Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

Of the foure Elements, and their qualities and mixtures togethers, forth of Henrie. C. Agrippa, de occ. Phi. Which are newly added.

*THere are foure Elements, and first grounds of al corporal things, Fire, Aire, Water, & Earth, of the which all things ellemented in these lower things are made, not in manner of heaping vp together, but according to transmutation & vniting. And again when they are cor∣rupted, they are loosed againe into Ele∣ments, neither is there any of the sensi∣ble Elementes pure, but according to more or lesse they are mixed together, and apt to bée transmuted one into ano∣ther: Euen as durtye and loosed earth is made water, & that beeing ingrosed & thickened, becommeth earth, and beeing euapored by heate tourneth into Ayre, and that waring hot, turneth into Fire: and this beeing quenched tourneth into Aire, and béeing made colde of his adu∣stion or burning, becommeth earth, or a stone, or Sulpher, as it is made mani∣fest by lightening. And Plato thinketh that the earth can neuer bée tourned in∣to anye other Element, and that other Elements are turned into this and that Element, and one into another. The Earth then not chaunged, is diuided from the more subtill, but béeing mixed or loosed into those which dissolue it, doth againe passe into it selfe: And euery one of the Elements hath two speciall qua∣lities, the first of which it kéepeth to it selfe, in the other as a meane, it a∣gréeth with the qualitie following. For the fire is hot and dry, the earth dry and colde, the water colde and moyst, the aire moist and hot. And in this sort according vnto two contrary qualities, the elemēts are contrary to themselues, as Fire to Water, and Earth to Aire. Moreouer, af∣ter an other sort, the Elements are con∣trary one to another, for some are heauy as the earth, and the Water, and other light, as the Aire and the fire, wherefore the former are Passiue, but ye latter Ac∣tiue, as the Stoks haue tearmed the: Wherefore Plato moreouer difemanish∣ing after another sort, assigneth to euery one throe qualities, to wit, to fire sharp∣nesse, thinnesse, and mouing To ye earth bluntnesse, thicknesse, & rest. And accor∣ding vnto these qualities; Fire & Earth are contrary Elements. And ye ofter ele∣ments do borrow qualities of them, so yt the aire taketh two qualities of ye Fire, thinnesse and mouing, & one of the earth, to wit, bluntnesse. Contrariwise ye wa∣ter taketh two of the Earth, darknesse & thicknesse, & one of the fire, to wit, moo∣uing; but the fire is twice thinner then the aire, thrice more moouing, and foure times more sharpe, ye aire is twice shar∣pen then ye water, thrice thinner, & foure times more mouing, therefore ye water is twice sharper thē ye earth, thrice thin∣ner, & foure times more mouing: where∣fore as the fire is to the aire, so ye ayre is to the water, the water to ye earth, & againe as the earth is to the water, so is it to the aire, and the aire to the fire: and this is ye roote & foundation of al bodies, natures, vertues, & meruailous works: and he that knoweth these qualities of Elements, and the mixing of them, shall easily bring to passe meruailous & won∣derfull works, and shal be perfect in na∣turall Magike.

Of the three folde consideration of Elements.

WWherefore there are foure Ele∣ments as we haue faide,* without whose perfect knowledge we can bring forth no effect in Magike: & euery of thē are thrée folde, yt so the number of foure may fil vp the number of .12. and so pro∣céeding by the number of 7 to the num∣ber of .10. one may come to ye vppermost vnitie, whereof all vertue & wonderfull worke do depend. Wherfore in the first order, are the pure Elements, which are neither compounded nor chaunged, nor suffer mixing together but are incorrup∣tible, & not from the which, but by the which, the vertues of all naturall thinge are brought to effect: none is able to ex∣presse their vertues, because they can do Page  [unnumbered] all in all. He that knoweth not this can∣not attaine to any worke of meruailous effects: The compounded Elements are manifold, diuers, & vnpure, yet apt to bée brought by art to a pure simplicitie: which being then returned to their sim∣plicitie, their vertue is aboue all things, giuing a full perfection of all hidden o∣peration, and woorkes of nature, and these thinges are the foundation of all naturall magike.

The Elements of the thirde order first and by themselues are not Ele∣ments, but compounded againe, diuerse, manifolde, and apt to bée chaunged one into another. They are the infallible meane, and therefore are called the mid∣dle nature, or the soule of the middle na∣ture, there are very few that vnderstand theyr profound mysteryes. In them bée certaine measures, degrées, and orders, as a full perfection of euery effect in each thing naturall, celestiall, and supercele∣stiall. The things are wonderfull and full of mysteries, which maybe wrought by magike, as well naturall as diuine, for by them the bindings, loosings, and transmutations of all things are made, and the knowledge and foretelling of things to come: Also the banishment of naughtie spirits, and the winning or obtaining of good spirites, doth descende from them: Wherefore without these thrée fold Elements, and the knowledge of them, let no man trust that he is able to worke anything in the hidden science of Magike and nature, and whosoever knoweth howe to reduce one into a∣nother, the impure into the pure, the manyfolde into the simple, and kno∣weth howe to discerne the nature, ver∣tue, and power of them, in number, degrées, and order, without diuisi∣on of substaunce, he without doubt shall obtaine the perfect knowledge and wor∣king of all naturall things, and heauen∣ly secrets.

¶Of the meruailous or wonder∣full natures of Fire and Earth.

FOr the working of all meruailous things,* saith Hermes, two are suffici∣ent, to wit, Fire and Earth: The one is the Patient, the other the Agent: Fire as sayth Dionisius commeth cléerely in all things, and through all things, and is remooued, is lightsome to all, and also is hidden and vnknowen when it is by it selfe, no matter comming, in the which it may manifest his owne action. It is vnmeasurable and inuisible, able of it selfe for his owne action, moue∣able, giuing it selfe to all, after a sorte comming néere vnto it, making newe, a kéeper of nature, a giuer of lyght, for his brightnesse couered all aboute, in∣comprehended, cléere, seuered, reboun∣ding backe, mounting vpwarde, going sharplye, high, not to bée diminished, alwayes a moouing motion, compre∣hending another, vncomprehended, not wanting another, priuelys growing of himselfe, and manifesting the greatnesse of himselfe to receiue matters, Actiue, mightye, at once present to all men, vi∣siblye it suffereth not it selfe to be neg∣lected, and as a certaine reuengement, generallye and properlye, vppon the sodaine bringing it selfe to a reckoning to certaine thinges, incomprehensible, in palpable, not diminished, most rich of himselfe in all traditions, Fyre is a huge and a greate portion of the thinges of nature, as sayth Plinye. And wherein it is doubtfull, whether shée consume and bring foorth more thinges. Fire is one, and pearcing tho∣rough all thinges as sayth the Pytha∣gorians, but in heauen stretched a∣broade and shining ouer all, and in hell straightened, darke and tormenting, in the middle partaking of both. Where∣fore the fire is one in it selfe, manifolde in the recipient, and in diuerse distri∣buted with a diuerse marke as Cle∣anthos witnesseth in Cicero, where∣fore this fire which wée vse commonly by chaunce it is in stones, which is stricken out, with the stroke of Stéele, it is in the Earth, which smoaketh by digging, it is in the Water, which warmeth the Fountaines, and Page  166 Welles, it is in the déepe Sea, which being tossed with winds, wexeth warm, it is in the ayre, which oftentimes wée sée to were warme, & all lyuing things, and Uegitables, are nourished with heate, and euerye thing that lyueth, ly∣ueth by reason of the included fire.

The properties of the fire supernall, a∣boue, are heate making all things fruit∣full, and lyght, giuing life to all things. The properties of the fire infernall, are a burning, consuming all things: and a darkenesse, making all things bar∣raine.

Wherefore the heauenlye and lyght fire, chaseth away the Demones, or Spirites of darkenesse: and this our woodden fire driueth awaye the same, as farre forth as it hath the lykenesse, and the carriage of that vppermost lyght: yea, also of that lyght, which sayeth, Ego sum lux mundi, I am the lyght of the worlde, which is the true fire, the Father of lyghtes, from whome, euery good thing giuen, doeth come: casting out the brightnesse of his fire, and communicating it first to the Sunne, and to other heauenlye bodyes, and by these, as it were by meane instrumentes, powring in that, into this our fire. Wherefore, as the Demones or spirites of darkenesse, are strongest in darkenesse, so the good De∣mones which are Angelles of lyght, doe receiue increase from the lyght, not one∣ly of God, of the Sunne, and of hea∣uen, but also of the fire which is with vs.

Héerevpon the first most wise ap∣pointers of Religions, and Ceremo∣nyes, decreed, that prayers, psalmes, & all rights, shuld not be dōe without lights. Héerevpon grewe that Posie of Pytha∣goras: Ne loquaris de Deo, absque lumine, Speake not of God without lyght. And they commaunded for the driuing awaye of naughtye Demones, that lyghtes and fires shoulde be kin∣deled by the carcases of the dead, and not to take them awaye, vntill that the purgings béeing ended by the holy right, they were put in buriall. And almightie God in the olde Lawe, didde requyre that all his Sacrifices, should bee offered with fire, and that fire,* shoulde euer burne on the Altar, which also among the Romanes, the Priests of Vesta, didde alwayes keepe bur∣ning.

