Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

Of Fish. chap. 29.

FIsh is called Pisces, and hath that name of Pascendo, feeding, as Isidore sath libro. 12. cap. 6. Fish licketh the earth and watry beaches, and so get they meate and nourishing. Also they bée called Reptilia, créeping, because in swim¦ming they séeme as they did créepe: for in swimming they créepe, though they sinke downe to the bottome. Wherof speaketh Ambrose in Exameron, and sayth: That betwéene fish and water is greate nigh∣nesse of kinred. For without water they may not long liue: And they liue not long with onelye breathing, without drawing of water. And they haue a man∣ner lykenesse and kinde of créeping. For while a fish swimmeth, by shrinking and drawing together of his bodye, hée draweth and gathereth himselfe into lesse length: And anone stretcheth himselfe a∣gaine, and intendeth to passe forth in the water. And by that dilligence hée put∣teth the water backwarde, and passeth it selfe forward. Therefore he vseth fins in swimming: as a soule vseth fe∣thers in flieng. But all other wise in swimming a fish moueth his fins from ye hinder part downeward: And as it were with armes or Ores he clippeth the wa∣ter, and holdeth it, and stretcheth himselfe forward. But a bird moueth his fethers vpward, & gathereth the aire, and com∣pelleth it to passe out backward by large stretching of windes: and so by violent putting of aire backward, the body mo∣ueth forward: And kindes of fish bée di∣uerse in many manner wise. For by di∣uersitie of place that they bee gendered in, and of meate that they be fedde with, and of coulour and shape, by which they be distinguished of substaunce, of which they be compounded. And of the vertue, by the which they worke diuerslye. In place that they be gendered in, is greate diuersitie, and in their dwelling and abi∣ding: for they builde onely in water: and sometime dwelleth in land, and som∣time in water. And such a manner fish (as Isidore sayth) is called Antiphidia & Dubia in Latine, for he vseth to goe in the land, and to swim in water, and hol∣deth the office of kinde, as fishes that be called Foce, Cocodrilli, Castores, Hip∣potami, that be water horses, and other such. Fishes haue names of land beastes, as Sea houndes and Wolues: For they bite other vnreasonable swallowing and deuouring and hurteth them sore, as Isidore sayth.* Among them that abide onely in water, some abide onelye in the sea, and some in riuers and ponds, and in other fresh waters: and some be meane betwéene those two manner fishes,* and turne and come now to fresh water, and now to salt water to get them meate.* And fish that come out of the salt water, into fresh, haue liking in the freshnesse thereof, and be fatted: and againe warde: and this fish now abideth in the sea,* and nowe in fresh water. And many Riuer fishes may not tast saltnesse of the Sea. For it he catcheth salt water, hée dyeth sodeinelye, and tourneth by the wombe and fléeteth aboue the water, & that is to∣ken of death in all manner of fish both of sea and of fresh water. And fish that is bred in the Sea hath harde scales and thicke, because of drinesse of the salt wa∣ter. And riuer fish haue subtill scales, and soft backe bones. Backe bones in fishes Page  198 bee needfull to restraine the flesh thereof that is fleeting, for kinde softnesse there∣of. And Auicen teacheth to choose good Fish by kinde of the place, wherein they be nourished and sedde. And in liber. 2. cap. 7. he sayth, That in this manner choice of fish is in place, in which it dwel∣leth. For such as abide in stony pla∣ces bée best and swéetest, and in fresh running water, in which is no corrupti∣on, nor any slime or wose, nor standing lakes, nor in Welles, nor in small pittes that runne not in riuers, in whom be no Wells: and hée sayth there, That some Sea fishes bée good. For those that bée subtill bée best, and bée nourished in the deepe Sea, and no where else. And fish that abide in waters, that bee vnhéeled with blastes of winde, that bloweth the water somtime frō them, are better then those that bée not so serued. And those that be in waters that be strongly moo∣ued and continually laboured, bee better then those that bée in standing Water: and so Sea Fish is better then Riuer Fish. And Riuer Fish better then lake Fish, namely, if they be farre from the ri∣uer and from the sea. For they that haue rest in their rottennesse and filth, are not washed neither cleansed by riuer that cō∣meth therein, nor by sea. And therefore such fish is euill sauoured, & soone rotten. Also both sea fish and riuer fish is better in the North sea, and in the East Sea, then in the South sea: for by strong blasts of winde the water is moued and clean∣sed and made subtill. And therefore Fish of that water mooueth more and trauai∣leth, and be more cleansed of their super∣fluitie.

