good gouerne∣ment.)

Of Suecia. chap. 155.

SVecia is a regiō of the nether Scithia in Europa, thereof all Gathia hath now the name, that is the greatest region of the kingdome of Dance & of the Nor∣waies, & the sea Balticum is in the East side: and the British occean in the West: and the hils of Norway and people, in the North: and ioyneth to Denmark South∣ward, & endeth ther. Suecia is called Go∣thia also: and is good ground, and beareth well corne, & hath no vines, but in great plenty of pasture, & of mettall, it recom∣penseth the other defalts. For beside ma∣ny manner riches that it hath of the sea, it passeth manye other Regions and landes, in beasts wilde and tame, in sil∣uer Oare, and in many other riches. The men bée full strong, theyr might of chiualrye daunted long time the most deale nigh of Affrica and Europa. And in greate Alexanders time, the greate hardinesse of Gréekes dreaded to aduen∣ture vpon them.

Also the greate might of Iulius Cae∣sar ouercame French men, Almaines, and Britones, but hée dreaded to fight with Danes, Gothes, Norwaies, and o∣ther men of the North, as the Writers of Storyes ell both of Gréekes and of Romanes, so whose wordes sayth maye and ought to bée giuen, in such thinges as are not against our religion, faith, nor reason as Hierome sayeth: It is wor∣thy (saith he) so beléeue Stories and wri∣tings of Poets and of Writers, if theyr relation be not against the faith, and good conditions & manners, neither contrarie to the truth that is known. Of these men came Amayones, women of womennes lande, as Orosius sayth, and Isidore li∣bro. 15.

(*Swises, a people verye fierce, the chiefe Citie is Tigure, first built by the Sweues, the yeares before Christ. 1744.)

Of Scondia. cap. 156.

SCondia, Schondania, or Scondenmar∣chia,* is as much to say, as faire Dania, or faire Denmarke, Plinye nameth it Scandia. It was named Scondia, by reson of the fairenesse and fruitfulnesse thereof, replenished wt fresh riuers, hauens, mart townes, fish, beasts, golde, siluer, copper, & lead. It is supposed that the olde Gréek and Latines knew of this, for that they held opinion, in the North parts the cold Zone or clime was condempned to per∣petuall Snowe, intollerable to all liuing creatures, the Germanes, and these peo∣ple now va••t the king of Denmark did vse stra••ke togethers.

Of suenia. chap. 157.

SVenia is a Prouince of Germania, in Europa. The men thereof were wont to haue most Lordshippe in Ger∣mania, as Isidore sayeth, libro. 15. and sayeth the same .3. Cap. de Vocabi∣lis Gentium libro. 9. The Sweues, sayth he, be parted of Germanes in the ende of the North.

Page  [unnumbered]Of them Lucanus speaketh and sayeth, Fundit ab extremo slauos aquilone Sue∣uos. That is to saye, that the Sweues with yelow haire come of the vttermost North. And many men supposed, that in their lande were sometime an hundered townes, and much people, and the men bée called Sweui: and haue that name of a mount that is called Sueuie, which standeth in the entering of Germania. And those men dwelled first in the Countrye about that mount as hée say∣eth.

Also as he saith, this Countrie hath Danubius and Bauaria in the East side, and the Rine and Alsacia in the West, and high mountaines called Alpes, and Italy in the South, and Franconia and the neather Germania in the North. And Sueuia is double: the neather stretcheth toward the Rine, and the ouer towarde high mountaines Alpes, and the Riuer Danubius. Either is good lande at best, and beareth good corne and Wine in ma∣ny places, and hath most strong Cities, Castles, and townes: and also plains and mountaines, riuers, and streames, & ma∣ny woods and hearbes: and much pasture and many shéepe, and other beasts: and about the mountaines, yron and siluer, and other mettalls bée found. The men be many and full strong, bolde and har∣dye, and good warriours, high of body, with yeolowe haire, seemely and fayre of face.

(*Sueuia, the chiefe countrie of Ger∣manie, in fertilitye, wholesomenesse, and beautifull personages. It hath on ye East Bauiere: on the West Halsaite, and the riuer of Rhene: on the South the moun∣taines Alpes: on the North Frankland. It was somtime called Alemania, wher∣of all Germany was called Almaine: In Dutch it is now called Swaue.)

Of Tanatos, chap. 157.

TAnatos is a little Iland of Occean, & is departed from Britaine with a lit∣tle arme of the sea, and hath wheat fields and noble ground, and is called Tana∣tos, and hath that name of death of Ser∣pents. For the earth of that land carri∣ed into any countrye of the worlde slay∣eth Serpents foorthwith: as Isidore say∣th, lib. 14.

(*This is supposed to be the Ile of Tenet in Kent, which is for the bignesse, very fertill and good land.)

Of Trapobana. chap. 158.

TRapobana is an Ilande of Inde to∣ward the South, out of that side, the Indish occean beginneth. The land stret∣cheth seauentie mile and fiftie paces in length, & foure store and fiftye thousande furlongs in breadth. And a riuer run∣neth there through, and is full of Marga∣rites and of precious stones. And some parte thereof is full of Elephants and of other beasts, and men dwell-in some part thereof. In this lande men saye be two Summers, & two winters in one yeare: and flowres spring there twice in a yere. And it is the profitablest Ilande of In∣de, and springeth alway. The leaues bée alway gréene and fade neuer, as Isidore saith, lib. 14.

Addition.

Taprobane,* an Ile in the Indian sea, and was of some dide Writers supposed to be in the contrarie part of the worlde against vs, and therefore they called it an other worlde: It lieth in the point be∣tweene East & West, the quantity there∣of is diuersly described by sūndry authore. For Strabo writeth that it is in length eight thousande furlongs, which is a thousand miles. Plinius, Martianus, and Solinus, do affirme it to be in lēgth seuen thousand furlongs, which is eight hun∣dred lxxv. miles, in breadth .5000. furlōgs, which is 625. miles: part of it extendeth beyond the Equinoctial line, more south, and hath on the Northeast the lesse In∣die. It is nowe called Samotra, and is vnder the dominion of the great Cam, and is gouerned by foure Kings, in an exquisite forme of iustice, notwithstan∣ding that the people be Idolaters: They hunt Tygres, Elephants, and Panthers, of the which there is great plentie. Also there be found Carbuncles, Saphires, Iacincts, Topaces, Rubies, & Granates, in great numbers. There groweth Si∣namome, Page  246 Canel, Beniamine, and other swéete trées, in great abundaunce. And they haue money of golde, siluer, & brasse, of the same waight and value, that the auncient coine of the Romanes was. There is also found great plentie of ori∣ent pearles.

Of Thracia. chap. 159.

THracia is a prouince in Grecia. Ti∣ras the son of Iaphet came thether, & called that land Thracia by his owne name, as Isidore sayth, li. 14. Other men meane, that Thracia hath that name of cruelnesse of men that dwelled therein. The Citie Constantinople is afore this land in the East side of the sea Propon∣tis: and is towarde Histre in the North side, and stretcheth to the sea Egeum in ye South, and hath Macedonia in ye West. Many diuers Nations dwelled therein sometime, as Massagete, Sarmate, and Scithe, & many other. The land is wide and large: and therefore many Nations might be conteined therin. The riuer He∣brum springeth & runneth in Thracia, and by many strange nations, as Isidore saith. li. 14.

