Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

¶INCIPIT LIBER OCTAVVS. DE COELO ET MVNDO.

SEeing that we haue by the holy of God, full ended the treatise of mans body, of God & of the properties of Angels and of men, & of accidents, & conditons of men: now we shall speake of the pro∣perties of the world that we sée & féete, by the helpe of God, which is sent to vs from aboue: that we may drawe occa∣sion to the praising of God, for the pro∣perties of working of the maker & con∣ditor of all things: for vnséene things of God, be séene and knowen by thinges Page  [unnumbered] that be made and vnsderstood, as the Apo∣stle saith. Rom. 8.*We looke not on the things which are sene, but on the things which are not seene. And therefore we shall shortly put to this worke, some properties of this world and things that be therein,* that we may by lykenesse of bodely properties the more easily vnder∣stand mystike & spirituall mening in ho∣ly Writ. And we shall begin at the pro∣perties of the world.

¶What is the world. Cap. 1.

*AS Marcianus sayth, the world is said in thrée manner wise. For Diuine vnderstanding is called the world, that is to wit Mundus Archetipus, and is bodilesse, vnséene, and euerlasting. And to the ensample thereof, the world that we sée and féele, is made and wrought, as Boetius saith: Thou bringest forth all things of high ensample, thou fairest, bearest in thy minde, the fairest worlde, and makest and workest by a lyke I∣mage, &c.

¶In the seconde manner, the world is called all things that is contained in the roundnesse of heauen. As heauen, in the which the starres shine: and fire in which all things heate: aire, by the which all things that hath lyfe bréedeth & pro∣ueth: & water that beclippeth the sides of the earth: earth, that sustaineth and holdeth vp, and féedeth all these lowe things of this worlde. Of which it is sayd, The world is made by him. Ioh. 1. *In the beginning was the worde, and the word was with God, and God was the word. The same was in the begin∣ning with God. All things were made by it, & without it was made nothing that was made, &c.

In the third manner, man is called, the lesse world, for he sheweth in him∣selfe likenesse of all the world. And so the first world is euerlasting & during in thought and minde of God. The second world is euerlasting by the wil of God, and taketh euerlasting being and sprin∣ging of him. The third world is some∣what euerlasting, & some deale passing, bearing in it selfe likenesse of all things. Before it is treated of the first worlde, and of the seconde: Now of the world that we féele and sée somewhat shall be spoken. Then Marcianus saith, the world is an vniuersall gathering together of things, which be made, and is all round, as it were a sphere or a ball: for the vt∣ter parte of the world hath shape & like∣nesse of a sphere, and of a circle. And as Marcianus saith, ther was no shape nei∣ther likenesse so couenable to the world, as a round likenesse and shape, and that for perfection of all things: and for the likenesse that the world hath in euerla∣sting being with his worker, that is wt∣out ende and without beginning. And Philosophers diuide all the worlde in two parts: of ye which twaine, the more noble and simple is the ouer parte, that worketh and stretcheth from the circle of the Moone to the region of planets. The other part is the lower, and suffreth and stretcheth from the circle of the Moone downwarde to the middle poynt of the earth. Marcianus describeth ye lower part of the world in this manner wise: The world he saith is a circle of foure Ele∣ments, which be found all round, in the manner and forme of a sphere: and the earth is placed in the middle: and the o∣ther deale is rauished about the mouing of heauen, to the making and forming of this world. The vertue of God made & ordained Primordial matter, in ye which as it were in a massie thing, the foure Elements were potentially, and not di∣stinguished in tale and number, as they are now: but they were meddeled. And that Mussa and lumpe Plato calleth Yle in Thimeo. And thereof the wisedome of God made and brought forth all the Elements, and all that is made of Ele∣mentes, & ordayned them in their owne qualyties & place. For that which was hot and drye, in that manner passed in∣to kinde of fire, and because of lyghtnes thereof, the wisedome of God set it aboue other. And such as was most colde and drye, passed into kinde of earth and for heauinesse and sadnesse thereof, he set it beneth that was hot. And moyst he put into kinde of a••e, and such as was cold and moyst, passed into kinde of water. Page  119 And as these two Elementes be more light, cléere and subtill, he set them be∣tweene fire and earth. In Timeo, Plato as he might, described this first matter, in this manner. Yle the first matter he saith, was without qualitie and quanti∣tie, without colour, and shape, and lyke∣nesse, without plate and tune, betweene some substaunce, and no substaunce, &c. These words be full hard to vnderstand, but they be in this manner expounded: for it is said, that that matter was with out quantitie: not for that they were cleane without all quantitie, but for it had no certaine quantitie knowen to vs: as men saye, that a Giaunt is endlesse much, for he passeth ye quantitie of men. Also that matter is said without qualy∣tie: for it had no name specially of any qualitie, for it could not be sayde, more hot than colde, nor againward: and so of other qualities. And he sayth, without colour: for it had no colour of kinde of any Element. It was without time, for as yet was no time, nor passing of time, when this matter was made. It was without place: for it had no certaine place, more vpward than downward, nor more breadth than length. It was by substaunce, and no substaunce was be∣fore this matter, but some substaunce, was thereafter. Then the materiall be∣ginning of the neather world, was that vnséene matter, that is the first matter that is common and able to receiue all lykenesse of shapes and qualytie.

And is also kept and saued, vnder diuers kindes and shapes: for this mat∣ter abideth not corruption, touching the substaunce thereof, though it be continu∣ally chaunged, touching the qualyties that chaungeth. For this matter that is now raren̄ed and made thin, abideth vnder the forme and shape of fire, and vnder fire, shall by and by, by thickning doe on kinde & matter of aire, that was before vnder the shape, and forme, and matter of fire. Héereof it followeth, that the first matter, of the which the world is kindly made, is ingenerable and incor∣ruptible. And of that matter all materi∣all things begin, and turn again to that matter, as into the Mother. And so the world is made of many composed things and contrarious, and yet in it selfe it is one world: for the world is one in tale and number, and not many worlds, and that is for the vnitie of matter, as it is said in li. de coelo & mundo. The world occupieth all his matter, as it saide there in 〈…〉 mundi eternitate. Then the world, of the which we speake at this time is not diuers in it selfe: neither de∣parted in substaunce, though contrari∣ousnesse be found in parts thereof tou∣ching contrarinesse of the qualities: for the world hath most néedfull accorde in all it selfe, and as it were aecorde of musike, though it séeme that it hath vn∣likenes in soure of his parts for contra∣ry qualities, as Austen saith openly, su∣per eo. This world (he saith) shal passe touching this passibilitie and kinde and shape that it hath now, but it shall a∣bide euermore touching the substaunce and kinde, as it is sayde there. And the Glose saith there: Hence and earth shall passe, &c. Mat. 5. Héereof it followeth, that the world is wonderful because of chan∣ging thereof. But neuerthelesse, for the nobilitie of his matter, vertue & work∣ing of his shape, & so for easie might of bréeding, and of generation of things: the world is not to be praised so much, as God the maker of the world, is to be praised ouer all things. Nothing in the whole frame of the world is so vile, nor so low, nor pertykell, in ye which shineth not praising of God in matter and in vertue, & in shape: & the matter & shape of the world is some difference, but that is with accord & most peace: for yt parte of the world that is most pure & cleane, & simple & noble, hath ye more vniforme inclination & appetite to receiue ye more noble forme & shape: & the more spiritual the matter is, ye more inclination & appe∣tite it hath to spirituall forme & shape, & so the matter of heuen, requireth & née∣deth the more simple & noble forme and shape, then ye matter of ye Elements. Al∣so ye matter of heuē is more noble & sim∣ple in ye more noble body, as in ye Sun, thā in ye moone, or in Mercury, or Mars, & the matter of elements, is more noble in fire, thā in ye aire, or in other elemēts. Page  [unnumbered] And so the matter is more great & boy∣stous in earth, than in other Elements, for therein be more parts of matter ga∣thered, as Aristotle saith. Therefore (hée saith) that of an handful of earth is made ten of water.* Also the matter of one E∣lement is more cleane and pure in one part, than in another, as it is said in pri. Mecho. For the ouer parts of fire, bée more noble and simple than the nether: and the middle partes of the earth bee more great and sad, and lesse cleane and pure. And for that the meddled bodyes be made of the Elements, all the partes of the Elements be more pure and noble: the medled bodies be more simple pure and noble: and as it is againwarde in Elements, so it is againward in medled bodies. Also more noble matter of the world, néedeth more noble forme & shape, and therefore the matter is disposed, as the forme and shape as keth. For if fire shall be made of earth, it néedeth that the greatnesse of matter of earth bée made subtill and pure, and more spiritu∣all and simple: that it may be clothed in a more simple forme, that is forme and shape of fire: and shortlye to speake, it néedeth that the matter be arayed & dis∣posed, after the propertie of forme and shape. Also men take héede of the nobi∣litie of the world, by the more noble and worthy partes thereof: and also by the more noble workings and doings. And therefore the ouer part of the worlde, is counted more noble and worthy. For the matter ther is more cléere and pure, and the shape is fairer, & the vertue is more in the ouer parts than in the nether. For the world at all is the more faire & séem∣ly, by as much as the nether foule part of the worlde, is arayed with the more fairnesse and blisse of the ouer parte, as Austen saith. Some perfection of ver∣tue and of charitie, that passeth in the o∣uer parts sheddeth it selfe continually to∣ward the fairnesse and perfection of the nether parts. Also things that séeme and shew, that the nether part of the world, hath lost in fairnesse & in light, that that part recouereth in grace & vertue of plen∣teousnes. For no lesse wonder is of ver∣tuous plenteousnesse of the earth, in be∣ring and bringing forth of hearbs, trées, and of fruite, and in diuers gendring of beasts, and of créeping wormes, in di∣uers bréeding and gendring of mettall, & of pearles and of stones: then it is to wondring of the cléernes of heauen with diuersitie of circles, and roundnesse and starres thereof. And though the worlde be arayed with so many noble and wor∣thy differences of things by might of the vertue of God: yet touching the nether part thereof it is subiect all about to ma∣ny defaultes and wretched conditions. For though the world séeme father and forth bringer and feeder of bodies, yet it is prison of spirites, and most cruell cri∣ling of soules, and is place and stende of full many wretchednesse and paines: for the world is place of trespasse & of guilt, the habitation of pilgrimage, & of woe, of wéeping and of teares, of trauell and of faintnes, of fearfulnesse and of shame, of mouing and of chaunging, of flowing and of ouerturning, of passing and of cor∣ruption, of insolence and perturbation, of violence and oppression, of deceipt and of guyle. In the worlde is nought els found but vanitie, wickednesse, couetous∣nesse, anguish, soyling & age. The world draweth to him, and loueth those that be knoweth: and putteth away and be∣spiseth them that he knoweth not. The world is noyfull to many men, and pro∣fitable to sewe at the last. The louers thereof the worlde deceiueth and beguy∣leth: For the world promiseth manye things, but at the last it payeth few or none, and reseth not to sewe and to take them that dispise it, and that in the ma∣ner of a shadowe: and is brifie and in∣tendeth to dye his sutours that followe him. And therefore oste times those that it most beareth vp with riches and wor∣ship, it maketh most poore, and brareth them downe at the last. And to vse Gre∣gories worde, We shall flye the world, though it please vs with wealth: for he that knocketh with so much woe & sor∣rowe, what els cryeth he, but that hée should be forsaken? And this of the properties of the world in generall, shal suffice at this time.

Page  120

¶ Of the distinction of hea∣uen, Cap. 2.

NOw putte we our handes by helpe of Christ, in describe some properties of heauen, & of the parts therof▪ for heauen is the place and dwelling of An∣gels, and of good men 〈◊〉 saith▪ and as holy men tell, one heuen is seene, and another heauen is unseene. The heauen that is seene, is many manner wise as the Glose saith, super Deut. 0.ibi., Loo heauen is the Lords thy Gods, and hea∣uen of heauens. Heauens be seaven, na∣med in this manner; Aereum, Ethereū, Olimpeum, Igneum, Firmamentum. A∣queum, Emperium celum, heuen of An∣gels. The heuen that is called Aereum, is the middle place of the roundnesse of the aire, that is not full of great & boyst∣ous vapours of water and of earth, and so that part of the aire; that is more pure and cleane, and lesse medled with the ne∣ther qualities: for the purenesse & clean∣nesse thereof, and cleernesse of kinde, it is called heauen, as it is said Mat. 13. The foules of heauen eate it, &c. Celum ethe∣reum, as some men say, it is yt is called, the ouermost part of the aire, yt is nigh ioyned to the fierie roundnesse, and is called Ethereum: for it is bright and shining. For that part betweene the fire and the aire is nigh the fire, and recey∣ueth of the fire light and shining, for E∣thereus in Greeke, is named brightnesse, either shining as Isidore saith.

