Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

¶Of winde orientall, and Subso∣lane. Cap. 3.

WIndes be twelue, foure of them, are called Cardinales, chife winde, and eight Collaterals, side windes.

And the first of Cardinall Windes, is called Subsolanus, as some men meane. But among other men, it is called Eu∣rus, the East winde, that ariseth in the East vnder the Circle, that is called, Paraellelus Equinoctialis: and some∣time there is great patting and sho∣uing Page  159 of aire, that commeth of passing beating of earth and water into airie matter: and thereof commeth a winde, that is called Subsolanus, the East wind: for it ariseth and commeth forth vnder the Sunne, for it commeth foorth vnder the circle that is called Toerida Zona, vnder whom the sunne moueth alwaye. This winde hath two windes Collate∣ralle that is to wit Volurnus, that is the North East winde. And toward the South, a winde that is called Eurus, that is the Southeast winde, and be in this verse. Sune Subsolanus, Vulturnus, & Eurus coy, That is to vnderstand, that these three windes, be East windes, and these windes be hot and drye: hot, for they bidelong vnder the Sunne, & drye, far ye East sea is full far from vs. Ther∣fore ere the East winde can come to vs, if he hath moist humour, it is cleane wa∣sted away by heate of the Sunne: and the euen East winde is emperate in heate ••• when at turneth in the East Northeast wind, then it drieth of things: and when it tourneth into East South∣east winde, then he gendreth clowdes. And (as Constantine saith) East windes be wholsome in the beginning of ye day for they come of aire that is subtill and temperate: For as he saith, the ayre of East lands & countries is cleere & pure, & also dry and temperate betwéene cold and moyst. Therefore such a winde ma∣keth waters cleere and of good sauour. Therefore East windes keepe and saue bodies in health, for temperatenesse of their qualities: and also for in East landes and countries is more plentie of fruites and flowers, than in the Northe and in the West countryes. Also diuers requies that conne Eastward, and ca∣ter into the East sea be better and more wholsome & cléere than other. For by meeting of East windes, and by beating & rebounding of the Sun in his arising, waters be made cléere and cleane. The second Cardinall and chiefe wind is Fa∣nomus, the West winde, and ariseth in the West ouer ye circle yt is called Pa∣rallelas Equinoctialis, of euennesse of day and night. And this winde hath be∣side him two windes, the one is called Circius, the West Northwest wind, the other is called Zephirus, ye west South∣west winde, and be contamed in this verse: Circius occalo Zep•••o Fa∣nomus sl••ot, That is to vnderstande, these thrée windes blow out of the west. And the West winde is called P•••m∣us: for he nourisheth and feedeth things that be gendred as Isidore sayth, or he resolueth and vnbindeth winter, •• brin∣geth forth grasse, hearbes, and ••tures. And this west winde is temperath cold and moyst: colde, for the sunne abideth but a little while in the west, & it com∣meth to vs, before it taketh heate of the snne beames: and so western windes be most wholsome & temperate in the ende of the day, for then the sun is in ye west, and purifieth and cleanseth the windes: For west countries and lands, haue not and perfectly temperate in heate and hu∣mor. Therefore their waters be chaun∣gable and troublous, for because that in the beginning of the day, they be not di∣gested by the sunne beames. For in the beginning of the day, in the East lands, windes be very colde, and hot at euen, as Const. saith. The third Cardinall & chiefe winde is Affer, the Southerne winde: and he ariseth vnder the South stare, that is called Polus An••iticus, by the same cause as did the first wind. And this winde hath two windes beside him: that one is Eastward, and is cal∣led Nothus, the Southeast winde: and the other is Westward, and is called Affrics, the South Southeast winde: which be contained in this verse: Ar∣die medio, Nothus haeirt & Affricus Austro. The meaning héereof is yt these thrée windes blow out of the South: & the South winde is called Ausser, & hée hath ye name of Hauiendo, drawing, for he draweth by waters. And this Sou∣therne winde is hot and moyst and ma∣keth lightning and grose aire and thick, and norisheth myst with heate, & be ope∣neth pores, and multiplieth and bringeth forth much raine with his moisture, as Isid. saith•• he bréedeth tempest in ye sea. for he bloweth vpwarde, as Beda saith. Also he openeth the pores of bodyes, and letteth vertue of feelyng, and maketh Page  [unnumbered] heauinesse of bodie, as Ipocras sayth. Southerne windes (he saith) gréeue the hearing, & be dim, and they greeue heads, & be slow, and also vnbinding. For Sou∣therne winds vnbind humours, & moue them out of the inner parts outwarde, & they cause heuinesse of wits & of feeling: they corrupt and destroye, they heat, and maketh men fall into sicknesse. And they bréed the gout, the falling euill, itch, and the ague. Also the Southern wind riseth in a circle and place nigh the star that is called Polus Antarticus, & therein maye no man dwell for the coldnesse thereof. And therfore he is kindly cold & dry, tou∣ching his owne arising, as the North winde that bloweth out of the contrary line, that is called Axis. But when the Southern wind passeth by Torrida Zo∣na, which is hot, there he taketh heate. And for yt he cōmeth toward the South, wher is more plenty of waters, & places full of vapours & of dew:ther he getteth to him moisture. And so among vs he is hot, & moist. And other while he bloweth yt the aire is ful of ye foresaid vapor, & so falleth into raine. And because he putteth & shooueth the aire out of large countrie into streight country, therfore he maketh the aire thicke, & thereof come clowdes. And for those clowdes that be betwéene vs and the Sun, the Sunne beames bée thereby dimmed, as Isidore sayth. And the Southerne winde hath many noble propertyes, for it is softe wind & maketh soft: and is hot & moist. And giueth vs raine & dew, & openeth pores of ye earth, & bringeth forth hearbes, and grasse, and séeds, & nourisheth & fedeth, and maketh them growe and spring, and reneweth the other parte of the earth, and chaun∣geth in foules and birdes olde pennes and feathers, and dissolueth in the body colde humoures and thicke, and exciteth to come out of the body, sweat, euopora∣tion, fumositie & superfluity of humors, and bringeth out of the dennes of the earth créeping beastes and earthlye wormes.