(*Thrace, a region in Europa, on the North it is bounded with the land My∣sia: on the East with the higher: on the South with ye sea Aegum: on the West with Bosphorus, Thracius, and Propon∣tis. Therein is the citie of Constantino∣ple, sometime called Bizantium.)

Of Traconitida. cap. 160.

TRaconitida is a region in Iudea, ouer the which raigned Herodes brother Philip. For all the Kingdome of the He∣brewes was departed in foure, and each of the foure was called Tetrarchia. And the Prince and the king of such a parte was called Tetrarcha. The first of those foure was Galilea: Herodes was Prince and king thereof. The second & the third was Ituria and the region Traconiti∣da: ouer that was Philip Tetrarcha of either region. The fourth Region was Abilina: Ouer this Countrie raigned Lisanias, the brother of Herode & of Phi∣lip. The land of Iewes was departed in so manye particular principates by the Romanes, to subdue the pride of the Iewes,* as the Glose sayth super Luc. super illum locum: Tetrarcha autem Philippo Iturie, & Traconitides regio∣nis, &c.

(*Trachonites, a Countrie in Syria, ioyning vnto Arabia.)

Of Thessalia. chap. 161.

THessalia, as Isidore saith, libro. 15. is a Prouince of Grecia, and hath that name of Thessalus the king, and ioyneth on the south side to Macedonia. In Thes∣salia be many riuers, & therein be many towns, ye chiefe therof is called Thessalo∣nica. There is also the mount Pernassus, that was sometime hallowed to Apollo, & Thessalia was the country of Achilles, and thence came the Laphites. And it is said of them, that they brake first horses with Bridles, and sate on their backes, and séemed one body horse & man. There∣fore knights of Thessalia were scined to be Centauri, as Isidore saith, lib. 11. cap. de Portentis: In Thessalia were first found shillings of golde, and crafte and vse of breaking of horses: as Isidore sai∣eth, libro. 15. And farther bée sayth, lib. 4. that in Moses time tell a greate floud in Thessalia, that destroyed the more deale of the people of that lande: And a fewe were saved by succour of the mountaines, and namely in mount Parnassus: about the which mount Deucalion reigned that time: And such as fledde vnto him in shippes he receiued, and in the toppe of the hill Pernassus he nourished and cherished them. Wherefore the Greekes fables feigned, that Deucation should re∣store mankinde of stones, as he affirmeth there.

(*Thessalia a region in Gréece, called also Aemonia, sometime Pandora, som∣time Pyrthea, of some Pelasgia: of Ho∣mer, Argopelasgicon. It is inuironed with foure greate and famous Hilles, on the East with the mountaynes of Pelion and Ossa: on the North with Olympus: on the West with Pin∣dus: on the South Othris.

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Page  [unnumbered]It marcheth on Macedonia on the East. The people were valiant men on horse∣backe, and inumerble in battaile, as Po∣lihius writeth, but verye vniust of theyr promise. The women there being won∣derfull witches, tranformed men into the shape or forme of beasts.)

Of Tenedos. cha. 162.

TEnedos is an Iland of Grecia, one of the Ciclades in the North side. Wher∣in is the citie of Thene builded. And the land hath that name of that city. For one Thenes a young man was defamed, that he should haue had to doe with his step∣mother, which fled vnto ye Iland, wherin he found none to fill it: and he gaue to the citie that hée there builded, & to the Iland his owne name.

(*Tenedos, an Ile in the sea Aege∣num, betwéen Mytilene & Hellespont, not farre from Troia.)

Of Thile iusula. chap. 163.

THile is the last Iland of Occean be∣twéene the North countrey & South, sixe daies sailing beyond Britaine: and hath the name of the Sun, for there the Sunne stinteth in Summer, when the dayes begin to shorten. And no daye is there beyond. Therfore the sea thereof is slowly froze, as Isidore saith, lib. 14. And Plinius sayth, that ye place is vninhabita∣ble: for in Summer nothing may there grow for great burning heat, nor in win∣ter for freesing colde. For from the euen∣nesse of the day & night in March, when the Sunne is in Ariese, vnto euennesse of the day and night in Haruest, when the Sunne is in Libra, the Sunne for∣saketh not that Ilande: And from that time to the euennesse of the day & night, againe in March, the sunne commeth not there: and so there halfe the yeare is day, and halfe night, as he saith in cap. de in∣sulis. lib. 14. & de solstitijs, li. 2. Also Be∣da saith the same, li. de naturis rerum, and Solinus also.

(*Thyle, the Ile called Island, the old Cosmographers supposed there the ende of all earthlye soile: of late yeres found otherwise.)

Of Tripolitana. chap. 164.

TRipolitana is a region, and Tripeli∣tana is the name of two Regions. That one is in Fenicia, and hath that name of Tripolis, that is a most famous citie, so strong and mightie, that he defen∣deth and succoureth all the Countrie a∣bout. And the other Tripolitana is in Affrica, betwéene Pentapolis and Bizan∣tium, and hath the name of thrée greate Cities, that is to wit, Osea, Sabine, and Leptis the greate. This lande hath the more Sirtes in the East side, and Trogo∣ditas in the North, and the sea Adriati∣cum in the West: Bizantium, Gelulas, and Garamantes in the south and stret∣cheth to the Occean of Ethiopia, as Isi∣dore sayth.

(*Tiypolis a Countrie in Affrike, and another in Syria, the third in Phoe∣nicia.)

Of Trogodia. chap. 165.

TRogodia is a region in Ethiopia, the men thereof bée called Trogodites: and haue that name, for they bée so swift of foote, that they followe and take wilde beastes with running: In this Region is an Iland, wherin groweth the best kinde of Mirre, and most pure drops thereof is found there: and is called Mirre Trogo∣ditis, and hath the name of the Ilande that they growe in, as Isidore sayth, lib. 17. And though this prouince be in E∣thiopia, yet it stretcheth to the ends of A∣rabia: so that sometime it is sayd, it be∣longeth to Arabia, as in libro. 17. and sometime to Ethiopia, as it is saide in lib. nono.

(*Troglodyte, people in the furthest parte of Affrike, beyond Aethiopia, which dwell in caues, and doe eate the flesh of serpents.)

Of Troiana. chap. 166.

TRoiana is a prouince in Phrigia, and was first called Dardania, and had that name of Dardanus: for Dardanus Page  247 came out of Gréece to Phrigia, & reigned there first: And afterwarde his sonne Erictonius and then his nephew Tros, and of him the Citie of Troye, and the country about had the name, as Isidore saith, libro. 9. And after that Troy was destroyed, many Troians sayled by di∣uerse countries of the world to get them places, & they expelled and put out many nations of their countries, and dwelled there in their stead afterwarde. Of them came most mightie nations of the world: as most true stories of diuers regions & lands tell.

(*Troia, the citie of Troy: also the Countrey wherein Troy stoode.)

Of Thuscia. ca. 167.

THuscia is a Prouince of Italye be∣twéene Ligures and the Territorye of Rome: and is strengthened mightely and stronglye with diuerse mountaines and strong places, as Isidore sayth, li∣bro .15. Thuscia hath that name of ofte sacrifice, and of Thus and Incense. For in those partes at burialles and Obse∣quies men in olde time vsed for relygi∣gion and deuotion to burne and offer much; Frankenscence: and namely they wept and made greate dole and sorrowe for theyr dead men: And they burnt Thus on Alters of Goddis. For as it is sayde, in Thusria the craft of diuination was first found, as Isidore sayth. This land was first called Aemilia in olde time: therein bée many solempne Cities and noble. And hath the Citye Pise in the West towarde Liguria, Senos, Lu∣cani, and Florence towarde the North, the Citie of Arecium toward the East: and toward the South Thurthon, Per∣nes, and Assise, that ioyne and bée in the valley of Spolitane, and hath the Sea Adriaticum, & the march Anconitana in the East side: and the brinke Tyber, and Rome in the South: and Melan and Liguria in the West: Romanio∣la and the Prouince of Padua in the North.