As for the Earth, it is the Bace, and the Foundation of all the Ele∣mentes: for it is the obiect, the sub∣iect, and the receiuer, of all the beames and influences of heauen. It contay∣neth in it the seedes, and seminall ver∣tues of all things, therefore is she called Animall, Uegetall, and Minerall, which béeing made fruitfull by all the other Elementes and Heauens, is apte to beget all things. Of it selfe, it is receyuer of all fruitefulnesse, and as it were also, the first springing Pa∣rent of all things, the Center, foun∣dation, and mother of all things.

Take of it anye portion bée it neuer so secrete, washed, pourged and ground small, if thou lette it stande for a season abroade, by and by béeing made fruitefull by the power of the Heauens, and as it were great with young, bringeth foorth from it plants, wormes, lyuing creatures, Stones, and also brighte sparckles of met∣talles.

Therein are excéeding great se∣creates. If at anye time it be pourged by the workemanshippe of fire, and brought to his singlenesse, by due wash∣ing. It is the first matter of our creation and the truest medicine of our restau∣ration and preseruation.

¶Of the wonderfull natures of the Water, the Aire, and the Windes. Chapter. 6.

THE other two Elementes, are of no lesse power, to wit, Wa∣ter, and Ayre, neyther doeth Nature cease to worke in them wonderfull thinges. For so great is the necessi∣tye of Water, that without it, no li∣uing creature can lyue, no hearbe, nor Plant, without the moystening of Page  [unnumbered] water, can burgen or bud forth. In it is the seminarie vertue of all things, first of liuing creatures, whose seede is ma∣nifest to be watrye: and although the seedes of shrubs and hearbes are earth∣ly, yet it must néedes be, that they must be corrupted with water, if they are to be fruitefull, whether it come to passe, through ye imbibed moisture of ye earth, or through dew or rain; or through wa∣ter of purpose put vnto it: for water and earth alone, are described by Moses, to bring forth a lyuing soule: but to the water be appoynteth a two folde bring∣ing forth, to wit of things swimming in the water, and of things flieng in the aire aboue the earth. Moreouer, of things brought forth of ye earth, part are bound to the water. The same the Scripture doth testifie saieng: That after the cre∣ation, shrubs and plants budded not, be∣cause God had not rained vpon ye earth. So great is the power of the Element, that the spirituall regeneration cannot be without water, as Christ himselfe witnessed to Nichodemus. There is al∣so an excéeding great force thereof, in religion, in purgings, and purifications, and of no lesse necessitie than of ye fire. The commodities thereof are infinite, and vse manifold; and all things do con∣sist of the power thereof, as that which hath the force of begetting, nourishing, and increasing. Wherevpon Thales Mi∣lecius and Hesiodus, did appoynt the water to be the beginning of all things, and sayd that it was the auncientest and the mightiest of all Elementes, because that it ruled ouer all the rest. For (as sayeth Pliny) the water deuoureth the earth, it quencheth ye fire, it clymbeth a∣loft, and by stretching abroad of clouds, it challengeth heauen vnto it, and the same fallyng downe, is the cause of all things growing vpon the earth. There are innumerable wonders of water, set forth by Pliny, Solinus, and many Hi∣storians. Of whose wonderfull vertue also. Ouid maketh mention in these vearses.

*AT noonetide, horned Hamon, doth, thy water cleere, wexe colde:
and wexeth hot when Sunne doth set, and eke the daye vnfolde.
Report doth goe, the water of Athainas sets on fire wood when the Moone doth wane, and into small Orbes doth retire.
The Creones a riuer haue, which dronke, doth stonie make the entrailis, and doth harden all, that of the moysture take.
The riuer Crathis and Cibaris, that neere your quarters hee, doe make folkes hayre lyke Amber, and lyke golde as is to see.
And which more meruayle is, there are that haue great power to change, not bodyes onely, but mindes also: which is a thing full strange.
Who hath not heard of water fowle, that Salmacis doe breede: and of the lakes of Aethiope, which makes men madde indeede:
Or bringeth them to deadly sleept, if they thereof doe drinke.
Who so doth seeke to quench his thrill, at Clitorius brinke,
He shunneth wine, and ioyeth still, in water cleere alone.
Then runneth out Lincestus streame, like vnto which is none:
Whereof who so with measure doth, receiue within his brest, faltreth as the Dronkards doe, which pure wine esteeme best.
There is a lake in Arcadie, Pheneus hight of olde, suspected for the doubtfull streames, in which be not too bolde,
By night, at what time who so drinkes, they hurt, but not by daye.

Moreouer Iosephus maketh menti∣on, of the wonderfull nature of a cer∣taine riuer, running betwéene Archea, & Raphanea, Cities of Siria, which runne with their full chanell, during ye whole Saboth, by and by as it were fayling through the stopping of the fountaines, for sixe whole dayes together, a man may passe drye shod, through the chan∣nell, and againe the seauenth daye, the Page  167 causes of nature being not knowen it returneth to the former abundaunce of water, wherefore the inhabitants call it Sabbatheus, by reason of the vii. daye, holy among the Iewes, and the Gospell doeth beare vs witnesse, of the Pro∣batica the fish ponde,* into the which af∣ter the water was moued by the An∣gell, he which first came into it was de∣lyuered of what disease soeuer. The same vertue and power is read to haue of the Nimphes Iomdes, which was in the territorie of the Aelians,* by the riuer Cytheron into the which, he that went with a sicke body, went out of it whole and sound, without any griefe of body. Pausanias reporteth that there is in Liceum a Mountaine in Arcadia,* a fountaine which was called Agria, vn∣to the which, as often as the drouth of the Countrey did threaten spoyle to the Corne, the Priests of Iupiter Liceus, entring after sacrifice offered, worship∣ing the holy water, with holy prayers, holding a braunch of Oke in his hand, thrust it downe into the water. Then the water being moued, the vapour bée∣ing from thence lifted vp into the ayre, became clowds, which méeting together, did ouercast all the skie, which not long after, tourning into raine, did wholsom∣ly water the whole region. But concer∣ning the miracles of water, besides ma∣ny other Authours, Ruffus Ephesius, a Phisition, hath written wonderous things, and found in no other Authour that I know of: it remaineth to speak of the aire. This is a vitall spirite, go∣ing through all things that are, giuing life to all things, and making them to stand together, binding, mouing, and fil∣ling all things. Héerevpon the Doctors of the Hebrewes, doe not recken it a∣mong the Elementes, but as it were a meane & a gliew, ioyning diuers things in one together, and reckoning it as it were the resounding spirite of ye worlds instrument: for he doth next of all con∣ceiue in himselfe, the influence of all ce∣lestiall things, and doeth communicate as well with other Elements, as with euery mixed thing, and doth no lesse re∣ceiue & retaine in him as it were a cer∣taine heauenly glasse, the shape, forme & kinde of all things, as well naturall, as artificiall, and of speaches whatsoeuer: & carrieng them with him, & imprinting in them, as well in sleepe as in waking, the bodies of men and liuing creatures, doth enter in through the poores, and ministreth matter of sundry wonderful dremes, diuinations & soothsaiengs. Héer∣of also men saieth,* that it commeth to passe, why one passing by a place, in the which a man hath bene slaine, or a car∣kasse newly hidden, doth tremble with feare and dread: because the ayre bée∣ing there full of horrible shapes of mur∣thering, doth moue and trouble the spi∣rite of the man, whilest together it is drawen in, with ye lyke shapes & formes, whereof it hapneth that feare insueth, for euery sodaine impression doeth astonish nature. For this cause, manye Philoso∣phers haue supposed, that the aire is the cause of dreames, and of manye other impressions of the soule, by the bring∣ing of shapes, similitude, or showes, which are fallen from thi••s, and spea∣ches multiplied in the very aire, vntill they come to ye senses, & at length to the fantasie and soule of the receiuer, to wit, that soule, which being cléere frō cares, & not letted, & méeting with such shapes, is by thē instructed, for ye shapes of things, although of their owne nature, they be brought to ye senses of men & liuing cre∣atures, yet from heauen while they are in the aire, they may get some impressi∣on, whereby together with the aptnesse, they are rather caried from the disposi∣tion of the receiuer, to the sense of one, then of another. And for this it is pos∣sible, that naturally & without all super∣stition, by ye meanes of no spirit, a man may in a very short space declare to a man, the conceit of his minde, be the di∣stāce & dwelling neuer so far: although ye time wherin this hapneth cannot possi∣bly be mesured, yet within 24. houres yt must néedes be done, and I know how to doe it. Moreouer, the Abbot Triteni∣us, in times past knowe it and did it, And how certaine shapes not onely spi∣rituall but also naturall, do flowe from things, by influēce of bodies frō bodies, Page  [unnumbered] and doe waye strong in the verye ayre, and doe offer and shew themselues vn∣to vs,* by light and by mouing, both to the sight, and to other senses also, and sometimes do worke maruailous things in vs, as Platinus doth proue & teach.