And Coelū igneum, firie heauen, as some men meane, is the middle of the round∣nesse of the sphere of fire: and that is for the purenesse, subtilnesse, highnesse, and working, that the fire hath passing other elements, and for other properties, that the fire hath for nighnesse to the round∣nesse of the Planets. And Gregory saith vpon that place of Iob. Behold and see Etherea, &c. By that name Etherea is vn∣derstood all the space yt is from ye Moone, euen to the stars yt be night, in ye which space us roundnesses & circles of ye seauen Planets. Séeke within De Ethere, what Marcianus meaneth thervpon. Alexan∣der ordeineth the seuen heauens, & saith in the manner: The first heuen giueth light in one manner wise, & is not moo∣ued, and as called Celum〈…〉: the second also 〈…〉 saith giueth in one man∣ner wise lyght, and is called Celum: A∣queum〈…〉 as it were of kinde of water or of christall stone. The third heuen giueth light, not lyke bright in euery part, & is moued as the heauen of starres. The fourth heauen receiueth light without heate, and is called: Olim∣picum. The fifth receiueth light in heat, and is called Clum igneum as ye fourth heauen. The sixt receiueth light, and is ioyned with the other part, and is called Celum Ethereum, bright shining hea∣uen. The seuenth receiueth lyght, and is ioyned with the nether part, & is named Celum Aereum, of the kind of aire: and so it séemeth, that they call Olympium the space of the roundnesse of the Pla∣nets: for that space is alway light and shining. And the firmament they cal the first heauen and the last, as philosophers meane: in the ouermost part wherof be the bodies of starres. For Philosophers set but onely one heauen. But as Basili∣us saith in Pxomeron, the Philosophers would rather gnaw and fret their owne tongues, then they would assent, yt there be many heauens. Aristotle in libro de causis elementorum, describeth that hea∣uen that is called Firmamentum, in this manner. Heauen (he saith) is the fift E∣lement, seuered from the nether Ele∣ments, and distinguished by propertie of kinde: for it is not heauie, for thea it might come downward: nor lyght, for then it should stye and moue vpwarde. For if it wer one of yt foure elements, or compowned of the foure, then corruption might come therin in all, or in some part therof. And as it is sayd there: The crea∣tor set it to be well and cause of genera∣tion and coruption. And therefore that heauen is kindly mouable without rest: and the mouing thereof is rounde about the middle, vpon a lyne that is named Axis, that standeth thee pight vnmoua∣ble betwéene two starres, that be called Polys, that be the most South starre, & the most North starre: the which North starre we call the shipinans starre.

Page  [unnumbered]And that heauen hath ende touching length and bredth, & stretching of place: But it is endlesse touching mouing, for it moueth by a ••suer of endlesse might: that is by God himselfe, that is most high and glorious without end. Hether∣to speaketh Aristotle lib. de causis Ele∣mentorum And also be calleth these Poles, two starres, in the highest endes of heauen, set in the middle thereof, one aboue, and another beneth: the one there of, is set aboue in middle of ye Heauen. Northwarde, and is called Polus Arti∣eus: and that other is set against him South ward, and is called Polus Antar∣ticus, as it were set afore the starre, that is called Polus Articus. Betwéene these two Poles, as it were betwéene his two endes, heauen moueth: so that the grea∣test Circle of heauen commeth not euen round ouer our heads: For they two Poles be not lyke high to vs, and heuen moueth from the East to the West, and from the West againe till be come to the East, and all that waye like swifte, lyke as a whéele moueth about the ax∣eltrée. And therfore Aristotle vnderstan∣deth a certaine line that stretcheth from that one Pole to that other Pole in straight length, and about that line, all the roundnesse of heauen moueth lyke swifte: and that lyne be calleth Axis, as the Commentator sayth there. Of the kinde of this heauen, it is treated In li∣bro de coelo & mundo, secundum no∣uam translationem. Heauen (he saith) is one thing compowned of marter, for it containeth the kinde, of the which hea∣uen is named, which is the last passing of all. And it foloweth in the same booke: There be not many heauens, nor wer, neither shall be, for heauen is one per∣fect and complete at full, and nothing is lyke thereto: and without heauen is neither place nor body, nor widenes, nor fulnesse, nor time, that is number & me∣sure of mouing. Therefore there is sted∣fast life, that is to wit beyond the last, & that life is endlesse: For that lyfe nei∣ther saileth, nor endeth, and that is very lyfe. Also he saith there, that heauen is not made nor gendred, but it is simple, and the mouing thereof is euen, and ther in is no diversitie: & the mouing there∣of, is singular, and round about: and the moouer thereof is a spirite, that mooueth it by his owne will: and the beame of heauen is continu•• with the beame of fire, and ioyned there with to profite of lyfe of the men which abideth. Also the firmament is called heauen, for it is sad and stedfast, & hath a marke, that it maye not passe: and so for full great abiding of his stedfastnesse, it is incorruptible & vnchaungeable both in substance and in shape. And the shape thereof is rounde about, and hollow within to be warde: and round about toward them which be aboue heauen, but the roundnes bendeth from them ward. The mouing thereof is kindly round about, and a flonte,* and round about from the East to the west, and rolleth about, & draweth with him by simple mouing, and lyke swifte in the space of a night and a daye, all that is there vnder, euen to the place of the fire: and so he rauisheth and leadeth a∣bout with himselfe, the roundnes of the seauen Planets. And Rabonus saith, all that is there vnder, is obedient in one manner order, and not distourbed to the vertue of mouing thereof. Also he saith In expositione super Genis. The ver∣tue of mouing thereof stretcheth euen to these nether Elements. And so men sup∣pose, that it draweth about with him∣selfe the ouermost fire, and also the wor∣king of ye vertue of mouing therof, com∣meth euen to the aire, and also euen to the waters: in the which waters touch∣ing ebbing and flowing, it maketh in the most part increasing & decresing, & these thrée Elements, Fire, Aire, and Water be obedient to some manner mouing of heauen: but they follow it not in one manner wise, nor in one order, but some lesse, and some more, as it is said before. That which is more lyght and pore, is more obedient, and that which is lesse light and pure, followeth more slowly, & is lesse obedient. The earth is not obe∣dient to the mouing of the vertue of he∣nen, to take thereby chaunging of place, though it be obedient, and receiueth di∣uers impressions, to bring forth of it selfe, diuers manner of kindes. Then as Page  121Rabanus saith, there the firmament hath touching, mouing, lyke swifte passing, ordinate, and not distourbed, and is swiftest of all mouings. Therefore lest the shape of the world should fall, by the swiftenesse of the mouing thereof, it is tarried by ordinate mouing of the Pla∣nets: and so the strong swiftnesse of his mouing, is made moderate by con∣trary mouing. Also it moueth without trauayle: for the parts chaungeth place and stead, the whole heauen chaungeth no stead nor place: and though these ne∣ther things be distourbed, and happely vnstedfast, heauen with his roundnesse and circles forsaketh not, nor leaueth not the sad tenour of his order, namely in a poynt. Therefore the mouing of heuen, is the first subiection of all time, & man∣ner and rule of all other mouings. Al∣so the firmament by his mouing is prin∣ciple working and doing of generation and corruption in the lower world And as Rabanus sayth, the cause thereof is, for the firmament sendeth the vertue of his lyght, that is effectiue cause of gene∣ration to the earth, as to his owne mid∣dle, and gathereth his owne beames, & ioyneth them in the vtter parte of the earth. For as it is shewed in Scientia Perspectiua, euery each round body and hollow, and bright in euery each poynte thereof, sendeth a beamie lyne into the middle of that bright body: that is to vnderstand the vtter part of that middle: and the néerer euery beamie lyne is to other lynes, which goe out to the mid∣dle, the more stronger he is to print in effect thereof and doing. And their strēgth commeth of nighnesse of one lyne to an other: and thereof it followeth, that for the bodye of heauen is round, hollowe, and also bright. And this earth in com∣parison to the greatnesse of heauen, is ac∣counted but as it were a poynt: for the earth is the middle point, that therin is ful great gathering of heuenly beames: and of the vertue and touching of those sayd beames, commeth full great genera∣tion and foorth bringing of things that are bred in earth, which is the middle of the firmament.

And though heauen be Principium, and Well of generation: yet in it selfe it receiueth no generation, nor corrup∣tion, nor decreasing nor increasing: for heauen in his substaunce hath much sim∣plenesse and likenesse, cleannesse & pure∣nesse: and hath no departing nor con∣trarinesse in the parts, of the which it is compowned, and therefore of it selfe it hath no might to corruption. And Ari∣stotle argueth, in li. de coelo & mundo thus. All corruption (he saith) commeth of contraries, and nothing is sound con∣trary to heauen: wherefore heauen is not corrupt.

Also though heauen in it selfe be lyke in partes: yet needeth it to haue manye diuers roundnesses and circles in shape and greatnesse, that differ in length and breadth, and that of diuers habitations, which be néedefull to things that shall dye, as Aristotle saith in li. de causis E∣lementorum. For if the neather worlde shuld receiue influence of beames in one manner disposition and measure, féeding of them that should dye, and generati∣on of all the neather things should faile: and therefore it is néedefull that heauen moue a slont, that by arising and going downe of Circles, now cold, now heate,* may be bred in the middle. For if hea∣uen moued straight towarde vs, all things that be there we dwell, should be consumed and wasted with heat or with colde, as Aristotle sayth. Also men take not only héed in heauen of purenesse and incorruptiblenesse of matter, but also of fairenesse and cleerenesse of shape. For as Aristotle saith in li. de sensu & son∣sato, Heauen in his owne kind is bright, but in the parts thereof is diuersitie.

For in stars is more gathering of light, than in other parts of heauen. Where∣fore in shape heuen hath roundnes, hol∣lownes and vtter roundnesse, with cléer∣nesse and brightnes, and euennesse in the hollow heauen, and diuersitie in parts. Wise men tel, that of méeting of round∣nesses, and of contrary mouing of Pla∣nets commeth a swéete harmony: wher of speaketh Macrbius in lib. Ciceronis, expounding the dreame of Scipio: In putting & mouing of these round worlds commeth the sweet sound and accord, &c. Page  [unnumbered] Also it is said in libro de coelo & mun∣do, in fine: that heauen with continu∣ance of his moouing setteth a light flame on that thing which it mooueth vppon. Therefore the aire is set a fire, with mo∣uing of heauen. For mouing is cause of heat. Therfore there it is saide, that it is perceiued, that of moouing commeth heat kindly, & of rest commeth coldnesse. And therefore heat softneth matter & depar∣teth it, & coldnesse gathereth & bindeth it. Therefore the parts of the Elementes, which be nigh to the mouing of heauen, be more hot then the other parts of the neather world, as it fareth in fire & aire. And in ye third Element, yt is the water, mouing is féebled. And therfore therin is coldnesse, but not in the vttermost. In the fourth element, that is earth, because it is far from the heauenly mouing, is con∣straining to the vttermost, through ab∣sence of heate & mastry of coldnesse. And therefore the earth abideth resting, and euerlasting, that it moueth not, as Arist. saith there. Also men take héed of the no∣bilitie of heuen in simplicitie of his sub∣stance, in purenesse & euerlastingnesse, in brightnesse & cléerenesse of shape, in roūd∣nesse, in euennesse of mouing, & swift∣nesse, & vertues in highnesse of place. For touching the place therof it is most farre from the middle of the earth in stretching of quantity: For the greatnesse thereof passeth imagination and measure of rea∣son. In might, for it ruleth & gouerneth and ordeineth and measureth all that is there vnder: And that is more wonder∣full, heauen ordeineth and measureth, & amendeth and chaungeth all the neather things, that taketh neuer chaunging of thing which is lower then it selfe, nor that thing which is vnlike thereto in kinde, confirmeth it selfe in anye vertue to the heauenly body.