This lande stretcheth much in length out of the East into the West, and hath lesse breadth of the North side into the South. This land is full high of moun∣taines: and the place is most stronge touching scituation, and the grounde beareth well corne and fruite. The ayre is good and wholesome: The Sea ma∣keth this lande rich in two sides. Many Welles and lakes make this land moist and plenteous. The Riuer Aruis run∣neth thereby, and adorneth it. Plentye of sweete Saffron and Spicerye, that there groweth, maketh it singularlye no∣ble and rich. Manye hot Welles that there spring, make it kinde and so∣lemyne.

(*Tuscia, a Countrie in Italy, wher∣in be cities of Florence, Sene, Luca, and Pise.)

Of Thuringia. chap. 168.

THuringia is a prouince of Germania, in the middle betwéene Saxons and Francos, and Westualls, and hath the Beemes and Saxones in the East side: Francenes and Bauaes in the South side: Sucues and Alsaces in the West: men of the Rine and Westualls in the North. And as the name of the Country meaneth. Thuringia, harde: so the men bée harde, and also most cruell agaynst their enymyes. The Countrye is po∣pulous, and the men bée faire and séeme∣ly of stature, strong of bodye, harde, and steadfast of heart. Their lande is streng∣thened and closed with mountaynes all about, and is full plaine within, and bea∣reth well-corne and fruit, & is not with∣out Uiniardes. There be manye strong castles and townes, not onely in moun∣taines, but also in plaines: there be riuers lakes, and ponds: there is good aire, and there is greate plentie of good pasture: there be many Oxen, Shéepe, and other beasts. There in mountaines be diuerse mettalles mined, as Herodutos sayeth, that sought and left vnsearched no priuy marches of Germania.

Of Thuronia. chap. 169.

THuronia is a Prouince of the ouer France, & was sometime accounted a part of Gyan, & hath ye name of ye noble Page  [unnumbered] citie Turon, & in that Thuron the floure of Priests most holy Saint Martin re∣sted, and is vpon the riuer Ligeris, that runneth thereby, & moisteth it, and ma∣keth it rich in many manner wise. The land beareth well corne and fruit, wine, and pasture. Therein is most wholsome aire and many woods. Men be of bodys seemely of shape, hardy and bold of heart, goodly in déede, and in speath sober.

(*Turones, people in Fraunce by the riuer Lei.

Of Vasconia. chap. 170.

VAsconia, Gascoine is a prouince be∣side the mountaines Perenei, and was sometime accounted vnder Gyan, & hath that name of the towne Wastea, as Isidore saith lib. 9. And hath the moun∣taines Pirenei in the one side, & the sea of occean in another. And is nigh to Pei∣to in the third side. In that land be ma∣ny woods and trées, lands, & mountaines. In many partes thereof be many vini∣ards, so many & so much, that it sendeth plentie of wine to countries and lands that be nigh, & also into Ilands of ye sea. The riuer Girunde departeth this land from Tholose, and runneth by Gascoine, and entereth into the sea of occean beside Burdewes, the chiefe citie of Gascoine, as Isid. saith, li. 9. cap. de Vocabilis gen∣tium. The Gascoines haue the name of the towne Wascia, and dwell by the long and large solitude of the mountains Pi∣renei, and be called Uascones, as it were Uaccones by changing C into S. Pom∣peius when he had subdued Spaine: and hasting him to come to his triumph, hée put these men out of the mountains Pi∣renei, & gathered thē into one towne: and therevpon the towne was called Vrba conuenarum, as Isidore saith, and Pli∣nius, and Herodotus telleth, yt these men Gascoines be light and pliant of bodye, hardie and bolde of heart, fierce of ha∣fly to battaile.

Of Venecia. chap. 171.

VEnecia is sayd of olde men the Pro∣uince of Uenir, the which Prouince stretcheth from the cliffe of ye sea Adria∣ticum, vnto the riuer Padus, which de∣parteth betwéene ye cities & countries of the nether & the ouer Liguns, that is to say, betwéene Pergamenses & Medola∣nensis, so it stretched somtime, as ye most true writer of stories of Lombards & of Ligures telleth. In the coasts of ye fore∣said sea afore and nigh to this prouince ye citie of Uenice is now builded: in this prouince are many other noble Cityes. For as Isi. saith li. 16. Montus was buil∣ded of Mantis, the daughter of Resia, which after the destruction of Thebes came into Italy & standeth in Uenecia, & in the French tongue is called Alpina. Also Uenecia is a prouince of Italia, yt had Lordship of many lands & cities in ye sea & land in olde time: and now at this day the might therof & Lordship stretch∣eth right far in the sea, & euen vnto Gre∣cia, & reacheth frō the countries of Ger∣mania, and subdueth the theft & tiranny of skimmours & sea théeues of Dalma∣cia and of Sclauia, and represseth them. And gouerneth & ruleth most rightfully Ilandes, hauens, and coast of the Sea, that be vnder the Lordshippe thereof. And defendeth mightely their subiects a∣gainst enimies, & hold the common pro∣fit and ciuill vnder rightfull lawes. And suffereth within their bounds no sed to abide, that is contrarye to Gods lawe. I thinke it wer superfluitie to reckend the godnesse & worthines of these men. For the vertue & might, aduisement, and readinesse, and great accorde and loue of all righteousnesse and mildnesse of men of Uenecia are now knowen nigh to all nations, as saith the roiall writer of the storie of Langobardes.

(*Read Ortelius concerning Venice, and also Munsterus.)

Of Westualia. chap. 172.

WEstualia is a prouince of the nea∣ther Germania, & hath Saronia in the East side, Thuringia and Bassia in the South, the King and Colaine in the West, occean and Frisia in the North. And is closed in two ends with two most noble riuers, that bée Wesera and Rhe∣num. The Rine toucheth in the North Page  248 West: and Wespera towarde the East. This lande in some bookes is called the olde Saronia, and preserueth and kéepeth it selfe cleane from all spise of fornicati∣on, and most straightly punisheth adui∣terers: and hath in most reuerence ho∣nest wedlockes: although it was snared to the Pamins superstition til the seuen∣tie yeare of our Lord, as Bonifacius wri∣teth in an Epistle to the King of Eng∣land. This land is full of woodes and of pastures, and more apte to féeds beastes then to beare corne: and is moisted with many riuers and wells, with Lipia, and Kura, and many other wells and riuers, there are salt welles and mountaines, plentie of mettall and Dare, In that land is much fruit, and many Orchardes, ap∣ples, and nuts: also wilde beasts, swine, and other beasts small and greate. The men be commonly séemelye and high of stature, faire of shape, and strong of body, bolde and hardie of heart. There is much chiualrie, and wonderfull hardie & bolde, and hardie of heart, alwaye prest and readie to armes, there are strong Cityes and well walled, and most strong castles and towns, both in mountaines and in plaines.

Of Vironia. chap. 173.