And we doe sée, how when the South winde bloweth, the aire is thickned in∣to thinne clowdes, in the which as in a glasse the Images being farre distant, of Castles, of mountaines, of horses and men, and of other things, are reflected, which immediately at the falling of the clowdes vanish awaye. And Aristotle in his Meteors, doth declare the cause, for that the raine bowe is gathered in a clowde of the aire, from a certaine simi∣litude of a looking glasse. And Albert sayth, that the shapes of bodyes by the force of nature, may easely be expressed in the moyst aire, after the same sorte, that ye Images of things are in things. And Aristotle reporteth, that it happe∣ned to one, through weakenesse of his sight, that the next ayre vnto him was his glasse, and the visible raie or beame, was striken backe vnto him, and could not enter: wherevpon which waye hée went, he thought that his Image went before him face to face: likewise by the skilfull workmanship of certaine glas∣ses, the Images which we will see in the aire, are also cast a far off out of the glosses, which then ignorant men séeing, suppose that they sée the shaddowes of spirits or ghosts, whereas for all that they are none such, but certaine Images like to themselues, and voyde of all life. And it is knowen if a man be in a dark place and voyde of all lyght, sauing that some where the Sunne beame enter in through a very lyttle hoale, if a péece of white paper be put vnderneath it, or a plaine glasse, those things are séene in it, which abroade the Sunne giues lyght vnto. And there is another illusion more meruailous, where when Images are painted by a certaine workmanship, or letters written,* a man in a cléere night, doth set them against the beames of the full Moone, through whose images mul∣tiplied in the aire, and drawen vp, and cast backe, together with the beames of the Moone, some other man being priuie to the matter a great wayes off, séeth, readeth, and knoweth them, in the very dish or circle of the Moone: which doubt∣lesse is very profitable skill to bewray secrets, to cities and townes besieged, in times past, practised by Pythagoras, and at this day not vnknowen to some, and to my selfe. And all these things, & greater, are grounded vpon the very na∣ture of the aire, and haue theyr reasons out of Mathematike and Optike.* And as these Images, are reflected to ye sight, so are they often times to the hearing, which is manifest in the Ecko. But they haue more hidden workmanships and skilles, that a man also a farre off, may heare and vnderstande what ano∣ther speaketh and whispereth in secret.

The windes also consist of the Ele∣ment of the aire, for they are nothing els than the ayre moued & stirred. Of these ther are foure principalls, blowing from the 4. quarters of heauen, to wit, Notus from the South, Boreas from the North, Zephyrus from the West, and Apelio∣tes or Eurus, from the East: Which Pontanus comprehending in these two pretie verses sayth.

A summo Boreas, Notus imo spirat Olympo.
Occasum insedit Zephirus, venit Eurus ab ortu.
Fell Boreas blowes from heauens high, but Notus blowes his blast
From lowest part: Zephire from West: Eurus from East doth cast.

The South winde is meridionall, clowdie, moyst, hot and sicklye, which Ierome calleth the butler of raine, and Ouid thus describes him.

The South winde flyeth with moist wings, hauing his terrible countenance couered with pitchie blacknes, his beard is loaden with showers, water floweth from his hoare haires, clowdes sitteth vpon his browe, and his fethers and bo∣some are wet.

And Boreas being contrarye to No∣tus, is a Northerly winde, vyolent and sounding, and shril, which scattering the clowdes, maketh the aire cléere, and frée∣seth the water.

Page  168Ouid bringeth him in speaking of himselfe in this sort: Apta mihi vis est, &c. I haue an apte or fit force where∣with I driue away sad clowds, I shake the Seas, and ouerthrow currey Dakes, I harden clowdes, and I driue downe hayle vnto the earth. I my selfe, when I haue gotten my brothers in the open aire (for that is my fielde) I striue and struggle with so great indeuour, that the middle of the aire doth ring with my shaking, and sixe leapeth out of ye hol∣low clowdes. Euen I when I haue en∣tered into the round holes of ye earth, & haue fiercely set my back vnder chinkes below. I stir vp spirites (I make ye Di∣uell to stir) & set the whole world in a shaking.

But Zephyrus ye West winde, which is also called Fauonius, is verye light, bloweth from ye west, & brething pleasant∣ly, is cold and moist, thawing frosts, and snow, & bringing forth grasse & flowers. Contrary to this is Eurus, which also is termed Subsolanus & Apeliotes,* blow∣ing from ye East: this winde is watry & clowdy, & of a swifte deuouring nature. Of these; thus singeth Ouid, Eurus ad Auroram, &c.

Eurus goeth to Aurora, & to ye king∣dome of Nabathium, to Persia, & to the quarters lieng vnder the beames of the morning. The euening & the sea show∣ers, which are warme with ye Sun goo∣ing downe, are next to Zephirus. And shiuering Boreas inuadeth Scythia, & the 7. starres. The contrary ground is moi∣stened with continuall showers & raine from the South.

¶Of the kindes of things compound∣ed, what relation they haue to the elements, & how the Elements thē∣selues, agree with the soule, senses, and manners.

*AFter ye 4. simple elements, immediat∣ly follow 4. kinds of perfected things cōpouned of thē, which are stones, met∣tals, plāts & liuing creatures: & albeit to ye generation of euery of them, all Ele∣ments do agrée in composition: yet eue∣ry of them, doth follow and imitate one principall element, for all stones are earthly, for by nature they are heauy & descend, & are to framed by drouth that they cannot be molten. But mettalls are waterish, and apte to flowe, and which naturall Philosophers confesse, & Alcumistes do proue, are ingendered of a viscus or slimie water, or els of wate∣rish quick siluer: so plants agrée with the aire, that vnlesse they burgen vp a∣broad, they proue not: so all liuing crea∣tures haue a firie force, & a heuenly be∣ginning, & fire doth touch them so néere, that when it is quenched, immediately all the lyfe doth faile. Againe, eueryone of those kindes is seuered in it selfe, by ye degrées of elements, for among stones they chiefly are called earthly, which are duschie and heauy: and waterie, which are cléere or maye be seene through, and which do consist of water, the Christal, Berell, the Pearle in shells: and they are airie, which do swim vpon the wa∣ter and are spongeous, as the Sponge, the Pomis, and the Tophus. There bée that are firie, out of the which fire is set, and sometimes is resolued into it, or are ingendred of it, as the vnder stone, the stone called Pyretes, & as Abeston. Likewise among mettalls, lead and sil∣uer are earthly, quicksiluer is waterish, copper & tinne are airie, gold & yron are firie. In plants also the rootes doe imi∣tate the earth, by reson of their thicknes: the leaues the water, by reason of their iuyce: the floures the aire, by reason of their subtiltie: the seedes the fire, by re∣son of their begetting spirit. Moreouer, some are called hot, some colde, some moyst, some dry, and borrowing to them the names of the elements from their qualities. Among liuing things, some are more earthy than others,* and inha∣bite the bowells of the earth, as worms called Easses, Moles, and many créeping things: some are watrie, as fishes: some are airie, which cannot liue out of the aire, as the Birde of Paradise, and the Camelion. There are also that are fie∣rie, as the Salamander, and certaine Crickets: and which haue a certayne fierye heate, as Pigeons, Ostriges, Lyons, and those, which the wise man Page  [unnumbered] calleth, beast breathing out a fierie va∣pour. Moreouer in lyuing creatures, the bones represent the Earth, the slesh the Aire, the vitall spirit the Fire, and the humours the Water: and these also are diuided or parted by the Elementes, for red cholar giueth place to the Fire, bloud to the aire, fleame to the water, blacke choler to the earth. To conclude, in the very soule, as August. witnesseth; the vnderstanding representeth ye fire, re∣son the aire, imagination, the water, and the scuses the earth. And these also a∣mong themselues are diuided by Ele∣mentes, for the sight is firie, neither can it perceiue without fire and lyght: the hearing is airie, for sounde is made by the striking of the aire: but smell & tast are referred to the water, without whose humour, there can be no sauour nor smell: to conclude, all the touchings is earthly, and requireth grose bodyes.

Moreouer, the deedes and operations of men, are gouerned by the Elementes: for a slowe and heauy moouing, betoke∣neth the earth: feare, sluggishnesse, and a lyther worke, signifieth water: chéere∣fulnesse and friendly manners, the aire: a sharpe and an angry vyolence, the fire. Wherefore the Elements are the first of all things, and all things are of them, and according vnto them, and they in all things, and through all things, spred abroad their force.

How the Elements are in the heauens, in the starres, in spirits, in Angels, finally in God himselfe.

