Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

¶Of winter. Cap. 8.

WInter is called Hierns, and hath that name of Eundo going, either passing: for in Winter time the sunne goeth about and passeth after in a shor∣ter circle than in Summer time, & ther∣fore he maketh shorter dayes & longer nights as Isidore saith. And as Constan∣tine saith, Winter beginneth, when the sunne is in the signe that is called Ca∣pricornus: and is the end of the descen∣tion and the lowing of the sunne in the middaye, and then beginneth little & lit∣tle to passe vpward against the North. Also Winter hath thrée months yt serue him. The first beginneth in Capricor∣no. and lasteth from the eightéenth daye of December, vnto the seauenteenth day of Ianuarie. The second is when ye sun is in Aquario, and lasteth from the sea∣uentéenth daye of Januarie, to the xvi. day of Februarie. The third moneth is, when the sunne is in the signe, that is called Pisces, and lasteth from the xvi. daye of Februarie, to the eightéenth day of March. And Winter is colde & moist, and nourisheth steame: but in Winter coldnesse hath more masterie than moy∣sture, for then is great binding and frée∣sing of aire and of water, for the great farnesse of the Sunne: of the which far∣nesse commeth great coldnesse in Win∣ter time. And so Winter is all contra∣ry to Summer. Therfore all thing that liueth and springeth by benefite of sum∣mer, fadeth and dyeth by hard cruelnesse of winter: and the foores and the signes of summer that is gone, is all destroyed and brought to nought in Winter time. In winter time, snow and greatnesse of water is multiplied: in Winter time pathes & wayes be made slipperie and fennie, but the pores of the earth & chins be constrained & frore, & made hard with cold, frost & ice. In winter al bodies haue longer shadowes than in sumer, & pores of the earth be closed, and therefore in the vtter partes bodies were colde, but within the hot parts flye coldnesse that haue mastrie, and be gathered and ioy∣ned togethers. And therefore waters of déepe pits and of wells be felt more hot in Winter than in Summer: for kinde heate slyeth coldnesse that hath mastrie, Page  [unnumbered] and be gathered and ioyned togethers.

And therefore waters of déepe pits and of wells, be felt more hot in winter than in summer. For kinde heate flyeth cold∣nesse, that is contrary thereto: and draw∣eth into the inner partes of the earth, & closeth it selfe in veynes of deepe pittes and welles, and therefore by reason of the presence of the heate, the water of them fréeseth not. Also sharpnes of win∣ter maketh men sluggards and slowe in working: for coldnesse constrayneth the sinewes, so that they shrink some deale, wherefore members stretch not to work so easely as they doe in Summer. Also by coldnesse of Winter pores be cloased, and kinde heate draweth inward, & com∣forteth the vertues of feelyng, wherefore appetite is awaked, and more meat and drinke néedeth than in other times.

Therefore Hippocras sayth in Aphor. that in winter time by kinde, bellyes be more hot and of longer sléepe than in other times. Therefore in these times of Winter men shall take more meate, for heate is great and strong, and néede the more nourishing. Also when Winter passeth his owne qualities: diuers sick∣nesses & euills bréed in bodyes: for by reson the poores be closed, many humors be gathered in the hollownes of bodyes, the which humors find no waye to passe out. And so they wexe hot and rot. And thereof néedes commeth diuers sicknes∣ses and euills.