VIronia is a little Prouince beyonde Denmarke toward the East. And hath that name of Uirore, gréene colour. For it is full of hearbes, grasse, and wood: there bée many wells of waters. The grounde thereof heareth well corne. The men were sometime strong, fierce, and cruell, and vnséemelye, and he now sub∣iectes to Kinges and lawes of Danes, and all the lande is occupied with Ger∣maines and Danes. Looke before in lit∣tera R. de Riualia. This lande is depar∣ted from the men Nogardes and Ca∣theis, with a full great riuer that is called Narua.

Of Winlandia. chap. 174.

WInlandia is a Countrye besides the Mountaines of Norwaye towarde the Cast, and stretcheth vppon the cliffe of Occean: And is not full plenteous, but in woode, hearbes, and grasse. The men of that Countrie bée straunge and somewhat wilde and fierce: and they oc∣cupie themselues with witchcrafte. And so to men that faile by their coastes, and also to men that abide with them, for de∣fault of winde, they profer winde to say∣ling,* and so they sell winde. They vse to make a clewe of thrid, and they make diuers knots to be knit therin. And then they commaunde to drawe out of the clewe vnto thrée knottes or moe, or lesse, as they will haue the winde more softs or strong. And for theyr missebeléefe seendes moue the ayre, and arise stronge tempest or softe, as hée draweth of the Clewe more or lesse knottes. And some∣time they moue the winde so stronglye, that the wretches that beléeue in such do∣ing, are drowned by rightfull dome of God.

Of Vitria. cap. 175.

VItria is a little Ilande in the British sea, and is departed from the more Britaine with a little arme of the sea: the ground thereof is best lande for Wheat. Therein be many woodes and groaues, and many beasts wilde and same, & wels, and riuers that moist the lande. That I∣lande is most temperate and wholesome countrie, and most plenteous of fruite, as it is sayd, and English men dwell therein at this day.

TREVISA. Héere lacketh: for no mention is made whether ward this land beareth from Britaine, nor in what side of Britaine this land should be, Some men would thinke that this Ilande is Wight, but Wight is commonly called Insula vecca, and this Ile is héere called Vitria.

(*Whether this Ile bée a parte of that where the Uitrie canuas and linnen cloth was made in times past, or else béeing consumed with the Sea, there is nowe no such Ile: or whether the ma∣king of glasse, hadde there anye origi∣nall.)

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Of Yselondia. chap. 176.

YSeland is the last region in Europa, in the North deyond Norwaye. In the vttermost partes thereof it is alway Ise and srosen, and stretcheth vppon she cliffe of the Occean towarde the North, where the Sea is frore with greate and strong colde: And Iseland hash the ouet Scithin in the East side, and Norwaye in the South, and the Irish Occean in the West, and the Sea that is farre in the North, and is called Irelande, as it were the lande of Ise and of Glasse. For it is sayed, that there be mountaines of Snowe frore as harde as Ise or Glasse, there thristall is found. Also in that re∣gion be white Beares most greate and right fierce, that breake, Ise and Glasse with their clawes, and make manye holes therein, and diue there through in∣to the Sea, and take Fish vnder the Ise, and glasse, and drawe them out through the same hoales, and bring them to the cliffe, and liue thereby The land is bar∣raine, except few places in the valleys, in the which places vitheth grow Oats. In the place that men dwell in, onelye groweth hearbes, grasse and trées: And in those places bréede beastes same and wilde. And so for the more part men of the lande liue by Fish and by hunting of flesh Sheepe may not liue there for old. And therefore men of the lande weare for colde, felles and skinnes of Beares, and of wilde beasts, that they looke with hunting. Other clothing maye they not haue, but it come of other landes. The men be full grose of body and strong, and full white, and giue them to fishing and hunting.

(*Those that goe the thether on fishing, are meruailously troubled with a kinde of Flie like a Gnat, and stinketh foule.)

(*Island is interpreted the lande of Ise, and is called of olde writers Thyle, it is extended betwéene the South and the North, almost. 200. schones, in longi∣tude a schone is 60. furlongs, it is for the most parte full of mountaines, and vntilled, but in the plaines verye fruit∣full, the inhabitants are faine to driue their castell from their féeding, least they shoulde by ouermuch fatnesse strangle and die. There are thrée mountaines of meruailous height, the tops wherof are reuered continuallye with Snowe, but the lowēt partes are of lyke operation as is the mount Etna, flaming forth fire and Brimstone, Drie of these is called Helga, the other Mons Crosis. The third Hecla, whose flames consumeth not Flaxe nor Towe, nor yet is quenched with water, the fire breaketh forth with & hydeous casteling lyke Thunder, and casteth forth the pomisse stones of a mer∣uailous height, néere vnto these moun∣taines are there riuers or chinkes, lyke déepe raues, especially at the foote of the mount Hecla, so déepe that no eie canne perceiue any bottome, out of the which Abisme, appeareth as it were shapes of men, as though they were drownes, and yet breathing foorth a sound, saieng, that they must depart from thence is mount Hecla: as touching the fearefull noyse of the Ise, Read R. Eden, and R. Wells.)

Of Zeugia. chap. 177.

ZEogia is called Zeugis also, and is a prouince where as the thore Car∣thage is, ••ituate in the lesse Africa, be∣twéene Bisantium and Numidis, as Isi∣dore sayth, lib. 14. This prouince stret∣cheth from the north sea into Siculum, as he sayth. And stretcheth out of the South, to the country of Getules. The hither part thereof beareth well corne, and the further is full of Serpents & of beasts that be wilde. There be wild As∣ses, and other wilde beastes. There bée found wonders, and beasts wonderfully shapen, as he saith.

(*Zeugma, is also the name of a citye in Dacia.)

(*Zygantes, a people by Carthage, a∣mong whom is great store of honnye, both made by Bees, and also wrougnt with mannes hande. They coulour their bodies with red lead, and féede especially on Apes flesh, whereof they haue great plentie.) D. Cooper.

Page  249

¶I haue set downe foorth of Or∣telius, the vniuersall descripti∣on of the whole earth (for the better vnderstanding wherof) Orbis terrarum, Nouus orbis, America, Asia, Africa, and Europa. All which is added.

The introduction of Vesper be∣fore the discourse.

THE world is a wonderfull gathe∣ring together of things created, the placing of Elementes, the mutiplyeng of Creatures, the dissoluing of Influen∣ces, the beginning place of time, and the ende by death. In which worlde there are in infinite number of varia∣bles, and an endlesse number of discords: Notwithstanding concord béeing placed by a secreate mysterye in the imperfect,* showeth the value of the minde to bée more noble, then the bodye, as the Cre∣ator is farre more excellent, then the thinges created: for all that is in the worlde is not of the Father, but of the worlde made and created, but not iusti∣fied and saued: wée liue together, but not loue together: the cause is discorde betwixt Errour and Ueritye.

