Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.


FOrasmuch as the treatise is ended of the properties of the aire, and of things that bee gendered therein: it is couenable to this pre∣sent volume to treate of some things, which belong to ye worship and adorning thereof, that in those as in other creatures, the mightie magnificēce of God may be praysed.

¶To the ornament of the aire belon∣geth birdes and foules, as Beda saith: and therefore by the helpe and goodnesse of Iesus Christ, somewhat of them shal be treated consequently in this Booke. Not of all, but onely of such birdes and foules, which be speciallye spoken off in the text of the Bible, or in the Glose. And first we shall speak in generall, and then in speciall, and that by the order of A.B.C.

¶Birdes bée called Aues, as it were Deuie, as it were without way, as Isi∣dore sayth. For their wayes in the ayre, bée not distingued in certaine. And birds with mouing of wings,* diuide & departe the aire, but anone after the flight, the aire closeth it selfe, and leaneth no signe nor token of their passage & flight. And foules bée called Volucres, and haue that name of Volare, to flye, for birdes flye with wings, as Isidore saith, and there∣fore they bée called Alites, as it were A∣lates, that is mouing and rearing vp thē∣selues with wings. For they flye not without wings,* nor areare themselues from the earth vp into the aire without ye benefit of wings: or else a bird is called Ales, and hath that name of Alendo, fée∣ding. For he is fedde of him that féedeth birdes and foules of heauen, and giueth meate to all flesh, as Isidore sayth. The conditions and properties of birdes and foules, be knowen by many things: by theyr substance and complection. For the substance of birds and foules is made of Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered]Page  175 two middle elements, that be betwéene the two Elements that be most heauie, and most light. For in their compositi∣on and making, ayre and water hath most mastrye: and therefore they haue lesse of earthly heauinesse, and more of lightnesse of the ayre, then beastes that goe on land, and swimme on water: By lightnesse of their substance they be born vp into the aire, as Isidore saith. And the aire that is closed in the hollownesse of pennes and feathers, maketh a Birde lyght, and disposeth and maketh him a∣ble, and helpeth him to mooue vpwarde. Therefore the more birdes haue of hol∣lownesse of pens & multitude of feathers, and the lesse flesh, the more easily they reare themselues and flye vpward: As it fareth in Fowles of praye, that bée dis∣charged of weight and flesh, & flye most high, and be wonderfull sharpe of sight, and full bolde and hardie, as Aristotle saith li. 12. Also the condition of Birdes is knowne by generation, for they haue a seminall vertue of kind pight in them: And by vertue thereof they be kindlye moued to increase their kinde by déede of generation, and to kéepe their kind in or∣der, as it is said of Aristotle. li. 6.

All birds (he saith) and foules, when they bring forth birds, lay egges, though it cannot bée séene in all for scarcitye. And the beginning of generation of a Birde, (as it is sayde there) commeth of the white, and his meate is the yolke. And after ten daies of the generation, a birde is full shapen in all parts, and the parts be openly distinguished & knowen. But then his head is greater then all the body. And if the egge shell were then broken, the head shoulde be founde bow∣ed vppon the right thigh, and his wings spread vpon the head. When the gene∣ration of all the members is perfectlye made, and liniation and shape of the members, the shell breaketh, sometime the eightéenth daye, or the twentye day, as it fareth in hennes. And then the chickens come out of the shell aliue bée∣ing full shape, and sometime twaine out of one shell. But among such twinnes that come out of one shell, the one is more, and that other lesse, and more wonderfullye shapen, as he sayth there, liber. 6. Among all beasts that bée in order of generation, birdes and foules bée most honest of kinde. For by order of kinde males seeke females with busi∣nesse, and loue them when they be found, and fight and putte them in perill for them, and bée ioyned to them onely as it were by couenant, and wedding loue. And nourish and féede onely the Birdes that they gette. And so kindlye they déeme and knowe betwéene sexe and sexe, male and female, except fewe, whome kinde goeth out of kinde, as A∣ristotle sheweth an ensample of the Par∣tridge, that forgetteth his sexe, that is to vnderstande, distinction of male and female: and so be sayth, that the male leapeth vpon the male, and the female vp∣pon the female. But of the egges that come of such treading come no birds, but they bée as winde Egges, and take an e∣uill sauour of such treading, and an euill stench.

Also it is sayd of the Culuour cocke, that when he is old and may not tread, but onely bill, he leapeth vppon another Culuour cock. And birds and foules gen∣dering kéep couenable time: for in spring∣ing time, when the generation commeth in, birdes crie and sing, males drawe to companye of females, and desire each o∣ther of loue, and wooe with beckes and voyce, and build neasts, and laye egges, and bring forth birdes: and when the Birdes be gendered, they féede and nou∣rishe them, and bring them vp: But when the office of generation is full en∣ded, then they cease off song, and departe from each other, and come not together till the time of generation commeth a∣gaine.

Also Birdes and fowles bée knowen by the places that they dwel in. For some birdes & foules (as it séemeth) loue com∣pany, and dwelling nigh men, as hennes, Géese, Sparrows, and Storkes, and swa∣lowes: And some dreade and flye, and be afearde of conuersation of men, as fowles of woodes, of mountaines, of ri∣uers, and of marreyes. For by theyr di∣uerse complections, they seek & challenge diuerse manner of places to inhabitie in. Page  [unnumbered] For those that be colde and moyst of kinde vse marries and riuers for gathe∣ring of meate, and for making of neasts, for sitting on broode, and for to bring vp and nourish vp theyr Birdes, as Cootes and wilde Mallards, and Swannes: In whome (as Aristotle saith) kinde ordei∣neth wisely: For they haue broade clo∣sed and hollow féete for néedfull swim∣ming, that they maye by the breadth of theyr fooe the better put and shooue the water backwarde. And so when water is shooued backwarde, they stretch them∣selues forward, as it were rowing. Also they haue broad bills for to gather grasse and rootes, cutte them and bite the more couenable. And long neckes to take vp their meate the more calilier out of the déep waters, and also to seek meat in déep∣nesse. And birdes and fowles that bée of more hot and drie kinde, dwell in moun∣taines, and on high rockes and stones, as Birdes and foules that liue by pray, as Eagles & Fawlcons, and other such, to the which (as Arist. saith) kinde giueth crooked clawes & strong féet and sinewy, and crooked billes and sharpe, to holde strongly theyr praye, and to drawe and eare flesh the more easily: and such birds and Fowles haue little flesh and many feathers, and be full bold and hardy, that they may be ye more swifter of mouing, and the stronger of flight, as Aristotle sayth.

Also they haue long tailes, subtill, and thinne, by the which they rule them∣selues in flight, as the helme ruleth and stirreth the Shippe. And as Aristotle sayth libro penno. All such foules loue desart places and wildernesses, and may not dwell with anye of theyr fellows, but put from them their owne Birdes. And anone when they maye flye, they beate them with their billes, and driue them out of theyr neast, and suffer them not to liue in theyr companye, as Ari∣stotle sayth. These and other Fowles of praye, haue diuerse manner of dooing in taking of praye. For some take theyr praye slyeng in the aire, and réeseth ne∣uer on pray vppon the ground. And some contrary wise take theyr praye on the ground, and they neuer gréeue theyr pray in the ayre. And certaine wilde Fowles as Culuours knowe well the diuers do∣ing of such Fowles in taking of praye. And therefore when they see the pray ta∣kers of the ayre, they flye to the ground: And when they see the pray takers of the grounde, they flye sodeinly vp into the aire. And they that were in perill on the ground, are sure and safe in the aire, as he sayth.

Also some wood foules vse and dwell in woods, and in thicke toppes of trées. And some of these bée more milde then other: as Birdes that sing in Summer time with swéet notes in woods & trées, as Thirstils and Nightingales, & other such that sing most speciallye in time of loue: And they make theyr neastes in shrubbes and in bushes, and sit busilye abroode vpon their egges, and loue theyr birdes, and bring them vp. And other birdes there bée, that loue namely fields, and vse to bée therein and gette them meate, and eate continually of the fruite of the earth: as Cranes & Géese, both wild and tame. And such foules loue to dwell togethers, both on the grounde and in the aire, and go and flie in heardes, and loue their owne kinde, and make a king among them, and bée obedient to him, and flye in order and in araie, and fight somtime full strongly among thēselues, and rent and wounde and pull ofte each other with their billes: But after that fighting, as they were reconciled, they flie togethers, & leaue not therefore com∣panie: And they haue foreknowledge of tempest of weather, and when they see that it commeth, they gather and crye: And they ordeine watches, and in wa∣king chaunge plates. All this is contei∣ned in Exmeron of Basile, and of Am∣brose also. And lykewise it is read in Aristotle. Also Aristotle putteth more héereto, & saith, that the Crane that wal∣keth for the watche by night, holdeth a lyttle stone in his foote, that if he hap to fall a sléepe, he maye bee waked by falling of the stone. And also if a Crane loose his fellowshippe, he flyeth vp high, and cal∣leth and crieth and seeketh his fellowes, and till he findeth them, vnneth he com∣meth downe to haue meat: also he saith, Page  176 that the king of those Birdes always lighteth down first, and ariseth first from the earth, and taketh first his flight. Also he arreareth vp his head & looketh about after then other, and if hée see one comming, hée cryeth and waketh all his fellowes, and warneth them of pe∣rills.

Also the propertyes of some Foules bée knowen by diuersitye of eating. For some eate nothing but flesh or, bloud, as all the birdes and foules of pray with crooked beakes and sharpe clawes, that eate all beasts that they may hunt: But they hunt not nor eate no fowle of their owne kinde, as fish eate fish of their own kinde, as Aristotle sayth li. 7. And such birds and foules drinke neuer water, as he sayth there.

And there be other birds that eate one∣ly seeds and fruit, and hearbes that grow on the ground, as Doues and Turtures and Geese both wilde and tame. And o∣ther foules there be, that onely eate now flesh, and nowe fruite indifferentlye, as gladly that one as that other: as foules of rauen kinde, as Choughes, Crowes, Rookes, Rauens, and Pies, of the which Aristotle sayth and Basilius also, That foules of Rauens kinde feede their birds in youth, and the young féede the olde in their age. Also when the olde waxe fee∣ble, the young helpe them, and beare them on their shoulders, as he sayth.

And in all such Fowles kinde mildnesse is praised, that men may bée ashamed to withdrawe or to denye to serue Father and mother, insomuch he knoweth that Birdes serue and helpe each other, as Ambrose sayth. Also the propertyes of birdes and Foules bee knowen by dis∣position of members. For as Aristotle sayth, I••decimo tercio. In this all foules accorde, that all Foules haue billes, that are not founde in other beastes. But they be diuerse in disposition: For some haue short billes and broade, and theyr lyfe is quite and milde, for such a bill is able to take meate that is nigh. And some haue long billes and sharpe, for they take theyr meate out of déepe pla∣ces. And some haue sharpe bills and croo∣ked, for such a shape it needefull to eate, to hale and to drawe, and to rent rawe flesh. And all Foules haue these proper∣ties, that euerye foule hath two féete as a man. But in disposition of féete and of legges is most diuersitye found. For the feete of clouefooted foules bee strong and sharpe, for they bée able and according to pray and to hunting: And the féete of water foules be close, hollow, and broad: for they bée able to swimme. And all foules with long féete, haue long necks, and flye stretching out theyr neckes. And if the necke bée small and féeble, hée beareth it downe in flyeng. And it is ge∣nerall, that euery foule that hath a shorte eecke, hath shorte thighes, and againe∣ward. And euery foule hath a nauil whē he is bread. But when the foule wareth, the nauill is hidde and not seene. For it is continued with a gut by a vaine that is within.

Also properties of foules may be kno∣wen by swift or slow bréeding of birds, as a Culuour that breedeth tenne times in one yeere, and some laye many egges as an hen: and some lay oft as hens and Couluoures, and hennes that laye many egges, die soone, as Aristotle saith. lib. 5. And foules with crooked clawes that eat flesh, laye seldome egges, for they lay but once a yeare, except the Swallowes, that onely among foules that eate flesh, laye egges twice a yéere.

And foules waxe sicke when they sit abroode vppon their egges, as it fareth in the henne, and in the Eagle, of the which it is sayd. li. 6. For then the Eagle is sore gréeued, and her wings waxe white, and her clawes goule and féeble. Many other properties be of foules, the which were too long to recken all a row. Héere it née∣deth onely to knowe that among other kinde of beastes, generally Foules are most pure and lyght, and noble of sub∣stance, and swift of mouing, and sharpe of light, of flesh of good digestion, and good sauour, and turning into féeding & whol∣some. Also foules be full busie in making neasts, and bréeding and féeding of theyr birds. This that is said in generall shal suffice at this time.

Of the Eagle. chap. 1.

Page  [unnumbered]NOw it perteineth to speake of birds, and foules in perticular, and first of the Eagle, which hath principalitye a∣mong fowles. Among all manner kinds of diuerse fowles, the Eagle is the more liberall and frée of heart, as Plinius saith. For the pray that she taketh, ex∣cept it be for great hunger, shée eateth not alone, but putteth it forth in com∣mon to fowles that follow her: But first she taketh her owne portion and parte. And therfore oft other fowles follow the Eagles, for hope and trust to haue some part of hir pray. But when the pray that is taken is not sufficient to her self, then as a king that taketh heed of a Comint, hée taketh the bird that is next to him, and giueth it among the other, and ser∣ueth them therewith. And she setteth in her neast two precious stones, which hée called Achates. The one of them is male, and that other female. And it is sayde, that they maye not bring foorth their birdes without those stones.