Of the Christalline or watry hea∣uen. Chap. 3.

THe sixt heauen is watry or cristallin. And is made by the might of God of waters, which be set aboue in the firma∣ment. For authority of holy writ telleth vs, ye waters be set aboue heauens: which be so light & subtil, yt ther e turne, •• heuenly kind.* And therfore they be pigut there. But Beda saith, yt those heauenly waters be hanged aboue the firmament, not by the thinnesse of waters, but by ye cléere & subtill vertue of God: and that to temper ye swiftnesse of the firmament, or to swage the heat yt commeth of ye swift mouing of the Firmament. For Bedas opinion was, ye heauen is strie kinde, as Plato and his followers say. Therefore Beda sayth, that heauen is of subtill and firie kinde, round, and set lyke far from the middle point of the earth. And there∣fore it séemed to Beda, yt therfore it was néde, yt there were waters to bring that heauenly heat to temperatnesse: and that the nether world shuld not take domage of the burning of heauen. Some say that Saturnus, that starre is colde, and that he hath of cold kind of those waters, which be set aboue the tap of heauen: and that because yt the plece therof is nigh to the firmament. Also they say, that the firma∣ment by vertue of those waters is colde and cooleth the roundnesse which Satur∣nus is in: for it is next thereto. But how this might be reasonably done, it is not cléerely knowne to them that vse reason. For seeing that watry substance, by reason of both his qualytice, moisture and coldnesse is contrarye at all to fi∣rie substaunce: It is not cléere inough to Philosophers, how betwéene bodies that be so diuerse and contrarie, might vnitie and accorde be found in any wise. And neuerthelesse it is written. Iob. 38. Hée that maketh accorde in his high things. Iob. 38. ver. 19. Where is the way where light dwelleth, and where is the place of darknesse. Verse. 24. By what way is the light parted, which scattereth the East winde vpon the earth.

Verse. 33. Knowest thou the course of heauen, or canst thou sette the rule thereof in earth. Verse. 36. Who hath put wisedome in thy reines, or who hath giuen thy hearte vnderstan∣ding.

Therefore Philosophers that search and inquire, as I thinke the inner point of Philosophy more clergealy,* and inner to the grounde, haue another opinion, Page  122 and meane otherwise. For Alexander sayth, that those waters, which are a∣boue heauen, be not set there as colde fleeting, and moyst, nor as s••, frore; and heauie: for these be properties, and haue contrarinesse among themselues, and bee contrary either to other. But more be∣rely by the ordinaurie of the wisedome of God, those waters that be vpon or a∣boue the firmament, be in the most noble condition of their owne kinds se in that place by Gods owne doing: inasmuch as they be next to heauenly kinde. And this propertie of kinde of cléerenesse and brightnesse is properly and kindly found in kinde of water. And by cause thereof it hath likenesse, and accordeth with Ce∣lum imperium,* and also with the firma∣ment: therefore our Lord hath set wa∣ter beneath, vnder the reason of colde & moyst, with other néedefull conditions to generation and corruption: but he set waters aboue by reason of cléernesse, as it was néedfull to the conseruation of the world. And therefore he saith, that hea∣uen is called watrie and christalline, be∣cause of ablenesse to mouing, & of cléere∣nesse: for it is cléere as christall, and re∣ceiueth light and fulnesse of lyght of the ouer heauen, which is called Celum im∣perium, and sendeth that light, which it receiueth, to the nether heauen: and it is called heauen, for it is vnknowen & bu∣séene of vs: and it is called Cristallinū, for it is hard as Chrystall, and not onely therefore, but because it is euenly bright & cléere: & it is called Aqueum, watrie: for it hath mouing as it were water of his subtiltie and moueablenesse: and it is moued, and moueth the next heauen thereto, and the said heauen moueth forth the heauen that is next thereto. And therefore that heauen that moueth the nether mouable things saueth principal∣ly the nether mouable things, as Alex∣ander saith.

Addition.

*THe varietie of opinions concerning the Heauens, doe manifest the in∣certaintie of humane skill: neuerthelesse wise men espie, that where ther is cause of learning, so long laborious studies are not spent in vaine, as appeareth by these thrée seueralls, p. C. Carlile.

The number of spheres, as the truth is, and as Plato and Aristotle de∣scribeth them.

Nouus iste orbis, qui & Firniamen∣tum dicitur, Aristotle vocatur pri∣mum mobilē, seu supremuscibis.

The first (for lacke of the figures) is the seate of the holy and blessed Trini∣tie, God the Father, his Sonne Iesus Christ, and the Holy Ghost the thirde person, the Archangells, Powers, Po∣tentates, and Angelles, the soules of the Elect, which are departed in the Lorde and Sauiour Iesus Christ.

The second: the twelue Signes. The third, the seauen Planettes: these con∣tatrie seauen heauens. Then followeth the foure Elements: whereof the earth is lowest. The twelue Circuies are vnder, and inclosed of coelum Empe∣rium.

Some of the Mathematicians, omit the burning heauen, and adde the tenth, which they call Primum mobile, and the ninth, which they call, Secundum mobile, as thus: Primum mobile, se∣cundum mobile, Firmamētum, Saturne, Iupiter, Mars, Sol, Venus, Mercury, Luna, Ignis, Aire, Aqua, Terra.

The Schoole men omit the seate of God, & in the place of it, they put thrée moe, as appeareth in this resitall. The ninth Coelum Aqueum, or Christalli∣num, or Adamantium, the waterish, or ycie, or harde heauen, as harde as an Adamant stone. The tenth Primum mobile. The eleuenth, Coelum Empe∣rium, the burning Heauen: Coelum Emperium, Primum mobile, Coelum Aqueum Christallinum Adaniantiom, Firmamentum, saturne, Iupiter, Mars, Sol, Venus, Mercurius, Luna, Ignis, Ayer, Aqua, Terra.

¶Of heauen Emperio, Cap. 4.

COelum Empereum is the first and highest heauen, the place of Angells, the Countrey and habitation of bles∣sed Page  [unnumbered] men. And hath that name Empire∣um, of Pir, that is fire. For it is fullye called fire, not for burning, but for light and shining, as Isidore sayth. For this heauen is most bright and shining, and giueth lyght and shining vnto the hea∣uen Christalline, that is next thereto. And this heauen of his owne kinde is in parts lyke without starres, and sha∣pen all rounde, as Damascenus saith. And it is round, for to contayne spiri∣tuall and bodely things and it is kindly quiet, immeucable and vnmoued. And so that heauen is not néedfull for conti∣nuance of generation of lower thinges: but, as Alexander saith, For complec∣tion and full perfection of the worlde, and of bodyes, as certaine endes aske, which are ordayned according to the middle: The one ende is most darke, as the Earth. The other most lyght as Coelum imperium. Either bodye, vt∣termost, and highest, and lowest, is for it selfe vnmouable and quiet.

Rabunus describeth the properties of this heauen, and taketh the wordes of Basilius in Exameron, and saith in this manner: Coelum Emperium, is the first bodye, most simple in kinde, and hath least of torpolentnesse: for it is most subtill in the first firmament, and foundation of the worlde, most in quan∣titie; bright in qualytie, round in shape, highest in place: For it is farthest from the middle point of the world, and con∣taineth spirites and bodyes, seene, and vnséene: and is the highest dwellyng place of God. For though God be in euery place, yet it is sayd specially, that he is in heauen: For the working of his vertue shineth most ther. And ther∣fore heauen is speciallye called, Gods owne seate: For in the bodye of the worlde, the kinde of heauen is fayrest, as Damascene saith, and in heauen the vertue of God worketh most openly.

¶Of Ethere shining. Chap. 5.

EThere in Gréeke is shining, and Isi∣dore saith. The ouer parts of fire, & of aire are called Ether, where is euer∣lasting shining of lyght and of bright∣nesse. And Anaxagoras saith, that that name Ether, is the name of fire. And as Aristotle sayth, he troweth that, for the burning, which commeth of the swifte∣nesse of the mouing thereof: and so A∣naxagoras meaneth, that all thing which burneth is called by that name Ether. And Alarcianu saith, that Ether is the place, which is departed from the nether worlde, and is vnséene in comparison to yt nether, which suffereth many manner diuersitie and chaunging. For in Ethe∣re, in that place is day euerlasting, no night commeth after day light, and no wonder: for the shadowe of the earth, which is cause of the night, commeth not in so high a place, as is that place, which is called Ether, as in li. Metheo∣rorum Arist saith, that Ether is nought els in kinde, but one element, & is none of the foure Elements: For all thing which is aboue ye roundnes of ye Moone, is of kinde departed from the kinde of the nether elements. Therfore Ether is neither heauie nor light, nor thinne nor thick: nor may be departed by thirling & holing of another bodie. For no corrup∣tion nor alteration may come and enter into the kind which is called Ether, nei∣ther into all nor into part thereof: and if it came, as had composition of the E∣lements, then corruption shoulde come therein. But yet Anaxagoras saith, that Ether is the aire, which is set a fire. And he saith, that sometime it cōmeth down∣ward, and is hid within the earth: and for the subtiltie thereof, it is ruled now vpward, now downward: and therfore commeth earth shaking, of the vertue of Ether closed in the inner partes of the earth. But Aristotle sayth, that this sai∣eng is erronious: For a subtill thing moueth not downward: and also though it moued downwarde, yet it should not make such working. And as Macrobi∣us sayth, The shining of Ether vnder the roundnesse of heauen, blaseth and shineth into all the roundnesse of the worlde: and contayneth in it selfe the roundnesse of the seuen Planets, which moue agaynst the mooing of the Fir∣mament. And the neather parte of the Page  123 aire with swiftnesse of his mouing, set∣teth on fire the ouer part of matters E∣lementall: and of that setting on fire, the roundnesse of fire is gendred and bred, as it is sayd, in libro de coelo & mun∣do in sine. And Ether is not set on fire, by the matter that is so set on fire. For it taketh no chaunging of the neather things, though those neather things take chaunging thereof.

¶Of the sphere of heauen. Cap. 6.

*THe sphere of heauen as Isido. sayth, is a certaine kinde shapen all round, and moueth all round about the middle thereof in euen space of times, from one poynt to the same. Philosophers tell, that this sphere hath neither end nor be∣ginning: and therefore because of the mouing about thereof, it is not soone knowen, where it beginneth, and where it endeth, and no shape is so according to heauen, as the shape of a sphere, both for the simplicitie therof, and for contei∣ning and receiuing, and also for likenes and accord, as Isido saith. Also Alphra∣g••as sayth, that the sphere is the round vttermost part of the heauenly body, in the which the fired starres be contay∣ned. And this sphere goeth about vppon two Poles, the one thereof is by North, and goeth neuer downe to vs, and is called Polus Articus, the North pole: the other is Polus Antarticus, that is, the South pole, and is neuer seene of vs: and that is, because it is farre from vs, or els because the earth is betweene vs and it. Betweene these two Poles, as it were betweene two endes of ye world, the sphere of heuen moueth and turneth round about, and with the mouing ther of, the starres that be pight therein, are borne & rauished about,* out of the East into the West, and againe out of the West into the East, in mouing of a day and a night, in the space of soure & twen∣tie houres And the sphere of heuen mo∣ueth about with so great swiftnes, that but if the Planets met, and letted the swifte mouing thereof, and made it mo∣derate: the shape of the world shoulde fall. And therefore as Alphraganus saith, the seauen roundnesse of Planets, be vnder the sphere, euery one meeting and crossing other. By the which round∣nesse, the Planets passe with couenable meeting, and meete and come against the ramishing of the stemament, and with∣standeth and tarieth the swistnes there∣of. And all the body of the sphere, moo∣ueth a slont about the middle, that is a∣bout the lyne that is named Axis, and Axis is a certaine line vnderstoode, that stretcheth straight by the midle of a bal, or of an other thing from one Pole to a∣nother: by such a line vnderstood in he∣uen, the roundnes of heuen moueth as a whéele moueth about the axitree. The endes of this line that is named Axis, be called Cardinales coeli, and be pight in the foresaid poles, and are called Car∣dinales, because they moue about ye hol∣lownesse of the Poles, as the sharpe cor∣ner of a doore moueth in the herre. And those Cardinales be hollowe and crooked inward, as Isid. saith. And halfe ye sphere is called Emisperium, that is, the parte which is all seene of vs, and for desaulte of our sight. It séemeth that it toucheth the earth: and the Circle, to the which the sight stretcheth and endeth, is called Orizon, as it were the end of the sight, as sayth Isid. Then knowe thou heereof shortly, that the sphere of heauen is a bright substance, and shineth euen to the middle thereof, that is to the earth, and the roundnesse thereof is most farre from the middle poynt of the earth: and ther∣fore the substance of these things which be full great in heauen, seeme full little to our sight: and that is for they be far off. And this sphere containeth all the nether things, and ordaineth and infor∣meth them all, and is cause effectiue of generation and of liuing, and rauisheth and draweth to it selfe contrary things: for by violence of his mouing, it draw∣eth after him the Planets, which mette with him, and passeth forth with harmo∣nie & accord. For Ari. saith in li. de pro∣prietacibus Elementorū, of ordinate mo∣uing of the sphere, and of the contrarye meeting of Planets, in the worlde com∣meth harmonie and accord.