Herein appeareth the loue of God a∣mong those in whome hée abideth euer, and is called Mundus, which signifieth cleanenesse, as also the worlde. The worlde was made by him, and yet they knewe him not, hée came among his owne, and they receiued him not, hée sent his seruauntes, and they intreated them shamefully and slewe them. Héere∣in appeareth the nature of Discorde, the powre of Errour, by Tyrtannye, and the simple interteinement of Ueritye, as appearth among the seuerall kindes of Birdes, Beastes, Fishes, Wormes, Flyes, Flowers, Hearbes, Plantes, Trees, Fruites, Seedes, and manye o∣ther things of increase. And man whom God hath made cleane bodied, chéerefull countenaunced, swifte to heare, prompt to speake, apte to learne, poure to be∣léeue, hauing all these Angelicall ver∣tues, shoulde stirre by the minde, whi∣lest hée taking of materiall nourishment abideth, vnto the singular consideration of vertuous exercises, whereby the soule tasting with the bodye; might through Faith and good workes, féele that end∣lesse nourishment which is prepared for the children of God: but whilest they studie to subdue Kingdomes, to ouer∣come theyr neighbours, to robbe the fa∣therlesse and Widdowes, to rauish the virginnes, to gouerne, and not to bée gouerned, the spirits of all such terrestri∣all ferryes doe bréede the shape of sinne, and hatch forth so manye abhominable euills, that theyr whole race of yeares are spent in vaine glorious beasting, and filthye liuing, whose endes is dampna∣tion, whose vellye was theyr God, and glorye was theyr shame, because they were worldlye minded. The Earth is the Lordes and all that therein is, the round worlde, and they that dwell there∣in, Man was made, not to robbe, kill, and destroye, but to giue a continuall praising vnto God, and to learne of God, to bée bountifull, mercifull, and li∣berall, and to bée contented with that he hath. Which who so regardeth not the verye simplest creatures in theyr kindes, shall bée the onelye accusers of fleshlye violence before God, without remission.

Consider that the ioyes of the worlde are disturbed by afflictions, and are frayle, and weare awaye, but the ioye of Fayth is not onely disquieted by ex∣tremityes, and by the crosse of perse∣cution, but is made perfect more and more, and when those stormes be most daungerous, then is Faith of most ef∣fect. All the godlye béeing fenced with the strength of Faith and patience, doe containe all the whole worlds, and the tirrannie thereof. Nolli intelligere vt credas, sed crede vt intelligas:* Under∣stand not that thou maist beléeue, but beléeue that thou maist vnderstand.

Orbis terrarum.

Page  [unnumbered]THE mappe or table of Ortelius, doth comprehende, and set out the portraiture of the whole compasse of the Earth, and of the Occean Sea; inuiro∣ning the same, all which compasse of the Earth, the auncientes, (to whome the newe worlde was not knowen) di∣uided into thrée partes, that is to saye, Affrica, Europa, and Asia: but which America was founde out, our age ad∣ded it vnto them, for the fourth parte, and looketh for the fifth, lyeng vnder the South pole: Gerardus Mercator, the chiefe Geographer of our time, in his vniuersall Table, neuer inough to bée praysed, doth diuide this compasse of the Earth, into thrée maynes; The first hée calleth that which we said, the auncients diuided into thrée, and from whence it is diuided by the holye Scripture, that mankinde tooke his beginning. The seconde, which at this days wée call A∣merica, or the West India: The thirde hée calleth the South lande, which ma∣ny fearme Magelonica, discouered he∣ther vnto, with fewe Sea coastes, And Antiquitis hath taught, that the com∣passe of this earth containeth aboute, where it is widest, fiue thousande and foure hundred Germaine miles,* or 21000. 600. Italian miles, and the same the later age affirmeth.

And these so manye portions of the Earth, (as Plinie sayeth in his seconde booke of Nature,) nare rather as many haue written, the point of the worlde, (neyther is the worlde anye thing else vniuersallye) this is the matter of our glorye, this is the seate, héere wée beare honour, héere wée exercise Empire, héere wée desire riches, héere mankinde fal∣leth together by the eares, or is in an vproare, héere we renewe warres, euen ciuill, and with killing one another, wée make the earth wider: And to passe o∣uer the publike furye of Nations, this wherein we driue awaye our borderers, and by stealth digge vp our neighbours stuffe, and put it to our grounde, or proper goods which belong vnto him, as for example in many Regions, they will yéelde the lande to the owner, in lewe of his purchaise and rent, but if in the bowelles of the Earth there bée founde anye mettalles of value, the pur∣chaiser shall not be Lorde thereof: with as much equitye maye bée taken, when in the stéede of Thifties, by painfull tra∣uaile, and lling of the sayde grounde, it after bring foorth good corne, that ther∣fore, because nowe good Corne, and no Thiftles, the Lorde maye take the Corne, yet replyeth the contrarye and sayeth, that mettalles were before, and are therefore in the right of the Lorde, because the Tenaunt d.d ne∣uer imploye charge, but for the thing readye prouided. Let this reason stand for lawe: yet sayeth the guide of the Lawe: The Kingdome of Heauen,*is lyke vnto a treasure hidde in the field, the which a man findeth, and concea∣leth it: and for ioye thereof, goeth and selleth all that hee hath and buy∣eth the fielde. Who hideth the Trea∣sure, God, by his vniuersall creation, who findeth it? (Man,) by the gifte of knowledge:* To whome is it due? To him vnto whome it is giuen. Where∣fore hath hée that founde this Treasure boughte with all his substaunce this fielde? That therefore the inheritaunce should not be his: the inheritance is not denyed, but the Treasure, and whye? Because there is no difference, but ey∣ther mine or shine. I referre the equi∣tye of his question, vnto the more pru∣dent and wise in the worlde, that all thinges maye bée considered to the glo∣rye of God, as that which hath ly∣mited the Countryes farre abroade, and hath driuen the dwellers beyonde their boundes: of what small parts of the earth taketh it pleasure of, or when for measure of her couetousnesse, shee hath inlarged it, what portion at length ther∣fore maye a dead man haue. Thus farre hee.

America. The new worlde, or the disco∣uerye of the Gloabe of the Earth.

Page  250ALL this Hemisphaer (which is cal∣led America, and for his huge wide∣nesse, at this daye the newe worlde,) remayne vnknowen and vnmentioned of the auncientes, euen vnto the time of the yeare from Christ byrth. 1492. in the which yeare it was first disco∣uered by an Italian named Christo∣pher Columbus of Genoa, and sée∣meth to excéede in each point the mea∣sure of mans meruayles.

For when the dillygence, both of the auntientes in describing and setting foorth the whole compasse and Gloabe or the Earth, and the commonditye, and opportunitye of verye greate Em∣pires, to searche out for vnknowen Countryes, was considered, and also the cruell, gréedys, and infatiable de∣sire of mankinde, gaping for Golde and Siluer, leauing nothing vnaduentured and assayed, to the ende it might ob∣tayne, those thinges with the which those Countryes doe wonderfullye a∣bounds. I haue (not without greate cause) often meruayled, howe they coulde remaine so long vnknowne to this part of the world.

There are some that thinke, howe that this maine lande is described long since of Plato, vnder the name of Li∣tle of Atlantica, and lykewise Marci∣anus a Cicilian in his Chronicle that hée wrote of Spaine, sayeth: That there was héere founde in the Golde mines certaine olde coyne, bearing the Pictures of Augustus Caesar, & for the declaring of the truth of this matter, there was sent vnto the chiefe Bi∣shoppe of Rome, by Doctour Iohn Ru∣sus Archbishoppe of Constantine, a cer∣taine quantitye thereof. Many thinke, that Seneca stirred by with a Poeticall spirite of Prophesse, did foretell the fin∣ding out hereof, in these Propheticall vearses.

