Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

¶How wee ought to seeke out and make tryall of the vertues of things, by a way taken of a si∣militude.

IT appeareth then that the hidden properties are not ingraffed in thinges by the Elementall nature,* but from aboue, are hidden to our sences: and finallye vnneth knowen to reason, which doubtlesse procéede from the lyfe and spirit of the worlde, through those beames of the Starres, which canne bée sought out by vs none otherwise, then by experience and coniectures, wherefore thou gréedye man which desirest to trauayle in this studye, oughtest to consider that euerye thing mooueth and tourneth to his lyke, Page  [unnumbered] and inclineth to himselfe according to al his might, as well in propertie, to wit, in hidden vertue, as in qualitie, to wit, in vertue elementall:* sometimes also in very substaunce, as wee see in Salt, for whatsoeuer standeth long with salt, doth become salt, for euery agent when he shall begin to doe, doth not moue to a thing lower then himselfe: but after a sort, as much as may be, mooueth to his lyke, and match: which also manifestlye we see, in sensible liuing creatures, in whom the vertue nutritiue doth change meate, not into hearbs or plant, but doth turne it into sensible flesh, wherfore those things in the which there is the excesse of any qualitie or propertie, as heat, cold, votonesse, feare, sorrow, anger, loue, ha∣tred, or any other passion, or vertue, whe∣ther it be in them by nature, or some∣times also by act or chance, as boldnesse in a harlot, doe most of all mooue & pro∣uoke to such a qualitie, passion, and ver∣tue. So fire mooueth to fire, and water moueth to water, and bold person moo∣ueth to boldnesse. And it is knowen a∣mong the Phisitions yt the braine helpeth the braine, and the lungs, the lungs. So they say, that the right eye of a Frogge, helpeth the right eie, the left eie the left. Beeing hung about the necke in a cloth of a naturall coulour, helpeth bleared∣nesse.* The lyke also they report of the eyes of a Crab. So the féete of an Hedg∣hogge are good for the gout, so bound, that foote may be hung to foote, hand to hand, the right to the right, the left to the left. After this sort they say, that euery barren liuing creature, prouoketh to barrennes. and of him most of all the stones, and the matrite or the vrine. So they say that a woman conceiueth not, that taketh mo∣nethly of the vrine of an Elum, or anye thing stiped therin. If thē we wil work for any propertie of vertue, let vs séeke for liuing creatures or other things, in yt which such a property is more excellent∣ly, and of them let vs take the part, in yt which such property or vertue hath most force. As if at any time we will prouoke loue, let vs séek for some liuing creature, which most of al loueth, as are ye Doue, the Turtle, the Swallow, and the Wag∣taile, and of them let vs take the mem∣bers of the parts, in the which the vene∣rial appetite haue the most force, which are the heart, the stones, the matrixe, the member, the sperms, and the Menserum: & let that be done at such time, as these liuing creatures are most of all deligh∣ted with such affection or desire, and bend themselues to the same, for then they greatly prouoke and cause loue. In like manner to increase boldnesse, let vs séeke for a Lyon or a Cocke, & of them let vs take the heart, the eyes, or the forehead, and so must we vnderstande that which Psellus the Platonike sayth, that Dogs, Crows & Cocks, tend to watching: so do also the Nightingale, ye Bat, & the night Rauen, and of those chiefly the head, the heart, and the eyes. Wherefore they say, if a man carry about him the heart of a Crowe, or a Bat, he shall not sléepe vn∣till he put him away: The same doth the head of a Batte bound drye to the right arme of him that is awake: for if hée bée put vpon one sléeping, it is sayde he will not awake vntill the same be taken a∣way. In the same manner a Frog and an Owle doe make one to speake, and of them chiefly the tongue and the heart. So the tongue of the water Frog layde vnder the head, maketh a man speake in his sléepe, and the heart of an Owle laid vpon ye left brest of a woman sléeping, is sayd to make hir vtter all hir secrets: the heart of a night Crowe, and the fat of a Hare layd vpon the brest of one sléeping, is reported to doe the lyke. In the same sort all liuing creatures of long lyfe, are good for long lyfe, and which to euer of them haue in them a renewing vertue, are good for the renwing of our bodies, & restoring of youth, which the Phisitions often times haue shewed themselues to knowe, as it is manifest of the Uiper & the Serpent: and it is knowne that the Hartes renewe their olde age vp eating of Serpents. In the same manner the Phoenix is renwed by the fire which be buildeth for himselfe. And the like vertue is in the Pellican, whose right foote if he put vnder hot doung three moneths af∣ter, a Pellican is thereof ingendered a new. Wherefore some Phisitions by Page  174 certaine confections of the Uiper & He∣leborus, and by the confected flesh of some such liuing creatures, doe promise to re∣store youth, and otherwise restore if, some oftentimes also they profer such youth as Medea promised aud restored to olde Pelias her father. It is also belee∣ued that the bloud of a Beare drawen out of a fresh woūd, by layeng thy mouth thereto, doth by this kinde of drinke in∣crease the strength of the body, because that liuing creature is very strong.