Also in kinde of Fish is diuersity, not onely in diuersitie of place, that they may dwell in, but also in diuerse place of ge∣neration. For some be gendered by lay∣eng of Egges,* and shedding of pesen, and some by gendering together of male and female, and by shedding of sperme. Héere∣of Aristotle speaketh li. 5. and sayth, that it falleth in kinde of fish that lay Egges and pesen, that when the female layeth egges or pesen, the male commeth after & sheddeth his milke vpon the egges: and all the egges or pesen that bee touched with the milke of the male shall be fish, & those that be not touched with that milke shall not be Fish. For the female layeth many egges or pesen, & swalloweth the more part of them, and also many other bée spilt in slime and in wose, and none thereof bée saued but such as bée layde in places where the milke of the male is shedde. For if they were all saued: then there should bée too many fishes gendred. And fish kéep & saue euennesse and make, in their owne kinde, as Aristotle sayth there. And he saith, that there was ne∣uer fish founde, that made generation with fish of other kinde. Also fish loue their frye, and féede and nourish them long time, as Aristotle sayth there. All Fish feede and kéepe their young, except Frogges.

Also there it is sayde, that Riuer fish and fish of marrcis, shedde more theyr pesen, and ofter then other fish. For com∣monly and for the most parte, they cast and shed pesen and milke after fiue mo∣neths: and all other Fish bring foorth fish after one yeare, and small fish bring forth their broode in place, wherein is but little water, fast by rootes of trees, canes, and reedes.

Also there he saith, that the more part of the pesen is lost, when the female shed∣deth pesen swimming about, if the male be not present: and then of the séede & pe∣sen is no fish shapen. And also they be eat of other fish and of birds.

Also there it is said,* that some Fish be gendered without egges or pesen, or without generation of male & of female: & be gendered of slime & of wose, of gra∣uell, & of rottennesse yt is vpon the water. Also it is sayd, that in time of generati∣on, males and females of Fish swim to∣ther as a slocke, and swim with theyr makes, and many of them bée sick when they bréede: and therefore that time they be most taken. Also there it is sayd, that some fish gender froting the wombe on grauell. Also in li. Iorath de Animalibus it is said, that a Fish yt is called Effime∣ron is bred without generation betwéene male and female:* And when he hath li∣ued thrée houres of a day, then he dieth: and there is a Fish that is called Mu∣rena,Page  [unnumbered] a Lampray:* that of his like concei∣ueth not, but of an Adder, which hée cal∣leth to loue with hissing, as Isidore saith lib. 12. cap. 6.

The Greekes (he saith) call this fish yt is called Murena, Stairmam, for he hol∣deth himselfe in circles. They tell, that this fish is a Female, and conceiueth of the Serpent. And therefore Fishers call it with hissing and whisteling, and ta∣keth her in that wise. Unneth she dyeth, though shée bee smit with a staffe: and if she be smit with a rod, she dieth anone. It is certaine that the soule of this fish is in ye taile, for they say vnneth she is slain, though she be smit on the head. And if she be smit on the taile, or if the taile bée smitte of, she dyeth anone, as it is sayde. And the contrary is of the Serpent, for if the head bee broke and brused, or cut off, ye Serpent dieth anone, and if the taile be smitten, he liueth long time. Also Iorath sayth, that the Serpent doth awaye his venim ere he gender with the Lampray: But when the deed of generation is done, he taketh his venim againe: and therfore in conceiuing, the Lampraye taketh no venim of the Serpent, nor gendereth not of serpent kinde, but onely of his owne kinde, as he saith.

(*The Adder is venimous in bo∣dy and spearme: the Snake is not so.)