Venient annis
Saecula seres, quibus oceanus
Vincula, rerum laxes, & ingens.
Patent tellas, Thyphisque nonos
Detegat orbes,
Nec sit terris vltima Thyle,

The time will come in yeares long hence, when the Occean Seas shall loose theyr bandes of thinges, and a greate Earth shall lye open, and discouer new Countreyes to Shippe Maysters, neyther shall Thyle then be the farthest knowne land.

¶I haue left out, the counterfai∣ted Copie, reported of an∣tiquitye, as appeareth: and proceede in the true discourse.

ALL this parte of the Gloabe of the Earth, is at this daye sayled aboute, sauing that quarter, which lyeth towarde the North: whose Sea coastes, haue not as yet bene viewed ouer. From the North to the South, it falleth downe vnder the fourme of two places, almost inuironed with Water, which are diuided with a narrowe straight. That place: almost inuironed with Water, which is more Northerlye, comprehendeth now Spaine, the Prouince of Mexico, Terra florida, and Terram nouam, the new founde lande. But that which lyeth Southerlye (which the Spa∣niardes call Terra firma) containeth Perreu and Brasill. The knowledge of all which Countries, the student of Geographie, maye reade Liuius Apolonius, Peter Martyr of Mil∣laine, Maxinilian of Transiluaniae, who in the Latine tongue haue writ∣ten, &c.

Of Asia.

ASia is diuided from Europa, by the Riuer Tanaic, and also by a lyne drawen out from his fauntaines vnto Granduie, the which is a Goulph of the North De∣tean. But it is diuided from Affric, by Istmus, which is betwéene Mare Medi∣terraneum,Page  [unnumbered]tetraneum, and the gulph of Arabia, the residue, the Occean and the seas do com∣passe about.

The Auncients haue manifoldly di∣uided this, but at this day, it séemeth vn∣to be, that it may stilye be diuided into fiue parts, according vnto hir Empires, by the which she is gouerned. The first part whereof, that which ioyneth is Eu∣rope, and obayeth the great Duke of Moscouia, shall be limitted with the fro∣sen sea (with the riuer of Obil) with the lake of Bitaia, and with a lyne drawen from thence to the Caspian sea, and with Istmus, which is betwéene this sea, and Pontus Eurinus. The second shall bée that which obayeth to the great Cham, Emperour of the Tartars, whose limits from the South, are Mare Caspium, the riuer Iaxartes, the mountaine Imaus: from the East and from the North, the Occean: from the West, the Kingdome of the Duke of Moscouia, alreadye spoken of. The third part, the ofspring of ye Ot∣tomans doe occuple, and containeth what land soeuer is betwéene Pontus Euri∣nus, Mare Aegeum, (now called Archi∣pelogus) and Mare Mediterianeum, Ma∣re Aegyptum, the Gulph of Arabia and Persia, the Riuer Tigris, Mare Caspi∣um, and Istnu••: which is to be séene be∣twéene this and Pontus Eurinus. Un∣der the forth shall be comprehended the kingdome of Persia, which at this daye, is gouerned by the Sophy: It hath the Otomanus (with whom it maketh al∣most continuall warre) on the West: the Kingdome of the great Cham, on the North: and to the East, it stretcheth al∣most as farre as the riuer Indus: But on the South it is washed with the sea, which at this daye is called Mare Indi∣cum, and in times past, Mare Rubrum, the Red sea. The fifth parte shall haue the rest, which now they tearme the In∣dies, as it was also called in times past: which is not gouerned by one alone, as others are, but by many small Kings, for euerye Region thereof, hath almost his Prince: many of the which, also are fri∣butarie to the great Cham. Neither is this to be passed ouer, that certaine pla∣ces vpon the sea Coasts, which are from the gulph of Arabia, commonly called, Cabo de lampo (which thou séest to the 30. degrée of the latitude of the North,) are in manner all possessed by the Por∣tugall, or els are Tributarie vnto him.

The Ilandes which are ascribed to this Asia, among all most innumerable, these be the chiefe, Creta and Rodus, in Mare Mediterraneum: Taprobana and Zeilan in the Indian Occean, where al∣so in the remembraunce of our forefa∣thers, the Portugals discouered both the Ianae, Borneo, Celebes, Paloban, Minda∣neo, Gillano, with the Moluccis, full of spicerie. Then Iapan was found, and of late now Guinea, but this is the last: and whether it be an Ilande or fastened to the lande Antarctike, it is not eui∣dent.

Not onely among all prophane wri∣ters, as they tearme it, this parte of the earth, for the first Monarches in ye work, as of the Assyrians, Persians, Babyloni∣ans, and Medes, is greatly renowned: but also in the holy Scriptures that is more famous then the rest, for berrin not onely mankinde was created by the most blessed and almightie God: deluded and corrupted by his enimie Satan, and re∣stored by Christ our Sauiour, but also we reade that well néere all the historie of both Testaments was therein written and complete.

This Asia Strabo doth handle in sixe bookes, beginning at the 11. Ptholome setteth foorth in thrée bookes, the 5. the 6. and the 7. Likewise in 12. tables, and at∣tributeth vnto it 40. Prouinces. Of the newe Writers, none hath vniuer∣sally described it, Marcus Paulus & e∣nelan, Ludouicus Vartomannus, and Iohn Mandeuile, (but manye Fables are set downe of him) haue written so much of it, as they knewe worthye of knowledge trauailing ouer those Coun∣treyes, &c.

Of Affrica.

THE auncients haue diuided this ma∣ny wayes, at this daye, as Iohn Leo writeth, diuided it into foure partes, to wit, Barbaria, Numidia, Libia, and the Page  251〈…〉, of the Negroes, 〈…〉 which they thinke the 〈◊〉 they 〈…〉〈…〉 with the sea Atlantic,snd the middle earth sea called Mediterra∣neo, with the 〈◊〉 Atlas, and with 〈◊〉 Countrey bordering upon Ae∣gypt〈…〉which of the inhabitants is called Beledi〈…〉da, and Bringeth foorth Dates, (wherevpon, of the Arabi∣ans it hath none other name) but the Date bearing Countrey) is ••••tted on the West, with the sea Atlantic; & on the North with the mount Atlas, to∣ward the East, it runneth out to Eloa∣eat, a Citie, n. hundred miles distaunt from Aegypt: ye desarts of Lybia, are on the South sides thereof. And as for Ly∣bia, it is the thirde parte 〈◊〉 called in the Arabian toongue Sarra, which word sig∣nifieth as much as Desart▪ it beginneth: towards the East, at the riuer Nilus: 〈◊〉 from thence it goeth Westward to the Sea Atlantic & Numidia lyeth in the North side thereof: Southward it ioyn∣eth it selfe to the Negroes, the name bee∣ing taken, either of ye inhabitants, which are of blacke colour, or els of the Riuer Nigris, which passeth through this coun∣trey. This hath on the North side, Li∣bia: on the South side, the Aethiopian sea: on the West, the Kingdome of Gua∣latae: and on the East, the Kingdome of Goagae. We are to consider, that in this manner they knit vp all Africa, with the middle lande sea, which is Mare Mediterraneo, with the Sea At∣lantic, also with the Aethiopian sea, and with the riuer of Nilus, of whence both Aegypt and Aethiopia be ascribed to A∣sia: which notwithstanding properly I thinke good to ioyne to Affric. For Ae∣thiope indéede at this day doth containe, the Empire of Presbiter Iohn, which of all new Writers is assigned to be ioi∣ned to Affrica: and I thinke with Pto∣lome, it is conuenient, that it ought ra∣ther to bée lymitted with the middle earth and Occean sea, than with a Ri∣uer, and it shall haue the forme of A pe∣na insula, ioyned to Asia, with an Ist∣mus or straight of lande, which is be∣twéene the middle earth sea, & the gulph of Arabia.

