Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

Of the vertues of naturall things, next of all depending of the Elements.

*OF the vertues of naturall thinges, some are Elementall, as to make warme, to make cold, to make moyst, to make dry: & are called the first operati∣ons or qualities, & according vnto Arle. For these qualities alone, doe altogether alter the substance, which none of the o∣ther qualities can do, but some are in the things making, cōpounding such by the elements, euen beyond the first qualities, as are Maturatiue, digestiue, resolutiue, mollificatiue, induratiue, stiptike, ab∣stersiue, corasiue, caustic, apertiue, eua∣poratiue, comfortatiue, mitigatiue, con∣glutinatiue, opilatiue, expulsiue, reten∣tiue, attractiue, repercussiue, stupisac∣tiue, elargetiue, lubrisicatiue, & many o∣thers: for the elementall qualitie hath much to do in mixture, which worketh not by it selfe: & these operations Quali∣tates secondariae, because they follow na∣ture & the measure of the mixture of the first vertues, euen as of them at large it is handled, in the bookes of Phisitions, as Maturation or ripening, which is the working of naturall heate. according to a certaine measure in ye substance of the matter. Induration or hardening is the working of coldnes, likewise also, Con∣gellation, & so likewise also of the lyke. And these operations do somtime worke vpon ye limited mēber, as prouoking v∣rine, or milk, or ye menstrual, & are called the 3. qualities which solow ye fecond, as ye second do ye first. Wherefore according to these first, second & third qualities ma∣ny diseases are cured and caused. Many things also are done by Art, which men do much wonder at, as is ye fire, burning water, as in ye fire Ignis Grecus. Many cōpositions whereof Aristotle teacheth in a treatise written héerof. In like ma∣ner, ther is also made a sire yt is quench∣ed in oyle, & is kindled with colde water when it is sprinkled vpō it, & fire which is kindled wt raine or wind, or with the sun: and ther is a fire called Aqua ardens, which is very well knowen, & wasteth nothing but it selfe: & ther are vnquench∣able fires, & continual lamps, which can∣not be quenched wt wine, nor water, nei∣ther by any meanes: which séemeth alto∣gether incredible, if it had not ben for ye famous lampe yt once gaue light in the temple of Venus, wherin ye stone Bestus did burne,* which being once kindeled, is neuer quenched. Cōtrariwise also is pre∣pared Page  [unnumbered] some thing apt to burne yt it may not be hurt by fire: & ther are made con∣fections, with which the hands being an∣nointed, we may carry yron red hot, or put yt hand in molten mettall, or to goe into the fire without any harme, & such like: & ther is a kinde of hempe or flare,* which Pliny calleth Asbestū, ye Greeks terme it Asbeston, which is not consu∣med with fire: wherof Anaxelaus saith, that a tree yt is therwith inuironed, is fel∣led with deafe strokes, and that are not heard.