And she layeth in her neast that precious stone that is called Achates, to kéepe her birdes from the venimous biting of crée∣ping worms, as Plinius saith. And ye Ea∣gle is called Aquila, and hath that name of sharpnesse of eien, as Isidor. sayth. For she hath so strong, and so sharp, and cléere sight, (as it is sayde) that when shée is borne and flieth vp into the aire, and ho∣ueth aboue the Sea so high, that vnneth shée is seene with mans sight. And out and from so great highnesse, shée séeth a smal fish swimme in the Sea, and falleth downe anone, as it were a stone, and ta∣keth sodeinely the fish, and draweth the prays that is so taken sodeinelye to the cliffe. And is a Birde hotte and drye of kinde, and desireth prays, and is ryght strong, bolde, and hardye, passing the strength and boldnesse of other birdes, and his strength is most e wings, féete, and bill. For hée hath sinewye wings, and little flesh, and therfore in his flight hée may well awaye with trauaile. For in comparison to the greatnesse of his bo∣die, he hath but little flesh, & therefore hée hath much strength and vertue. Also hée hath many feathers, and therfore he con∣teineth much lightnesse. And among all Fowles, in the Eagle the vertue of sight is most mightye and strong. For in the Eagle the spirit of sight is most tempe∣rate, and most sharpe in act and deede of séeing and beholding the Sunne in the roundnesse of his circle, without anye blemishing of eyen. And the sharpenesse of her sight is not rebounded againe with cléernesse of light of the Sunne, nei∣ther dispearpled, as Ambrose sayth. Also Ambrose sayth, and Aristotle libro. 20. that ther is one māner Eagle that he cal∣leth Almachor, and is ful sharpe of sight, and shée taketh her owne birdes in her claws, and maketh them to looke euen on the Sunne, and that ere their wings bée full growen, and except they looke stiflye and steadfastly against the Sunne: shée beateth them, and setteth them euen be∣fore the Sunne. And if any eie of any of her Birdes watereth in looking on the Sunne, shée slaieth him, as though he went out of kind: or else driueth him out of the neast, and dispiseth him, and set∣teth not by him: and the birde that be∣holdeth and setteth his eie steadfastly vp∣pon the Sun, she féedeth and loueth him as her owne birde, lyke to her in kinde: and though she sette her sight neuer so straight and steadfast on the Sunne, yet she casteth her eie to waite and espie af∣ter her praye, as Gregorye sayth. And Aristotle. libro. 12. sayth, that cloue footed Birdes neede sharpe sight. For they see meate from a right farre place: & therfore the Eagle flieth higher then other fouler, and therfore she buildeth her neast in ful high rockes, there she maketh her neast sure, and defendeth it with highnesse of place, as Grego. sayth. The Eagle dwel∣leth sure and safe in most high places, and neuerthelesse because of meate shee looketh and seeth these lowe places: He flyeth highest vpward, and commeth so∣deinlye downewarde, when hee séeth a carrion, or some other pray, he desireth.

(*In the .11. of Leuiticus wherin is ex∣pressed of beasts, fishes, & birds, which bee cleane & to be eaten, ye text saith, these be those kinds of birds yt shall not be eaten. The Eagle, the Gosehawke, the Ospray, the Uulture, the Kite, and all Rauens, Page  177 the Estridge, the night crowe, the Cockoe, the Hault, the Fawlcon, the Cormo∣rant, ye great Owle, the Back or flinder∣mouse, the Pellican, the Pie, the Storke, the Iay, the Lapwing, & the Swallow, the Gléed or Bussard, the Redshanke, the Swan, the Stork, the Hearon, De. 14. ye Eagle is called in Hebrew Neser, of the Chaldes Nisra, of ye Persiās Ansi mureg, of ye Latins Aquila, his colour is brown on the backe, & somewhat whitish, graye on the brest, yeolowish legged, blacke ta∣lented & sharpe sighted: he is enimy to ye hart, to the Hare, and to the dragon, he ouercommeth the hart or stagge, by ligh∣ting on his head: hauing gathered on his wings a great quantitie of dust, taketh hold of his hornes, and by beating of his wings, he forceth the dust into the Hart or stagges eyes, and ceaseth not vntill he hath ouer wearied the beast that he fall downe, of the which he taketh his praye, & leaueth the rest. The Hare she striketh on the head, and carryeth cleane away, & so of young kids, lambes, pigges, & géese. Gesner in his third booke of birds. Seba∣stian Munster, &c.

Also the Eagle is a foule that seldome sitteth a broode, and seldome hath birdes, and nourisheth and féedeth her birds.

Libro sexto Aristotle saith, yt the Ea∣gle laieth thrée egges at the most, & thro∣weth the third egge out of the neast: for she sitteth a brood heauylye thervppon. And he sayth furthermore, that at that time she is so much féebled, that she maye not well hunt birds of other foules: for then her clawes be crooked, & her wings waxe white, and then she is sore grée∣ned in féeding of her birdes. And if it happeneth that ye Eagle hath thrée birds, she throweth out one of her neast, for difficulty of féeding and nourishing: But a bird that is called Ossifraga, & is called Cebar in the language of Arabia, féedeth ye bird yt the Eagle casteth so haply out of her neast, as he sayth. Also he sayth, that there be diuerse kinds of Eagles, & they feed diuersly their birds: for Eagles with white tailes, trauaile more in féeding of their birds, thē Eagles with black tailes, which trauaile lesse in such dooing. And when her birds bée ready for to flye, shée putteth them out of her neast, and exci∣teth and comforteth them lyttle and lit∣tle for to flye, and maketh them fast and to be hungry, for to haue the more desire to come after her into the aire, because of meate. And if it happen that they bée slow to passe out of her nest, then she smi∣teth them with her bill, & withdraweth from them their meate, to constraine thē in that manner to passe out of the neast. And after that they be full in strength and in feathers, she driueth them awaie from her, and is no more busie aboute thē, except one manner kinde of Eagles, that Aristotle calleth Athat, that thinke long time on her birds. And when her birds flye, she flyeth with them, and gi∣ueth them meate, and flyeth sometime a∣bout them, and taketh heede of them, and is ready to withstand other foules, if it so be that they come to grieue or to noy hir birds. Aristotle toucheth all this. li. 6. as Gregory toucheth super Iob.

It is said of the Eagle, that when hir young birds be newly hatcht: and vn∣mightie to take & receiue and defie great meat, then ye mother sucketh bloud, & flee∣ting humour out of her pray, & holdeth it in her mouth, and putteth the bloud and such humour to the mouthes of her birdes. And féedeth them so with lyght meat, till they bée strong and able to re∣ceiue & take stronger meate. And héereto Austen saith and Plinie also, that in age the Eagle hath darknesse & dimnesse in eien, & heauinesse in wings. And against this disaduantage she is taught by kinde, to séeke a well of springing water, and then she flyeth vp into the asre as farre as she may, till she be full hot by heat of the aire, and by trauaile of flight, and so then by heate the pores be opened, & the feathers chased, and she falleth sodeinlye into the well, and there the feathers bee chaunged, and the dimnesse of her eien is wiped away and purged, and she taketh againe her might and strength.

Also he sayth, that when the Eagle ageth, the bill wareth so hard and so croo∣ked, that vnneth he may take his meate. And against this disaduantage he findeth a remedy. For he seeketh a stone, against Page  [unnumbered] the which he smiteth and beateth strong∣lye his bill, and cutteth of the charge of the bill, and receiueth meate and might and strength, and so becommeth young againe. And as Plinius saith, The Eagle fitteth on a rock or on a trée, & setteth the sight of her eyen against the cléernesse of the Sunne, or casteth her eien, & looketh hether and thether to espie her pray, or else beholdeth her owne clawes alway. Her gall is full medicinable: for when it is done in Collirijs, it sharpeth the sight, and helpeth against dimnesse, and other diseases of eien, as Dioscorides saith, & Constantine also. And hath some proper∣tyes lesse worthy to be praysed, as is a Birde passing in heate and in drynesse: and therefore he is bolde and hardie and wrathfull: And for strong wrath is not but in bodies of great drinesse, as Arist. sayth libro decimo sexto. The Eagle is enimy to innocent birds and foules, and pursueth them with her clawes, and ta∣keth the Birde, and smiteth the head with her bell: and hath a lowing voyce, and generally fearing all other fowles. For in the sight and hering of the Eagle all foules of other kinde dreade, and also foules of pray. Therefore Plinius saith, That the gentle fawlcon or other such foules vnneth take prayes on yt day, that they heare the Eagle. And that perchance commeth of great dreade. For generally all foules haue dread of the Eagle, that taketh her pray onely in the aire, & they dread lesse ye Eagle that taketh her praye on the ground, & least of all that Eagle yt taketh her praye on the water. For no foules dread ye Eagle, but foules yt haue their liuing and conuersation in the wa∣ter alonely. And such an Eagle goeth much out of kind & of noblenesse of those Eagles that take their pray in the aire, & on the earth, and that Eagle dreadeth the Vultur. Aristot. li. 15. saith, that such an Eagle Amachel dwelleth & abideth nigh the Sea, and fast beside greate lakes and ponds, and is fedde with birdes that bée nigh the sea. When they come out of the water, & happen to sée the Vulture com∣ming, they will be afearde, and so they flye to the water, but the Vulture, that hath a right-sharpe sight, flyeth alwaye about that place: and if they flush out of the water into the ayre or into the land, the Vulture taketh them anone. And such an Eagle be long in the water, he is stifled. And ye Eagle hath one foote close and whole, as the foote of a Gander, and therwith she ruleth her selfe in the water, when she commeth down because of her praye. And her other foote is a cloue foote, with full sharpe clawes, with the which she taketh hir pray. And ye Eagles fethers haue a priuie fretting vertue, as Plinius saith. For he sayth, yt the Eagles feather done and set among feathers of wings of other Birds corumpteth and fretteth them.* As strings made of wolues guttes done & put in a lute or in a harpe among strings made of shéepes guts, do destroy, and fret, and corrumpe the strings made of shéepes guttes, if it so be that they bée set among them, as in a lute or in a harp as he saith.

Also the Eagle loueth not company: but voideth and flyeth companie, as Aristo∣tle saith libro primo. It is not possible, that foules with crooked clawes shoulde abide with any of their fellowes. Also the Eagle hath claws in steed of sworde. And therfore when he sitteth on a stone he closeth in his clawes, and as it were hideth them within the fleshe, that hée hurt them not, neither smite them a∣gainst the stone, as Aristotle saith, li. 13. A foule with crooked clawes bideth not long vppon trées, nor vpon stones. For the kinde of their clawes is contrary to these two thinges. Also he is right cru∣ell against her owne birds, when theyr eien be closed against the Sun: For then she supposeth that they be not her owne birds, when theyr eyen be closed against the Sunne. Also to teach and to com∣pell them to take praye of other birdes, she beateth and woundeth them with hir bill, as Plinius saith.

Of the Goshauke. chap. 2.

THE Gosehauke is a royall foule,* & is armed with more boldnesse then with clawes, and as much as kinde ta∣keth from her in quantitie of body, he re∣wardeth her with boldnesse of heart, as Page  178Isidore saith. And as he sayth, shée is a couetous foule to take other foules, and for the taking of other fowles, and for pray she is called Accipiter & Rapter, ra∣uisher. Also Basilius in Exameron sayth: that such Haukes be cruell against their birds: so that they take from them meat when they be flegge and ripe, and they beate and driue them out of their neast, as the Eagle doth hir birds. And for shée doubteth least they be not hardy, she com∣forteth and exciteth them to bée bolde, and hardye, and to take pray, least when they bee full of age, they shoulde be dull and idle, and accustome themselues more to the séeking of meate, then to be bolde, and of hardye courage, as Beda sayth and Ambrose also. And some such Hawkes bee théeues of the aire onelye, and some of the earth onely, as Eagles bee diuerse, as Aristotle sayth in his sixt booke. The first manner of Hawkes take onelye flyeng Birdes, and the seconde manner of Hawkes smite and réese on birdes that sit on the earth, and Doues know which is which, and they knowe the diuersitye of Eagles, as it is sayde. And Accipiter is an hot fowle and dry, and poore of charge of flesh, and addres∣sed with diuersitie of pennes and of fea∣thers, and is in fairenesse of fethers most like the Ostridge, and not pere thereto in boldnesse of heart: And shée flyeth nowe vp to the aire swiftly, and so high that no man can see her: and then fal∣leth sodeinly downe vpon her pray: and her breast is most sharpe, and couered with little flesh. Thereof Aristotle spea∣keth, and he sayth lib. 14. that the more sharpe her breast is, the better shée is of flight. For if she had a full broad breast, she should moue much aire, and shoulde be slowe of flight. And her breast is not fleshie, but it is sharpe: and should be fee∣ble, if it were couered with much flesh: as it is said there. Her most strength is in ye breast, & in the clawes, & in hir bil, with ye which soone she taketh out the braine of her praie. Her gall is medicinable and profitable medled in Colbrijs medicines of eien: and it sharpeth the sight of eien, & destroieth and wasteth white speekles, which be in the eien: and so doth her dirt also: & the Gosehauke hath this propertie as Gregory saith, that in age when shée feeleth her selfe grieued with he heauines & waight of feathers, she spreadeth her winges against the beames of the Sun, when the winde is South, and so by so∣deine weather and resoluing heate, the pores be opened: and when the pores be so opened, she smiteth and flappeth her winges, and in so dooing the olde feathers leape out and newe growe: and so the new fethers maketh her in better state, and the more able to flight: and two kindes there be of such Fowles, for some be tame, and some be wild: and he that is tame taketh wilde fowles, and taketh them to his owne Lorde: and he that is wild taketh tame foules. And this Accipiter is of a disdaynous kinde. For if shee fayle by anye happe of the praye that she ryseth too, that daye vnneth she comes to her Lords hande: and he must haue ordinate diet, ney∣ther to scarse nor too full. For by too much meate she waxeth fat, and then she waxeth ramayous or slowe, and disday∣neth to come to reclaime: and if the meat be too scarce, then she fayleth, and is see∣ble and vnmightye to take her praye. Also the eyen of such Birdes shoulde ofte be siled and closed, or hidde, that shee bate not too oft from his hand that bea∣reth her, when she seeth a birde that she desireth to take: and also her legges must be fastened with gesses, that she shall not flye freely to euery birde.