The South parte héereof, was not héeretofore and we of the Auncientes, vntill the yeare of Christ. Anno 1497. when Vasco de Gama passed first with 〈…〉 & no ••• daunger by the Promentorie or good hope, otherwise ter∣med Bona spei,•••aylyng Abbt Af∣frica ••• to Cal••u. This parte of the Persians and Arabians is called Zanzibar.

••• he said Promentorie of good hope, the inhabitaunts are very blacke, which I thinke méete to speake off (because all then thinke that the heate, and néerenesse of the Sunne is the onely cause of theyr blacknesse. It is euident, that it is lesse hot héere, than it is at the sea of Mage∣lan) if in respect of the dissaunte of Hea∣uen we will measure the heat of ye place, where notwithstanding, they are sayd to be very white: and if we will attribute this blacknes to the burning of ye Sunne, we are to consider how the Spaniards, and the Italians, and other Nations in the South parte, haue theyr bodies so white, forasmuch as they are, as farre from the Equinoctiall lyne, as are the sayd inhabitaunts of the Promentory of good hope: the one being towarde the South, the other toward the North.

They which liue vnder Preter Iohn, are brownish, but they which inhabit Zey∣lan, and Malabar are very blacke, vnder one selfe same distance from the Aequa∣tor, and vnder the seene Paralell of hea∣uen. But a man maye more meruayle at this, that in all America, there are found no blacke men, sauing a fewe in a place, which they call Quareca. What then is the efficient cause of this colour? It can be no otherwise, but either the drinesse of heauen, or of the earth, or perchaunce a certaine vnknowen pro∣pertie of the soyle, or a certayne reason hidden properlie in Nature vnknowen vnto man, or altogether vnperteiued.

But these things I leaue to be conside∣red of the searchers out of the nature of things.

This Countrey of the Gréekes is cal∣led Lybia, of the Latins Africa, because it is without the extremitie of tolde.

Or (if we beléeue Iosephus, it is so cal∣led Page  [unnumbered] of Afer, one of ye posteritie of Abra∣ham). Another reason of the name, thou shalt finde in Iohn Leo.

The nobler parts of this Iland (for I thinke it not necessarie to set downe all héere by name) séeing they are to bée seene in the Mappe or table, are Mada∣gascar, and the Ilande which they call Canariae, likewise that which they call commonly, Capo Verdo (of Vividis) as also of Saint Thomas, scituated vnder the Equinoctiall, which is rich in Su∣gar.

Among the Auncients, none hath per∣ticularly described this Countrey: But thereof read in the nauigation of Hanno, of Africa, and of Iacobus in Diodo∣rus Siculus. Of the fresher Writers, read Aloysius Cadamostus, Vascus de Gama, Frauncis Aluares, which trauailed ouer all Aethiope: but of all other Ioannes Leo, hath most diligently described it Io∣an Barrius doth also promise, & volume of Africa. Of Nilus the greatest Riuer in all the world, there are letters extant, of Ioan Baptist Ramuseus and Hiero∣nymi Fracastorius.

Of Europe.

EUrope, whereof it tooke this name, or who hath béene the Authour of the name, it is not yet knowen: vnlesse we say it took the name of Europa Tyria, as sayth Herodotus, in his fourth booke.

Plynie nameth this the nurse of a peo∣ple conquerour of all Nations, and the goodlyest lande in the worlde: sometime compared to Asia and Africa, not in great¦nesse, but in manhood. It is certaine, that forasmuch as Europa is well inhabited, it is not much inferiour to any of them both, in abundance of people. The Nor∣therly and Westerly side héereof, is wa∣shed with the Occean: the South side, is seuered from Africa, with Mare Medi∣terraneum (the middle earth sea). After∣ward towards the East (as Glarean te∣stifieth) Europe is diuided from Asia, with the sea Egeam (now called Archi∣pelagus) with the sea Euxinum, (at this daye called Mare maggiore) with ye ma∣reys Meotide, (at this daye called, Mare delle Zabacobe) with the riuer Tanais, (commonly called Don) and with Ist∣mus, which from the fountaines wher∣of, lyeth strayght North and by this meanes, it hath the forme of Apeni in∣sulae, or a lande lyke an Ilande, an maye be séene in the Map. The head héereof is Rome, sometime the conquerour of all the world.

The Countreys thereof, as we call them at this daye, are Spaine, Fraunce, Germany, Italy, Slauonia, Grecia, Hun∣garia, Polonia, with Lithuania, Mosco∣uia, or more significately Russia, and that Peni Insula, whereon standeth Norue∣gia, Suedia, and Gothia. Of the Ilands thereof, first presents it selfe Englande, Ireland, Grenland, Friseland, placed in the Occean sea. In the middle lande sea, she hath Citilia, Sardinia, Corsica, Can∣dia, Maideira, Minorica, Corphu, Negro∣pont, and other meaner Ilandes. The names and scituations of euery which, the Map doth vnfolde.

This our Europe hath besides the Romane Empire ouer the whole earth,* 28. Kingdomes, besides if thou adde vn∣to them the 14. which Damianos Agoi∣es doth recken in Spaine alone, being Kingdomes in generall, that haue recei∣ued the Christian Religion: which is fertill beyond measure, hauing a natural temperature, and aire calme inough, not to be accounted inferiour to any other, in plants of all kinde of graine, wine, and trées, but to be compared to the best re∣gions. So pleasant, and beautified with goodly Cities, Townes, and Uillages, that albeit she be lesse in forme, than o∣ther parts of the Earth: yet she is coun∣ted the better, and alwayes hath bene so accepted, for mens manhoode of all aun∣cient writers most of all renowned, as wel for the Empire of the Macedonians, as especiallye for the might of the Ro∣manes, the commendation thereof maye be séene in Strabo, which hath very well set hir foorth in his third book, and in the seauenth booke following. Looke also in∣to other Geographers, of the later & most approued Writers: among other, which haue gone about to describe Europe, are Volateranus, Sebastian Munster, Do∣minic Page  252 Niger, George Rithaymerus, in their Geographies, but peculiarly Pius the 11. Christopherus, and Ancelmus Cellae.

Cherubinus stella, Ioannes Herba∣ceus, & George Meyer, hath put in wri∣ting manye iourneyes, almost over all Europe, and haue noted the distaunces of places. The same hath William Gra∣arolus, done in the ende of his booke, which is intituled, De regimme iter a∣gentium, The Regiment of wayfaring men. Thus much foorth of Ottelius.

Of India.

WEll néere all writers, with one con∣sent doe teach, that India is the no∣blest part of the whole globe of ye earth: and that there is no greater Countrey comprehended vnder one name. It is so called of the riuer Indus. The space of India, according to Strabo and Pliny, is closed in the West with the Riuer In∣dus: on the North, with the hill Tau∣rus: and the East, with the East season the West, with his owne sea, to wit, with the Indian sea. It is diuided into two Countryes, the Riuer Ganges run∣ning betwéene: one of which, that is Westerly, is called within Ganges: the other, that lyeth more to the East, is sur∣named, without Ganges. In the holye Scripture we read, that the one is called Euila, and the other Seria, as Niger te∣stifieth, Marcus Paulus of Uenice séem∣eth to deuide it into thrée, into the more, the lesse, and the middlemost: which he saith, is called Abasia.