Page  [unnumbered]And so Macrobius saith: in putting & mouing of the roundnesse of heauen, is that noyse made, and tempereth sharpe noyse with lowe noyse, and maketh di∣uers accordes and melodie: but for the default of our hearing, and also for pas∣sing measure of that noyse and melodie, this harmony and accord is not heard of vs. In likewise as we may not perceiue and see the Sunne moue though he moue, for the cleerenesse of beames ouercom∣meth the sharpnesse of our sight.

¶Of the circles of heauen. Cap. 7.

CIrcles of heuen be many: of ye which twaine be seene, the which twaine bée called Galaxias and Zodiacus.*

Zodiacus, an ouerthwart circle deui∣sed to be in heauen by the Astronomers, to declare the course of the Sunne al∣way, betwéene the Tropikes of Cancer and Capricorno. To which poyntes when it commeth either in the déepest of winter, or in the highest of Summer, it declyneth by little and little backe a∣gaine toward the Equinoctiall. This Circle hath the name of the figures of beastes, that are imagined to be in it, to expresse the natures of the twelue Signes, which are within the compasse of the same.

The other are vnseene, as the Circle that is named Equinoctialis, that de∣parteth heauen in two partes euen like: the which two parts be called Emispe∣ria. And that Circle Equinoctialis, tou∣cheth the Circle that is called Zodiacus, in two Signes, that one is named A∣ries, and that other Libra, the weigher and the Ballaunce. The other Circle is called solsticialis estiualis, that is, The stinting of the Sunne in Summer: for when the Sunne is therein, the Sunne is stinted in the Summer, and the daies begin to were shorter. This Circle tou∣cheth Zodiacus, in the signe that is cal∣led Cancer, the Crabbe: and is as it were the ioyning of our dwelling coun∣trey.

And another is called Parallelus, or the Circle Septemtrionalis, and is na∣med Articus also, and is as it were the departing of our dwellyng place. And the Circle that is towarde the Circle, which is called Torrida zona, which is as it were the ioyning of Torrida and of our habitation, toucheth the Circle which is named Zodiacus, in the Signe which is called Capricornus: And this Circle is named Solsticialis Hyemalis, of stinting of the Sunne in Winter. For when the Sunne is in that Circle, the Sunne stinteth in Winter, and the dayes beginne to were long. Another Circle there is, that is called Paral∣lelus.

(*Paralleli, lines in the sphere of the world, equally distaunt, whereby the Sunne passing, causeth variation in the houres of the day) and is called Antar∣ticus also, and is in the South, afore the North Circle, which is called Paralle∣lus Articus. And these fiue Circles are called Paralleli, as it wer Circles lyke farre a sunder. Beside these be two Cir∣cles, either called Colurus: ye one is na∣med Colurus septentrionalis, the North Colurus, and beginneth from the North Pole, and passeth round by the Signes that are called Cancer & Capricornus, & tourneth againe to his owne beginning. That other is called the South Colurus, (*Coluri, are two great Circles in the Sphere, which doe declare the time cal∣led Aequinoctia and Solstitia, that is to saye, when the daye and night be e∣quall in length: also when the daye is longest, and the night at most length) and passeth by the Signe Libra, into the Signe that is called Aries, and turneth also againe to his owne poynt. And co∣luri are sayde as it were colla Tauri, and haue that name of the tayle of a wylde Oxe, that arreareth his tayle, and maketh an vnperfect Circle: And Collurus is said as it were an vnperfect Circle.

The tenth Circle is called Orizon, that is, making ende of the sight: In that Circle it seemeth, that heauen and earth be coupled togethers.

And there is a South circle that betoke∣neth and marketh that part of the circle, and is called Zodiacus, in the which part Page  124 it séemeth that the Sun, is like far from the East & frō the West. And these two last circles be not in the sphere, but vary and be diuers, as diuers aspects asketh. Huc vsque Isidorus. li. 3.

*Orizon is the furthest parte of the firmament that mans eie can discerne, or determine.

Of the circle Galaxia. Chap. 8.

GAlaxias is a circle of heauen, and is more faire and bright then other cir∣cles of heauen, and passeth by the mid∣dle of heauen, and beginneth from ye East and passeth to the North by these signes, which are called Cancer & Capricornus, and turneth againe to his owne point. And this circle is called the milky circle: For among all circles of heauen, that circle is most bright and cléere, and most notable. And therefore by night ir ruleth and leadeth ship-men, and waye-faring men. And the more cléere the weather is by night & cold, the better is the percei∣uing of this circle. By the opinion of the common people, the circle Galaxias is ye vore of the passing of the Sun, that the Sun leaueth after him when he passeth in that circle. But Aristotle sayth yt this is false. For if Galaxias were of the im∣printing of the passage of the Sun, then must this printing be in the signes, in the which the Sunne passeth with other moueable starres. And we sée that this is false. For it passeth the boundes of the circles, which are called Zodiacus, wher the Sunne commeth not nigh: as it is sayde in Libro Meth. Therefore A∣naxagoras and Democritus sayde, that Galaxias is of reflection and reboun∣ding of light towarde the ayre, as it were in a mirrour. But this is false, as Aristotle sayth. Therefore if it were so, Galaxias shoulde chaunge place, as the lyght chaungeth, and this is false. For wée see, that Galaxias is alway in one place, and passeth not thence Ther∣fore Aristotle sayth in this manner.

Fire, which is nigh to the roundnesse of heauen, is shining and bright. And in the place where Galaxias is séene, bée many small starres and bright, and in those starres shineth that brightnesse. And therefore that place séemeth most bright with beames of light, and passeth not out of one place of the roundnesse of heauen. Huc vsque Aristoteles liber. pr. Methreorum. cap. 2.

Of the Zodiake. cap. 9.

ZOdiacus is a circle that passeth a∣slont, & is departed euen in twelue partes, the which twelue partes Phi∣losophers call signes. And these signes shewe to vs in what parte of heauen the Sunne and the Planettes are in. Then the twelue signes bée twelue spaces di∣stinguished in like much, knowen of A∣stronomers by notable starres, and euery each signe is departed in thirtye degrées, and euery each degrée is sixtye minutes, and euerye minute is sixtye scruples. So that sixtye scruples make one minute, and sixtie minutes make one degrée, and thirtie degrées make one signe. And these signes bée called by their owne proper names: As Aries, the Weather: Taurus, the Bull, and so of other. They be called beastes, not for that beastes be set in heauen: but for in effectes and dooing they present some propertie of such beasts: as it shall be said héere following.

Among these twelue signes, foure bée Cardynall signes, as Isidore sayth: as Cancer, highest, and Capricornus, lowest, Aries and Libra in the middle. The first twaine bée called Signa Sol∣sticiaria,* those bée the signes in the which the Sunne stinteth. For in Can∣cer the Sunne stinteth, and commeth no néerer to vs warde: And in Capri∣cornus hée passeth no further vpwarde.* In the first hée maketh most long daies and short nightes: And the seconde againewarde: and in the other two signes the daye and night bée lyke.

And in Libra is euennesse of daye and night in Haruest: and then in eyther time dayes and nightes bée lyke long: also in these signes there bée thrée fy∣rye,* that bée Aries, Leo, and Sagit∣tarius: and there bée thrée earthye, Page  [unnumbered] that be Taurus, Virgo, Capricornus.* And there bée thrée ayrye,* that bée Ge∣mini, Libra, Aquarius. And there bée thrée watrie,* that bée Scorpio, Cancer, Pisces. Among these signes, they that bée firye and ayrie, bee hotte and male, and daye signes. And they that bée wa∣trie and earthie, bée colde and female, and nightish signes. Also among these, foure bée mooueable, that bee the foure cardinall signes, that bée Aries, Cancer, Libra, and Capricornus: for in these signes time chaungeth. And foure bée pight, in the which time is pight: that bee Taurus, Leo, Scorpius, and Aquari∣us. And foure be common, in the which they bée meddeled: that bée Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius, and Pisces. And these signes bée called houses: for they bee the home and dwelling places of Planettes. And of these houses, some bée called the houses of Triplicitie, and some of exal∣tation. For those signes that accord in one kinde, make a Triplicitie, and haue one name, & so they be ordeined in foure parts of heauen. For in the east part bée the firie signes,*Aries, Leo, & Sagitarius: The earthy signes be Taurus, Virgo, & Capricornus in the South.* The airie be Libra, Gemini, Aquarius, in the West.* Watrie bee Cancer, Pisces, scorpio in the North.* And among Triplicities of houses, those that be in the East be stron∣ger in theyr working and dooing than the Weasten, the Northern, or the Sou∣thern: For more noble planets haue ma∣strie therin. For the Eastern Triplicitie, that is the first, hath the Sunne by day and the Moone by night, and Saturnus is partenee with them by daye and by night. And West in Triplicitie hath Saturnus, Mercurius, and Iupiter. And the Northen Triplicitie hath Venus, Luna, & Mars. And the Southerne Tri∣plicitie hath Saturnus, Mercurius, and Iupiter. Also signes bée called houses of exaltation and rising. For as Planettes be more or lesse enhaunced in degrées of signes, the more vertuouslye and perfect∣ly they woorke. For the Sunne hath his vertue & exaltation in ye eightéene degrée of Aries: and his falling in the degree of Libra, Venus hath her blisse in Piscibus, in the eight and twentie degrée, & her fal∣ling and her discomfort in such a falling of the signe, that is there afore, that is Virgo. Mercurius ariseth in Virgo, fif∣téene degrées, and falleth in Piscibus in as many degrées. The Moone ariseth in Cancer in the third degrée, and falleth in Scorpion in as manye degrées, Satur∣nus ariseth in Tauro in one and twen∣tie degrées, & falleth in Aries in as ma∣ny degrees. Mars ariseth in Capricor∣nus, in seuen and twenty degrees: and fal∣leth in Cancer in as many degrées. Iupi∣ter ariseth and Caput draconis in Ge∣minis in thrée degrées, and falleth in Sa∣gittario, in as many degrées. Cauda the taile of a Dragon ariseth in Sagittario, in thrée degrées, and falleth in Geminis. Beside these euery each signe is departed in thrée partes, the which partes bée cal∣led Facies. The beginning of which is from the first degrée of Aries, and dureth to the tenth degree: the second dureth to the. xx. the third dureth to the thirtye. The first part that is called Facies is gi∣uen to Mars, the second to the Sun, the third to Venus.

The first Facies of Taurus, and is gi∣uen to Mercurius: the second to ye Moone, the third to Saturnus. The first Facies, of Geminis is giuen to Iupiter: The se∣cond to Mars: the third to the Sunne. The first of Cancer to Venus: the se∣coude to Mercurius: the thirde to the Moone The first Facies Leonis is giuen to Saturnus: the second to Iupiter: the third to Mars. The first Facies of ye signe that is called Virgo, is giuen to the Sunne: the second to Venus, the third to Mercurius The first Facies of Libra, is giuen to the Moone: the second to Sa∣turnus, and the third to Iupiter. The first Facies of Scorpio is giuen to Mars, the second to the Sunne, and the third to Venus. The first Facies of Sagittarius is giuen to Mercurius, the second to the Moone: ye third to Saturnes The first Fa∣cies of Capricornus, is giuen to Iupiter, the second to Mars, the third to the Sun. The first Facies of Aquarius is giuen to Venus, the second so Mercurius, the third to ye Moone. The first Facies of Pis∣ces is giuen to Saturnus, the second to Iu∣piter,Page  125 the third to Mars.