*THE consenting opinion of all the Platonikes is, that euen as in the worlde, béeing the chiefe patterne, all are in all: so also in this corporall world, all thinges are in all, yet in diuers manners, to wit, according to the na∣ture of ye receiuers: so also the elements, are not onely in these inferiour bodies, but also in the heauens, in the starres, in spirites and Angelles, to conclude, in God himselfe, the worker and chiefe pa∣trone of all. But in these earthlye bo∣dyes, the Elements are certaine grose formes, drowned matters, and material elements. But in the heauens, the ele∣ments are through their natures and strengths: to wit, in a heauenlye man∣ner, and much more excellent then be∣neath the Moone: for there is a heauen∣ly massinesse of the earth, without the grosenesse of the water: and an agilitie of the aire, farre from fleeting abroad: the heate of the fire is ther no burning but shining, and quickening all thinges by his heate. Moreouer of the starres, Mars and Sol are fierie, Iupiter & Ve∣nus airie, Saturne and Mercury wate∣rish, and they are earthlye, which inha∣bite the eight Orbe, and the Moone also, (which notwithstanding,* of most men is thought to be waterie) forasmuch, as lyke to the earth it draweth vnto it the waters of heauen, with the which, shee being moystened, doth through the néer∣nesse, poure them vpon vs, and makes vs pertakers of them. There are also among the Signes some herie, some earthly, some airie, some watrie, and the elements rule in the heuens those soure triplicities, distributing to them the be∣ginning, the middle, the ende of euerye Element: so Aries hath the beginning of fire, Leo the proceeding and increase, and Sagittarius the ende of fire: Tau∣rus hath the beginning of earth, Virgo the procéeding, Capricornus the ende: Gemini hath the beginning of aire, Li∣bra the procéeding, Aquarius the ende. Cancer possesseth the beginning of wa∣ter, Scorpio the middle, Pisces the ende. Wherefore of the mixtions of these pla∣nets and signes, together with the Ele∣ments, are wrought all bodyes: and be∣sides spirites by this meanes are diui∣ded one from another, that some are cal∣led firie, some earthly, some airie, some watrie. Héerevpon those foure riuers in Hell, are sayd to be of diuers natures, so wit, Phlegethon firie, Cocytus ayrie, Styx watrye, Acheron earthly. And in the gospell we read of the fire of hell, an euerlasting fire (into the which the accursed shall be commaunded to goe). And in the Reuelation we read of the great poole of fire. And Isaias speaketh of the damned,* The Lorde shall strike them with corrupt aire.

Page  169And in Iob, They shall passe from ye wa∣ters of snow, to ouermuch heate. And in the same we read, of the darke earth, and couered with the dimnesse of death, of the earth of misery & darknes. Ther∣fore also these Elements are placed, in the Angels & blessed intelligences, which are aboue, without the compasse of this world: for there is in them a stablenes of essence, & an earthly force, whereby the seates of God are made strong: there is in them also gentlenesse & pitie, which is a watry vertue making cleane. Héer∣vpon the Psalmist speketh of ye waters, where of heauen he saith, Which rulest the waters that are aboue him. There are also in them aire, which is a subtill spirit: & loue, which is a bright fire. For this cause, the holy scripture calleth them the wings of the winde, & els where the Psalmist speaketh of them thus, Which makest thy Angells spirits, & thy Mini∣sters a burning fire. Of the orders of Angels also, the Seraphin, the Vertues, & the Powers are firie: ye Cherubin earth∣ly: the Thronenes & Archangels watry: the Dominationes & Principalities ay∣rie. And concerning the very chiefe Pa∣trone, worker of al things, is it not read? Let the earth be opened, and bud forth a Sauior. Is it not said of the same? The fountaine of the water of life, cleansing and regenerating. Is not the same the spirit breathing ye breath of life. And the same also as Moses & Paule doe testifie, is a consuming fire. Wherefore no man can deny, that the elements are found e∣uery where & in all things in their man∣ner. First in these inferiour bodies, but dredgie & grose, in ye heuenly bodies pure & cleane: & in the super celestiall bodies liuely and blessed on euery side. Where∣fore the elements in the chiefe Patron, are the Idee, or conceits of things to be brought forth: in ye intelligenties, ye••os∣red powers: in the heauens, ye vertues: in the bodies beneath, the groset formes.

Of the vertues of naturall things, next of all depending of the Elements.

*OF the vertues of naturall thinges, some are Elementall, as to make warme, to make cold, to make moyst, to make dry: & are called the first operati∣ons or qualities, & according vnto Arle. For these qualities alone, doe altogether alter the substance, which none of the o∣ther qualities can do, but some are in the things making, cōpounding such by the elements, euen beyond the first qualities, as are Maturatiue, digestiue, resolutiue, mollificatiue, induratiue, stiptike, ab∣stersiue, corasiue, caustic, apertiue, eua∣poratiue, comfortatiue, mitigatiue, con∣glutinatiue, opilatiue, expulsiue, reten∣tiue, attractiue, repercussiue, stupisac∣tiue, elargetiue, lubrisicatiue, & many o∣thers: for the elementall qualitie hath much to do in mixture, which worketh not by it selfe: & these operations Quali∣tates secondariae, because they follow na∣ture & the measure of the mixture of the first vertues, euen as of them at large it is handled, in the bookes of Phisitions, as Maturation or ripening, which is the working of naturall heate. according to a certaine measure in ye substance of the matter. Induration or hardening is the working of coldnes, likewise also, Con∣gellation, & so likewise also of the lyke. And these operations do somtime worke vpon ye limited mēber, as prouoking v∣rine, or milk, or ye menstrual, & are called the 3. qualities which solow ye fecond, as ye second do ye first. Wherefore according to these first, second & third qualities ma∣ny diseases are cured and caused. Many things also are done by Art, which men do much wonder at, as is ye fire, burning water, as in ye fire Ignis Grecus. Many cōpositions whereof Aristotle teacheth in a treatise written héerof. In like ma∣ner, ther is also made a sire yt is quench∣ed in oyle, & is kindled with colde water when it is sprinkled vpō it, & fire which is kindled wt raine or wind, or with the sun: and ther is a fire called Aqua ardens, which is very well knowen, & wasteth nothing but it selfe: & ther are vnquench∣able fires, & continual lamps, which can∣not be quenched wt wine, nor water, nei∣ther by any meanes: which séemeth alto∣gether incredible, if it had not ben for ye famous lampe yt once gaue light in the temple of Venus, wherin ye stone Bestus did burne,* which being once kindeled, is neuer quenched. Cōtrariwise also is pre∣pared Page  [unnumbered] some thing apt to burne yt it may not be hurt by fire: & ther are made con∣fections, with which the hands being an∣nointed, we may carry yron red hot, or put yt hand in molten mettall, or to goe into the fire without any harme, & such like: & ther is a kinde of hempe or flare,* which Pliny calleth Asbestū, ye Greeks terme it Asbeston, which is not consu∣med with fire: wherof Anaxelaus saith, that a tree yt is therwith inuironed, is fel∣led with deafe strokes, and that are not heard.

Of the hidden vertues of things.

*THere are moreouer other vertues in things, which belong not to any E∣lement, as to put away poyson, to driue away carbuckles or botches, to draw y∣ron, or some such other thing: & this ver∣tue is ye sequell of the kinde or forme of this thing or yt thing. Wherfore also in a small quantitie, it hath no small effect in working, which is not graunted to ye e∣lementall qualitie. For these vertues be∣cause they depend much vpon the forme, therefore with a very small, matter, they can do very much: but ye elemental ver∣tue because it is materiall, doth desire much ••ster to doe much. And they are called hidden properties,* because theyr causes are hidden, so yt mans vnderstan∣ding is not able in any wise to finde thē out. Wherfore ye Philosophers haue at∣tained to a very great parte of them by long experience, more than by ye search of reason. For as in ye stomack yt meate is digested by heate which we know: so is it transformed by a certaine hidden ver∣tue which we knowe not, not by heate truly,* for so in the chimney at the fire it should rather be transformed, than in the stomack: so are there in things, qualities, overthrowing ye elements, as we know, and are so created by Nature which we wonder at, and oftentimes are ama∣sed yt we know them not or seldome, or neuer sée them, as it is read in Ouid of the Phoenix, a bird alone, among all o∣thers renewing hir selfe.

There is one bird that repaireth hir selfe, and eft soones soweth hir selfe, the Assyrians call hir Phoenix, and in ano∣ther place, the Aegyptians méete toge∣ther at the wonder of so great a sight, & their reioycing companye saluteth the rare birde.