All this India, is not onely happie, for the great store of people and townes almost innumerable, but also for the a∣bundaunce of all things, copper and lead onely excepted, if we giue credite to Pli∣nie. As the riuers there are very many, so are they very great, through whose watry ouerflowing it commeth to passe, that in the moyst grounde, the force of the Sunne approaching, ingendreth or bringeth foorth all things in great quan∣titie: and seemeth almost to fill the whole worlde, with Spice and Precious stoanes. Of which, it aboundeth more than all other Countreyes of the worlde.

There are manye Ilandes ioyning vnto it, héere and there scattered in hir Occean; so that worthely a man may at hir, the worlde of Ilands. First of all, therein is Iapan, which is called of Marcus Paulus the Uenetian, Zipan∣gri: which for that fewe yeares past, it was not knowen of manye, I thinke good in this place to speake some-what of it.

The Ilande stretcheth farre abroad, and hath almost the same eleuation, of heauen, that Italy heere in Europe hath. The Inhabitaunts are very denout, bée∣ing much giuen to Religion, learning, and wiseddine, and are very earnest ser∣chers out of the truth. They vse nothin•• more than prayer, which after our man∣ner; they exercise in their Churches.

They acknowledge one Prince, vpon whose rule and becke they doe depende: but he also, hath one aboue him, called of them Voo, in whose power is the greatest authoritie of holy things, and Religion: perhaps, the one maye be ly∣kened to the Pope, the other to the Em∣perour, to him the common people doe commit with all rarence, the saluati∣on of their soules. They adore one God alone, portrayed with thrée heads, wher∣of notwithstanding, they are able to giue no reason. They studie to kéepe downe their bodies with fasting, for a testimonye of repentaunce. They fence themselues with the signe of the Crosse, against the inuasions of the Diuell, as we doe: so that both in Religion, and also in manner of life, they séeme to fol∣lowe Christians.

There are also the worthy Ilands of Moluccus, renowned for the fruiteful∣nesse of spices, and famous for the Birde of them called Manucodiata, which wée call the Bird of Paradise, Sumatra, is al∣so an Iland knowen of the auncients, in times past tearmed Taprobana. There are manye other, as Iaua Maior, and Minor, Bornio, Timor, and others, all which are to bée séene in the Carde, or Mappe.

Page  [unnumbered]These Indius the Auncients haue sit with with great praises, Diodorus Sio••∣lus, Herodotus, Pliny, Strabo, Oute••••, and Aianos in the life of Alexander the great. There is •••ant, also letter of Alexander the great, written to Ari∣stotle, touching the scituation of India. Of the late Writers, ••udouicus Varto∣manus, Maxihan•• de Transiluanus, o∣anues Barteus, in his Decades of Asia, and Cosmas Indopleates, whome Petrus Gellius reciteth Ipan Macer a Lawyer hath also written thrée bookes of the Hi∣stores of India.

The Empire of Turkie.

WE haue gathered for the reader, out of the Historigraphers of our time, in these few worde, the originall and in∣crease of the Turkish Empire, and howe by litle and litle, it hath growen to this greatnesse, wherin at this day it séemeth to threaten vs. In the yere after Christs birth 1300. one Ottoman a Turke, the sonne of Ziclius, a man of bae estate, be∣gan among the Turkes, so haue air & dignitie, for his wit and skillfulnesse in martiall prow••e. This man gaue name so the family of the Turkish Emperors and first appointed their king. And in 8. yeares in which he ruled, he an Bithi∣nta, and Cappadoeia, and possessed eye many strong places, ieng vpon Mre Ponticum His sonne Orolianes succeeded him, who sacked Prusia, a very dia••cio tie, and rade it the head of his kingdome. The ••. years of his reign: e fighting with ill successe; was slaine by the Mace∣tarians and left his sonne Amuramasim beare rule: who being sent for by the Gréekes being at variance, was the first that came out of ••• into Europe. Hée tooke Callipolis, and Cherronesus, and ouer came Abyous. When the Cities as Philipopolis and Hadrianapolis were brought vnder his subiection, & that er∣ua and Bulgaria were taken from vs, entering into the vppermost Mysia, hée dyed, being striken with a dagger, the 23. yeare of his Empire. Whose Sonne Ba••zotes, when his brother was stayne, did set vpon the greatest part of Thrace, subdued well néere all Gréece, and Pho∣cs, a ••••• of Bulgaria but being ouer∣come by T••eberlane, di•• without re∣nome. When the Father was taken, Clepinus his sonne tooke rule in hand, and when he had quite ouerthrowen, Si∣gismond in battaile, ••• had begun to spoyle the borders of the Emperour of Constantinople, dyed in the verye floure of his age when he had borne rule side yeares. Mahomeis after him tooke rule in hand, which made very sharpe warre, vpon the ldiathians, subdued the most part of Sclaudnia, first passed ouer the riuer Danubius, brought Maceonia in∣to thraldome, and came as farre as the Ionian sea, remouing his royall seate out of Bithinsa, he placed it in Hedrianapo∣lis, where he dyed the 14. yeare of his Empire. Afterward Amurathes the se∣cond, tooke vpon him the o•••te of rule, who wan Epirus, Aetolia, Achaia, Ber∣lia, Attica and Thesialonica, & citie ••b∣iect to the Uenetians, Him succeedeth Mahomtes the seconde, who destroyed Athens, and wa•• Constantinople, by assault the 29. day of May, Antio, Do••. 145. he brought vnder his subiection, the Empire Trapesuntindeth, he took Co∣rinth, he subdued by warre the Ilandes of Lemnus, Euborae, and Mitylene, and ouercome Capha, a Citie of the Gen∣wayes: he ruled 32. yeares. Bagaztes the second made warre against the e∣netians, & tooke from them Paupactise, Methona, and Dirrahium, and spoiled all Dalmatia, and at the last died with poy∣son. His sonne Zelimus toke rule in hand, who after he had ouercome Alchair, a ve∣rie strong Citie in Aegypt, and slayne Sultan, he brought Alexandela and all Aegypt vnder his Empire, and tooke Da∣mascus, Soliman the onely some of Ze∣limus, succéeded his Father, wannBel∣gradum, seeke Buda the Kings Citie, in Hungary, spoyled Sirigonium, and well néere all Hungary. He gofe the Ile of Rhodes by yéelding, and ouerthrewe Quinq & Ecclesias, the •••• Churches.

When the Citie Iula was taken, he besieged Zigothum, and died in the assault: which Citie his son Zelimus the second, heire of the Empire spoiled in Page  [unnumbered]Page  [unnumbered]

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Page  253 the yeare 1566. And in this manner vn∣der 11. Emperours, they subdued vnto themselues by Turkish tiranny in 260. yeares, a great part of Affrica, a greater part of Europe, and the greatest parte of Asia. But he that desireth a fuller know∣ledge of these histories, let him read Pau∣lus Iouius, Christopher Richerius of Sene, Cuspinianus, Baptista Ignatius, Gilbertus Nozorenus, Andreas Lacuna, Pius the 2. in his 4. chapter of Europe, and other writers of Turkish matters. Laonicus Chalcendilas hath most dili∣ligently set out ye originall of ye Turke, and the offspring of the Ottomans.

FINIS LIBRI XV.