Also fish conceiue of dew onely with∣out peson, and without Milk, as Oisters and other shell fish. Héereof Iorath speak∣eth & saith, that fish that be called Elich come out of the water by night, & cōceiue in land of the morrowe dew, and bring forth their broode: And in waning of the Moone their shells be voide. Also fish is stirred to conceiue and to bréed by rising and downe going of Starres, as Iorath sayth, and Isidore also. So he speaketh of fish that bée called Australis, and sayth, that fish of that kinde arise, when the stars that bée called Pliades begin to goe downe, and be not séene till Pliades a∣rise againe. And though fish gender and be gendered: yet no manner of kinde of cleane fish haue gendering stones, nor no kinde of Serpent, nor no kind yt hath no féet: and also they haue no paps nor milke, except ye Dolphin that hath milke, and giueth her children sucke while they are little, as Aristotle sayth, lib. 6. And Isidore. libro. 12. cap. 6. sayth, that the Dolphins bée called Symphones also, & they haue that name, for they followe mans voice and come together in flocks to the voice of the simphonie, and hauing liking in harmonie: and in the sea is no∣thing more swifte then Dolphins bee. For oft they startle and ouerleape ships, whose leaping and plaieng in the wauce of the sea betokeneth tempest. And in the Riuer of Nilus is a kinde of Dolphins with ridges, thoothed as a Sawe, that cutteth the tender wombes of Cro∣codiles, and slayeth them, as Isidore sayth.

Also fish kinde is diuers in manner of foode and of nourishing. For libro. 2. Auicen saith, that that Fish that eateth good hearbes, grasse, and roots of plants, bée better then they that eate filth, that is throwen out of cities into watry pla∣ces: and in Exameron it is sayde, that also Fish bee diuerse in eating. For some eate each other, and be fedde with each others Fish, and the lesse is the mores meate: and so the greater eat them that be lesse, and so he that eateth the one, is eaten of other at last, as Aristotle sayth libro. 6. and he sayth, That a fish that is called Carabo, ouercommeth greate Fi∣shes & eateth them: and another that is called Multipes ouercommeth the Cara∣bo, and eateth him: also hée sayth, That fishes be fedde with dung and with durt, and with fenne, as the Carabo: and ther∣fore he is heanie, and much fen is found in him: and Fish that eate other fishes haue strong teeth, as that manner Fish that Greekes call Phagion. Isidore saith, that that Fish hath so hard téeth, that he eateth Oysters in the Sea: and there∣fore he is called Dentrix, as it were a fish strongly toothed, and hath that name for greatnesse and strength of téeth: and in Exameron it is sayd, That other Fish haue lesse tooth and n••e and thicker, and more sharp, that they may soone cut their meate that they take: and they swal∣lowe it anone, least the meate that they hold in their mouths should be borne a∣way by strength of water.

Page  199Also other Fish séeke theyr meate fro∣ting in grauell, as Isidore sayth. lib. 12. And he sayth of the sea swine, that is commonly called Suyllus, that while hée seeketh his meat he froteth vnder water in the ground, as it were a swine: and hath a manner mouth about the throat, and gathereth no meate but he pitcheth ye snowte in grauell.

Also lib. 7. Aristotle sayth, That for the more parte, Fish eate Fishe, and eat each other in time of bréeding, except the Fish Fuscaleon. And generally Fish bée gluttenous, and couet much meate, & namely the Fish that is called Habatue: and therefore his wombe stretcheth, when he is fasting, and ofte hée bloweth out his wombe, and maketh it stare, and throweth from him other Fish: for his wombe stretcheth to his mouth, and hath no stomacke. Also of Fish is diuersitie of time and place of meate. For some Fish séeke theyr meate onelye in Water, and some by night vpon the land, as Hippo∣tamus the water horse, and hath that name, for he is lyke to a horse in ridge & in mane, as Isidore saith, and abideth in water on the day, and eateth corne by night, and is bread in the riuer Nilus, as Isidore sayth. And as Aristotle sayth libro. 7. Generally Fish trauayle more by day then by night, and more before midnight then after. And therefore as Aristotle sayth, they bée hunted before the Sun rise, and then Fishers set theyr nets, for that time Fish see not. Full well they sée when light increaseth: but by night they seeke theyr meate by smel∣ling. For they haue lyking in things of good sauour. And therefore liber. 4. it is sayd, that kindes of fish smell and heare: and therefore it commeth ofter into new tackle, that is set for it, then into olde: & commeth not lightly into olde tackle, but into newe: and bee oft beguiled by smell, as Iorath sayth. And hée sayeth, that there is a great fish in the sea that is called Belua, that casteth out water at his iawes, with vapour of good smell, & other fish feele the smell, and follow him, & en∣ter and come in at his iawes following after the smel: and he swalloweth them, and is so sed with them. Also he saith that there is a fish that is called Faste: ye wa∣ter that he taketh in his mouth wareth swéete, and small fish follow him and go in at his mouth, & he taketh them sodein∣ly and swalloweth them anone. Also hee saith, that Dolphins know by the smel, if a dead man yt is in the Sea eate euer of Dolphins kinde: & if the dead man hath eaten therof, he eateth him anone: & if hee did not, he kéepeth and defendeth him frō eating & biting of other fish. And shoueth him & bringeth him to the cliffe with his owne wroting. And Aristotle sayth the same and Plinius also.