In times past, one Matreas made the Greekes and the Romanes greatlye to wonder at him: he said that he brought vp a wilde beast, yt which deuoured him∣selfe: wherefore also at this day, many do yet carefully search out, what yt wilde beast of Matreas may be. Who doth wō∣der at fishes digged out of the earth, of the which Aristotle, Theophrastus and Polibus the Historian, haue written, and that which Pausanias hath written, of singing stones, are all workes of hidden vertues. So the bird called an Ostridge, doth digest cold and hard yron to the no∣rishment of his body, whose stomacke is said, not to be hurt with burning yron. So that little fish called Echines, doth so bridle the violence of the windes, and tame the rage of the sea, that how cruel soeuer the stormes are, be there neuer so many sailes full of winde, yet with his touching alone, he doth so calme & cōpell ye ships to stand, yt by no means they can moue: so yt Salamāder & the crickets liue in the fire, & albeit they séeme somtimes to burne, yet are they not hurt. The like matter is said to be of a certaine Bitu∣men like to Pitch, wherewith the wea∣pons of the Amazons are saide to haue bene smeared ouer, which is taken a∣way neither with sword nor fire: wher∣with also, the gates of Caspia, made of brasse, is fabulously reported, to haue ben varnished ouer by Alexander Magnus. With the lyke Bitumen also, ye Arke of Noe, is read to haue ben glued together, continuing yet from so many thousande yeares vpon the Mountaines of Arme∣nia. There are manye other of these meruayles scarcely credible, but yet are knowen true by experience. Such as an∣tiquitie hath lefte in writing of the Sa∣tyres, which lyuing creatures doe con∣sist of a shape halfe like a man, and halfe like a beast, yet capable of speach & rea∣son, one of which, Saint Hierome re∣porteth did once speake to Saint Anto∣ny the hermit, & did condemne in him yePage  170 errour of the Gentiles, in worshipping of liuing creatures, & did pray him, that he would pray to the common God for him: & affirmeth, that one of them in times past, was brought openly aliue to be seene, & immediately was sent to the Emperour Constantine.

¶ How hidden vertues are powred in∣to the kindes of things from the I∣dee, or conceipts through the resons of the soule of the world, & beames of the starres, and what things doe most of all abound in this vertue.

*THe Platonikes report, that all ye bo∣dyes belowe, are Ideadit or concei∣ted by the vppermost Idees or conceits: and they define an Idea to be one, sim∣ple, pure, vnchangeable, indiuisible, incor∣porall, & euerlasting forme aboue bodies, soules, & mindes, and the same to be the nature of all Ideas. And first they place the Idees, in ye very goodnes it selfe, that is in God, by the manner of the cause, to be differing onely among themselues, by certaine relatiue reasons: least whatso∣euer is in the world, shuld be alone with out any varietie, and yet to agrée among themselues in essence, that God may not be a manifold substance. Secondly, they place them in the very intelligible part, that is in the soule of the world, proper∣ly by formes, & moreouer differing one from another in perfect formes: so that all the Idee or conceipts in God, are one forme, but in the soule of ye world many: they are placed in the mindes folowing or ioined to the body, or seuered from the body, seuered now more & more by a cer∣taine participation, & by degrées: they place in nature, as it were certaine seeds of formes below infused from the Idee. Finally, they place them in the matter, as shadowes. Besides this, there are so many seminall reasons of things in the world, as there be Idees or conceites in the diuine minde, by the which reasons, it hath builded it selfe in the heuens, be∣yond the starres euen shapes, and hath imprinted properties in them all. Wher∣fore of those stars, figures & properties, al the vertues & properties of kindes be∣low do depend, so that euery kinde, hath a celestiall figure agreeing vnto him: from whence also, proceedeth vnto him, a meruailous power in working, which proper endowment, it receiueth frō his Idea, by the seminall reasons of ye soule of the world. For the Idea or conceites are not onely the causes of the beeing of any kinde, but also are the causes of eue∣ry vertue, that is in such a kinde. And this is the cause that many of the Phi∣losophers saye, that by certaine vertues, to wit, hauinge a certaine and a stable reason, not of chaunce, or casuall, but effectuall, but mightie and not fay∣lyng, working nothing in vayne, no∣thing without purpose, the vertues being in the nature of things are moued, which vertues doubtlesse are the operations of the Idee, which fall not, but be accident, to wit, through the impuritie and vne∣qualitie of the matter. For after this sort things euen of one kinde, are founde more or lesse mightie, according to the impurity or misorder of the matter. For all ye influences of the heauens may bée hindred by the vnabilytie of the matter. Wherefore the Platonikes vsed to say in a Prouerbe, that the heauenly vertues are infused, according to the merit of the matter: whereof also Virgil maketh mention when he singeth.

Igneus est ollis vigor, & coelestis origo:
Seminibus quantum non noxia corpo∣ra tradunt.

Those seedes haue so much fierie force and heauenly beginning, as the vnhurt∣full bodies doe slacken: wherfore those things in the which the Idea of ye mat∣ter is not dipped, that is, which receiue greater similitude of seuered things, haue more mightie vertues in operati∣on, like to the operation of the seuered Idea or conceit. Wherefore the sight of heauenly things, is the cause of all the noble vertue, that is in the kindes be∣lowe.

¶ How to get ones owne Genius, and to seecke out his nature.

AS in heauenly things euery countrey hath a certaine star & heuenly image,*Page  [unnumbered] giuing influence, to it more then other: so also in supercelestiall things, it get∣teth a certaine intelligencie & vnderstā∣ding, ruling & desending it, with infinite other ministring spirits or Demones of his order, which with a common name, Beni Heloim Sabaoth, that is, ye sonnes of the God of hoasts. For this cause, as often as the most highest doth determine of any warre, slaughter, desolation of a∣ny kingdome, & subduing of any people, in these lowermost parts, then no other∣wise, then these things shoulde come to passe vppon the earth, there goeth be∣fore a conflict of those spirites aboue, as it is written in Esay, Vicitabit vnto in terra: of which conflict of spirits & rulers we also read in Dan. 10. to wit, of the Prince of the Kingdome of the Persi∣ans, of the Prince of the Greekes, of the Prince of the People of Israel, and their conflict together, whereof also in times past Homer séemeth to haue writ∣ten.

Tantus Coelesti rumor, precrebuit Aula,
Cum saeua alterni ruerunt, in praelia Diui.
Neptunum contra bellabat Phoebus A∣pollo.
Aduersus Martem certabat Pallas A∣thenae.
Iunoni obstiterat bello pharetrata Di∣ana.
Latonam telis volucer Cyllenius vr∣get.
So great a rumour was in heauens court aboue,
When that the Gods together rusht, in cruell bloudy warre.
Then did the God Apollo sight, a∣gainst God of the Sea.
Pallas also Athena hight, against Mars did contend.
Diana with hir bowe and shaftes, resisted Iunos force.
And Mercury did with his Dartes, Latona sore assaile.

Notwithstanding forsomuch as in e∣uery country there are all kindes of spi∣rits & Demones: yet those are ther strō∣ger then the rest, which are of the same order with the ruler of that region. So in the region of the sunne, the spirits of the sunne are of more force than the rest. In the region of the Moone, those spirites of the Moone: and so of the residue. And héerof it ariseth & followeth, that when we change places & countries, diuers e∣uents of our matters and affaires ofter themselues & followe, els where, héere or there, more fortunate: to wit, where the Demon or Genius shall haue grea∣ter power: or we shall get ther a stron∣ger Demon of the same order. So men borne vnder the sunne, if they goe into a countrie or prouince, where the Sunne ruleth, that is vnder the sunne, become there much more fortunate, because they shall haue there, their guides or Genij stronger, & more profitable: by whose ex∣cellent rule in that place, all their mat∣ters oftentimes are brought to happie endes, euen contrary to opinion and the measure of their strength. Héereof it is, that ye choice of ye place, countrie, & time, where a man doth exercise himselfe, ac∣cording to the nature and extinct of his Genius, and also dwelleth and haunteth, doth very much auaile to the happinesse of his life. Moreouer, the chaunging of his name oftentimes doth auayle, for séeing that the properties of names, are the declarer of things, as it were by a glasse, declaring the conditions of theyr formes. Thereof it commeth to passe, that the names being altered, it hapneth oftentimes, that the things are altered. Héerevpon the holy Scripture not with∣out cause, bringeth in God, when hee went about to blesse Abram and Iacob, to chaunge their names, to call the one Abraham and the other Israel. And the wise men of auncient time do teach one to knowe the nature of euerye mans Genius by the starres, and their influ∣ence, and by the aspectes of the same, which are in euery ones natiuitie: but with such diuers and contrarie doctrine among themselues, that it is very hard for a man, to be able to take out of their handes these Sacramentes of the Hea∣uens. For Porphirus sheweth out the Genius by the starre being mysteries of the genitour.

Page  171But Maternus séeketh them out, ei∣ther thereby or by the Planets, which haue there many dignities, or either by him, whose house the Moone shall enter into, after yt which she possesseth when a man is borne. And the Chaldees sear∣cheth not out the Genius, but by ye sun, or by the Moone. But others, and many of the Hebrewes, thinke good to searche him out of some quarter of the heuens, or of them all. Other séeke for the good Genius, from the 11. house, which there∣fore they call Bonus Demon, & require the naughtie Genius from the 6. house, which they call Malus Demon. Where∣fore séeing the search of these is verye painfull and secret, we shall much more easely search out the nature of our Ge∣nius by our selues, heedefullye working those things, which our minde doth pre∣mit vs, from our first age diuersly dra∣wen with no cōtagions, or those things which the minde being pourged from vaine cares, and sinister affections, im∣pediments being layd aside: the minde also doth prompt, the instinct of nature doth teach, and heauen incline. These without doubt are the perswasions of the Genius, which is giuen euerye man from the beginning of his natiuitie, lea∣ding vs, and (perswading) vs to that, wherevnto his starre doth enclyne vs.