And they be borne on the lefte hand, that they maye some what take of the righte hand, and be fed therewith. And so Acci∣pitres, such fame hawkes be kepte in mewes, that they may be discharged of olde fethers and hard, and be so renewed in fairnesse of youth. Also men giue them meate of some manner of flesh, which is some deale venemous, that they may the sooner change their feathers, and smoake grieueth such hawkes and doeth them harme, as Beda saith: and therfore their mewes must be far from smoakie places, that their bodies be not grieued with bit∣ternesse of smoake: nor their fethers infect with blacknesse of smoake. They should be fed with fresh flesh & bloudye, & men Page  [unnumbered] should vse to giue them to eate, ye harts of foules that they take. All the while they be aliue, and be strong and mightie to take their pray, they beloued of theyr Lords, and borne on handes, and set on pearches, and stroken on the breast, and on the tayle, and made plaine & smoothe, & be norished with great businesse & di∣ligence: but when they be dead, all men holde them vnprofitable & nothing worth, and be not eaten, but rather thro∣wen out on dounghills.

Of Alieto. Cap. 3.

*AS the Glose saith Super Deutro. 14. Alietus & a Fawcon is all one bird, which coueteth praye, and is right bolde and hardie, and assaileth birdes & foules, that be much more greater than they, & réeseth on them, and smiteth with breast and with féete. Some men meane, that Alietus is a little bird, and taketh other small birds. Thereof speaketh Auctour Aurora and saith.

*Obtinet exiguas Alietus corpore vires. Sunt & aues minimae, praeda cibusque suus.

That is to saye, Alietus hath small vertues and strength of body: and small birds be his meate and his praye.

And some men meane, that this bird assaileth onelye feeble Birdes and vn∣mightie: and héereby it seemeth, that Alietus and a little Sparrow Hawke is all one, that is called a Musket in French, or els it is called, the Sper∣hawke.

Of Bees. Cap. 4.

ISidore saith, that Bées are called Apes for they are gendred without feature, or for that they knit themselues together with féete. Isidore sayeth, that they bée cunning and busie in office of making of honny, and they dwell in their own pla∣ces that are assigned to them, and chal∣lenge no other place but their owne. And they builde and make their houses, with a passing wonderfull skill, and of diuers flowers: and they make hony combes, wound and writhen with waxe very cu∣riously, and fill their celles, with many young. They haue an hoast and a king, and moue warre and battaile, and flye and voyde smoke and winde, and make them hardye and sharpe to Battaile, with great noyse. Many haue assayed & founden, that often Bees are gendred & come of carraines of dead flesh. And for to bring forth Bées flesh of calues, which be slaine, is beate that wormes may bée gendered and come of the rotted bloud, the which wormes after take wings, & are made Bées, as Béetles be of Oxe dounge, as Isidore sayth. And Ambrose in Exameron saieth, That the proper∣ties of Bées are wonderfull noble and worthy. For Bées haue one common kinde as children, and dwell in one ha∣bitation, and be closed within one gate. One trauaile is common to them all, one meate is common to them all, one com∣mon working, one common vse, one fruite and slight is common to them all, and one generation is common to them all. Also maidenhead of body without wemme, is common to them all, and so is birth also: for they be not medled wich seruice of Venus, neither resolued with lecherie, neither brused with sorrowe of birth of children, & yet they bring forth most swarmes of young. For where all other Fowles, bring foorth vnneth one birth in a yeare, euery one Bée bringeth foorth two, and passeth other, with dou∣ble plenteousnes of increase. Bées make among them a King, and ordayne among them common people. And though they be put and set vnder a King, yet they be frée and loue their King, that they make by kinde loue, and defend him with full great defence, and holde honour and wor∣ship to perish and be spilt for their king, and do their King so great worship, that none of them dare goe out of theyr house, nor to get meate, except the King passe out, and take the principalytie of flight. And Bées choose to their King, him that is most worthy and noble in hightnesse and fairnesse, and most cléere in mildnesse, for that is chiefe vertue in a King. For though theyr King haue a sting, yet he vseth it not in wreake. And kindly, the more huge Bées are, the more Page  179 lighter they be, for the greater Bées are lyghter than the lesse Bées. And al∣so Bees that are vnobedient to the king, they déeme themselues by theyr owne dome, for to dye by the wound of theyr owne sting. And of a swarme of Bees is none idle: some fight, as it were in battayle in the field against other Bées: some be busie about meate: and some watch the comming of showers: & some behold concourse and méeting of deawes: and some make wexe of flowers: and some make cels, now round, now square, with wonderfull binding and ioyning, & euennesse. And yet neuerthelesse among so diuers workes none of them doeth aspye nor wayte, to take out of others trauayle: neither taketh wrongfullye, neither stealeth meate, but each séeketh and gathereth by his owne flight & tra∣uayle among hearbes and flowers that be good and couenable. But Bées haue their stings, and they shedde venyme a∣mong honny, if anye thing ouersetteth them, and they put their lyues with a kinde of reuenge, for defence of theyr houses. Also though they be feeble in strength of body, yet they be full strong in might and vertue of cunning: theyr fruite is softe and swéete to all thing, by his swéetnes he maketh iawes swéet, and healeth woundes, and giueth medi∣cine to inward botches. Huc vs{que} Am∣brosius. Other properties Aristotle tou∣cheth libro decimo, where these be set in. Also among other things they saye, that workings of Bées are diuers, for some bring to the hiue, things that need to araye for hony, of sprayes and flow∣ers of trées, and of hearbes, and namely such things that be some deale gleymie and glewie, and bameth therewith the hiue, and that they do for noyful beasts. And if the entering of the hiue bee too large, they make it narrow and straight: and they gather honny, and first they be∣gin to make the house that the King shall dwell in, then they make houses for other Bées, that kéepe the hiue, and they take waxe of floures, and gather it with their forséete, and then they gather to the middle féete, and then to the ouer most ioynts of the hinder féete: & then they flye therewith, and then the heaui∣nesse of the Bee is knowen: and when a Bee flyeth, be taketh no heede of the diuersitie of flowers; nor leaueth one flower for another, all the while that he findeth therein that is needfull, and tur∣neth then againe to hir owne place char∣ged. But how they gather honny, and what is the matter of honny, we maye not lyghtly distinguish by feelyng: but they haunt much gladly leaues and flow∣ers of Olyue, and abide therevpon long time for thicknesse of leaues, and when their king may not flye, then a compa∣ny of Bees beare him. And if the rector be on liue, the males be in one partie, & the females in another partie, and if he be dead, the males be with females in one house: and the rectours females, is much more than the females of ye other Bées, and hath a more stōrg sting than ye male. And many males be wtout stings, & they flye, as though they would sting with stings, and yet they may not. The rectors be of two manners, the one is blacke, and that other is red, and this is the better, & is a good little Bee, round and thicke in it selfe, and small in the middle, as though he were girded, and meanly rough. And Bees are diuers in feeding, for some be fedde with flowers of gardens, and there be other manner Bees, which be fedde with flowers of Mountaines: and those that be fedde in trees of Mountaines be lesse than other, and stronger, and may better away with trauayle. Also Bees sit vpon the hiues, and sucke the superfluitie, that is in ho∣nie combes: and it is said, that if they did not so, thereof should spiders be gen∣dred of that superfluitie, and the Bees should dye, and when there is but little honnie in their houses, they forsake and come out of their houses, and fight with them that will take away their honnie: and therefore they be seene ofte sitting a∣bout their holes, as it were readie and a∣rayed to withstand and defend, and the shorter Bees fight with the longer with strong sight, when they eate much hony, and they busie themselues to driue these out of the hiues, which do not make ho∣nie and labour.

Page  [unnumbered]Also the Kings be not séene without the hiues alone, but they haue a great com∣pany of Bées about them: and the king is in the middle, and he passeth out three dayes before the out passing of ye young Bées: then few Bées come out and flye about the hiues, and departe themselues in companies, and with euery King go∣eth one companie. And if it happeneth, that one part of the Bées set against the other, then these few Bées that remaine, goe to another King, and forsake theyr first King, and they goe to the King that hath most number: and if the King whome they forsake, doeth followe after them, they kill him. Also when Bees sting, they dye right soone after, if they sting in all their sting, and drawe it not out of the place that is stung, for ye sting may not all come out, except some gutte come out therewith, and the rectours of Bées sting seldome. And if any Bee dye in the hiue, the other Bées drawe him out: for this beast is more cleanly then other beastes, and therefore they cleanse flieng, and not in their hiue, for stinking sauour grieueth them full sore, & likwise so doeth winde also. Therefore if there be great winde, the wardene of the Bées shall couer the mouth of the hiue, that the winde come not into the Bees: and if the hiues stinke in any wise, they will forsake their hiues, & if it hap that the Bées abide therein, they shall take sick∣nesse of the stench. And when they rest too much, they were sick, and they throw and put out idle Bées from their compa∣ny. And hot places be according for thē in Winter time, and colde in Summer time. And if a man leueth to them much hony, they will not worke much there∣after: and if he leaueth too little, then they wexe slow to worke hony. There∣fore the warden shall leaue them hony, as the multitude of thē is more or lesse, and if they lacke honny to ease, then the warden shall féede them with figges, and other swéete meates, least they shoulde dye. And when they gather them toge∣ther and striue within the hiue, it is a token that they will depart thence and forsake the hiue: and therefore the war∣den must powre some swéete wine into the hiue, and then they will abide still. Huc vsque Aristoteles. liber. 8. sie 9. Also liber. 4. he sayth, that Bées make no noyse but in styeng and spreading out and drawing in their wings by the a••e, that falleth betwéene the wings and the bodyes. Also the hinder féete of them bée longer then theyr fore féet for going, that they may soone arise from the earth, whē they will flye, as he saith. lib. 14. Also sometimes Bées haue a sicknesse, that Aristotle calleth Karoys. l. 8. And that euill commeth of little wormes, which be gendered in the hiue, and commeth of corrupt hunnie combes. And when those worms he waxen, they make a web like to the web of a Spider, and hath mastry ouer all the hiue. And therefore the hun∣ny waxeth corrupt, and the Bees waxe sicke and die.

Also li. 16. hée sayth, That Bées are not gendered by the seruice of Venus. In those yéeres that be dropping, many Bees are bread and gendered. For by moy∣sture superfluities be multiplyed in bo∣dies. And in temperate yéeres bée fewe birds of Bées, as he saith. Item in dietis particularibus it is sayde, that Bées that eat flowres of Almond trées, make more temporale hunnye then other, and more sauoury, and lesse sharpe: and that hun∣ny most cleanseth spirituall members. And Bées that eat wormwood and other bitter hearbes, make hunnie lesse swéet: But yet that hunnie cleanseth most the stopping of the splene, and openeth the li∣uer, and helpeth them that haue the drop∣sie, and helpeth the biting of a madde dogge. Look more of hunny in Tracttau de liquoribus. And the other propertyes of Bées, shall ye finde in Littera. A. in Tractatu de animalibus secundum Pth. et Auicennam.

Of the. Owle. chap. 5.

THe Owle is called Bubo, & hath that name of the sound of her voice, as I∣sidore sayth. And is a wilde birde char∣ged with Feathers. But she is alwaye holde with slouth, and is féeble to flye. And dwelleth by graues by daye and by night, and in chinnes. And Diuinours Page  180 tell, that they betoken euill: for if the Owle be séene in a citie, it signifieth de∣struction and wast, as Isidore saith. A∣ristotle saith li. 8. that the Chough fight∣eth with the Owle, for she is féeble of sight at midday, and séeth more clearely by night than by daye. And for ye cause the Chough taketh the Owles egges, & eateth them by daye, & the Owle eateth the Choughes egges by night: for the Owle is stronger by night than by day, and the Chough is stronger by day than by night. And other fowles flye about the Owle by day and pul him, and ther∣fore with the Owle, fowlars take other birds and fowles. The fighting of these birds (as the fighting of other beasts) is not but for meat, or for dwelling places. The crieng of the Owle by night, beto∣keneth death, as Diuinors coniecture & déeme. The Owle is fed with dirt, and other vncleane things, and is hated of other birds, and haunteth Temples by night to haue hir fill of oyle of lampes: and namely in fethers and in beake, she séemeth lyke to fowles of pray. But she is all vnlike to them in boldnesse and in vertue. And when birds and fowles as∣sayle the Owle, she lyeth vpright, & de∣fendeth hir selfe, with hir beake, & with hir feete and they hunt and ate mice, & reremice, and flye about by night, & hide them in thins and walls by daye.

(*Of the kinde of Owles, there bée many, as Gesner tearmeth them Solita∣rie, the one called Tachmas of gréedines, the night rauener. Foure kinds are cō∣mon: the first is reddish browne, full of fethers, & is the greatest, and is called the Asse Owle, because his fethers sticke vp on both sides his head like hornes: the seconde, is more graye, and somewhat whitish breasted, finely spotted, and hath a more shriking voyce: the third kinde is lesser and of browne colour, with the which the birders make stales to take small birds: the fourth is least of all, & bréedeth in stonie rockes, and is ash co∣loured. Read Gesner.)

