Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

¶Of Windes in generall. Cap. 2.

THere be other impressions ingende∣red of drye vapour, as winde, the which (as Aristotle saith) is mouing of drinesse of vapour, drawen vp from the middle of the earth with ayre, and incor∣porate in the aire with some heauenlye vertue. And so (as Beda saith) winde is nought els but aire moued and shuffed about, of fumosities and smoakes, that come vp from the earth, and shoueth & putteth the ayre, winde is gendered, as he saith. But in Topicis, Aristotle re∣priueth this description: for a thing that is described is not generallye shewed of his description: For not euery ayre that is moued, is winde. It needeth that there be full strong shouing and putting, and that a great deale of the aire be put and shufte long time, els it is no winde.

Therefore Constan. defineth the winde in this manner: Winde is cold vapor and drye, resolued and departed out of the earth and of the water, by heate and by his incorporation, putting and oo∣uing the aire strongly. Other men put, that the cause of winde is clowdes that be in the aire, and moue and thrust with their heauinesse and waight, & shooueth hether and thether, and of such mouing, and putting, and shaking of clowdes, commeth winde. And other tell, that winde is gendred of beating together of armes of the Sea in foure parts of the land. For if the South arme of ye Sea beateth and striueth in the North, then the sea moueth Eastward: and by the mouing thereof, aire is moued, and ther∣of commeth a winde, that is called Sub∣solanus, the Southeast wind. And when he beateth and striueth in the west: then commeth a winde, that is called Zephi∣rus, the west wind: & againward. And if the East arme and the west arme beate and striue in the South, then commeth a winde, that is called Auster. If it be in the North, there commeth a winde na∣med Boreas. Of other middle ebbing & flowing of the sea, they say, side windes be gendred. And yet other men tell (as Beda saith) that out of dens of the earth, commeth wind in this manner, for aire is of slipperie kinde, and therefore he en∣treth and commeth into dennes of the earth, and passeth out thereof, and when any part inforeeth to come in, h̄ is stuf∣fing & strife, & the aire is moued & ther∣of commeth wind, & therfore Elia regio is called the kingdome of windes, for it is a countrie full of dens vnder ye earth. And Aristotle alloweth the first reason of generation of windes in . Metheo∣rum. There he saith, that there be two kindes of vapours, that be draen by heate vp from the earth. The one is moyst, and is matter of raine & of wa∣ters, as it is either more or lesse thinne. The other vapour is drye, and is matter of all windes. And whereof soeuer it be, that wind is gendred, this I know, that winde is mouable, and not resting, but shufting in the aire, and maketh therin mouing and shufting. Also winde ma∣keth tempests, and stormes in the sea, and in the ayre. And also winde, that is moderate & not contrarious to ship∣men, Page  [unnumbered] leadeth and speedeth them in theyr wayes: and againeward. If winde bee contrarious and vnmoderate, then hee bringeth perill and dread, and tarryeth and letteth both way and speed. Also by his subtilnesse and violence, winde per∣ceth and commeth into the inner partes of the sea, and reareth vp great tempests and great waues in the sea, and stretch∣eth them, and maketh them spred into contrary countries and parts. Also for the North winde is colde and drye, it purgeth and cleanseth raine, and driueth away clowdes and mistes, and bringeth in cléerenesse and faire wether: and a∣gainward, for the South winde is hot & moyst, it doth the contrary deedes: For it maketh the aire thicke and troubly, & bréedeth darknesse, as Beda sayeth. Also when the winde findeth resisting and let, then he sheweth his might the stronger: and then he sheweth most his strength and violence: for then he throweth down houses and trees, that withstandeth him, and ouerthroweth them, and therfore it is called Venius, as Isidore sayth, for it is mightie and vyolent: for his might and strength is so much, that not onely he breaketh vp stones, and renteth vp trees: but also he disturbleth heauen and earth, and maketh great tempest in the sea, as he sayth. Also winde clenseth su∣perfluities of humours, and wipeth off slippernesse and vncleannesse: for wayes that be made slipper and fowle with great raines, be made cleane and fayre by blowing of winde. Also a temperate blast of winde quickneth and kindeleth fire and flame: and if the blaste bee too swifte & too strong: it quencheth both fire and flame Also in his arising, winde is vnseene and hid: but by gathering of parts of vapours that be gathered, some and some in the earth, winde wexeth more and more, and sheweth it selfe.

And therefore in libro Meth. it is said, that windes be feeble, when they arise of the earth, and strong afterwardes by multitude of vapors, that be therafter ga∣thered in great multitude in the ayre.

Also winde moueth a slonte, and a∣bout: for vapour that commeth first vp∣ward, blencheth afterwarde, and moo∣ueth rounde about in a Circle of the earth: and therfore his mouing passeth aslonte or rounde about. Also a strong blast of winde, beareth vp strawe, and small chaffe, and sparckleth powder and ashes, and bloweth and stretcheth blad∣ders by entring into them. Also winde entreth and commeth into the hollow∣nesse & parts of the earth, in the which be many hoales, and winde gendereth earth shaking, when it is cloased in the hollownesse of the earth. For then it is shaken and shuft, and put in the wombe of the earth, and thereof commeth earth shaking, as Aristotle sayth. For winde openeth holes both of earth, & of beasts bodyes, & commeth into the inner parts of the earth by subtilnesse of his owne substaunce, and entereth, and is cloased therin. Also winde commeth into watry parties, and maketh water arise in the ouer part with some thervpon. Also the winde maketh the ouer parte of water, holly and vneuen. For water should be euen & plaine aboue, if it moued not by blast, shouing, and putting of winde, as Isidore saith. Also windie vapor, that is resolued by strength of heat, out of meat and of drinke or of other humors, bree∣deth in bodyes many passions and euils. For if such a winde be closed in the sto∣macke or the inner partes of the guts, it bréedeth gnawing full grieuous, and many other euil passions and sicknesses, as Dropsie, Gowte, and such manner euills. Also in the eares winde maketh whistling, whorling, and ringing. And so winde letteth and infecteth the spirite & wit of hearing.