The Starre is but the instrument, the Planet is the same:
The signes also doth represent, Iehouas mightie name.
In that all things created weare, each other to supply:
The strong, each feeble doth vpreare, who can the same deny.
As God is soule to euery man, and life to creatures all:
So rules he them that ruleth vs, when starres by name he call.
Disdaine not then the noble skill of Planets course and tide:
For they doe rule thee by Gods will, yet God is still thy guide.
The gift of thine immortall state, is faith to God aboue:
Which teacheth thee by reason heere, how God imparts his loue.

Glis. in lib. ani.

¶That euery man hath 3. keepers, and from whence each of them procee∣deth.

EUerye man hath a thrée-folde good Demon for his keeper,* the one holy, the other of his begetting, the thirde of his profession. The holy Demon accor∣ding to ye learning of the Aegyptians, is assigned to yt reasonable soule, descēding not from the stars nor planets, but frō the supernall cause (euen from God, the very ruler of ye Demones or Angels, & is vniuersall aboue nature. This Demon directeth ye life of ye soule, & doth alwaies minister good thoughts to ye minde, con∣tinually working in vs by illumining, although we do not alwaies mark him, but when we are purged, & liue quiet∣ly, then we perceiue him, then he doeth as it were speake with vs, & doth make vs pertakers of his voyce, being present before, in silence, & doth alwaies studie to bring vs vnto a holy perfection. By the help of this Demon also, men maye auoid ye mallice of desteny, which if hée be religiously worshipped of vs, in ho∣nestie & holines, which we knew Socra∣tes did. And ye Platonikes think, he doth wonderfully help vs, by dremes, tokēs, & signes, & putting away euill things, and carefully procuring vs good things: wherfore ye Pithagorians were wont to pray to Iupiter, yt he wold deliuer them from euill, or would shew thē frō what Demon might be performed. The De∣mon of begetting, which also is called Genius, doth descend from ye disposition of the world, & from the starcy circuits, which are occupied in generation. Ther be some which thinketh, yt the soule bee∣ing now about to descende into ye body, doth naturallye choose vnto himselfe, a kéeper out of the company of yt Demo∣nes, and not so much to choose vnto him this guide, as againe also, to be wished by him to defend him. This Demon be∣ing ye executor & kéeper of life, doth win life vnto ye body, & when it is in ye body, hath a care of it, & helpeth man for the very same office, to yt which, ye heuenly bodies haue appointed him in his birth. Whosoeuer then haue receiued a fortu∣nate Genius, are made in their workes Page  [unnumbered] vertuous, mightie, & prosperous, where∣fore of the Philosophers, they are sayd, to be Bene fortunati, or Bene nati. The Demon of profession is giuen by the starres to whom such a profession or sent, is subiect, which any man shall professe, that the soule sometimes, doth priuelye wish, when now in this body, he hath be∣gun to vse choyce, & hath put on man∣ners. This Demon is chaunged when the profession is changed, & according to the worthines of the profession, they are present with vs, more worthy, and also more higher Demones of profession, which successiuely haue a care of yt mā, which daily getteth this & that Demon of profession, as he doth climbe vp from vertue to vertue. Wherefore when pro∣fession doth agrée with our nature, there is present with vs, the like Demon of profession, and agréeable with our Ge∣nius, & the life is made more quyet, hap∣py and prosperous. But when we take vpon vs a profession vnlyke or contra∣ry to the Genius, our life is made labo∣rious, & troubled with iarring aiders, so commeth it to passe, that some man may profit in some Science, or Art, or mini∣stery, in short space and labor, which in other things he laboureth in vaine, with much weale & studie, and although no Science, no Art, no vertue, be to be dis∣pised, yet to the end thou maist, liue pro∣sperously, & deale luckely, chiefly knowe thy good Genius, & thy good nature, and what good the disposition of ye heauens, and God the distributer of all these, doth promise these, which distributeth to eue∣ry one as him listeth: follow the begin∣ning of these, professe all these things, be occupied in that vertue, to the which the almightie distributer aduanceth thée and guydeth thée, who made Abraham excell in righteousnes & gentlenes, Isa∣ac in feare, Iacob in strength, Moses in meekenesse & miracles, Iosua in warre, Phines in zeale, Dauid in religion and victory, Solomon in knowledge & praise, Peter in faith, Iohn in charitie, Iames in deuotion, Thomas in wisdome, Mag∣dalen in contemplation, and Martha in seruice. Wherfore haue a care to climbe vnto the toppe of that vertue, wherein thou shalt féele thy selfe to profit easely, that thou maist perseuer in one, that art not able to perseuer in all: yet despise not as much as thou canst, to profit in ye rest, & if thou shalt haue agréeable kee∣pers of nature & profession, thou shalt feele & double profit & increase of nature & profession. But if they be vnlyke, fol∣low the better, for sometime thou shalt perteine more good to growe vnto thee by a worthy profession, then by thy birth or natiuitie.

¶How diuers vertues are infused into diuers indiuidualls, euen of one selfe kinde.

THere are also singular & wonderfull endowments as well in many of in∣diuidualls,* as in the specialls, euen from the figure of heauenly things & seituati∣on of the starres: for euery indiuidual, when he beginneth to be vnder a deter∣minate Horoscope & heauenly constel∣lation, draweth therwithall with his be∣ing, a certain wonderful vertue of wor∣king, & suffering a wōderfull thing, euen besides that whith it hath from his spe∣ciall, as well by ye influence of heauenly things, as by the obedience of ye matter, of things generable to the soule of the world, which doubtlesse is such, as the obedience to our bodies, is our soules: for we féele yt in our selues, which wée conceiue to euerye forme, cur bodye is mouch pleasantly, or fearfully, or by fli∣eng away: so oftentimes ye soule celesti∣all, when they conceiue diuers things, then ye matter is moued therevnto tho∣rough obedience. So in Nature, manye things appeare monsters, by ye imagina∣tions of ye vppermost mouings: so also, not only things naturall, but somtimes also things artificiall, conceiue diuers vertues, & this hapneth most of al, if the soule of ye worker bend it selfe thereto. Wherfore Auicenna saith, what things soeuer are done héere, they must néedes vs before in ye mouings & conceptions of the stars & Orbes: so are ther in things, diuers effects, inclinations & manners, not only framed by the varietie of the matter, but of the varietie of the influ∣ence, and of the diuersitie of the forme: Page  172 and this same not through ye specifical, but through ye perticular & proper diuersitie. And the degrées of those are diuersly di∣stributed by God, ye very first cause of al, (who continuing one selfe same, distri∣buteth to euery one as him listeth) with whom notwithstanding the second cau∣ses, & the Angelicall & the heauenly cau∣ses do worke, setting in order the bodily matter, & other things cōmitted to them charge, wherefore God infuseth all ver∣tues, through the soule of the worlde, yet by a peculiar vertue, of Images and ru∣ling intelligencies, & by a concourse & a certaine peculiar & harmonicall consent of the beames and aspects of the starres.