Then a Planet that is in his house, hath fiue starres: in degrée of exaltation and arising, he hath foure: in the house of the Triplicitie, he hath thrée: in ye part that is called Facies, he hath one or two. And among the Planettes hée that is most abundaunt in number, passeth most in strength. And euerye each Planette is more strong in his owne house, than in anothers house. And so by strength of the signe that a Planet is in the Pla∣net is strengthened and is feebled of feeblenesse of the signe that hée is in.

As a strong man is more strong on a strong horse than a féeble. And therefore as Misael sayth: Astronomers in thoy domes and in their iudgements take heed of the houses ascendents.* That is to vn∣derstand of arising of signes, and digni∣tie of Planets, that they may déeme and gesse what shall befall by principate and masterie in houses, in Angles, or as∣cendents anglye either falling from an∣gles.

And also some signes bée called Do∣mus angules, as the Cardinall signes, of the which wée haue spoken before, that be Cancer, Libra, Capricornus, and Aries: And some signes bée called Domus succedentes, following Angu∣lis, as Taurus, that followeth the signe that is called Aries: and Leo, that fol∣loweth the signe which is called Can∣cer: and Scorpio that followeth the signe which is called Libra, and A∣quarius, that followeth the signe, which is called Capricornus. And some bée called Domus cadentes de Angulus, falling from Angelis, as Gemini, Vir∣go, Sagittarius, Pisces: as it is séene in Misael his figure. And by rising and going downe, Oppositions and Coniunc∣tions, and aspects of these signes diuers and contrarye things fall in this world. For as the same Authour saith, they bée in strength of kinde, and both gendered vnder a strong signe, male, ascendent, and arising: and vnder a strong Pla∣net, with good aspect therin, bee of strong and good dispsition in their kinde: and againeward.

Also houses that bée called Domus Anguli, the first house is Easterne, that is the signe which is called Aries: and the Northerne house is Cancer: and the West Angule is Libran and the Angule of the earth is Capricornus. These foure Anguler signes bée of most vertue: and the Easterne more than the Westerne: and the Northen more than the Southerne. And the angle of the earth is lesse strong than the other an∣gles, as the same Authour sayth. The signes that bee called Domus succeden∣tes, be of meane effect and vertue: and the second signe, that is to witte, the se∣cond signe from Aries yt is Taurus, and the fourth signe, the fifth, the eight, the eleauenth: and among these signes or houses, the eight is worst working and betokening: and therefore Astronomers cal it Domus moris, the houss of death: and the other signes bée called Domus cadentes, faing houses, that bée the fourth, the fifth, the sixt, the ninth, and the twelfth, and bée of feeble effect, and of worst betokening, and namelye the sixt and the twelfth: and the cause there∣of in, as the author sayth, for in the signe that is called the sixte house, Mars is worde and Master: and therefore it is called the house of sicknesse and of fée∣blenesse of all things: and in that signe is the ioye of Mars, and in the twelfth is the ioye of Saturnus: and therefore it is called the house of enmitie, of forrow, & trauaile: also signes that be called Do∣mus, beholde euerie other, and haue as∣pect euery each to other: so it is sayd, that there bée three principall aspectes, that bee called Sextilus, Timus, & Quartus. Aspectes is called Sextilis, when a Pla∣net in any signe ascendant arising, hath aspect to the thirde before him, and to the thirde after him: and that from the third to the leauenth Ensample. If any Planet be in ye beginning of Aries, hath aspect to the Planet, that is in the head of Gemini before him: and to him, that is in the beginning of Aquarius, after him that is in the leauenth signe: and this aspect is called Sextilis: for it hol∣doth the sixt part of heauen, that is six∣tie degrées, and such aspect is laudable, fortunate, good, and gratious.

Page  [unnumbered]It is the signe of meane loue as Astro∣nomers tell, as the foresayde Authour meaneth. The third aspect is from ye fift signe to the ninth. Ensample. A Planet that is in the beginning of Aries, hath aspect to him that is in Leone before him and to him that is in Sagittario, after him, that is the night signe. And this as∣pect is called Tercios, and Trinus also: for it conteineth the third parte of hea∣uen, that is fire score degrées, & this as∣pect is best. For it is in the signe of per∣fect friendship and loue, as the Authour sayth.

*The fourth aspect is from the fourth signe and the ninth. Ensample. A Planet that is the beginning of Aries, hath as∣pect to him that is in the head of Cancer before him, & to the Planet that is in the head of Capricornus after him, or behind that is the tenth signe. And this is called Qitartus, the fourth: For it conteineth the fourt parte of heauen, that is foure score degrees and tennt. And this aspect is euill: for it is the signe of wrath and enuyd, and enmitie, and in perfection, as the foresaid Authour sayth. And coniunc∣tion & appostion be not aspects: but som∣time they be called aspects by misersing & chaunging of that name aspect. Then when the first signe hath aspect to the leauenth; as Aries to Libra, it is called Aspectus oppositus, and is worst: for it is the signe of perfect enmitie, & signifi∣eth and betokeneth worst haps, & name∣ly if Mars haue such aspect to Saturnus, or to the Sunne: And when a Planet commeth with a Planet in ye same signe ascendent, or in the next signe there be∣fore, or behinde: then it is called Con∣iunction. And this Coniunction may bee good, if that the Planets be good. And a∣gaineward euill,* if the Planets be euill, as the Authour saith. And all this is said in figure, that the Authour maketh and setteth.

Of Aries. chap. 10.

GAther we kinde of all signes arowe, and by order, taking beginning of the signe that is called Aries. Then Aries is an Casterne signe, as it is said. For as a Wether in lieng vpō one side, turneth & chaungeth by equall times, so the Sun being in that part of the circles Zodia∣cus, that is called Aries, maketh euen∣nesse of day and night, and maketh the artificial daies and nights like long. And Misael sayth, that Aries is a firie signe, male, and a dayes signe and vnstable, and the house of Mars. The Sunne is Lord thereof by day, & Iupiter by night, And Saturnus is partener with thom. And this signe Aries is of the first Ers∣plicitie. The first Facies is giuen to Mars the second to the Sunne, the third to Venus.* And of mans bodie Aries hath mastrie in the head and face, & maketh much haire in ye bodie, & maketh ye body and face crossed and heauie eyen, short eares, and long necke, and is the house of lyfe, and of the birth of man: For as that signe goeth vpwarde from he nea∣ther parte of the earth toward the ouer partes of heauen; & turneth againe from darknesse so light: to both a childe that is borne passe out of darknesse. And by vertue of that signe the thing that is hid commeth into light, and priuie things be knowne to wise men. And is Alboma∣sat telleth in libro de motibas astrorū. In going downe (he sayth) of the third or of the fourth degrée of Aries, the signe a∣riseth that is called Libra, and mooueth the aire. In the tenth degrée seth the starre that is called Almareth and Al∣phet, and maketh the aire cléere and bright. In the 25. degrée Pliades the lea∣uen starres goe downe,* when the Sun, or the Moone, or any of the Planets com∣meth into the first, second, or third degrée of Aries, then shall be clowdie weather, winde of the South colde and tempest. In the second degrée of Aries, or in the ninth shall be great heate.

Of the signe Taurus. cap. 11.

TAurus,* as Misael saith, is an earth∣ly signe, colde, pight, and a nightye signe, the house of Venus, the second, ex∣altation of the Moone in the fourth de∣grée: Venus is Lorde thereof by daye, and the Moone by night. And Mars is partener with them: and of the Tri∣plicitie Page  126 he is the second.* The first Facies is giuen to Mercurius, the second to the Moone, the third to Saturnus, and hath mastrie of mans body in the necke and in the throate, and giueth large face and crooked, heauie nose and long, large nose∣thrills, heauye eyen, haire standing, and blacke and a greate necke, and maketh a man thamefast, and to walke honestly, and neuerthelesse in vaine & in idlenesse.* And he is the house of substance, and of riches, and possession, of receiuing and giuing, and is called Taurus, a Bull, for a Bull earing maketh the land plente∣ous and rich. Also when the Sunne is in Tauro, land may be eared, and is co∣uenable to be tilled, and to beare fruite, as saith Albumasar. In the first degrée Taurus, ariseth the starre that is called Paluit. In the sixt degrée ye constellation that is called Orion, goeth downe, and the aire chaungeth. In the eight degrée Phades, the seauen starres arise and di∣strouble the aire. In the 16. degrée, the starres that be called Hiades arise, and distrouble the aire.

Of the signe Gemini. cap. 12.

AS Misael sayth. The signe that is called Gemini is airie, male, meane, and a day signe. The house of Mercurij, exaltation of Cauda Draconis, the star that is called the Dragons taile, is in the third degrée thereof. Saturnus is Lorde by daye, and Mercurius by night. And Iupiter is partener with them, & of the third Triplicitie. The first Facies is gi∣uen to Iupiter,* the second to Mars, the third to the Sun, & hath mastry in mans body, of the shoulders, armes, & handes, & maketh a man faire, couenable, and of meane stature. And if Mercurius be con∣iunct thereto, and be fortunate: he dispo∣seth a man, and maketh him able to lec∣ture and to writing. And is the house of kinred, and nigh sibnesse of counsaile, of religion, and of truth. Of good meat and of sléepe, as Albumasar sayth, when the first degrée of this Gemini goeth downe, the starres arise yt be called Hiades, and change the aire, and thereafter Archites & Echites, that be called Aquila, the Ea∣gle in eightéene degrées, & Delphini in ye sixe & twētie degrée. This signe is called Gemini, that is to meane twins, as Isi. saith. Fables of Poets meane, that these twins were Castor & Pellux, two bre∣thren borne at one burthen, and wereful strong men. And because of them it is sayd, yt the Sun is then in Gemini. For when the Sun is in ye part of heauen, ye vertue is doubled to make the neather world plenteous. And then sometime be many warres and strifes betwéene kins∣men & cousins. Also Isid. telleth another tale, & saith, yt when Castor is ouer & ru∣leth the neather things, then Pollux is ouer & ruleth the ouer things, & againe∣ward. And Marcianus sayth, that that is feined. For sometime in Summer, when nights be most short, one part of the con∣stellation goeth downe, & the other part, that is ye forth, ariseth and goeth vp. And therefore it is saide, that the one brother oweth heauen, and the other hell.

(*Castor and Pollux, as Poets haue feined were two twins, begotten on Le∣da, ye wife of Tindarus king of Laconia, (with whō as it is feined) Iupiter in the likenes of a Swan, did accōpany, for in those daies inchātment & witchery, holpe to further much iniquity, & the childrē so begotten, felt Gods vengeāce secretly, she is said to hatch two egs, of ye one came Pollux & Helena, which was rauished by Paris, for yt which came Trois destruc¦tiō, & of ye other came Castor, & Clitēne∣stra, ye wife of Agamēnon, king of Mi∣cene in Greece, now called Peleponuesi∣us: the tide egs are ye two princes, ye hus∣bād & ye adulterer: those two Castor & Pol∣lux, deliuered ye seas frō pirats & rouers, & therfore being counted Gods of ye sea, were called on by mariners in time of daunger, & tempest Occasion of this was taken of the star called Gemini, into the which it is feined those two brethrē wer turned: ther are two lights which do of∣ten settle on ships called Castor & Pol∣lux, which if they ascend is a token of fair weather, if they falen ye seas a shew of tempest, this is common.

Of the signe Cancer. chap. 13.