¶Of a Culuer or Doue. Chap. 6.

CUluers are called Columbe, & they haue that name of Colore, of ye neck: for in the necke their feathers be sprong with many diuers colours, as Isid. saith. And Culuers be milde birds and meeke, and haunt and loue company of men, & haue conuersation in their multiplieng. In olde time men called them Venerias, lecherous: for they vse ofte neasts, and conceiue with billing and loue; and use much lecherie. And therefore a Culuer is called Columba, colens lumbos, as it were tilling landes and reynes, as Isid. sayth, For Culuers lay in all times and haue birdes, if their dwelling be hot, & their meate ready. And they haue better birdes in haruest than in springing time or in summer, and that for plentie of meate, as Isid. saith. li. 5. Arist. speaking of the kinde of Culuers saith, That the Culuer is a lecherous birde, and they kisse or bill each other, before their trea∣ding. And if the old male may not tread, yet he ceaseth not to bill. And often the female leapeth vpon the female, when the male lacketh, and so in kissing & bil∣ling, they cast not Semen: but of such manner treading sometime come egges, and of such egges come no birdes, but they be as winde egges. And all birdes that be like to Culuers, lay in springing time twice or thrice, and lay two egges, and lay not the third time, but when the second laieng is corrupt and destroyed. Also li. 6. he saith, that for the most part, Culuers haue two birdes, male and fe∣male, and the first bird is male: & some time one bird is hatcht and commeth out of the shell in one daye, and the other on the morrowe. And the male sitteth on brood by day, & the female by night, & the first egge filleth it selfe, and sheddeth in twentie daies, and first the Culuer pearceth the shell, and then dealeth it. And male and female heateth the birds in one time, and the female is more busie about the birdes than the male, and lai∣eth egges ten times in one yeare, and sometime xi. times or xii. as in Aegypt, and the male treadeth the female after one yeare.

Also lib 8. he sayeth, That when the Culuer hath birdes, anone the male ru∣leth the birdes: and if the female tarie ouer long ere shée come to the Byrdes, Page  [unnumbered] for sorenesse of the birth, than the male smiteth and beateth hir, and compelleth hir to sit hir selfe vpon the birdes. And when the birdes wex, the male goeth and sucketh salte earth, and he giueth and putteth it in the mouth of the birdes to make them haue talent to meate.

And when the male will put the birds out of the neast, he treadeth them both.

Also Culuers haue this propertie, as Turtells haue: they areare or lyfte not vp their heads when they drinke, ere they haue dronke inough, and generally they liue and bréeds fiftéene yeares. Huc vsque Arist. But the properties of Cul∣uers, that are vsuall and notably know∣en, the Glose toucheth vppon this sen∣tence: Oculi tui Columbarum. Cant. 1. Where it is sayd, that a Culuer hath no gall, and hurteth, and woundeth not with the bill, but his owne pere. And moreo∣uer he maketh his neast in dennes and holes of stones, and féedeth others birds, and draweth to the companye of Cul∣uers that wander and straye about, and abideth nigh riuers, and eateth the best greynes, and hath groning in the stéede of song: they flye in flockes, and loue companye, and they defende themselues with the wings & with the bill: and they eate no carraines, nor other vncleane things. The Culuer feedeth two birds. The Culuer sitting on riuers, séeth the shadow of the Goshawke comming, and as seene as it séeth the Goshawke, it flyeth into the inner place of an hoale, and there hideth it selfe, as sayeth the Glose vpon the foresayd sentence. And as Constantine sayth in Viatico, The bloud of a Culuer is medicinable, for it is sayd, that the bloud drawen vnder the right wing, and dropped in hot, swa∣geth and slaketh the ach of bleared eyen: and hath burning dirt, and throweth it out of the neast, and custometh and tea∣cheth hir birdes likewise to cast it out, as Aristotle saith.* The Culuer is mes∣senger of peace, ensample of simplenes, cleane of kinde, plenteous in young, fol∣lower of méeknesse, friend of companye, forgetter of wrongs: and the more it is feathered, the more plentuous it is in kinde founde. Therefore rough soo∣ted Doues bréede well nigh in euerye month. The Culuer is kindly fearfull, & seldome in safetie, but when shée is in an hole of stone, and there she resteth for a time. The Culuer is forgetfull, & therefore when the birdes are borne a∣waye, she forgetteth hir harme and da∣mage, and leaueth not therefore to build and bréede in the same place, as Ierome sayth, Also she is nicely curious: for sit∣ting on a trée, she beholdeth and looketh all about toward what part she will fly, and bendeth hir necke all about, as it were taking aduisement: but oft, while she taketh aduisement of flight, ere she taketh hir flight, an arrowe flyeth tho∣rough hir body, and therefore she fayleth of hir purpose: for that that she was a∣bout long to doe, she performed not in due time, as Gregory sayth. Also as it is sayd In dietis perticularibus, Culuer flesh is hard to digest, and gleymie, and therefore it giueth great nourishing and thicke, & namely flesh of young Culuers. But when they begin to flye, because of mouing and of trauayle, it looseth much of that heauinesse, and the flesh is made more light and more able to digest: and the elder it is, ye harder it is, & the worse to digest, and the worse nourishing it gi∣ueth to bodies. Also sometime a same Culuour is found and faught to beguile and to despise wilde Culuours, & leadeth them into the net. And to deceiue them the more stilye, it goeth with them into the Fowlers net, & suffreth it selfe to be caught & wrapped therein, and draweth them toward meate, as it wer in liknes of friendship, but so in féeding, draweth them to grins and to their destruction. Also (as Ambrose sayth in Aegypt & in Syria, a Culuer is taught to beare let∣ters, and to be messenger out of one pro∣uince into another. For it loueth kindly the place and the dwelling, wher it was first fed and nourished, and be it neuer so farre borne into farre country, alway it will returne home againe, if it be re∣stored to fréedome: and oft to such a cul∣uer, a letter is craftely bound vnder the one wing, & then it is let go: then it fli∣eth vp into the aire, & ceaseth neuer till it come to ye first place in which it was Page  181 bred. And sometime in the way ene∣mies know thereof, and letteth it with an arrowe, and so for the letter that it beareth it is wounded and slaine, and so it beareth no letter without perill: for ofte the letter that is so borne, is cause and occasion of the death of it.

(*Of Doues likewise, there are di∣uers sortes, the Stock-doue or Wood∣coyst, the house Doue, and the Turtle doue: these are common. The flesh of these Doues are contrarye to those bo∣dies that are grieued with the goute, for that they cause ache of bones, heate of bloud, and ripen postumate humoures. The flesh splitted hot, and layd to anye part of the bodye, draweth the humour, where the Phisition will.)

¶Of a Curlewe. chap. 7.

CUrlewes are called Cotumices, and haue that name of the sownd of the voyce. And be certaine birdes, that the Gréekes call Ortigias, for they wer first séene in the lande that is called Ortigia, as Isidore saith. These birdes haue cer∣taine times of comming, and make and lead flockes, and they dread the Gosse∣hawke, and while they sée the Goshauk, they arise not from the earth: & therefore they be called Ortigometra. Also these birds haue guides and leaders as cranes haue: and for they dread the Goshauke, they are busie to comforte the lea∣ders, by the which leaders they be ware and warned of their perill and harme, that they be not taken with the Gosse∣hawke.* Onely those birdes haue ye fal∣ling euill, as as a man hath, and the spa∣rowes also. And they passe the Sea, and when they be wearie, they fall downe vpon the water, and rest vppon the one wing, and maketh his sayle of the other wing. His best meate, is venemous seede and graines, and for that cause in olde time men forbad eating of them.

And an hearbe that is called Eleborus, is Curlewes meate, and if another beast eateth it in great quantitie, it is peril∣lous and poyson: for beasts haue broad and wide veynes, by the which ye smoke passeth, and by strength of that hearbe, the heart is sodainly cooled and dead: and Curlewes haue straight veynes about the heart, and therfore venemous smoke hath no through passage, but he bideth in the stomacke, and is there defied & made subtill, and so it grieueth them not. And we call in common speach Coturnices crebros a veloci cursu, for swifte run∣ning, for he runneth vpon the earth most swiftly, And such birdes loue birdes of their owne kinde: and therefore euerie of them cry to other, and come together, as Ambrose saith.

(*Coturnix, is thought to féede on venemous séedes, and therefore not to be very wholsome.

¶Of a Storke. chap. 8.

A Storke is a water fowle, and purg∣eth hir selfe with his owne bill: For when she séeleth hir selfe griened with much meate, she taketh Sea water in hir bill, and putteth it in at hir har∣der hole, and so into hir guttes, and that water suitneth the hardnesse of ye meat, and biting the guts causeth them to put superfluities. Also this bird easeth egs of Adders and Serpentes, and beareth them for best meate to hir birdes, as I∣sidore saith. And this bird is called Si∣conia, as it were Sicannia, for he smiteth or flappeth with his bill, and maketh a noyse as it were with a Cane or a great Réeds, as he saith. Also he is messenger of springing time, and in hir comming, betokeneth noueltie of time, and is ene∣mie to Adders and Serpents, and beat∣eth and slayeth them with hir bill, and sometime swalloweth and deuoureth them, and haunteth and loueth company of men, and therefore they make theyr neasts on houses that men dwell in, & they leane not lightly their first neaste, except they be compelled. But ere they go into other countries against Winter, they fill their neasts with earth, & draw the twigges and thornes of their neasts with fenne, that no tempest of winde should breake it nor throw it downe in Winter, and in hir comming againe in springing time, she occupieth the same place, and defendeth the neast from other that would occupy it: while the female liueth the male accompanieth not with 〈1 page duplicate〉Page  [unnumbered] another with seruice of Venus, but kée∣peth truely to hir in neast and in office of generation. And if the male espieth in any wise, yt the female hath broke spouse∣hood, she shall no more dwell with him, but he beateth and striketh hir with his bill, and slaieth hir if he may, as Aristo. saith. The male treadeth not the female but in the neast: and in sitting on brood, the male and the female chaunge times, and loue their birds, & kéepe them with right great affection, and for busie sitting vppon them, their fethers fall, and when the male trauayleth about meate, the fe∣male sitteth in the neast, and againward. And when the male commeth home, the female flyeth out for meate, and then the male sitteth on the neast, as Ambrose saieth. Storkes flye ouer the Sea, in flockes, and flye together into hot coun∣tries, and in their passing, Crowes flye with them, & passe before them, as it wer leading the Storkes, and withstand with all their might, fowles yt hate Storkes, as it is sayd in Exameron. And though storkes eate venemous beasts, as frogs, Adders and serpents, and other such, yet neuerthelesse the venime ouercommeth not, neither chaungeth their kinde, but is to them féeding and nourishing, that is venimous to men and to other beasts: for by vertue of heate, that hath mastrie within them, the mallice of venime is quenched. Also when their birdes are haught, they haue féete, legges, and bills full blacke, as Swans haue, but ye black∣nesse passeth away lyttle and lyttle. And the more olde they were, the more redde they haue legs, féete & bills.

(*A Storke is in shape like vnto the Heron, but more biggeriall white sauing the top of his wings: his bill and legs red. Naturally he is enimie to ye serpents and killeth them: when they be olde, their young féedeth them, and prouideth meate for them. These bréed in Germa∣ny, on the house tops, & as it is said, of e∣uery third brood, they put forth one yoūg, to the honour of the houses, whereon they bréede.)

¶Of the Crow. cap. 9.

THe Crow is a bird of long lyfe, and is called Cornix among latines, that is a name of Gréeke. And Diuinoures tell, that she taketh héede of spiengs and awaitings, and teacheth and showeth wayes, and warneth what shall fall. But it is full vnlawfull to beléeue, that God sheweth his priuie counsaile to Crowes, as Isidore saith. Among manye diuina∣tions, diuinors meane, that Crowes be∣token rayne with greding and crieng, Corax, Corax, as this vearse meaneth.

Nunc plena Cornix plumam vocat improba voce.

That is to vnderstande, Nowe the Crowe calleth rayne with an eleinge voyce, and is a iangling bird & vnmilde, and grieuous to men there they dwell, as he sayth, and eateth vncleane meates and venomous, and lyueth right long.

In age their fethers wexe white. But in flesh within, the longer they liue, the more blacke they be, and hateth the fore ouer all other beasts, and fighteth against the Sparhawke, and against the Gosse∣hawke, as Isidore saith. And is busie and gréedy, and contrary to the Eagle, & other birds of pray, and for she dreadeth to touch the Eagle, with crieng she pur∣sueth the Eagle. But she hath not alway profit of hir gréedinesse: for somtime, af∣ter that the Eagle hath made as though he gaue no force, sodainly he smiteth the Crow with his bill or slayeth hir, when she commeth néerer the Eagle than shée shuld. In Exameron it is said of ye crow that Crowes rule & lead storkes, & come about them as it were in routs, & flye a∣bout the Storkes, & defend them, & fight against other birds and fowles that hate storkes, & take vppon them the battell of other birds, vpon their owns perill. And an open proofe therof is for in that time ye storkes passe but of ye country, crowes be not séene in places, thers they were wont to be, & also for they come againe with soe wounds, & with voice of blood, that is wel knowen, & with other signes & tokēs, & shew yt they haue ben in strōg fighting. Also there it is said, yt the mild∣nes of the bird is wonderfull: for when the old crowes in age be both naked and bare of couering of fethers, then ye young nowes hide & couer them with their fe∣thers, and gather meate and féede them.

