Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

Of the Goshauke. chap. 2.

THE Gosehauke is a royall foule,* & is armed with more boldnesse then with clawes, and as much as kinde ta∣keth from her in quantitie of body, he re∣wardeth her with boldnesse of heart, as Page  178Isidore saith. And as he sayth, shée is a couetous foule to take other foules, and for the taking of other fowles, and for pray she is called Accipiter & Rapter, ra∣uisher. Also Basilius in Exameron sayth: that such Haukes be cruell against their birds: so that they take from them meat when they be flegge and ripe, and they beate and driue them out of their neast, as the Eagle doth hir birds. And for shée doubteth least they be not hardy, she com∣forteth and exciteth them to bée bolde, and hardye, and to take pray, least when they bee full of age, they shoulde be dull and idle, and accustome themselues more to the séeking of meate, then to be bolde, and of hardye courage, as Beda sayth and Ambrose also. And some such Hawkes bee théeues of the aire onelye, and some of the earth onely, as Eagles bee diuerse, as Aristotle sayth in his sixt booke. The first manner of Hawkes take onelye flyeng Birdes, and the seconde manner of Hawkes smite and réese on birdes that sit on the earth, and Doues know which is which, and they knowe the diuersitye of Eagles, as it is sayde. And Accipiter is an hot fowle and dry, and poore of charge of flesh, and addres∣sed with diuersitie of pennes and of fea∣thers, and is in fairenesse of fethers most like the Ostridge, and not pere thereto in boldnesse of heart: And shée flyeth nowe vp to the aire swiftly, and so high that no man can see her: and then fal∣leth sodeinly downe vpon her pray: and her breast is most sharpe, and couered with little flesh. Thereof Aristotle spea∣keth, and he sayth lib. 14. that the more sharpe her breast is, the better shée is of flight. For if she had a full broad breast, she should moue much aire, and shoulde be slowe of flight. And her breast is not fleshie, but it is sharpe: and should be fee∣ble, if it were couered with much flesh: as it is said there. Her most strength is in ye breast, & in the clawes, & in hir bil, with ye which soone she taketh out the braine of her praie. Her gall is medicinable and profitable medled in Colbrijs medicines of eien: and it sharpeth the sight of eien, & destroieth and wasteth white speekles, which be in the eien: and so doth her dirt also: & the Gosehauke hath this propertie as Gregory saith, that in age when shée feeleth her selfe grieued with he heauines & waight of feathers, she spreadeth her winges against the beames of the Sun, when the winde is South, and so by so∣deine weather and resoluing heate, the pores be opened: and when the pores be so opened, she smiteth and flappeth her winges, and in so dooing the olde feathers leape out and newe growe: and so the new fethers maketh her in better state, and the more able to flight: and two kindes there be of such Fowles, for some be tame, and some be wild: and he that is tame taketh wilde fowles, and taketh them to his owne Lorde: and he that is wild taketh tame foules. And this Accipiter is of a disdaynous kinde. For if shee fayle by anye happe of the praye that she ryseth too, that daye vnneth she comes to her Lords hande: and he must haue ordinate diet, ney∣ther to scarse nor too full. For by too much meate she waxeth fat, and then she waxeth ramayous or slowe, and disday∣neth to come to reclaime: and if the meat be too scarce, then she fayleth, and is see∣ble and vnmightye to take her praye. Also the eyen of such Birdes shoulde ofte be siled and closed, or hidde, that shee bate not too oft from his hand that bea∣reth her, when she seeth a birde that she desireth to take: and also her legges must be fastened with gesses, that she shall not flye freely to euery birde.

And they be borne on the lefte hand, that they maye some what take of the righte hand, and be fed therewith. And so Acci∣pitres, such fame hawkes be kepte in mewes, that they may be discharged of olde fethers and hard, and be so renewed in fairnesse of youth. Also men giue them meate of some manner of flesh, which is some deale venemous, that they may the sooner change their feathers, and smoake grieueth such hawkes and doeth them harme, as Beda saith: and therfore their mewes must be far from smoakie places, that their bodies be not grieued with bit∣ternesse of smoake: nor their fethers infect with blacknesse of smoake. They should be fed with fresh flesh & bloudye, & men Page  [unnumbered] should vse to giue them to eate, ye harts of foules that they take. All the while they be aliue, and be strong and mightie to take their pray, they beloued of theyr Lords, and borne on handes, and set on pearches, and stroken on the breast, and on the tayle, and made plaine & smoothe, & be norished with great businesse & di∣ligence: but when they be dead, all men holde them vnprofitable & nothing worth, and be not eaten, but rather thro∣wen out on dounghills.