THe signe yt is called Cancer is watry female, vnstable, a night signe, the house of the Moone, eraltation of IupiterPage  [unnumbered] in the fiftéenth degrée thereof. Venus is Lord thereof by day, and Mars by night: and the Moone is partner with them. And he is of the fourth Triplicitie. His first face is ioyned to Venus, the seconde to Mars, the thirde to the Moone:* and hath mastery in the body ouer the brest, ribbes, and lunges: and maketh great∣nesse in the bodye. For from the middle he maketh a man great and euill shape, & boistous, and vpward subtill, and ma∣keth short teeth and crooked: and is cal∣led the house of the father and of vines, and of all things that grow vpon earth: of castles, of towres, of townes, and of Cities, of treasure hidde, and of heritage. Heereof speaketh Albumasar. And when the fifth degrée of this signe Cancer go∣eth down, the signe that is called Capri∣cornus ariseth, and chaungeth the aire. In the leauenth degrée Orizon ariseth and chaungeth the aire in heate. In the 29. degrée ariseth the sharpe star, that is called Canicula,* & seemeth a full hound. And then is greate disturbaunce in the aire, and as Isidore sayth, This signe is called Cancer, the Crabbe. For the crab is a shelling beast, and goeth backward: So the Sun, when he goeth in that part of the circle Zodiacus, that is called Can∣cer,* he goeth backwarde in the eight de∣gree of this signe Cancer. Also then the Sunne is high toward the roundnesse of the sphere, toward our dwelling place: and is set in earth that he may not passe higher: and then he turneth againe, pas∣sing by the nether signes euen to Capri∣cornus.

*Canis is a starre in the Firmament, rising the. 17. Kalends of August, & go∣eth downe within. 40. dayes after: in which time being called the dog daies, this starre ioyning with the sunne in the middest of the firmament doubleth the heate, &c.

Of the signe Leo. chap. 14.

AND Misael saith, The signe that is called Leo, is firie, male, pight, and a daye signe, the house of the Sunne, and his exaltation, the Sunne is his Lord by day, and Iupiter by night, and Saturnus is partener with them. And he is of the first Triplicitie. His first face is giuen to Saturnus, ye second to Iupter,* the third to Mars, and helpth in a man the sto∣macke, brawnes, heart, and ridge, & ma∣keth a man great vpward and small be∣neath, of greate heart and fierce, with small legs, & be called, the house of chil∣dren, and of new clothes, of free men, and of goods, and this sayth Albumasar. In the fourth degrée of Leo, Aquarius, and Clion ariseth,* and the ayre is chaunged. In the ninetéenth degrée Cancer ariseth and Capricornus goeth downe. And that signe is called Leo, for the Lion is stron∣gest of beasts, namely of heate, and spe∣cially in the fore part: so the Sun ente∣ring into that part of this signe, printeth in his beames more sharply, then he doth in the ende when he passeth out of the signe, as Isidore saith.

Of the signe Virgo. chap. 15.

THE signe that is called Vrgo is ear∣thie, colde, meanly, and a night signe: the first house of Mercurius, and the ex∣altation of Mercury is in the fifth de∣grée therof. Venus is his Lord by day, & the Moone by night, and Mars is partner with them, and is of Triplicitie the se∣cond. His first face is giuen to the Sun, the second to Venus, the thirde to Mer∣curius. Of the parts of man he hath in cure the wombe and guts,* and maketh a faire person, faire eien, faire face, & séeme∣ly, and he swageth the will: and is the house of sicknesse, of seruaunts, men and women, and of beasts, and betokeneth right wisenesse and chaunging from place to place. And this signe is called Virgo, a maide: For a maide is barren, and without fruite: so the Sun entering the part of Zodiacus, that is called Vir∣go,* wasteth with his heate, humour and moisture: and so maketh the earth barren of fruite.

Of the signe Libra. cap. 16.

MIsael saith, that the signe that is cal∣led Libra is watrie, male, vnstable, a daye signe, the house of Venus, the first Page  127 exaltatiō of Saturn, in 21. degrées therof. Venus is his Lord by day, & Saturn{us} by night, Mercurius & Iupiter be both part∣ners with them, of Triplicitie in ye third: His first face is giuen to the Moone, the second to Saturnus,* the third to Iupiter. In mans body he ruleth ye nether parts, the wombe, the guts, and the nauell. And he is the house of wiues, sponsalles, and marriages, of strife, thefte, and robberye, and this saith Albumasar. In the fifth de∣gree of the signe of Libra, the starre that is called Leo, ariseth and chaungeth and heateth the aire. In the. 2. degrée ariseth Corona, and maketh much troubling of the aire.

*Corona, the signe of Ariadne (the wife of Theseus king of Athens, who was much defaced by breaking his fayth which he had promised to the daughter of Minos, king of Cret, leauing her in the Ile Naxas, notwithstanding she sa∣ued his life) which hath nine starres in forme of a crowne.

And in the .23. degrée ariseth the starres that be called Hyades and Ves∣pertio, and then is more perturbation of ye aire. And thereafter ariseth Virgo. And this signe hath his name of Libra, of a ballance that is ye instrument of wei∣eng. For the Sunne being in that part of heuen yt is called Libra, maketh daies and nights euen like and long, as Isidore saith.

Of the signe Scorpio. chap. 17.

MIsael sayth, the signe that is called Scorpio, is watrie, colde, pight, and a night signe, the first house of Mars, the exaltation of no Planet. Venus is his Lord by daye, and Mars by night: and the Moone is partner with them, of Tri∣plicitie is the fourth. His first face is gi∣uen to Mars, the second to the Sunne, the third to Venus. Of the part of man, it serueth the members of generation, the bladder and the reines: & giueth a ruddy face and litle, much haire, small eien, long legs, & great féete. And he maketh a man light and vnstable, wrathfull, & a lyar. And is called the house of death, and of trauaile, of harme, & of domage, of strife, of battaile, of guilefulnesse, and feluesse, and of wit. Heereof speaketh Albumasar.* In the second degree of Scorpio the stars Hiades arise, and causeth greate di∣sturbaunce and distemperaunce in the aire.

(*Hiades are seuen stars, whose names are Ambrosia, Eudora, Palitlioe, Coro∣nis, Plexauro, Pytho, & Tythe, they bée troublous, and raise stormes & windes. They go down the .14. Kalends of May: Poets haue named them the daughters of Atlas & Aetheria, wherfore they be al∣so called Atlantides: Atlas of Maurita∣nia, as the Gréeks supposed, did first find out the course of the stars, by an excellēt imagination: it is supposed he was a∣bout the yéeres. 1599. afore the incarnati∣on: of so great antiquitie is the science of Astronomie.

And thereafter ariseth Taurus. In ye 22. degrée therof Pliades go downe: & thē the wether & the aire is cléere. And that signe is called Scorpio. For a scorpion is a beast that stingeth gladly with ye taile. Also the Sun being in that parte of Zo∣diacus, that is called Scorpio is cause of hurting, and of punching of mans body. For then he withdraweth and giueth lesse heate to the ayre, whereby the ayre béeing distempered in colde, gréeueth and puncheth the bodye soone, as Isidore sayth.

Of the signe Sagittarius. Chap. 18.

MIsael sayth, that Sagittarius is a wa∣trie signe, male, meane, and a daie signe, in exaltation of Cauda draconis, the Starre, in the thirde degrée thereof, the Sunne is his Lorde by day, Iupiter by night, Saturnus is partener with them of Triplicitye. The first face is giuen to Mercurie, the seconde to the Moone, the thirde to Saturnus. Of mannes partes hée disposeth the eyen,* and maketh long haunches and legges, and euen long face and small chinne, and maketh a man fayrer behinde then before, and maketh small haire, and a great womb, and he maketh a man haue liking in moouing.

Page  [unnumbered]And therefore hée is called the house of trauailing men, of truth, of wisedome, of mastrye, of worshippe, of wit, and of cunning and knowing of Starres, and diuination of dreames. And heereof spea∣keth Albumasar. In the second degrée of Sagittarius, Plyades arise, and go soone downe. And the head of Scorpio aryseth, and then is strong turbation of the aire. In the seauenth degrée the starres Hy∣ades go downe, and the aire is chaunged. That sign is called Sagittarius,* ye archer: For as an Archer sendeth his Arrowes: so the Sunne when he is in that part of Zodiacus, sendeth to vs Raine, haile, and Snow.

Of the signe Capricornus. Chap. 19.

MIsael sayth, That the signe that is called Capricornus, is earthie, cold, vnstable, a night signe, Saturnus first house. The exaltation of Mars is in ye 28. degree therof. Venus is his Lord by day, and the Moone by night, and Mars is par∣tener with them of Triplicitie, and is the second. The first fate is giuen to Iu∣piter, the second to Mars, the third to the Sunne. In mans body he beholdeth the knées, and giueth small leggers and drye bodyes,* rough face and hairie, guilefull & wrathful. He is called the house of Lord∣ship, of worshippe, of king and of king∣dome, of blie, and of imperie, of riches stollen and hidde Héereof speaketh Al∣bumasar. In the fourth degrée of Capri∣cornus, Cancer ariseth in 38. degrées, the head of Cancer goeth downe, and ye head of Capricornus ariseth. And is called Ca∣pricornus. For as a Goat buck is a beast with hornes standing vpwarde: so the Sunne, when he is in that part of Zodi∣acus, maketh the stinting of the Sunne in the winter, and then he beginneth to stie vpward by signes toward Aries and toward Cancer.

Of the signe Aquarius. chap. 20.

MIsael sayth, That the signe that is called Aquarius, is male, pight, a daye signe, the house of Saturnus: but is exaltation of no place. Saturnus is his Lord by daye, and Mercurius by night. Iupiter is partener with them of Tri∣plicitie, as in the third. His first face is giuen to Venus, the second to Mercuri∣us, the third to the Moone.* And it is sayd hée hath Lordshippe of mans legges vn∣till the anckle bae, and maketh a man gladde and ioyfull, and a greate waster. And maketh a faire face, and well colou∣red. And of some hée maketh one legge longer then another, and he is called the house of friendship, and of Merchandise, & faire, of fortune, of rent, of tribute, and substaunce, of riches, of king, of knight, & of foot men. Heereof speaketh Albuma∣sar. In the fourth degrée of Aquarius, the signe ariseth that is called Leo: In the leauenth degrée, the starre that is called Stella regia, and the starre that is called Lampades, goe downe and chaunge the aire, & thereafter Capricornus, & the head of Aquarius ariseth. Fables meane, that that signe Aquarius is ye butler of Gods, and giueth them water, and therefore he holdeth a potte. And therefore then it is saide, that Sol is in Aquario: for that time the aire is made thicke, and hath much water bead: and then is more raine then in other times, as Isidore sayth.

Of the signe Pisces. chap. 21.

MIsael sayth, That the signe that is called Pisces, is watrie, colde, meane, and a night signe: the house of Iupiter, but exaltation of Venus in the 27. de∣grée. Thereof Venus is Lorde by daye, Mars by night: and the Moone is part∣ner with them, of the Triplicitie in the fourth. His first face is giuen to Satur∣nus, the second is Iupiter, the thirde to Mars. Of mans bodye he ruleth the féete, and giueth large breast, little head,* a flowrishing beard and faire. And ma∣keth a man white, of great heart, with rounde eyen: And that signe is called the house of enmitie, of Asse, of horse, and of euery wast that is ridde vppon. And betokeneth trauaile, wo, & sorrowe, backbiting, deceipt, and guile, euill will, and prison: Héereof speaketh AlbumasarPage  128 In the tenth degrée of the signe yt is cal∣led Pisces, Virgo ariseth in the 12. degree, Thele, yt is the signe yt is called Libra, ariseth: in the .19. degrée, the signe that is called Cancer ariseth: in the .24. degrée, Orision, & the signe that is called Aqua∣rius arise. And this signe is called Pisces, the fish, for that time is generation and froting of fish. For when the heate of the Sunne ariseth, humoures be dissol∣ued and parted, and then fish vse to shed their séede, as Isidore sayth. And so A∣stronomers meane that these be the pri∣uie properties & vertues of the .12. signes of heauen. And I haue put these proper∣ties of these .12. signes to this worke, suppossing that it is profitable to them that read ye names of them in holy writ, to finde and knowe shortlye, what olde men meaned and vnderstoode of them in olde time. And why & wherfore Astrono∣mers, that take héede of the course of the Starres, set such names to these twelue signes. For by rising and downe going, and conspect and sight these 12. signes, that be called also Domus, houses: di∣uerse and wonderfull chaunges fall in these neather partes of the worlde, as it is sayd. For the ouer bodies of heauen alter and chaunge these neather things, and make in them diuers impressions and printes. And by these twelue signes, moue the Planets that be called Sidera errancia, not for they erre, for they haue most certeine moouing and discreet: But they be called Errancia, for it is know∣en that they holde theyr course against the course of the firmament. And there∣fore of the moouing of Planets, and of their place and effect, somewhat shall bée shortly sayd, both in generall and in spe∣ciall.