Also li. 7. Aristotle saith, that fish that liueth in cléere running water, fall not vpon stinking things, but vpon things of good sauour: & so doe birds and fowles of such water. And in winter, fish die out of the sea, and seeke heate nigh to the land, and there they séeke their meate, & doth the contrary in Summer: for then they flye from the heat into the déep sea. Ther∣fore in Winter they be hunted nigh the land: and in Summer in the deep sea: for immoderate heat gréeueth fish.

Item in eodem li. he saith, yt some fish die for heat when the star ariseth, that is called Canicula. Also great colde graueth them sore, and namelye them that haue stones in their heads, as Crabs, & other such. For the stone in the head runneth and fréeseth, and such a Fish dyeth soone.

¶Also kinde of fish hath diuersitie of shape, and of disposition both in quality & in quantitie. For there is some kinde of great huge fish, with great bodies & huge, as it were mountaines and hills, as Isi. saith: such was the whale that swallowed Ionas the Prophet, his wombe was so great that it might be called hell: for the Prophet saith: In that wombe of hell he heard me. And ther be some fish so small, yt vnneth they be taken with hooks, as Isi. saith, li. 12. Asforus is a litle fish, & for li∣tlenesse it may not be taken with books: and there it is said, yt Enchirius is a fish vnneth halfe a foote long, and hath that name of Herendo, cleauing: for though he be full little of body, neuertheles he is most of vertue: for he cleaueth to ye ship & holdeth it still steadfastly in the sea, as Page  [unnumbered] though the ship were on grounde there∣in. Though windes blowe, and waues arise strongly, and woode stormes, that ships may not mooue neyther passe. And that Fish holdeth not still the shippe by any craft, but onely by cleauing to ye ship. Latines call this fish Moron. For by strength he maketh the ship to stand, as it is said.

(*As touching this strange fish, whose smalnesse wt his vertue of staieng ships, doth passe mans reason: the Grecians cal Ethneis, of the Latines Remora, because she doth stay ships. Opianus and Aelian write, that he delighteth most in ye high seas: he is of length a cubit, that is halfe a yard, of a browne coulour, like vnto an Eele: diuerse opinions are of this fish, but all authours agrée yt for a manifest truth such a kind ther is, wherof one of these Fishes stayed the Galley of Caius Caesar. Plinie meruailing sayth: Oh strnunge and wonderfull thing that all the windes blowing, and the most furi∣ous tempests raging, notwithstanding the violence of the Tame, yet doth this small Fish holde steadie the ship where∣to he is fastened. so greate is the secrete of nature, by the ordinaunce of God. Moreouer by trauailing the coastes of America, the later trauailers reporte to haue felt the strength and vertue of the same kinde of fish.)

Also in Exameron it said of the same Fish, that when he knoweth and feeleth, that tempest of winde and weathers bée great, he commeth & taketh a great stone and holdeth him fast thereby, as it were by an Anker, least he be smitten away, & throwen about with waues of the sea. And so he saueth not himselfe by his own strength, but helpeth to saue himselfe by heauinesse and weight, that is not his owne. And is made stedfast and stable a∣gainst the comming of tempest & storme: and ship men see this, & beware that they be not ouer set vnwarilye with tempest and with stormes, as Ambrose saith, and Beda also.

Also li. 4. Aristotle saith, that the fe∣male fishes be more long then male fi∣shes: and haue more harde fish. And males be more harde before, and also a∣boue: and females be more harde behinde and beneath.