Page  182And sometime when they were olde and féeble: then the young Crowes vn∣derset them, and reare them vp with their wings, and comfort them to vse to flie, to bring the members that be disea∣sed into state againe.

Of the Rauen. Chap. 10.

THe Rauen is called Coruus of Co∣rax also, and hath that name of the sowne of the throte, as Isido. sayth. The Rauen beholdeth the mouth of hir birds, when they yane. But she giueth them no meate ere she know and sée the like∣nesse of hir owne blacknesse, and of hir owne colour and fethers. And when they begin to wexe blacke, then afterward she feedeth them wt all hir might & strength, as Isidore saith. It is sayd that rauens birdes be fed with deaw of heauen all the time that they haue no blacke fea∣thers by benefite of age: for all ye time they be not fed with their vsuall meate, which is carren or other stinking things, but with benefit of the deaw of heuen, as Austen saith. And ye rauens in dead carrens, goe into the priuie places with in as Isid. saith, and is a crieng fowle, and hath diuers sowne and voice: for a∣mong fowles, onely the Rauen hath 64. changings of voyce, as Fulgentius saith: and is guilefull bird, and taketh away things thee••shly, and layeth and hydeth them in priuie places. Also he is an vn∣cleane bird, and sitteth vpon carrens, and asketh and taketh meate of venemous and vncleane things, and as Diuinours meane, the Rauen hath a manner vertue of meaning and betokening of diuinati∣on. And therefore, among Nations, the Rauen among foules was hallowed to Appollo, as Marcius saith. Aristotle li. 6. speaking of the Rauen saith, that one∣ly the female sitteth on broode twentye dayes on the egges, and the male bring∣eth to hir meate, and they haue manie byrdes, and sitteth on broode twentye dayes, and for they be many, they throw away some of their birds: For fowles, which haue many birds throwe awaye some of them.

Also li. 8. he sayth, that the blacke ra∣uen fighteth with the Asse and with the Bul, and flieth vpon them, and grieueth them, and smiteth with the bill, and smiteth out theyr eyen.

Also there it is sayd, that the blacke Rauen is friend to the Foxe: and ther∣fore he fighteth with the Brocke or Badger, and with other small beastes, to helpe the Foxe.

Also ther it is sayd, that rauens fight stronglye, and smite together with theyr weapons, that he bills, clees and wings: and be that is ouercome, is obedient to the Conquerour. Huc vs{que} Aristot.

Also onely the Rauen layeth egges, and bréedeth in the middle heate of sum∣mer against kind of other fowles. Ther of it is sayd, that the rauen laieth egges, and bréedeth in the middle heate of the summer, nigh to ripe fruite.

¶Of the Swanne. chap. 11.

THe Swan is called Cignus in latin, & Olor in Gréeke, for he is all white in feathers: for no man findeth a black Swan. Olor is Gréeke, and is to vnder∣stand white, as Isid. saith. The Swan is called Cignus, and hath that name of Canendo, singing. For he faineth swéet∣nes of swéet songs, with accord of voice, and he singeth swéetly, for he hath a long neck diuersly bent to make diuers notes. And it is sayd, that in the countries that be called Hiperbores, that the harpers harping before, the Swans birdes flye out of their neasts, and sing full merely, as Isidore saith. And as Marcius and Ambrose say, shipmen trowe, that it be∣tokeneth good, if they méete Swans in perill of shipwracke. Alway the Swan is the most meriest bird in diuinations: shipmen desire this bird, for he doppeth not downe in the waues, and therefore he was hallowed to Apollo as Marcius sayth: and his most strength is in the wings. When the Swan is in loue,* hée seeketh the female, and pleaseth hir with beclipping of the necke, and draweth hir to him ward: and he ioyneth his neck, to the females necke, as it were binding the neckes together. And after the trea∣ding, the female smileth the male, and fli∣eth him, and the male batheth him ofte after the treding, and so doth the female also, ere she take any meate.

Page  [unnumbered]And when she shall dye, and that a fea∣ther is pight on the brayne, then she sin∣geth: & against the vsage of other beasts in stéede of groning, the Swan singeth, as Ambrose saith.

The Swan hath most white fethers without any mingling of blacknesse or other colour, and hath blacke flesh, and hard to be digested, and hath a bill with a manner bounching, that distinguisheth the sight from the smell and tast, and the bill is full blacke within, and inwarde full thicke.

The Swan putteth downe his head into the water, and séeketh his meate, & cutteth it: and though he be nourished among fish, yet he eateth them not. Also if bread or other meate be throwen to him, he withdraweth and giueth place to fish that followeth him, and séeketh and gathereth his meale of hearbes, grasse, & rootes. And he hath blacke feete and close, and hole & broad, & full able to swim: and in swimming he vseth that one foote, in stéede of an oare, and the other foote in steede of a stirrer, and ruleth himselfe therewith, and dwelleth in lakes and in pondes, and maketh his neast nigh wa∣ters, where vpon fewe stickes throwen togethers, the Swan sitteth on broode, & bringeth forth birdes, and féedeth them busily, and bringeth them vp, and coue∣reth and defendeth them with winges, bill, and hissing. And if any man come toward the Signets, the Swan putteth hir selfe among the birdes, and prepa∣reth to make resistaunce, and ceaseth not to defend hir birdes, and is a birde of great wayght and heauinesse, and of much flesh in bodie: and therefore shée loueth rest, and flyeth but seldome.

But wilde Swans flye with strong flight, with their neckes strayght for∣warde, and féete straight backwarde: But they are not so great of bodye, nor so fat as tame Swans that be nourish∣ed and fed nigh places thereas men in∣habite in, as Marcius saith.

¶Of a Gnat. Chap. 12.

A Gnat is a little flie, and is called Culex, and hath that name of Acu∣leo, a sting: for he sucketh bloud, & hath in his mouth, a pipe like a prick, & there∣with he pearceth the flesh for to suck the bloud, and is accounted among Volati∣les, as the Bee is, though he haue a body of a worme, with many feete: For hee hath wings and flyeth therewith, and is gendred of rotted or corrupt vapours of carrens, and corrupt place of marreyes. By continual flapping of wings, he ma∣keth noyse in the aire, as though he hur∣red: and sitteth gladly vpon carraines, botches, scabbes, and sores: and is full noyfull to scabbed Horses, and sore backed, and grieueth sléeping men with noyse and with biting, and waketh them of their rest, and flyeth about most by night, and pearceth and bileth members vpon the which he sitteth, and draweth toward lyght, and gladly he seeth lyght, and so vnwarely he falleth into a Can∣dle or into the fire, and for coueting to sée lyght, he burneth himselfe ofte. And is best féeding to swallowes, for Gnats be taken for best beloued meate to swa∣lowes that flye in the aire, & hunt flies. And they are called Sciniphes, that is to vnderstand small flies, but most noyfull in stings: for Scines in Gréeke, is Mus∣ca in Latine, a flye in English: and ther∣of commeth Scinomia, a houndes flye, & with such flies the land of Aegypt was smitten, as Isidore sayth. And Scinomia is the worst kinde of flyes, with greater bodye and broader wombes, than other flyes, and lesse flight: but they be full tender, and cleaue fast in the members of beasts, on the which they smite. In wooll, haire, and bristles of beasts, and namely in hounds, such a flye hideth hir selfe, and sucketh and drinketh bloud: in∣somuch that she gnaweth the flesh, and maketh it swell with botches and pim∣ples, as it fareth in eares of old hounds, the which eares such flyes gnawe and make them swell and full of sores. And so it is no wonder though such Flyes stinke right foule, that are fedde with such corrupt meates and humours.

Page  183

¶Of Cicada. chap. 13.

THere is a manner Grassehopper, that is called Cicada, and hath that name of Canendo, singing: For with a full little throte, he maketh right swéet me∣lodie, or shapeth a wonderfull song, as it is said in Exameron.

*It is falsely applied, for the Grasse∣hopper maketh a chirring noyse, with quicke moouing of his hinder long thighes, against the scale of his side, like as the edge of a knife against a glasse being drawen too and fro, maketh an noise, that setteth teeth on edge. I haue diligently tried the same, so that Bar∣tholome was heerin deceiued, for want of experience.

This Cicada in the middle heate at midday, when trées breake with heate, then the more cléere aire she draweth, the more cléerely she singeth. Also if a man poure oyle vpon this Cicada, he dyeth a∣none. For the poores be stopped, that they may not draw breath, but if men forth∣with poure vpon them vineger, anone they be reléeued, for the strength of vi∣neger openeth holes & poores that were stopped by binding of oyle, as Ambrose saith.

*The kinde of the Grashopper is to consume all greene things, and is one of Gods plagues for sinne.

Of the Phenix. Chap. 14.

PHenix is a bird, and there is but one of that kinde in all the wide worlde, therfore ignorant men wonder therof: & among ye Arabians, there this bird Phe∣nix is bred. He is called Singularis, a∣lone, as Isid. saith. The philosopher spe∣keth of this bird and saith, that Phenix is a bird without Make, & liueth iii hun∣dred, or v. hundred yeares: when ye which yeares be passed, she féeleth hir owne de∣fault and féeblenesse, and maketh a nest of right swéete smelling stickes, that be full daye, and in Summer when ye west∣erne winde bloweth, the stickes and she neast be set on fire with burning heate of the Sun, and burneth strongly, then this bird Phenix commeth wilfully in∣to the burning neast, and is there burnt to ashes, among these burning stickes, and within three daies a litle worme is gendered of the ashes, and waxeth little and litle, and taketh feathers, and is sha∣pen and turned to a bird.

Ambrose saith the same in Exameron, of the humor or ashes of Phoenix ariseth a new bird & waxeth, & in space of time he is clothed with fethers & wings, & re∣stored into the kinde of a bird, and is the most fairest bird that is, most like to the Pecocke in feathers, & loueth wildernes, and gathereth his meate of cleane grains and fruits.

Alanus speaketh of this bird & saith, that when the highest Bishoppe Onias had builded a temple in the citie of Heliopo∣ly in Aegypt, to the likenes of ye temple of Hierusalem, and the first daye of Ea∣ster, when he had gathered much swéete smelling woode, and set it on fire vppon the Alter to offer sacrifice: to all mens sight, such a birde came sodeinly, and fell into the middle of the fire, and was burnt anone to ashes, in the fire of the sacrifice: and the ashes abode there, and was busi∣ly kept and saued by the commandement of the Priest: and within thrée daies, of these ashes was bred a little worme, that tooke the shape of a bird at the last, and flew into wildernesse.

Of the Crane. chap. 15.

A Crane is called Grus, and hath that name of her owne voice. For she cry∣eth with such a voice, as Isid. saith. And is a bird of grease winges, and of strong flight, and flieth high into the aire to see the countryes, toward the which he will drawe, as it is saide in Exameron: and is a bird that loueth birds of his own kind, & they liuing in company together, haue a king among them, & flie in order, ruled as Ambrose saith. And the leader of the company compelleth the company to flie aright, crieng, as it were blaming with his voice. And if it hap yt he waxe hoarse, then another crane commeth after him, and taketh the same office: and after they fall to the earth, cryeng for to rest: and when they sit on the grounde, to keepe and saue them, they ordein watches that they may rest the more surely: and the wakers stand vpon one foote, and each of Page  [unnumbered] them holdeth a little stone in the other foote, high from the earth, that they may be waked by falling of the stone, if it hap that they sleepe, as Aristotle saith.

Also in youth cranes be coloured like ashes, but the longer they liue, the blac∣ker they be. And if anye of them goe a∣misse out of the company, they crye and seeke their fellowes that be lost.

Also Cranes when they knowe that the Fawcon or ye Goshawke commeth, they turne vpward their bils, and defend themselues as well as they may, with sharpnesse of bills.

(*The Crane is of an Indie colour, with a redde plat on his head: but the Cranes of the East Indias, are white bodied, red headed and some greenish.

Sebastian Munster writeth yt the cranes fight with the Samoyes a shorte dwarffe like people, &c.

¶Of the Cocke. chap. 16.

A Cocke is called Gallos, and hath that name of gelding, for among fowles onely the Cocke is gelded, & men in old time called them Gallos, that were ker∣ned, as Isidore saith.

Plinius li. 29. cap. 4. speaketh of the Cocke and sayth, that Cocks flesh raw, and layde hot vpon the biting of a Ser∣pent, doth awaye the venime, and to the same his braine is good, taken in drink. And if a man be noynted wt his great, or with his iuyce, he shall be sure from Panthers and Lyons. And if the bones of a Cock or of an Hen, be medled with gold when it is molte, they destroy and wast the golde, and so Henne boanes be venemous to golde, and that is won∣der. Also the Cocke is hot and drye of complection: & therefore he is full bolde and hardie, and so fighteth boldly for his hens against his aduersaries, and assay∣leth and reeseth on them, and teareth and woundeth them with his bill, and with his spores, and when he hath the mastry he croweth presently, and ere he croweth he beateth himselfe with his wings to make him the more able to sing. And he vseth late in the night to crowe most cléerely and strongly, and about the mor∣row tide, he shapeth tight voice & song, as Ambrose saith.

The Cocke beareth a redde combe on his head, in steede of a crowne, which béeing left, he looseth his hardinesse, and is more slowe and cowardlye to assayle his aduersary. And he loueth ieolouslye his hennes: and when he findeth meate, he calleth his Hennes, together with a certaine voyce, and spareth his owne meate to féede them therewith: and he setteth next to him on the rooste, the hen that is most fat and tender, and leueth hir best, & desireth most to haue hir pre∣sence. In the morrow tide when he fly∣eth to get his meate, first he layeth his side to hir side, and by certayne tokens and beckes, as it were long aches, he wooeth and prayeth hir to treading.