Of double mouing of the Pla∣nets. chap. 22.

ALL the Planettes moue by double mouing, by their owne kinde, moo∣uing out of the West into the East, a∣gainst the moouing of the firmament: And by other mouing out of the East into the West.* And that by rauishing of the Firmament. By violence of the fir∣mament they bée rauished euerye daye out of the East into the West. And by theyr kinde moouing, by the which they labour to moue against the Firmament, some of them fulfilleth theyr course in shorter time, and some in longer time.

And that is for theyr course bee some more and some lesse. For Saturnus aby∣deth in euery signe thirtie moneths, and full endeth his course in thirtie yeare. Iupiter dwelleth in euery signe one yere, and full endeth his course in .12. yeare. Mars abideth in euery signe .45. dayes, and full endeth his course in two yeres. The Sunne abideth in euery each signe 30. dayes and .10. houres and Semis, and ful endeth his course in .CCClxv. daies, and sixe houres. Mercurius abideth in euery signe. 28. dayes and sixe houres, & full endeth his course in .CCCxxxviii. dayes. Venus abideth in euerye signe ••. daies, and full endeth his course in CCCxlviii dayes. The Moone abideth in euery signe two daies and an halfe, & sixe houres, and one bisse lesse: and ful en∣deth his course from point to point, in 27. dayes and eight hours. And by ente∣ring and out passing of these .7. starres, into the .12 signes, and out thereof, all thing that is bread and corrupt in this neather worlde is varyed and disposed: and therefore in the Philosophers booke, Misalath. chap. 1. it is read in this man∣ner. The highest made the world to the lykenesse of a sphere, and made the high∣est circle aboue it moueable in the earth, pight and stedfast in the middle thereof: not withdrawing towarde the left side, nor toward the right side, and sette the other Elementes moueable, and made them moue by the moouing of seauen Planets, and all other starres helpe the Planettes in their working and kinde. And therefore the working of the Pla∣nettes is lyke to the stone Magnas, an Adamant, and to Yron. For as Yron is drawne to that stone, so euery creature vpon earth, hath a manner inclination by the mouing of the Planets. Couenable sitting, and destruction commeth by moo∣uing and working of Planettes: the working of them varieth and is diuerse by diuersitie of Climas and Countryes. Page  [unnumbered] For they work one manner thing about the land of bliew men, and another a∣bout the land and countrey of Slauens: and therefore as he saith Caput. quarto. Take héede of coniunction of Planets in these signes. For if many Planettes bée coniunct in watry signes, in the space of the yeares, it betokeneth much raine: And if they bée coniunct in firie signes, it betokeneth drinesse and hunger, that commeth of passing heat and drinesse: and if such a coniunction be in signes that be ayrie, it betokeneth much winde: And in the signes that be colde, it betokeneth heauinesse of colde, & of temporatenesse of heate. And yet in the same booke. ca. 8. it is said, that gifts of signes increase in theyr working by coniunctions of the Planets in good or in euil. For if the pla∣nettes bée good, they betoken good, and if they bée euill, they betoken euill. For as bee sayth, Some Planets bée male, euill day signes, heauie, colde and drye: as Saturnus. And some bée good, male, a day Planet, temporate, hotte, and moyst: as Iupiter. Mars is male, a night Pla∣net, and bréedeth heate and drynesse. Venus is female, a night Planette, meane, betweene hot and colde, and moi∣sture. And Mercurius is of temporate kinde, a day Planet, nowe male, nowe female. Therefore he tourneth himselfe soone to the kinde of the Planet, that bée is coniunct with. And so with good Planettes hée is good, and with euill he is euill, and with meane hée is meone. Also the Moone is a female Planet, and a night Planet, colde, and passing moyst. Therefore Astronomers meane, that some Planets in their doing and effects be good, as Iupiter and Venus: for they greeue nothing, but helpe and saue both their owne, and the things that bee not theyr owne, as farre forth as they maye. Other Planettes bée euill, as Mars and Saturnus, not for that they gréeue alway theyr owne, but they helpe onelye their owne. And some moue as the Sunne, the Moone, and Mercuryus. For they helpe theyr owne, and bée nowe good and now euill to other: and namely, as they bée conioyned in diuerse houses of signes, with Planets good or euill. For with good they bée good, and with euill they bée euill. As these seauen Planettes oft worke, they haue might and power in ofte generation of men, and of other heastes. For as Astronomers meane,* and Galen, and other wise Phisitions, Saturnus with his coldnesse and dry∣nesse, congeleth the matter that is concei∣ued in the mother, and maketh it thicke: And in the seconde moneth Iupiter gi∣ueth spirits and members: In the third moneth Mars maketh the bloud thinne, and humours thicke,* and ordeineth and compowneth. In the fourth moneth the Sunne giueth spirituall lyfe to the liuer and to the heart. In the fifth moneth Venus maketh perfect and disposeth the members and limmes of féeling, and of office, as the eares, nose, and other such. In the sixt moneth Mercurius com∣powneth all the holes and holow mem∣bers, and tongue, and nosethrilles. In the seauenth moneth the Moone departeth and distempereth members in their owne place and stéed, and therefore then a child is borne profitable and healthfull, and if the childe put off the birth, euen to the eight moneth, then the childe dieth. For then the might and vertue of Sa∣turnus commeth yet againe, for with his either qualitie, colde and dry, he bindeth and slayeth the childe. And in the ninth month Iupiters vertue commeth againe: for he nourisheth and kéepeth the childe with his temporate heat, therfore a child that is borne that time, shall liue, and also the child that is borne in the begin∣ning of the tenth moneth, maye haue help and life, for then againe Mars reig∣neth, and by his heate and drinesse, the childes members bée strengthened, and therfore the child by benefit of heate and of drynesse, commeth out: mightie and strong Planettes haue those workings, and many other generall and speciall in the neather bodyes, and namelye when they haue Lordship and mastery in theyr owne home and house, for euerye Planet hath his owne house as Albumasar say∣eth.

For Saturnus his owne first house is Capricornus, and also Aquarius: Iupi∣ters house is Pisces & Sagittarius: MarsPage  129 house is Aries, Libra, & Taurus, Mer∣curius house is Virgo, Libra, & Gemini, the Suns house is Leo, the Moones house is Cancer. In these .12. houses & signes, the 7. Planets be Lordes and Masters, and passe & mooue therein by diuers moo∣uings: and now be in exaltation & are∣ring, and now falling and abating. And in these signes the Planettes moue and abate with double moouing, and mooue by accidentall mouing and rauishing of the Firmament, out of the East into the West: and by kind moouing, the which kinde moouing is double, the first and the second. The first moouing is the round mouing, that a Planet maketh in his owne circle, and passeth neuer the marks and bounds of the circle. The se∣conde moouing is that he maketh vnder the Zodiacus, hauing aspect to the same circle, & passeth alwaye lyke great space in a like space of time. And the first moo∣uing of a Planet is made in his owne circle that is called Ecentricus, & is called so, for the earth is not the middle therof, as it is the middle of the circle that is called Zodiacus, & therfore the circle of a Planet is called Ecentricus, if the vtter roundnesse thereof passeth about ye mid∣dle point of the earth, and departeth the earth euen a twaine, and his middle point of the earth: but his middle point is without the middle point of the earth. And this circle Ecentricus is double, that is to wit, difference and equance. For to the Planets are assigned thrée circles, as sayth Ptho. That is to wit, equance, dif∣ference, and Epiciclus. The circle that is called Difference, is the circle of a Planet, in whose roundnesse alway moo∣ueth Epiciclus of the same Planet, and is called therefore difference, because it bereth ye circle Epiciclus. Circulus equans is called that circle, about whose middle point moueth the point of Epiciclus, that Planet mooueth euen about, and is cal∣led Equans, euening, for therein the Pla∣net holdeth euen by his course: Epici∣clus is a little circle that a Planet de∣scribeth and goeth aboute therein by the moouing of his bodye, and the body of the Planet goeth about the round∣nesse thereof: and so in the ouer side of that circle that is called Epiciclus, a Pla∣net moueth from the West, Eastwarde. And in the nether part therof he moueth from the East, Westward. And therfore it sheweth that the Sun & other Planets moue in theyr owne circles: and first lyke swift, though they moue diuerslye in diuerse circles. Also in these circles thrée manner mouing of Planets is full wisery found of Astronomers, that bée called Motus directus, Stacionarius, and Retrogradus. Motus directus is with right moouing, when a Planet mooueth streight from the beginning of a signe, towarde the ende thereof, and Motus Retrogradus, againeward, that is moo∣uing backwarde, when a Planet moo∣ueth backwarde frontwarde the ende of a signe, toward the beginning. Stacio∣narius is when it séemeth that a Planet standeth and abideth as it were in the middle: So that it séemeth that it moo∣ueth not vpwarde nor downewarde, to∣ward the beginning, neither toward the ende of the signe, and alwaye Directo, forth right moouing is in the ouer parte of the circle that is called Epicicli:. And alway Retrogradation, moouing back∣ward, is in the neather part: And Stacio, stinting and abiding or hoouing, is in the middle. The diuersitie whereof Phi∣losophers assigne in many manner wise. But this Retrogradation, backwarde mouing, hath place only in fiue Planets, and not in the Sunne nor in the Moone, for the Sun & the Moone haue no back∣ward mouing, though they moue in the circles Epicicl and that is as some men meane, the Sunne beames: for the ver∣tue of the Sun beames because of back∣ward mouing. For the vertue of the Sun beames doe otherwhile put off Planets, and make them moue backwarde, and sometime draweth them, and maketh them as it were standing and abiding, as Alphtagoranus saith. Other causes yt cōmentor assigneth: but these suffice at this time. Then consider thou héereof, ye planets be stars Erratice, mouing diuers∣ly, & distinguished by .7. circles & round∣nes, as in place & vertue, so in effect they be diuers & sundry, as Beda saith in li. de naturis rerū. These stars work & change Page  [unnumbered] the elements, and bréede all that is bred, and corrupseth al that is corrupt, and al∣so with their contrary moouing they tar∣ry the swift moouing of the body of hea∣uen, and be cause of tempest, & of cléere wether, and of plenteousnesse & of bar∣re••e••e, and flowing and of ebbing of tho sea, & parseth euerye each with other of quality & of vertue. For as Beda saith: when any of the planets commeth into others •••cle, hée departeth with him of qualitie and of vertue: and also by aspect that euery each hath to other, & by Con∣iunction, they chaunge their qualities and effects For the goodnes of a goodly starre, chaungeth and abateth the presence of an euill star; & againward, the mallice of a malitious star is tempered & abated by the partened of a goodly starre, as Albu∣mat•• saith, and Ptholomeus. Also by or∣dinate eleuations, and rising and aba∣ting of them in their circles and round∣nesse, and by meeting of their circles, they be arose of ther king, of noise, & harmo∣ny, as it is said in i ro do quimque sub∣stantsis. And as Macrobius saith, be∣twéene the sphere of Saturnus and of the Moone, all the consonancie and accord of musicke i sound. And they shining with the Sun, hide his light, and receiue per∣fection of the vertue of the Sunne. And the higher circles they haue, in longer time they fulfill their course.

Of Saturne. chap. 23.