Also lib. 2. Auicen sayth, that those Fishes be best, that haue not full grease bodyes, neither too harde Fish and drye in whome is not too great fatnesse: nor too much griffle, in whome is no euill smell, nor euill sauour. Those that be of sweete sauour, be conuenient and couenable, not too fat, nor with superfluitie of fat∣nesse nor sowrenesse, which stinketh not, anon as it cōmeth out of the water. And those fishes that be somewhat harde, bée better when they bée salted. And among Fish that is harde of Fish, that is best, that is least soft. And so in Fish diuersi∣tie is knowen of substaunce and of qua∣litye, for as he saith, generally fish is cold and moist: but yet some bée hotter then other some in comparison of the complec∣tion of fish, & namely when they be salte. And therefore when they be fresh, they breede watrye fleame, and softe the si∣newes, and be not according but to right hot stomackes: and if they be salted, they be more according to the stomacke, and also to medicine. And heads of salte fish burnt, healeth the biting of a madde dogge, and the stinging of a Scorpion, and rooteth vp dead flesh in Botches, and helpeth rotted and festured Bot∣ches.

Also the iuyce of euerye Fish helpeth against venim that is dronken, and a∣gainst venimous stinginges, and hath many other effectes, as it is sayde there: But this that is sayde of theyr qualitye and substaunce shall suffice now in this place.

¶Also Fish bée diuerse in sharpnesse of feeling, and in sleyght of witte: for many be very warye. And some be won∣derfully sleight and wily to scape, when they be ware of gins of Fishers, as Isi∣dore saith. lib. 12. And he saith, that there is a manner fish that is called Mu∣gil, which is full nimble and swist. For where he is disposed to swimme, and is ware of grins, and pearceth them, & that he is beset with fishers: he turneth sodein∣ly backward, and ouerleapeth the net so swiftly, that it seemeth to them, which are present, that he flieth as a bird.

Page  200(*Mugil, a Sea fish, of all scaled fi∣shes the swiftest, of coulour white, ha∣uing a great belly, and in gréedinesse vn∣satiable, when he is full he lyeth still in one place, and béeing afrayde, hideth his head, as if the whole body were also hid∣den. They are so desirous each of others kinde, that when fishers hauing gotten a male fish of that sort, fastned on the line or craft, all the females resorte vnto it, and so be taken, and lykewise doth the males, they be of the Greekes called Ce∣strei, Plotae, and Cephali.)

Also in lyke wise it is sayd there of a Fish which is called Estaurus: For a∣mong Fish, onelye that Fish cheweth his kudde. And it is sayd that this Fish is right wittye. For when he knoweth that hee is entered, and is within the daunger of the Fishers ginne, hée reeseth not foorth headlong, neyther putteth his head betweene the rowles of the gunne: but he beateth fast on the other with his tayle, and beginneth to make him away with breaking and renting of roddes, and so pasieth backwarde. And if it hap∣pen that another Fish of the same kinde seeth his doing, and how he trauaileth for to break out: he busieth to helpe him, and taketh his tayle in his mouth, and helpeth as hée maye to drawe him out, and deliuer him of the ginne. And yet he sayth, that the Cunger hath manye wiles, and is wittye and wylye of get∣ting of meate: for when hee seeth meate on a hooke, hee dreadeth the hooke, and biteth not the baite, but holdeth the hooke with his sinnes, and letteth it not passe till hée haue gnawen the meate.

¶Also the Crabbe is enimye to the Oyster. For hee liueth by Fish thereof with a wonderfull witte. For because that hee may not open the harde shell of the Oyster, hée spyeth and awayteth when the Oyster openeth, and then the Crabbe, that lyeth in waite taketh a lit∣tle stone, and putteth betweene the shelles, that the Oyster maye not close himselfe: And when the closing is so let, the Crabbe eateth and gnaweth the Fish of the Oyster. Oysters bee called Oilica, and haue that name of shelles, that defend and warde softe fish within. And the Greekes call an Oyster Tllm, and all that Fish with the shells is cal∣led Ostrium in the Newter gender: but the Fish thereof and the meate that is wtin the shels, is called Ostrea in the Fe∣minine gender: And such shell Fish bee called Conche and Conchilia also: for when th Moone falleth, such Fishes bee voide: And the waxing of the Moone in∣creaseth the humoure, and the humoure vanisheth, when the Moone vanisheth. And therefore shell Fish ware, when the Moone wareth, and bée voyde, when the Moone waneth. And in shell Fish bée Pearles bread. And thereof speaketh Pli∣nius and other that write of such things. For by night shell Fish come to cliffes, and conceiue Pearles of the dewe of Heauen. And therefore the shell Fish be called Conchile and Margarete, and He∣relie, when in theyr fish precious stones be pight. And that precious stone that is gendered of dewe in Springing time, is most worthy and noble, and the more white and bright he is, the more effec∣tuall and vertuous it is held. And some shell fish is called Murice, and haue that name of roughnesse and sharpnesse, and haue another name, and be called Con∣chilia. And if they be kitte about with yron, of them drop teares of red colour, and with those teares purple is died, and this coulour and hiew is called Ostrium. For it is taken of the humour of shel fish, as Isidore saith.