And he fighteth for hir speciallye, as though he were iealous, and with bill and spores he chaseth and driueth away from him other Cockes, that come nigh his hennes. And in fighting he smiteth the ground with his bill, and reareth vp the feathers about his necke, so make him the more bold & hardy, and mooueth the feathers of his tayle vpwarde and downward, that he maye so the more ably come to the battaile. And he bree∣deth a precious stone called Aflecte••, like to the stone that is named Cal∣ceduneus,* & the Cock beareth that stone, and because of that stone (as some men trow) the Lion dreadeth and abhorreth, & specially if the Cocke be white: for the Lyon dreadeth the white Cocke, as Pli∣nius sayth.

The Cocke hée searcheth his meate with his bill and feete, and setayeth and ouertourneth strawe and duste. And when hée findeth a grayne, hée calleth, and cackeleth to him his Hens.

Also the Cocke dreadeth the Eagle and the Gossehawke, which take theyr pray on the ground. For such sowles of pray, spye and wayte for Birds which goe on the grounde. And the Cocke is right sharpe of sight, and therefore he looketh downwarde with the one eye to search his meate, an vpwarde into the ayre with the other eye, that he might beware of the comming of the Page  184 Eagle, and of the Goshauke. And if be set one of them come a farre, anon he crieth to the hens, and flieth away, and hideth himselfe in houses among stones, or in hedges, as he saith.

Also a right aged Cocke laieth egges, in his last ende, and the Egges are small and full round, and as they were wanne or yeolow. And if any venimous worme sitteth on brood on them in the canicular daies, of them bée bred and growe Coc∣katrices, as Beda sayth. Constantine speaketh of Cocks, and saith, that young Cockes be more harde to defie, and lesse moyst then Hennes. Also the flesh of Cockes is some deale euill sauoures, but that sauour wasteth away when it is sod. And if the guts of an old Cocke be thro∣wen away, and the Cocke stopped full of gardeine Saffron, and of Polipodie, and sodde in fiue pound of water till the water he nigh all wasted,* this Cocke is most profitable to them that haue the euil, which is called Cholera passi••. For it purgeth gleamie & flumatike humour, & helpeth them that he melancholy: and putteth out great ventosity of ye stomack, and abateth ach and sore, and helpeth swelling and ach of the wosen, and hel∣peth against the long during of feauer Etike, as hée sayth.

Of the Capon. Chap. 17.

THe Capon is of a cocke, made as it were female by caruing away of his gendering stones, & is all changed in cō∣plection, as other beasts that be gelded, & looseth his boldnesse, & his voice and song, and knoweth no difference betwéene the houres of the night, nor beateth himselfe with his wings, nor araieth himselfe in fighting, but he sitteth on broode vppon Egges that be not his owne, as it were an henne, and taketh vppon him the of∣fice of a female, and feedeth chickins that bée not his owne, and leadeth them a∣bout, and clocketh as an hen, and calleth chickins together, clocking wt an hoarce voice, and accompanyeth with hennes, and eateth with them of their meate, but he feedeth them not, he is fasted with them, but he fatteth not them. And the Capon is more coward of heart then the Cocke, and more moist of flesh, and more soft of feathers, & somtime his feet be bro∣ken to compell him to sit on broad vpon egges, his spurs either be made blunt, or else they fall. When he is fat, his féet be bound togethers, and his head hangeth downe toward the ground; and is borne by the feet to faires and to markets. But Constantine speaketh of a gelded Cocke and saith, that the flesh of grided Cockes is more couenable then the fleshe of other fowles, and bréedeth more noble nourishing and better bloud: And theyr braine is better, and more profitable then the braine of other foules.

Of an Henne. chap. 18.

THe henne is called Gallina, and hath that name of Gallo, the cocke, as the Lyonnesse hath the name of the Lyon. And as some mē meane, if her members were medled with gold when it is molt, the gold should wast, as Isidore sayeth. The Henne is a soule of great laieng and bréeding, and layeth many egges with∣out treading as Aristotle sayth, libro. 5. And they bee called winde Egges, and bée more vnsauourye and lesse worthye then other Egges. And some hens haue alway twins, two chickens in one shell. And one of the twins is little, and some∣time wonderfullye shapen. After that they sit on broode three daies, anone to∣kens and signes of Chickens bée seene: And the Chicken is bread of the white, and nourished with the yolke, as hee saith.

Also hens that laie too much be not of long lyfe, but they die soone, as it is sayd lib. 6. Other properties of hens that bée known nigh to all men, be touched in the Glose super. Mat. 18. There it is sayd yt a hen is a mild bird about chickens: for she couereth chickens vnder her wings, and defendeth them against the Kite, and taketh sicknesse for sorrowe of her chic∣kens, and looseth her feathers, and féedeth her chickens more then her selfe. And when shée findeth meate, shee clocketh and calleth her chickens together, and to defend her chickens, shée putteth her Page  [unnumbered] selues against a stronger then hir selfe. And also shée fighteth with a man for defence of ye Chickins. When the chic∣kins bée dispearpled, shée clocketh and calleth them together, and ••nereth them wider her wing. And defendeth them, that they bée not taken with Hawke, nor with Kite, and her kindlye loue a∣bout her Chickinnes is knowen by roughnesse of feathers, and by hoarsnesse of voice.

Of the Gripe. chap. 19.

A Gripe is called Griphes, and is ac∣counted among Volatiles Deutrono∣mi. 14. And there the Glose sayth, That the Gripe is foure footed, and lyke to the Eagle in head and in wings. And is like to the Lion in the other part of the body, and dwelleth in those hilles that be cal∣led Hiperborei, and bée most enimies to horses and men, & gréeueth them most, & layeth in his neast a stone that is cal∣led Smaragdus, against venimous beasts of the mountaine.

(*Of this kind of straeing beast, ma∣ny bée in doubt whether there bee any of them in the worlde, notwithstanding it séemeth by credible writers that ther are diuerse, especially among the Hiperbo∣rie, people dwelling in the furthest parte of the North, and as some suppose vnder the North pole, called Polus Articus. Pomponeus Mela writeth, that the coū∣trie is but little, hauing the Sunne ouer them, and is fertill of it selfe, the people very iust, liuing longer and more plea∣sauntly then other men, alwaye without businesse and labour, (knowing neyther warre nor debate) (as Mela and Soli∣nus write) making good chéere with their neighbours. And hauing grlondes on theyr heads, they throw themselues from a certaine rocke into the Sea, estéeming that to bée the best death, and forme of burieng: The Gripes are of coulour of a dark Oker on the bae, their breast of purple coulour, their wings browne and white, their talents blacke, and the beak turning, as doth the Eagles, be is more higher then the Lion, the hinder féet clo∣uen, as the Stagge, able to carrie awaye the waight of two men, a stagge, or the like beast.

Of the Fawlcon. chap. 20.

THe Faulcon is called Herodius, and is a royall fowle, and desireth praye, and vseth to sit on his hand that beareth him, and is a bolde birde and an hardye, as is the Gosehauke: and hath little flesh in comparison to his bodye, and hath many feathers: and therefore he is more lyght to flye. For in him is little thing that beareth downewarde, and much that beareth vpward, as Gregory sayth. And therefore he is right lyke to the E∣stridge in boldnesse and strength: and also much like thereto in diuers feathers and coulours. The Faulcon is full bolde and hardy, with most sharpest breast, & with strong clawes, & hurteth more his pray with rising theron with his breast, then with his bill, or with his clawes. And is so greate hearted, that if he fayle of his pray in the first flyght and réefe, in the second he taketh wreake on himselfe. And so if he be wilde, vnneth that day he seeketh praye. And if hee be tame, as it were for shame he flyeth aboute in the ayre, and then vnneth he commeth to his Lordes handes. For he holdeth himselfe ouercome, & as it were put out of kind, if he taketh not the foule that he flyeth to, as Gregorie saith.

This foule or bird is commonly cal∣led Falco, and Fulica also, as the Glose sayth Super Spalmum. And among all Birdes and Fowles, these Fowles haue little affection, and take little héede of their Birdes, as it is said in Exameron. With the same office of businesse, that he feedeth his owne birds, with such seruice he taketh and féedeth the birds that the Eagle throweth out of her neast, and is vnknowne to him. He flyeth and voideth carrion, and toucheth not stinking flesh, not in strong hunger: But he may well awaye with trauaile, and absteineth and abideth till he maye finde couenable praye, which he séeketh, as Gregorye saith.

(*Hawkes of pray are the onely pa∣stime of Princes: and next for idle per∣sons, Page  185 that set more by an inch of pleasure thē an ell of thrift, who bestow in Hauks & hounds, more then would suffice twice as many poore men: for sometime the taking of some one pray of .vi. d. ye charge of so much wonne, stands them in twen∣tie markes, which is according to the olde Prouerbe, What is a Gentleman but his pleasure: but who is more gen∣tle, he that fauoureth the poore to the pro∣fit of a common wealth, or he that lasci∣uiously spendeth more in one yéere then his parents got in .20. I referre to the prudent.)

Of the Swallow. chap. 21.

A Swallow is called Hirundo, as it were Arundo ab aere, and hath that name of the ayre, for hée taketh not his meate sitting, but flyeng in the ayre, as Isidore saith. And is a crieng fowle, and flyeth not euen but hether and thether, and sometime about, and is busie in making neastes, and in feeding of birds. And he saith also, in making of neasts, the Swallow is most cunning. For vnneth mans wit were sufficient to make of a∣ny matter, the worke that the Swallow maketh and shapeth of claye onely with her bill.

Moreouer, the Swallowe is full of feathers, and lyghtest and most swiftest in flight of Foules: and therefore other fowles réeseth nor distroubleth not the Swallow, neither the Swallow is pray to other Birdes. And flieth ouer the sea into hot countryes, in which Countryes he abideth in Winter, as men suppose. And also they kéepe certain times of their comming and going. Their againe com∣ming is token of springing time, and witnesse of the faire Summer, & resplen∣dishing weather, as Ambrose saith libro sexto.

Aristotle sayth, speaking of the swal∣lowe. li. 6. That a wilde fowle treadeth not nor laieth egges but once a yeare, ex∣cept the Swallowe which layeth egges twice a yere, but somtime the first egges be broke by coldnesse of Winter, and the latter egges be complete and bring forth birds.

Also there it is sayd, that birdes that eate flesh, lay not egges twice a yeere, ex∣cept the Swallowe, that hath sometime Birdes twice a yeare. Also there it is sayd, yt if a man put out the young swal∣lowes eien, yet their eien come agayne, for shee fetcheth an hearbe that is called Celidonia, and baumeth the eien of her birds with the iuyce thereof, and so their eien be restored to them againe. as Ma∣cro. saith.

I once proued this,*but it toke not that effect, yet founde I stones of straunge coulours.

Also in the Swallows wombe be two stones sound, of the which one is whi∣tish, and is called the Female, and the other is red, and is called the Male. For hée is more vertuous then the white. These stones bée called Celidonij, and bée precious stones, namelye when they be taken out of the birds ere they touch the ground, as it is sayde in Lapidae: there their vertues be described, as Con∣stanine saith Bloud drawen out vnder the right wing is medicinable to eyen, as bloud of a Doue is. Their durt is full hot and full gnawing: and there∣fore it gréeueth eien. And the Swallowe techeth her birds to throw durt out of ye neast. And there be two manner of swal∣lowes, some are great of body, and haue blacke ridges and red breasts, and white wombes: and these loue mens compa∣nye, and make neasts in mens houses. The other bée lesse of bodye, and haue blacke breasts, and make their neasts in holes and chins of roches and of rockes, fast by waters. But both kindes make their neasts is earth or in clay, and both theyr tayles bée forked as a payre of shéeres.

These are called Martines,*and are good to eate.

Also it is saide, that among Swal∣lowes is one manner kinde, and other Fowles dread that kinde, yea, ye Eagle & the Goshauke dread and flie ye swallow, as it were their enimie, and dare not fall on their pray, while they sée ye swallow, for they dreade the biting of her. For peraduenture it is venimous, as Plinius sayth. And Swallowes fight agaynst Page  [unnumbered] Sparrowes, and come into their neasts, and driue them out with biting & scrat∣ching.

(*This is called the sea Swallowe, that is as big bodied as a Thrush, and very short legged, and of a meruailous swiftnesse, all blacke sauing th•• toward the legges is gray.

Of Kaladrius. chap. 22.

AS the Philosopher saith, the Birde that is called Kaladrius, is white of coulour, and hath no parte of blacknesse. And the neather part of his leg cleanseth and purgeth dimnesse of the eyen. His kinde is such, when a man is helde in great sicknesse, this birde Kaladrius tur∣neth away his face from him that is sick, & then without doubt the man shall die. And if the sicke man shal escape, the bird Kaladrius setteth his sight on him, & be∣holdeth him, as it were fauning and plea∣sing: and this bird is other then the bird that is called Calandra, that singeth as a Thrustle, as the Glose saith, Deut. 14. There it is said, that Calaudreon is ano∣ther then Calundre, &c.

(*Gesner sayth, that Calandra, is a small Bird like the Larke, and is suppo∣sed to be the woode Larke, after Doctor Turnar, as for his singing at anye mans féete lyeng sick, if he be to be made tame, may héereafter be better knowne.

Of Larus. cap. 23.

THE bird that is called Larus inha∣biteth somtime in waters and som∣time in the land. Therfore in Aurora it is written.

Latus est fluminis habitator et incola terrae,
Nunc natat vt pisces, nunc volat inslar auis.