Stones. From whence the hid∣den vertues doe proceede

ALL men know that the Loadstone hath a certaine vertue,* wherewith hée draweth yron, & that the Diamond with his presence taketh away the vertue of ye Loadstone: so Amber & Geat, being rub∣bed & warmed, draweth chaffe or straw: The stone Abeston being kindled, is ne∣uer or scarcely quenched: The Carbun∣cle giueth light in darknesse: Aetites, or the Eagles stone being laid vppon, both strengthen the ofspring of women and plants, & laid vnderneth draweth them. The Iasper stone stancheth bloud: ye litle fish Eckines staieth a ship: Rubarb expel∣leth choler: The liuer of the Camelion burned vpon ye tiles of an house, rayseth raine and thunder. The stone Helitro∣pius doth dazle the ies & maketh him yt carrieth it inuisible. The stone Lincuri∣us taketh away illusions from the eyes. The fumigation of Lipparis, maketh al beasts to come abroad synochitides bri∣geth out the Ghosts below. Anachitides doth make the Images of heauenly bo∣dyes to appeare. Ennectis laid vnder thē which are a sléepe, maketh them to haue Oracles. There is an hearbe in Aethio∣pia, wherwith they report that standing pooles are dried, and all things shut are opened. And wee reade that the kings of the Persians gaue Embassadours the hearbe Latax, that wheresoeuer they came, they shuld haue store of all things. There is an hearb called Spartanica, or Herba Scytica, which beeing tasted or helpe in the mouth, they report, that the Scythians doe indure hunger and thirst .12. dayes together, and Apulei∣us sayth, That hée was taught by a di∣uine power, that there were many kind of hearbes and stones, by the which men might get them an euerlasting lyfe, but that it was not lawfull that men shuld haue the knowledge of them, who ly∣uing, but a small time, did gréedly séecke to doe mischiefe, and dare to attempt a∣nye wicked act, that if they should haue anye longer time, they would not spare God himselfe: but from whence these vertues are, none of them haue lefte in writing, that haue set forth greate vo∣lumes of the propertyes of things, not Hermes, not Pochas, not Aaron, not Orpheus, not Theophrastus, not The∣byth, not Zenothenus, not Zoroafter, not Enax, not Dioscorides, not Isaac the Iewe, not Zacharias of Babylon, not Albert, not Arnold, and yet all these haue confessed, as Zacharias wri∣teth to Mitridates, that theyr greate force, and mens destinies, are in the vertues of hearbes and stones, where∣fore a higher speculation is required, to know from whence these things doe come: Alexander the Peripaletike, not leauing his sences and qualyties, thinketh that these things procéedeth of the Elements and theyr qualities, which perchaunce might bée thought true, vn∣lesse these qualityes be of one selfe kind, and the operations of stones many, a∣gréeing neither in the kinde, nor in the kindred. Therefore the Accademikes with their Plato,* attribute these vertues to the Idee or causeites, the shapers or former of thinges. But Auicen∣na doth referre these operations to the intelligences, Hermes to the starrrs, Al∣bert to the speciall formes of things: And albeit these Authoures séeme to bée against one another, yet none of them if he be well vnderstood, doe swarue from the truth, forasmuch as all their saiengs in many things doe agrée to one effect: For God the beginning, the ende, and originall of all vertues, doth first Page  [unnumbered] of all, giue the seale of Ideas or con∣ceits, to the intelligences of his mini∣sters, which as faythfull executors doe seale with an Ideall vertue all thinges committed vnto them in the heauens & starres, as it were instrumentes, which heauens and starres in the meane sea∣son doe dispose the matter, to receiue those forines which do rest in the diuine Maiestye: As Plato sayth in Tnee, to be diuided by the Starres, and the gi∣uer of formes hath distributed them, by the ministrye of the intelligencies, which he hath appointed rulers and kéepers o∣ver his workes, to whom that faculty is committed, in things committed vnto them, yt all the vertue of stones, hearbs, mettalls, and of all things else, should be from the very intelligences bering rule. Wherefore forme and vertue, doth first procéed from ye Idee or conceites, next frō the intelligences ruling and gouerning, afterward from the aspects of ye heuens ordering, lastly from the ordred complec∣tions of the Elements, correspondent to the influences of the heauens, by whom the Elements bée ordered: Wherefore such operations are had in those inferior things, by expresse formes, but in ye hea∣uens by ordering vertues, in the intelly∣gences, by meanes comming betwéene, in the chiefe Patrone by the examplar Ideas, consents or formes, all which must néeds agree, in the execution of the effect and vertue of euery thing, wherfore ther is a wonderfull vertue and operation in euery hearbe and stone, but greater in a starre, more then also euery thing get∣teth himselfe many things from the ru∣ling intelligences, but chiefly from the vppermost cause, wherevnto all things, as depending one of another, and made perfect, are corespondent, sounding in our melodious consent, alwayes praising to∣gether ye almighty worke, with certeine himnes, euer as they are willed by those holy youths singing in the Chaldes for∣nasse, blesse the Lord all things yt spring vpon the earth, and all things that moue in the waters, all birds of the ayre, shéep, and cattell together with the children of men: wherefore there is no other cause of the necessitie of effectes, but a conec∣tion of al things, with the first cause and corespondents to these diuine patternes and euerlasting Ideas or conceits, from whence euery thing in the chiefe pat∣terne hath his determinate peculiar place, from whence he leueth and taketh his beginning. And wherein all the ver∣tue of hearbes, stones, mettalics, liuing creatures, words and prayers, and of all things which are from God is ingrassed, which although it worketh by the intel∣ligences and heauens on those bodyes belowe, yet oftentimes omitting those meanes, or suspending their ministrye, God immediatlye doth those thinges of himselfe, which then are called wonder∣full workes, for with the rule and or∣der of the first cause, the seconde causes which Plato, and others call ministers, doe of necessitie worke, and of necessitye bring forth their effectes, yet oftentimes God doth so end or suspend them for his plesure, that they quite leaue of from the necessitie of his rule and order. And these are the excéeding great wonders of God. So the fire in the fire of the Chaldes burned not the youths. So the Sunne at the commandement of Iosua, went back from his course for the space of one day. So at the praier of Ezechia: the Sunne went backe .10. lines or houres. So at Christs passion in the full of the Moone, the Sun was eclipsed. And the resons of these operations cannot be found out or atteined vnto by no discourse of reason, by no Magike, by no knowledge bée it neuer so hid or profound, but are to bée learned and searched out by Gods Ora∣cles alone.

Of the Spirit of the world, what he is, and that he is the bonde of hidden vertues.

DEmocritus and Orpheus,* a man of ye Pithagorians, most carefull séeking out the force of heauenly things, and the natures of things belowe, sayde that all things were full of the Gods: and not without a cause, for there is nothing of such excellent force, which being voide of Gods helpe is content with his owne nature. And they called the diuine ver∣tues Page  173 spread abroade in things: Gods; which Zoroaster named Diuine alurars, Scynecius, simbolicall intice∣mentes, others liues, others also soules, and saide that the vertues of thinges did depende of them: because it concerneth the soule alone from one matter to be extended to other things, about the which shée worketh, as a man which extendeth his vnderstanding to things intelligible, and his imagination to things imaginable, and this is that which they vnderstood, saieng. To wit, the soule of one sence or béeing, goeth out, and entereth into another thing, be∣witcheth it, and letteth his operations, e∣uen as the Diamonde letteth the Load∣stone to drawe yron: but forasmuch as the soule is primum mobile, and as they saye, Sponte et per se mobile, and the body or matter of it selfe not able to moue, and swaruing far from the soule. Therefore they say that a more excellent means is required, to wit, that it is as it were not a bodye, but as it were now a soule, or as it were not a soule, as it were now a bodie, whereby to wit, the soule is knit to the body: and they feine that the spirite of the worlde is such a meane, to wit, whome we tearme the quinticense, because he doth not consist of the foure Elementes, but is a certaine fifth, a thing aboue them or beside them: Wherefore such a spirite is necessarilye required, as a meane by the which the heauenlye soules are in the grose bo∣dye, and bestowe wonderfull endow∣ments.

This spirit doubtlesse is in a manner such in the body of the world, as ours is in mans body: For as the power of our soule, are through the spirit giuen to the members: so the vertue of the soule of ye world is by the quintecense spread ouer all, for nothing is found in all the world which wanteth the sparke of his vertue: yet more and most of all, it is powred in∣to those which haue drawen in verye much of such a spirite, and it is drawen in by the rayes of the starres, as farre forth as the thinges make themselues confirmable vnto them: By this spi∣rit then, all hidden propertye is spread abroade, vpon hearbes, stones, and met∣talls, and vppon liuing creatures: by the Sunne, by the Moone, by the Pla∣nets, and by the Starres, higher then the Planets: And this spirit maye the more profite vs, if a man knowe howe to seuer him most of all from other Ele∣ments, or at least very much to vse those things which most of all abound of this spirit: for those things in the which that spirit is lesse plunged in the bodie, and matter is lesse ministred, do work more mightly and perfectly, and also doe sooner ingender and beget a thing lyke vnto them. For all vertue generatiue and of séede is in it, wherefore the Alcumisla indeauour to seperate that spirite from golde and siluer, which béeing well seue∣red and drawen out, if afterwarde they applye him to any matter of the same kind, that is, to any of the mettalls, they shall immediatly make golde or siluer: And I my selfe know how to doe it, and once sawe it: but I could make no more golde, then the wright of that gold was, out of the which I drew the spirite, for seeing that spirit, is forme Extensa,* & not Intensa, he cannot alter an vnperfect body into a perfect, beyond his measure: which notwithstanding I deny not, but that it may bée brought to passe by some other skill.

¶How wee ought to seeke out and make tryall of the vertues of things, by a way taken of a si∣militude.