The fourth Cardinall and chiefe winde is called Borias the Northerne winde, and ariseth vnder the starre that is called Polus Articus, the Ship∣mans starre: and commeth of the •••• causes, of the which the foresayd winde commeth, and hath by his sides two windes: that one is called Aquilo, and is by West, that is the Northwest winde: That other is by East, and is called Chorus, the North Northwest winde. These windes be conteined in this verse: At Borias Aquilo veniunt et chorus ab alto. The meaning there∣of is, that these three windes blowe out of the North. And the Northern winde is called Borias, and hath that name of certaine mountaines, that bée called I∣perbore. For they blowe out of thicke mountaines, as Isidore sayth. As the Southerne winde of the Prouince of Affrica, is called Affricus, because hée bloweth most out of that countrey, also the North winde is called Septentuo∣nalis: For he bloweth out of the parte of the North line, that is called Axis, and he riseth out of watrie places, that bée frore and bounde, because they bée so farr from the circle of the Sunne. And they blowe out of the high moun∣taines, out of the which they come to vs. And for that out of that place va∣pours may not be dissolued, for the great freesing, therefore the Northerne winde maketh the ayre bright and cléere, and beareth downe and putteth of pestilence, that commeth of the Southerne winde, as Isidore sayth. For by great strength of his coldnesse, the Northern winde con∣strayneth and bindeth the ouer parte of the earth, and of water, and chaungeth them, and tourneth them now into kinde of Ise, and now into kinde of Christall, as the hardnesse is more or lesse. Then these thrée windes for they be colde and drye, make bodyes harde, and open pores, and purifie humoures, and cléere spirites and wittes, and they helpe the vertue of digestion, and comforteth the vertue of with holding: and maketh pe∣stilential aire wholsome, & increaseth the vertue of generation. Therefore libr. 14. Aristotle sayth, that in conceiuing of a childe, if the winde bee in the North, the child shall be male, and againeward: if the winde be in the South, the childe shall be female. Also libro. 5. cap. 7. Page  160Constantine sayth, that the Northerne winde constraineth euill humours, and holdeth and letteth them, that they shall not fall nor come in the other members. Neuerthelesse hée bréedeth cough, because of drynesse of breast, and maketh the bo∣dyes on earth rough, & clinkereth with his coldnesse & drynesse, and maketh si∣newes to be constrained, & smiteth them and maketh them straight: therefore hee gréeueth members, and letteth them of working, & gréeueth and corrupteth blos∣somes, flowres, and fruite, and smiteth vines that burgen and blowe, and spoy∣leth heardes and trées, and greyues, and dryeth vtter and inner humoures: and therefore he is noifull to them that haue the Tisick: by his drinesse he renteth the lungs, and maketh in them pimples and whelkes, as Galen sayth; his winde is colde and drye, and commeth out of a straight Country into a large Country, and maketh the ayre subtill and thinne, cléere & drye, and fréeseth the moist parts both of earth and of water, and ioyneth them in the vtter partes. And therefore he is called Aquilo, Quasi aquas li∣gan, for hée bindeth waters, as Isidore saith.