That is to vnderstand: Larus dwel∣leth both in riuers and lande, and swim∣meth as a Fishe, and also flyeth as a Bird.

*This is taken for the Sea cobbe, & all other birdes of that kinde. Gesner.

Of Locusta. chap. 24.

LOcusta hath that name, for it hath long legges, as the shaft of a Speare. Therefore the Gréekes call her Hasta∣gion, as Isidore sayth. And these wormes that be called Locust haue no king: and yet they passe forth ordinatly in compa∣nyes, as it is sayde Prouerbiorum. 30. They eate each other, for the more eat∣eth the lesse, and bée séene in Summer, & hidde in winter. And their hinder legs be longer then their fore legs, as the Glose sayth super. 1 Ioel. And first when hée is young, hée is Athalabus, and afterwarde when the wings bée growen he is made Locusta. And gréeueth more in youth while he is Athelabus, then in age when he is Locusta. And hath a square mouth, and a sting in stéede of a taile, and croo∣ked, and solding legges. And they eate burgenings of trées and of hearbes, and gnawe them, and are gendered of the Southerne winde, and excited to flight, and they die in the Northerne wind. And in leaping they areare themselues, and in rearing they fall, & are fatted with flow∣ers of Almons.

Also this worme Locusta for the most part is all wombe: and therefore it hath neuer meate inough. And hath but one gut, and that is alwaye full of filth, and of vncleannesse: but alway he is hungred while he liueth: and if he findeth anye thing gréene, he gnaweth & cesaeth not. With little colde he falleth as he were dead. But he quickeneth againe with heate of ye Sun: and their dirt wormes be gendered.

(*This straunge kinde of Flie hath long hinder legges, as the Grashopper, he burneth corne with touching, and de∣uoureth the residue. In India be of them thrée foote in length, which the people of the country doe eate. D. Cooper.

Of the Coote. Chap. 25.

THE Coote is called Mergulus, & hath that name of oft dopping and plun∣ging. For by oft putting downe his head into the water, and dopping there vnder, hee sheweth signes and tokens of wea∣thers: and before the comming of tem∣pests of the Sea, he flyeth crieng to the shoare. For it betokeneth most certeinly full strong tempest in the Sea, if Cootes Page  186 flie crieng to the shore, as Isidore sayth. The Coot maketh her neast close by the root of reeds vpon few stickes, & féedeth & nourisheth her birds with wonderfull af∣fection and loue of kinde: And anone as they be hatcht, they follow the dam, and dread not to flie vp and down on diuers waues of the sea, & they hunt and gather water wormes, & fish to fill their wombs with. In winter for scarcitie of mouing, they be fat: & in Summer for fréedome of flight they be poore of flesh and in fat∣nesse. And when they be pursued with rauishing birds, then they flie to water, & be deliuered by manner of plunging and of diuing.

*The Coote is blacke, his legges grey, and his flesh grose.

Of the Kite. cap. 26.

A Kite is weake in flight & in strēgth, Therefore he is called Miluus quasi, molliter volans, as it wer weakly flieng: For he is borne vp aboue the aire with light feathers, & hooueth there as he were vnmouable. And in flieng it séemeth vn∣neth that he moueth the aire with softe touching. And is a bird that may well a∣way with trauaile, & therefore he taketh Cuckoes vpon his shoulders, & beareth them, least they faile in space of long wayes, and bringeth them out of ye coun∣tries of Spaine,* as Isid. saith. And he is a rauishing foule, and hardy among small birds, & a coward & fearefull among great birdes, and dreadeth to lie in waite to take wilde birdes, and dreadeth not to lye in waite to take tame birdes, and ly∣eth oft in waite to take chickins, & them that he findeth vnware, he saieth, and he eateth carrions and vncleane things, & for little meate to fill tho wombs, he fle∣eth all about the ayre: and is taken with the Sparhauke, and for his faintnesse and towardnesse hée is ouercome of a Birde that is lesse then he. And in youth there seemeth no difference betwéene the kite & other birdes of praye, but the longer hée liueth the more he sheweth that his own kinde is vnkinde. And there is a manner kite that taketh birds in the beginning, and afterward he eateth guts of beasts, and taketh vnneth afterward-flyes,* and small wormes, as Aristotle saith. And he dieth for hunger at the last, and is a cruell fowle about his birds, and is sorry when he séeth thē fat. And to make thē leane, he beateth them with his bill, and withdraweth their meate, & hath a voice of plaining, and of moane, as it were messenger of hunger. For when hée hungereth, hée seeketh his meate wée∣ping with voyce of plaining and of moane.

Of the night crowe. cap. 27.

THE night crowe is called Nictico∣rax, and hath that name, for he lo∣ueth the night, and flyeth and seeketh his meale by night, and crieth in seeking: and their crye is hatefull and odious to other birdes, as Isidore sayth. And is a Birde that flyeth the lyght, and maye not sée the Sunne, and haunteth & dwel∣leth in burials and in places of dead men: and they make their neasts in walls and in places with chinnes and hoales, and eate the Egges of Doues and Choughs, and fight with them. Also this Birde is called Noctua, as it were sharply séeing by night: for by night she maye sée, and when shining of the Sunne commeth, her sight is dim. The Iland Creta hath not this Birde, if hée commeth thether out of other lands, he dyeth anon as Isi∣dore saith.

(*This kinde of Owle is dogge foo∣ted, and couered with haire, his eyes are as the glistering Ise, against death hée vseth a straunge whoup.

There is another kinde of night ra∣uen blacke, of the bignesse of a Doue, flat headed, out of the which groweth three long feathers like the coppe of a Lap∣wing, his bill gray, vsing a sharpe voice, whose vnaccustomed appearaunce, beto∣keneth mortalitye: he prayeth on Mice, Wéesells, and such like.)

Of the Miredromble. Chap. 28.

THE Miredromble is called Onacro∣calus, and is a bird that maketh noyse Page  [unnumbered] in the Winter, and hath small chins in his iawes, in which hée taketh first meate, and then sendeth it to the second wombe: For he hath two wombes, in that one onelye hée taketh meate, and in that other onely he séetheth and defieth. But the first is taken in stéed of the crop of the throat, as Isidore saith. In Gréeke Onacrocalus is called a Birde with a long bill: and there be of two manner kindes: One is a water foule, & that other a foule of desart, and he that dwelleth in Water, is a bird of great gluttonye, and putteth the bill downe into the water, and maketh a greate noise, and is eni∣mie namely to Eeles, & the pray that hée taketh, he swalloweth sodeinly, & sēdeth it into his wombe. And then he cheweth and moueth his iawes, as he held meate in his mouth. This Bird resteth on the cliffe, and turneth vpward his bellye to saue himself against the réese of the Gos∣hauke, that he maye in that manner the more safelye rest and sléepe, as Isidore sayth.

(*Of these kindes of Cormorants are diuerse, whereof the one called Ono∣crotalus, is as bigge as a Swan, which putting his head into the water, brayeth like an Asse. Of water Fowles, there are diuerse sortes that are héere omitted, be∣cause of the hinderance of other Authors: as the Mallard, the Ducke, the Bitter, of Wigen, the Teale, the Puffin, the Barnacle, the Bargander, the Gulles, the Twite, the wilde Goose, and Sheldrake, with many others.)

Of the Pellican chap. 29.

A Pellican is a Birde that is called Porphitio. Leui. 11. and Deut. 14. And is a Birde of Aegypt, and dwelleth in desart, beside the Riuer Nilus: and is accounted among vncleane birdes by the lawe in Leuit. And there be two manner of Pellicans: One dwelleth in water and eateth fish, and the other dwelleth on land, and loueth wildernesse, and eateth venimous beasts, as Lisardes, and other such. And all that the Pellican eateth he plungeth in water with his foote, & when he hath so plunged it in water, he put∣eth it in his mouth with his own soot, as it were with an hand. Only the Pellican and the Popiniay, among foules, vse the foote in stéed of an hand.

Also of the Pellican, the Glose speak∣eth super Psalmum, & the same Plinius saith in this manner. The Pellican lo∣ueth too much her children. For when the children bée haught, and begin to waxe hoare, they smite the father and the mo∣ther in the face, wherfore the mother smi∣teth them againe and slaieth them. And the thirde daye the mother smiteth her selfe in her side that the bloud runneth out, and sheddeth that hot bloud vppon the bodies of her children. And by vertue of the bloud the birdes that were before dead, quicken againe. And in the Glose vpon that place of the Psalme.*Factus sum sicut Pellicanus. It is sayd that the Pellican slayeth her Birdes with her bill, and maketh sorrowe thrée dayes, and then sheddeth her hot bloud vppon them, and maketh them aliue againe in yt manner. Magister Iacobus de Vitri∣aco in li. de mirabilibua orientalium re∣gionum telleth another cause of the death of Pellicanes birdes. Hée sayth, that in Aegypt is a bird yt is called Pellicanus, a Birde with greate wings, and most leane. For all that he swalloweth passeth forth anone behinde: for hée hath a right slipper gut. And therefore hée maye not holde meate till it be incorporate. And the Serpent hateth kindlye this Birde. Wherfore when the mother passeth out of the neast to get meate, the serpent cli∣meth on the trée and stingeth & infecteth the Birdes. And when she commeth a∣gayne, shée maketh sorrowe thrée dayes for her Birdes, as it is sayde. The (he sayth) shée smiteth her selfe in the breast, and bringeth bloud vppon them, and rea∣reth them from death to lyfe, and then for greate bléeding the mother waxeth féeble, and the Birdes bée compelled to passe out of the neast to gette themselues meate. And some of them for kinde loue féede the mother that is féeble: and some be vnkinde and care not for the mother, and the mother taketh good héede there∣to, & when she commeth to her strength, she nourisheth and loueth those Birdes Page  187 that fedde her at her néed, and putteth a∣way her other birdes, as vnworthye and vnkinde, and suffereth them not to dwel nor liue with her.

Of the Partridge. chap. 30.

THe Partridge is called Perdix, and hath that name of her owne voice, as Isidore saith, and is an vncleane bird. For the male lepeth vp and treadeth the male: And strong liking of lechery for∣getteth the sexe and distinction of male and female, as Isidore sayth. And is so guilefull, that the one stealeth the Egges of the other, and sitteth abrood on them. But this fraude hath no fruite, for when the Birdes bée haught, and heare the voice of their owne mother: they for∣sake her that brooded them when they were Egges, and kept them as her owne Birdes, and tourne and followe theyr owne mother naturall, as Isidore sayth, and Ambrose also. And the Partridge trauaileth not in layeng and in brooding, lyke as other foules doe, as Arist. saith. Some Fowles (he sayth) bréed and gen∣der lightly, as the Partridge. And ye mo∣ther of the Partridge flieth all about the hunter, till her birdes be flowen. And af∣ter the birds be flowen, shée the damme flyeth after, and calleth her birdes: the which young Partridges soone after they be hatcht they follows the damme, and séeke their meat. And the Partridge hath few fethers and much flesh: and there∣fore he is féeble of flight, and in flight he riseth but little from the ground, and fal∣leth oft to the ground after a little while. Also ye Partridge dreadeth ye Sparhauk, and flieth her: and as long as hée séeth the Sparhauke in the aire, he riseth not frō ye earth into the aire. And at the noise and ringing of a little bell, he flyeth a∣bout vppon the ground, and falleth into the net or grinne ere he be ware. Plini∣us. lib. 29. ca. 6. saith, that the Partridges gull, with euen weight of honnie, cléereth much the sight, and therefore it shall bee kept in a siluer boxe. Theyr eyen with hony sod in a brasen vessell, helpe to heale the pimples of eien.

(*The Phesant is also delicate foule both of beautie and 〈…〉 the 〈…〉 the Owell, the W〈…〉 dainty Goodwille. 〈…〉 Ile of Eiery, the 〈…〉 She welar, with many 〈…〉 smaller sorts. As by 〈…〉 is 〈…〉 bed their properties and landes.)

Of the Pecocke. chap. 31.

THe Pecocke is called P••e, and hath that name of the sounde of his voice. His flesh is so harde that vnneth it rot∣teth, and is full hard to soothing, as Isi∣dore saith. And Aristotle sayth, that the Pecocke liueth twentie yeare, and hath chickens in the end of three yeeres, & after his wings bee couloured. And the Pe∣hen sitteth abroode thirtye dayes, and a little more: and soone after the shelles be cloue, and hath no chickens but once a yeare, and layeth twelue Egges or few lesse. And the Pecocke leeseth his fethers when the first tree leeseth his leaues, and his fethers grow first when leaues be∣gin to grow on trees, as Aristotle saith. And the Pecock is a bird that loueth not his young: for the male searcheth out the female, and seeketh out her Egges for to breake them, that he may so occupy him the more in his lecherie. And the female dreadeth that, & hideth busily her egges, least the Pecocke might soone find them. And Arist. sayth, that the Pecocke hath an vnstedfast and euill shapen head, as it were the head of a serpent & with a crest. And he hath a simple pace, and small necke, and areared, and a blew breast, and a taile ful of bewty, distinguished on high with wonderful fairenesse: and he hath foulest féet & riueled. And he wondereth of the fairenesse of his fethers, & areareth them vp, as it were a circle about his head, and then he looketh to his féet, and seeth the foulenesse of his feete, and lyke as he wer ashamed, he letteth his fethers fall sodeinlye: and all the taile downe∣ward, as though he tooke no héed of the fairenesse of his fethers: and hath an hor∣rible voice. And as one sayth, he hath a voice of a féend, head of a serpent, pace of théefe. And lib. 29. cap. 6. Plinius sayth, yt the Pecock hath enuie to mans profit, Page  [unnumbered] and swalloweth his owne durt: for it is full medicinable, but it is sold found.

