Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

¶ Of an hill. Cap. 2.

AN hill is high swellyng and rearing of the earth or of land, onely at foote touching other land: or els hills be cal∣led mountaines, for they passe vpwarde aboue that other deale of the lande, as Aristotle saith. Also in libro de propri∣etatibus Elementorum, Aristotle saith, that some men haue sayd, that the earth was first made round and plaine, and no mountaines, nor vallyes were therin, for all was shaped all round, as ye euer bo∣dies be: and so cause of mountaines & of valleyes be nought els but mouing of waters that dig and weare the soft parts of the earth, & the hard parts that maye not be digged, be made Mountaines, and places that wer digged deepe, wer made for the sea and for riuers. Also in libro Metheororum Arist. saith, that somtime mountaines be made by strong earth shaking: for somtime the earth is lifted vp and made a Mountaine, as of a great raine of water, commeth hallownes, and is made a valley. Also there he sayeth, that the comming and the going of the sea, weareth and breaketh the lande in some place, and maketh hills, and some∣time the Sea healed all the lande, and bare alway the softe parts thereof, & let the hard abide, and threw the mud toge∣ther, and that wered drye when the sea, was passed, and tourned to hilles. Also mountaines be hard and sad, reared from ward the earth toward the heauen, but they are grounded on the earth, and be some∣time full of hollownesse and of dennes & so because of voydnesse, it draweth and sucketh in water, and when the hollow∣nesse is full, water runneth and spring∣eth out at well heads, and is cause of e∣uerlasting springing and running: and so it is knowen that mountaines with hollownesse & dens, draw & sucke in hu∣mor & moisture, & send therof out alway. Also mountaines containe noble mettal, for noble mettal is mined out of veynes of mountaines. Also mountaines eare fruit & swéete smelling things, for clean∣nesse of aire that hath mastry in tops of hills, fruit that groweth on hils is more pure & more sweet, than fruit that grow on valleyes. Also hills receiue sooner the sunne beames, than do vallyes, and hold them longer time. Also hilles gender exhalation, smokes and vapours, and of Page  [unnumbered] gendring therof, in ye aire come clowdes vpon tops of most high hills, and there∣of commeth rayne but seldome, as in the top of mount Olympius as Arist. saith: and that is for cléernesse of aire, and for scarciue of vapour, for vapour is spen∣ded and wasted ere it maye come to the toppe of the hills. Also the hills be set a∣gainst the windes & stormes, more than valleyes, and so because of cold that hath the mastry on hills, snow lyeth on hils, and is frosen with colde winde, that is therein. And therefore snow lyeth and a∣bideth longer on hills than on valleyes: as it doth in mount Caucasus and in Li∣bano, and in other such high hilles, that be alway white with white snowe, as Isidore saith. Also hills be ofter smitten with lightning, than valleyes, as Isidor. saith, therefore the hills that be called, Montes Pirenei, haue that name of fire and of lightning, for fire is called Pir, in Greek. Also the hills that are called Ce∣raunci, haue that name of oft smiting of lightning: for lightening is called Ce∣raunos in Greeke as Isidore saith. Also hills that be most high, be best places to stand on to looke about, to wait and spie for comming of enemies: men go vp to top of hills, and waite about, and warne of perills that they sée a farre. Also hills be sound, sad, and strong in kinde, there∣fore they be most able places to buylde in Castles and towers, and so dwelling and abiding on hills, is more sure than in valleyes, and namely if they may not be mined for hardnesse and sadnesse of ground, and be so high that it is hard to take the waye vpward. Also for in hills is plentie of hearbs, grasse and lease, they be according to pasture of sheepe, and of other beasts, for hearbs & leese of moun∣taines, are more wholsome and better to defieng of beasts, than grasse and hearbs that grow in valleyes, though they bée generally more ranke and fat, for humor of feeding that norisheth hearbs & grasse, is more subtill and pure, than humours of plaines and valleyes: and therefore heate of heuen defieth that moysture, and turneth sooner, and changeth it into sub∣staunce of hearbes and of grasse, both for subtilnesse of that humour, and for cléer∣nesse also of the aire, that is there. Also in hills be higher trées and thicker bu∣shes, than in valleyes, therefore Moun∣taines accord to wilde beasts and fowles to bréed and to dwell therein: therfore when wilde beasts be hunted with hun∣ters in valleyes, they flye to the Moun∣taines, and be there safe.