¶Thou maist finde all these proper∣tyes and kindes, and many other in lib. Plinij, and Aristotle, and Isidore, and in Exameron Ambrosij, and Bas. but for that we will not noy them that shal read héerein, this is inough of this matter at this time.

Also Plinius saith, and Isidore libro 12. that there be in waters. C.xliiii. man∣ner of kindes of fish. And many of them knowe the order of theyr time, by a man∣ner wit of kinde: and some goe about in theyr own place without chaunging: and some liue without consideration of time: and some conceiue whelpes by deede of generation betwéene male and female, as the Whale.

Page  [unnumbered]Also the Whale and Balena is al one, and Balene be anou great and huge, and be called Belue ab emittendo, of outca∣sting and shedding of water. For they throwe water higher then other greate Fishes of the Sea. For Balen is vnder∣stoode out casting. And the whale is cal∣led Cete for hugenesse of bodye, as Isi∣dore sayth libro. 22. Also in libro Iorath it is sayde. That the Whale hath great plentye of spearme. And after that hee gendereth with the Female, superfluitye thereof fleeteth aboue the water: And if it be gathered and dryed, it: tourneth to the substaunce of Ambre.* And when the Whale hungereth sore, hée casteth out of his mouth a vapour, that smelleth as the smell of Ambre. And Fish haue li∣king in that smell, and for the odour and smell of that vapour, they goe into the Whales mouth, and bée so deceyued and eaten. Also (as he sayth) in this fish earthly matter hath more mastrye then watrye: And therefore hée is soone great and fatte. And so in age for greatnesse of bodye, on his ridge powder and earth is gathered, and so digged together, that hearbes and small trees and bushes grow thereon: so that that great Fish séemeth an Ilande. And if shippe men come vn∣warily thereby, vnneth they scape with∣out perill. For hée throweth so much water out of his mouth vpon the shippe, that he ouerturneth it somtime or drow∣neth it.

Also hée is so faste, that when hée is smit with Fishers dartes, he feeleth not the wounde, but it passeth through out the fatnesse: But when the inner Fish is wounded, then he is most easily takē. For hée may not suffer the bitternesse of the Salt water, and therefore he draweth to the shoare warde. And also hée is so huge in quantitie, that when he is taken all the Countrey is the better for the ta∣king.* Also he loueth his whelpes with a wonderfull loue, and leadeth them about in the Sea long time. And if it hapneth that his whelpes bée let with heapes of grauell, and by defaut of water: hée ta∣keth much water in his mouth, and throweth vppon them, and deliuereth them in that wise out of perill, and brin∣geth them againe into the déepe sea. And for to defende them, hée putteth him∣self against al things that hée meeleth, if it bée noyfull to them, and setteth them alway betwéene himselfe and the Sunne on the more safer side. And when strong tempest ariseth while his whelpes bee tender and young, he swalloweth them vp vnto his owne wombe: and when the tempest is gone and faire weather come, then he casteth them vp whole & sound, as he sayth.

Also Iorath sayth, That against the Whale fishteth a Fish of Serpentes kind, and is venimous, as the Crocodile: and then other fish come to the Whales tayle, and if the Whale be ouercome, the other Fish die: and if the venimous Fish maye not ouercome the Whale, then he throweth out of his iawes into ye water a fumous smell most stinking: and the Whale throweth out of his mouth a swéete smelling smoake, and putteth off the stinking smell, and defendeth and saueth himselfe and his, in that manner wise.

(*The two enimies of the whale is the Swoord fish and the Flaile fish, by the one be is forced to leaue the déepe, by the other he is beaten downe, so that it hap∣peneth often times, in his flieng from thē he is fastned on shelues and sounds, aud so taken.)