Of Sparrowes. cap. 32.

SParrowes bée small birdes, and bée called Passerci, of Patuitate, little∣nesse, as Isid. saith. And the Sparrowe is an vnstedfast bird with voice and iang∣ling: and maketh theyr neasts nigh to dwellings and habitations of men. And is a full hot bird and lecherous. And the flesh of them oft taken in meat, exciteth to carnall lust, as Constantine sayth. Sparrowes laye many Egges, and are full busie to bring vp their birdes, and to feede them. And she maketh her neast in hay and in fethers, and kéepeth her neast cleane without durt. And therefore shée throweth the durt of her Birdes out of the neast, and compelleth her Birdes to throwe their durt out of the neast; and they féede their Birdes with Spiders, Wormes, and Flyes: and they eate ve∣nimous seedes, as of Henbane, without hurt: and they haue sometime Leper and the falling euill: and the female liueth longer then the male, and the male is iea∣lous of his wife, & fighteth oft for her, as Aristotle saith: and the sparrow dreadeth the Wéesell, and hateth her, and crieth & warneth if ye wéesell commeth. And wai∣teth and biteth and billeth for to haue the neasts of Swallowes, and they loue their owne kinde. And birdes that other Sparrowes leaue by some hap, they ga∣ther & feed & nourish, as they were theyr owne. And if it happeneth that one of thē is taken in a grinne, or in other manner wise, she crieth for help. And a multitude of Sparrowes be gathered togethers to deliuer that that is taken, and spéede and hast with all their might.

(*The more of that which proueth heate, she sooner is wasted the inner ver∣tue, the cause of the gout, if not the lepro∣sie, hastours of death.)

Of the Estridge. cap. 33.

THE Estridge is called Strucio, and hath that name of a word of Gréeke, as Isidore saith. For that he hath a bodie as a beast, & fethers as a sense: and also he hath two féete, and a bill as a foule: but for weight and heauinesse of body be fli∣eth not with foules in the aire. She laieth egges as other foules do, but she neglec∣teth to brood her egges, she which egges be raken in grauel, and on•• be brought forth by heat & nourishing of the dust, as Isid. saith. And Aristotle speaketh of the Strucio, and saith, that the Strucio in ma∣king is like to a foule, and in some point he is like to a foure footed beast. For hée flieth not vp into the aire; for his wings be not couenable to flight, but in the ma∣king therof is thin, as the making of her selfe, & for he is some deale shape as a bird he hath many fethers in the neather part of the body, & hath two féete as a foule, & is cloue footed as a foure footed beast: and the cause thereof is, for by the greatnesse of his body, he is likned to a foure footed beast, and not to a foule, and is so hot, that he swalloweth and defieth and wa∣steth yron. And Auicen saith, kinde that is wise and ware in all thing, graunteth to the Strucio a propertie to lay greatest egges and hardest of shell, that being oc∣cupied about the generation of them, heat may be temperate; for if the heat should be too vehement, it shoulde be cause why he should die the sooner. Other properties of the Estridge Gre. toucheth super lob. 29. where it is sayde, that fethers of the Strucio be like in colour to the fethers of ye gentle Fawlcon, but not in vertue: the fethers haue the likenesse, but he lacketh swiftnesse of flight. He spreadeth out his wings to flie, but yet he riseth not vp frō the earth: He is clothed with thinne fe∣thers, & made heauy with a great body. And when the time is come that they shall laye egges, they heaue vp their eyes and behold the stars that be called Vir∣gilie or Pliades: for they laye no Egges but when the constellation ariseth and is séene. And about ye month of Iune, when they sée those stars, theyd digge in grauell and laye there their egges, and couer and hide them with sande. And when they haue lefte them there, they forget anone where they layed them, and come neuer againe thereto. But the grauel is chased with the heat of the Sunne, and heateth Page  188 the Egges that be hidde, and bréedeth birds therein, and bringeth them foorth: And when the shell is broke, and birdes come out, then first the mother gathereth and nourisheth them: And the birde that shée despised in the Egge, shée knoweth when it is come out of the Egge. And therefore it is sayd to Iob. Hée is made harde to his owne children, as though he were not his owne. ¶Also the E∣stridge hateth the horse by kinde, and is so contrary to the horse, that he may not sée ye horse without feare. And if an horse cōe against him, he raiseth vp his wings as it were against his enimye, and com∣pelleth the horse to flie with beating of his wings.

*Of the fethers of the Estridge, the plumage is made for Princes, and no∣bles to weare in their hats, caps, and o∣ther furniture.)

Of the Turtle. chap. 34:

THE Turtle hath that name of the voice, and is a simple Birde, as the Culuour. But is chast, farre vnlyke the Culuour. The Turtle is a chast Birde, and hath that name of conditions. For he followeth chastity, and if he léeseth his make, he seekth not cōpanye of any other, but goeth alone, and hath minde of the fellowship yt is lost: and groneth alwaye, and loueth and chooseth solitarye place, and flyeth much company of men: Ne∣uerthelesse he commeth downe into Or∣chards & gardens, and feelds of men, and there eateth, wherby he liueth. And when he hath meate, hée passeth againe to high hills, and to priuie places of woods. Hée commeth in springing time and warneth of nouelty of time with groning voyce. And in winter he léeseth his fethers, and then hée hideth him in hollowe stockes. And against Summer in springing time when his fethers spring againe, hée com∣meth out of his hoale, in the which hée was hid, and séeketh couenable place, and stéede for to bréede in. And among thick boughes and trées, of harde stickes and knottie shée maketh her neast, and lay∣eth Egges therein and sitteth abroode, and hath Birdes, and féedeth and nou∣risheth them, as Aristotle sayth. The Turtle layeth Egges twice in Spring∣ing time, and not the thirde time, but if the first Egges bée corrupt. And Tur∣tles laye and bréede fiftéene yeare, and lyght not vppon slinking things, ney∣ther vppon carrion, because of meate: for she eateth not carrion, but for meate for her birdes, she seeketh out cleane grains, and gathereth them in cleane places, and liueth thereby. When other Birds sing, she groneth, and his Birdes bee hot and moist, as Culuour Birdes, as Constan∣tine sayth: and that witnesseth heauinesse of flight. But when he beginneth to flie, his flesh is made more hot and lyght, and more better to defie. Also the bloud of her right wing is medicinable, as the bloud of a Swallowe, and of a Culuour or Doue.

Of the Vulture. chap. 35.

THE Uolture hath the name of slowe flight, as Isidore sayth. For of the plenteousnesse of much flesh, hée lack∣eth swiftnesse of flight. And some men tell, that her treding is not medled, but yt she conceiueth, and is conceiued, and gen∣dereth, and is gendered without ioyning of treading: and they tell, that they live an hundred yéeres, as Isidore sayth. This Birde is cruell about his owne Birdes, as the Kite is. And if shée séeth her birdes too fatte, shée beateth them with her féete and bill to make them leane by sore beating and biting, as Pli∣nius saith.

Also he sayth, that in this Birde the wit of smelling is best. And therefore by smelling he sauoureth carrions that bée farre from him that is beyonde the sea: and againeward Therefore the Uul∣ture followeth the hoast that hée maye féed himselfe with carrions of men, and of horse. And therefore (as a Diuinour sayth) when many Uulturs come and flie together, it betokeneth battaile. And they know that such a battaile shall bée, by some priuie wit of kinde. And Aristo∣tle speaketh of the Uulture and saith, that he fighteth with the gentle Falwcon, and slyeth about him, and when hée hath Page  [unnumbered] ouercome him, he dieth. He eateth rawe flesh: and therefore he fighteth against other Foules because of meate, and hée hunteth from middaye to night: and re∣steth still from the Sunne rising to that time. And when hée ageth, his ouer bill waxeth long and croked ouer the nether, and dyeth at the last for hunger, as Ari∣stotle sayth there. And some men saye, by errour of olde time, that the Uulture was sometime a man, and was cruell to some Pilgrimes; and therefore hée hath such paine of his bill, and dieth for hun∣ger, but that is not lawfull to beléeue.

And so he saith, when he of his meat leaueth reliefe, hée leaueth not that o∣ther foules, as the Eagle doth, but layeth it in his neast to féede with his birds: for he getteth not ligthly meate: and theyr neasts be on high mountaines, & in thick woodes. And if he séeth any fowle flye a∣bout his birdes, he beateth them away: and féedeth his birds till they may flye: & then he driueth them out of the neast, and suffreth them not to come nigh that place.

Also in lib. de Almacar, he sayth, that ther is a manner water foule that drea∣deth the Uulture, and therefore flyeth to the water: and the Uulture flyeth about farre from thence, and is sharpe of sight, and waiseth when the foule cōmeth out of the water: & then he taketh that foule if he may.

Also the Uulture is a much stinking foule and vncleane, and his flesh is most hard and of euill sauour, and of heauye smell. And therefore it is not profitable for mans meate: For carrion he ligh∣teth lyghtly to the ground. But when he is alighted, vnueth he riseth againe frō the ground, as Gregory sayth. Hée fly∣eth high, and séeth carrions that bée full lowe: and for loue of carrion he com∣meth downe from the high country of the aire, to the grounde, as he sayth. And when any beast setteth vpon him he bea∣teth his wings against the winde: and so he, riseth from the ground: and flyeth into the aire more by helpe of the winde then by his owne strength.

And héereto lib. 29. ca. 3. Plinius saith, that among foules the Uulture is con∣trary to serpents. For if his fethers be burnt, the smell thereof driueth awaye Serpents. And the heart thereof maketh a man siker, and safe that brareth it a∣mong Serpents and wilde beastes.

His heart bound in a Lions skinne, or in a Wolfes skin driueth away féends. His fethers bounde to the lefte foote of a woman, that trauaileth with childe, deli∣uereth her swiftly. But then it must be taken away lightlye, least the entrayles followe and come out after, Ointment made of Uultures grease, and oile that is called Oleum myrti, & Waxe, helpeth si∣newes, & beasts also. His right foot bound to the left foote, healeth that aketh; the left foote also healeth the right foote. His tongue plucked out with yron, & hanged about a mans necke in new cloth, ma∣keth a man gracious, to get of a mā what he desireth. So it is sayde, his boanes burnt to ashes, and medled with Celido∣nia, and giuen to beastes, healeth theyr euills. Huc vsque Plinius, cap. 36. He saith that bloud of Uultures, with the hearbe yt is called Cabeon, or els Came∣leonte, and Celdra, healeth the Leper.

*The Uulture is called a Geir, lyke vnto an Eagle, a bird of a fierce stomack, there are diuerse kindes, there is one kinde lyke the Fawlcon, bigger billed, & talented. Read Gesner.

Of Vlula. chap. 36.

VLula is a fowle that hath that name of shrieching and crieng: And ther∣fore among Diuinours with cryeng he betokeneth aduersitye, as Isidore saith. And héerby it séemeth that Vlula and the Owle be all one, and among Diuinours her voyce is vngratious. Super Esai. 14. the Glose sayth in this manner. Vlula is a Bird of the quantitye of a Crowe, sprong with speckes, and pitcheth his bill into a myrye place, and maketh a greate sound and noyse. And héere∣by it séemeth that Vlula is a mice drom∣ble, that is a Birde of the marryes, and dwelleth in myrye places. Séeke before in the Chapter of the Miredrom∣ble.

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Page  189

Of the Lapwing. chap. 37.

THE Lapwing is called Vpupa a∣mong the Gréeks: for he eateth mans durt, and is nourished and fed ofte with doung, as Isidore sayth. For it is a bird most filthy and vncleane, and is copped on the head, & dwelleth alway in graues or in durt. And if a man annoint him∣selfe with her bloud when he goeth to sléepe, in his sléepe he shall sée féends busy to strangle & snare him: and her heart is good to euill doers, for in their euill doo∣ing they vse theyr heartes. Of this birde Philosophers tell, that when he ageth, so that he may neither sée nor flie, his birds pull away the féeble fethers, and annoint his eyen with iuyce of hearbes, and hide him vnder their wings till his fethers bée growen:* and so he is renued, and fly∣eth, and séeth cléerely, as Isidore saith.

Of the Reremouse. chap. 38.

THe reremouse is called Vespertilio, & hath that name of the euentide.* For it hating light, flieth in the euentide with breaking and blenching, and swifte moo∣uing, with full small skinnes of her wings. And is a beast like to a mouse in sownding with voice, in piping, and crieng. And he is lyke to a Birde, and also to a foure footed beast: & that is but seld found among Birdes. Huc vsque Isidorus. Also super Esaiam. 2. the Glose sayth that these Reremise flye light, for they be blinde as Moles, and lyke pow∣der, and suck Oyle out of Lampes: And they hide themselues in chins and cliffes of walles, and be most colde of kinde. Therfore the bloud of a Reremouse an∣nointed vppon the eie liddes, suffereth not the haire to growe againe, as Constan∣tine saith. And that perchance is because it stoppeth the poores with his coldnesse. And when he poores be stopped, haire groweth not againe.

*In the Iland of Catighan are cer∣taine greate Battes, as bigge as Eagles, of the which the trauailers of the West Indias report they tooke one: they are good to be eaten, and of tast much like a hen: Folio. 439. in the third Decade, & .. booke Folio. 128. The trauailers ouer in the straights greatly tormented with the bi∣ting of Bats, which are ther so noisome in the night, that if they bite anye man in his sléepe, they put him in daunger of life, onely wt drawing of bloud, insomuch that some haue died thereof, falling as it were into a consumption through the malitiousnese of the venimous wound, &c.