IT appeareth then that the hidden properties are not ingraffed in thinges by the Elementall nature,* but from aboue, are hidden to our sences: and finallye vnneth knowen to reason, which doubtlesse procéede from the lyfe and spirit of the worlde, through those beames of the Starres, which canne bée sought out by vs none otherwise, then by experience and coniectures, wherefore thou gréedye man which desirest to trauayle in this studye, oughtest to consider that euerye thing mooueth and tourneth to his lyke, Page  [unnumbered] and inclineth to himselfe according to al his might, as well in propertie, to wit, in hidden vertue, as in qualitie, to wit, in vertue elementall:* sometimes also in very substaunce, as wee see in Salt, for whatsoeuer standeth long with salt, doth become salt, for euery agent when he shall begin to doe, doth not moue to a thing lower then himselfe: but after a sort, as much as may be, mooueth to his lyke, and match: which also manifestlye we see, in sensible liuing creatures, in whom the vertue nutritiue doth change meate, not into hearbs or plant, but doth turne it into sensible flesh, wherfore those things in the which there is the excesse of any qualitie or propertie, as heat, cold, votonesse, feare, sorrow, anger, loue, ha∣tred, or any other passion, or vertue, whe∣ther it be in them by nature, or some∣times also by act or chance, as boldnesse in a harlot, doe most of all mooue & pro∣uoke to such a qualitie, passion, and ver∣tue. So fire mooueth to fire, and water moueth to water, and bold person moo∣ueth to boldnesse. And it is knowen a∣mong the Phisitions yt the braine helpeth the braine, and the lungs, the lungs. So they say, that the right eye of a Frogge, helpeth the right eie, the left eie the left. Beeing hung about the necke in a cloth of a naturall coulour, helpeth bleared∣nesse.* The lyke also they report of the eyes of a Crab. So the féete of an Hedg∣hogge are good for the gout, so bound, that foote may be hung to foote, hand to hand, the right to the right, the left to the left. After this sort they say, that euery barren liuing creature, prouoketh to barrennes. and of him most of all the stones, and the matrite or the vrine. So they say that a woman conceiueth not, that taketh mo∣nethly of the vrine of an Elum, or anye thing stiped therin. If thē we wil work for any propertie of vertue, let vs séeke for liuing creatures or other things, in yt which such a property is more excellent∣ly, and of them let vs take the part, in yt which such property or vertue hath most force. As if at any time we will prouoke loue, let vs séek for some liuing creature, which most of al loueth, as are ye Doue, the Turtle, the Swallow, and the Wag∣taile, and of them let vs take the mem∣bers of the parts, in the which the vene∣rial appetite haue the most force, which are the heart, the stones, the matrixe, the member, the sperms, and the Menserum: & let that be done at such time, as these liuing creatures are most of all deligh∣ted with such affection or desire, and bend themselues to the same, for then they greatly prouoke and cause loue. In like manner to increase boldnesse, let vs séeke for a Lyon or a Cocke, & of them let vs take the heart, the eyes, or the forehead, and so must we vnderstande that which Psellus the Platonike sayth, that Dogs, Crows & Cocks, tend to watching: so do also the Nightingale, ye Bat, & the night Rauen, and of those chiefly the head, the heart, and the eyes. Wherefore they say, if a man carry about him the heart of a Crowe, or a Bat, he shall not sléepe vn∣till he put him away: The same doth the head of a Batte bound drye to the right arme of him that is awake: for if hée bée put vpon one sléeping, it is sayde he will not awake vntill the same be taken a∣way. In the same manner a Frog and an Owle doe make one to speake, and of them chiefly the tongue and the heart. So the tongue of the water Frog layde vnder the head, maketh a man speake in his sléepe, and the heart of an Owle laid vpon ye left brest of a woman sléeping, is sayd to make hir vtter all hir secrets: the heart of a night Crowe, and the fat of a Hare layd vpon the brest of one sléeping, is reported to doe the lyke. In the same sort all liuing creatures of long lyfe, are good for long lyfe, and which to euer of them haue in them a renewing vertue, are good for the renwing of our bodies, & restoring of youth, which the Phisitions often times haue shewed themselues to knowe, as it is manifest of the Uiper & the Serpent: and it is knowne that the Hartes renewe their olde age vp eating of Serpents. In the same manner the Phoenix is renwed by the fire which be buildeth for himselfe. And the like vertue is in the Pellican, whose right foote if he put vnder hot doung three moneths af∣ter, a Pellican is thereof ingendered a new. Wherefore some Phisitions by Page  174 certaine confections of the Uiper & He∣leborus, and by the confected flesh of some such liuing creatures, doe promise to re∣store youth, and otherwise restore if, some oftentimes also they profer such youth as Medea promised aud restored to olde Pelias her father. It is also belee∣ued that the bloud of a Beare drawen out of a fresh woūd, by layeng thy mouth thereto, doth by this kinde of drinke in∣crease the strength of the body, because that liuing creature is very strong.

How the operations of diuerse vertues are powred out from one thing to another, and doe communicate the one with an∣other.

*THou oughtest to knowe that the power of naturall thinges is so greate, that not onely they mooue all things that are néere them by their ver∣tues, but also besides this, they powre into them the lyke power, by the which through the selfe same vertue, they also mooue other thinges, euen as wee see in the Loadstone: which stone doubtlesse doth not onely drawe yron rings, but al∣so giueth them a force by the which they may doe the lyke: wherof Augustine and Albert do write yt they sawe. In ye same sort it is sayde, that a common strumpet in whome there is boldnesse (and bash∣fulnesse,) is banished through the selfe same property, doth moue al things néere vnto her, which afterward yéeld the same to others. Therefore they say, that if one put on the smocke of a whoore, or carrye with him a looking glasse, wherein shee dayly sawe her selfe, hée shall become bolde, vnfearefull, shamelesse, and leche∣rous. In like sort they say that the cloth that hath bene at a buriall, doth gather thereby a certaine saturnall property of sadnesse: and that the rope wherein one was hāged hath certaine marualous pro∣perties. Like to this is that which Ply∣nie reporteth, if one cast earth vnder a gréene Lizaard that hath his own putte out, and to gather in a glassy vossel shut close, vp rings of Massie yron or golde, when it shall appeare, that the Lizarde hath receiued his light through ye glasse, the rings are good against bleared eies: The same also is of force in a Wesell, whose eyes beeing put out by pricking, it is euidēt also that they haue seene again. Likewise also rings are put for a certein time in a Sparrowes or Swallowes neast, which afterward is vsed for loue or good will.

¶How by strife and friendship, the vertues of things are to be found out and experienced.

IT now resteth to sée that all things haue betweene them loue and dis∣cord,* & euery thing hath some thing to be feared, and horrible, discording and ten∣ding to destruction. Contrariwise some thing reioycing, cherishing, & comforting: So in Elements, fire is contrary to the water, & the aire to the earth, but yet they all agree together againe in heauenly bo∣dies, Mercury, Iupiter, Sol, & Luna, are friends to Saturne: Mars, and Venus are his enimies: al the planets sauing Mars, are Iupiters friends: so also all hate Mars sauing Venus, Iupiter and Venus loues sol: Mars, Mercury, and Luna are his enimies, all loue Venus, sauing Saturne. Iupiter, Venus, and Saturne, are friends to Mercurie: Sol, Luna, and Mars are his enimies, Friends to Luna, are Iupiter, Venus, and Saturne Mars, and Mercu∣ry, are his enimies. There is another en∣mity of the stars, to wit, when they haue opposite houses, as Saturne to ye lyghts, Iupiter to Mercury, Mars to Venus: & the stronger enimitie of them is, whose exalations are opposite, as of Saturne & the Sunne, of Iupiter and Mars. but the strongest friendship is of them which a∣grée in nature, qualitie, substance, & pow∣er, as Mars with Sol, and Venus with Luna, likewise Iupiter wt Venus. And there is a friendship of them, whole ex∣altation is in the house of another, as of Saturne with Venus,* of Iupiter with Luna, of Mars with Saturne, of sol with Mars, of Venus with Iupiter, of the Moone with Venus. And such as are the friendships & enmities of the bodies aboue: such are ye inclinations of things Page  [unnumbered] vnder them in those inferiour bodies. Wherefore these friendshippes and enmities are nothing else but certaine inclinations of things among thēselues, in desiring such a thing or such a thing, if it be awaye, and to be moued vn∣to it, vnlesse it bée letted, or to repose it selfe in that it hath gotten, in shunning the contrarye, and fearing to come néere it, & not to rest content therewith. Wher∣fore Heraclitus béeing lead with this o∣pinion, did confesse that all things were made by strife and friendship. There are also inclinations of friendships in Uige∣tables and mineralls, as the Loadstone hath to yron, the Emeralde to riches and fauour. The stone Iaspis to child-birth. The stone Achatis to eloquence, *Nap∣tha, draweth fire vnto it, and fire leapeth into it wheresoeuer it be séene. Likewise the root of ye hearb Aproxis draweth fire vnto it frō a far off, as Naptha doth: and ye lyke inclination is betwéene the male & female date trée, of whō when a bough of ye one shal tuch a bough of ye other, they fold thēselues into a natural imbracing, neither doth ye female bring forth fruit wt∣out the male: And the Almond trée gro∣wing alone is unfruitfull: Uines loue the Elme trée, and the Oliue trée, and the Mirtle loue one the other: likewise the Oliue trée, and the Fig trée. But among the liuing creatures, there is friendship betwéene the black bird and the Thrush, betwéene the Choffe and the Hearon, be∣twéene, the Pecockes and the Doues.