IN (* the beginning of the Planets, shall be set forth what manner of persone these were, of life and conuersa∣tion that the starres were named by for the better vnderstanding of this science. Saturnus the sonne of Coelum and Ve∣sta, who married Ops his owne sister, his eldest brother named Titan percei∣uing his Mother and sisters, more bent to haue Saturne his younger brother to succéed in the kingdome, yelded his right therein to him for his owne life time, on this condition, that he should not bring vp any ••ue male, but the heritage shuld come againe to his children, wherefore Saturne vpon this couenant made with his brother, vsed to kill and deuour all ye male childrē, & brought vp only ye daugh∣ters, Ops therefore his wife, hauing brought forth on a time Iupiter & Iuno, shewed Iuno to her husband, but Iupiter she conueied priuely, to the Coribants (ye Priests of the Idol Cybele, inhabiting ye mount Ido in Phrigia; & from thence to Ido in ye Ile of Greta) to be kept & brought vp. Likewise afterward being deliuere of Neptune, she conueied him also secret∣ly to be kept & nourished, & lastlye saued by like meanes her third son Pluto. But whē this was known by Titā yt his bro∣ther had kept vp his men children, & ther∣by the kingdome shuld go from his line, his sonnes & he ioyntly made war vpon Saturne, in the end whereof Saturne and Ops his wife were taken & kept in pri∣son, vntil such time as Iupiter comming to age, ouercame the Titans, & deliuered his father & mother. But forasmuch as Saturn vnderstood by orade that he shuld be driuen out of his kingdome by his sonnes, he laid wait to destroy Iupiter, wherfore Iupiter made war on his Fa∣ther, & chased him out of his kingdome of Creta, into Icoly where he hid himself a long time in that country after called Latinum.

Saturnus hath that name of Satu∣rando, making fulnesse and plentye, his wife is called Opis of Opolentia, fulnesse and plentie, that sheweth to man and to beast, as Isidore saith, and Marci∣anus also. Fiables speake of him and say, that he is painted as a most sorte ••∣fall man: for his owne sonne gelded him, and his genitours wer throwen into the Sea: and thereof commeth Venus. Misa∣el sayth, that Saturnus is an euill willed Planet, colde and drie, a night Planet and heauir. And therefore by fables he is painted as an old man, his circle is most farre from the earth, and neuerthelesse it is most noifull to the earth: And for that he is far from ye earth, he ful endeth not his course before .30. yeres. And gréeueth more, when he goeth backwarde, then when he goeth forth right. And therefore by Fables it is feined, that hee hath a crooked hooke, and is pale in coulour or wanne as Lead, and hath two deadlye qualityes, coldnesse, and drynesse. And Page  130 therefore a childe & other broodes, that be conceiued & come forth vnder his Lord∣ship, dye, or haue full euill qualyties.

For as Ptholomeus saith, in libro de iudicijs Astrorum, he malteth a man browne and fowle, misdoing slowe, and heauie, eleinge and forie, seldome gladde and merrye, or laughing, and therefore Ptholomeus saith, they that be subiect to Saturnus, haue ofte euill drye chinnes in the hinder part of the foote,* and be yeo∣low of coulour, and browne of hayre, and sharpe in all the body and vnseemly, and be not skoymous of soule and stin∣king clothing, and he loueth stinking beastes and vncleane, sower things and sharpe: for of their complection melan∣cholike humour hath masterie. Ptholo∣meus speketh of this Saturnus, and saith, that vnder Lordship of Saturnus is Ca∣pricornus and Aquarius. His Lordship is in libra, but in Aries he draweth out his kingdome. Under him is contei∣ned life, building, doctrine, and colde place and drye. In dome and iudgment he betokeneth sorrow, wee, and cleing∣nesse. His colour is blacke and leadye, and he is false: and when Saturnus com∣meth into Iupiters circle his mallice a∣bateth, and colour chaungeth by reson he is néere to Iupiter: for though he bee kindly leady, yet by cleerenesse of Iupi∣ter, when he is coniunct with him, he is made white and bright as Ptholomeus, saith.

¶Of Iupiter. Cap. 24.

IVpiter (* succéeding Saturne in his kingdome of Creta, fell in loue with, Danae the daughter of Acrises, king of Argiues, vnto whom (béeing inclosed in a strong Tower) Iupiter came in the forme of a golden Raine, in at the house toppe, and gat on hir Persrus, who was afterwarde, a valyaunt Knight, hée gaue the name first to the countrey and people of Persia. By this: Fable is signified, that Iupiter sene treasure prinely vnto Danae, and also to them that had the kéeping of hir, where∣with they being corrupted, suffered Iu∣piter to enter into the tower, & accom∣plished his pleasure. This declareth the force of mony and giftes in assaulting of chastitie: notwithstanding he was va∣liant and wise, yet was he giuen to le∣cherie, destowring maides, and deilyng wiues, and after his death was extolled for a God: he had to wife his sister Iu∣no, called also Hera.)

Errour of Nations, and faining of Poets meane, that Iupiter was highest father of Gods. Iupiter is a goodly pla∣net, hot and moyst, male, and a day pla∣net, temperate in his qualyties: In co∣lour siluerte, white, bright and pleasing: and therefore ofte Philosophers set the cause of wealth in Iupiters Circle, as Marcianus sayth. This Iupiters Circle is next coniunct to Satarnus circle: and therefore for highnesse of his circle, in twelue yeares he full endeth his course. This Iupiter by his goodnesse abateth the mallice of Saturnus, when he is in the ouer part of his circle, that is con∣iunct to the circle of Saturnus: and ther∣fore Poets feigne, that he put his father out of his kingdome, as Marcianus saith, and Isidore also: for by his presence he abateth the kinde mallice of Saturnus. This Iupiter coniunct with good Pla∣nets, maketh good and profitable impres∣sionsm these nether Elements, & there∣fore Astronomers tell, that in mans bo∣dy he helpeth to fairenesse and honestie: for he giueth white colour & faire, med∣led with rednesse: and giueth faire eyen and téeth, and faire haire, faire beard and round. As Ptholomeus saith, he hath ma∣sterie and rule of the aire, of bloud, and of sanguine complection. Héereof speak∣eth Ptholomeus, Under Iupiter be the signes, that are called Aquarius & Pisces, and be his house, and raigueth in Can∣cer, and in Capricornus his kingdome passeth Under Iupiter is contained ho∣nour, riches, & best clothing. In iudgmēt and dome of Astronomers, he betoke∣neth wit and wisedome, and reson, and is trustie and true. And therefore as A∣stronomers tell, when he is séene in his circle that is called Ascendens, he beto∣keneth reuerence & honestie, & faith, and learning, and he shall be ende to salvati∣on, & so he comforteth the goodnes of all Page  [unnumbered] the signes, and he betokeneth in them good, when he is found in them, except in the twelfe: there he sayth, that Iupi∣ter betokeneth, thraldome, pouertie, sor∣rowe, and eleingnesse, and discomforte in foure footed beastes, and in meynie and seruaunts, as Misael saith, & Ptho∣lomeus also in like wise.

¶Of Mars. Cap. 25.

MArs (* tearmed God of Battell, and onely Iunoes sonne, without com∣pany of hir husband. The Poets fained that Mars neuer had father, because hée hated peace: for the nature of bastards, is commonly to be either very fearful, or very venturous, and most commonly de∣lighting in those exercises, that be aun∣swerable to heady, trayterous, & vnséem∣ly practises. Iuno found in the fieldes of Olenius a floure, with ye which as soone as she had tasted, conceiued and brought∣forth Mars.)

Mars was taken and helde for God of battell among Nations and People: for he is an hot Planet & drye, male and a night Planet, and so hath mastry ouer cholar, fire, and cholaricke complection, & disposeth to boldnesse & hardinesse; and to desire of wreake. Therefore he is cal∣led God of battayle and of warre, and commeth next after Iupiter, and goeth before Venus, and therefore by nighnesse of either starre, his noyfulnesse is tem∣pered. In colour he is bright, and shi∣ning, and firie, as Marcianus saith: and therfore he hath more vertue & strength in heating, than other Planettes as the same Author saith. Ptholomeus sayeth, That this Plannet disposeth mans body to length and to smalnesse: & that is because of his heate and drynesse, but this is in youth: For in age, by heate that wasteth, and drynesse that maketh to shrinke, he disposeth to stooping and crookednes. And he disposeth the soule to vnstredfast wit & lightnes, to wrath, & to boldnes, and to other cholarick passions. And also he disposeth and maketh able to firie workes and craftes, as Smithes and Bakers, as Saturnus disposeth men to be earth tillers, and bearers of heauy burdens: and Iupiter the contrary dis∣poseth to lyght craftes, for he maketh men able to be pleaders, changers, hand∣lers of siluer, writers, and other such, as Misael saith ca. 12. Also (as Ptholomeus saith) vnder Mars be these Signes Scor∣pio and Aries, and be his houses, and he raigneth in Capricorno: but in Cancer is the passing of his kingdome. Under him is contayned warre, battel, prison, & enmitie: & he betokeneth wrath, swift∣nesse, and woundes, and is redde, and vntrue, and guylefull: and Mars abi∣deth in euery signe fortie dayes and six∣téene houres, and fulfilleth his course in two yeares.

¶Of Venus. Cap. 26.

VEnus (* the Goddesse of lasciuiousnes and wanton lust: by the which is signified, vncleanly copulation, she came of the kindred from Saturne. Loe, of what antiquitie is whoredome among the Pagan Gentiles, and still maintai∣ned, of those, that should be Christians, specially forbidden by God in the 20. of Exodus.)

Venus, that is called Lucifer al∣so, as Misael sayeth, is a goodly Plan∣net, female, and a night Planet in his qualyties, in heate and moysture tem∣perate. This Planet onely passeth the Circle, that is called Zodiacus, in two parts, as Beda saith, and is named Ve∣nus, for men saye, by his qualytie hot & moyst, he exciteth to loue of lecherie, as Isid. saith. Alway he is nigh the Sunne, and goeth before him, and then he is called Lucifer, a daye starre: another time he followeth the Sunne, and then he is called Vosper, an Euening starre, as Beda saith, he hath colour white & shining, as Electrom, that is mettal, that is most white and bright, as Marcianus saith: for among all starres, Venus shi∣neth most comfortably and whitely.

And therefore he is called cléerenesse: for he sendeth from himselfe cléere beames of lyght: and therefore he maketh sha∣dowe when the weather is faire and cléere.

He goeth before the day and Sunne, Page  131 and warneth that the daye commeth a∣none, and the Sunne rising. When hée is in the same signe with the Sunne, he is hid with the cleerenesse of the Sunne, and then he is not séene, When Venus is higher than Mercurius, then he is slowe in mouing, and againward, when he is lower than Mercurius, he is slow∣er, as Marcianus saith. In thrée Semi∣toni, Venus runneth to the sunne, and abateth his mallice, as Ptholomeus saith.

In mans bodye he disposeth to faire∣nesse, volupt and lyking, in touch & fée∣ling, in smell and taast, and in song: and therefore he maketh singers, louers of musicke, and makers of confections of spicerie and spicers, goldsmithes, & tay∣lours to shape womens cloathing, as Misael sayth. And Ptholomeus sayeth, that vnder Venus be these signes, libra and Taurus, and be his houses, and hée reigneth in Piscibus, and in Virgine his kingdome faileth and passeth. Under him is contained loue, friendship, and pilgri∣mages: and betokeneth winning, ioye, and blisse, and he is true, and he abideth in euery signe nine and twentie dayes, & full endeth his course, in CCC .xlviii. dayes.

¶Of Mercurius. Cap. 27.

MEcurius (* the sonne of Iupiter by Maia, whom Poets feigne to haue wings on his head and féete, to signifie, that talke (which is represented by the person of Mercury) doeth quicklye passe through the aire. He is feigned to be messenger of the Gods, because that by speach and wordes, all things are de∣clared. He was counted God of elo∣quence, Merchandise, feates of actiuitie, and thefte also. He first inuented the Harpe, and on his sister Venus begats Hermaphroditus, that was both man and woman.)

Misael saith, that Mercurius, is a Planet temperate, and a night Planet, now male, now female: for he tourneth himselfe soone to the Planet that hée is ioyned with: and he is made good with good, euill with euill, and meane with meane, and euill willed with euill wil∣led: and therefore in the ouer parte of his place he medleth his qualyties with the qualyties of Venus. And therefore Poets feigne, yt he did fornication with Venus, as Isidore saith: and he is called Mercuri{us}, quasi medius currens, as run∣ning in the middle betwéene Venus and the Moone, as Beda saith. And therefore he is ioyned with Venus, in the ouer part of Venus circle: & with the sunne, in the neather parte of the Circle of the sunne. And also his circle commeth into the circle of Venus, in the ouer parte of that circle: & into the circle of the sunne, in the nether part thereof: and when he is in the ouer part of his circle, he is better séene, and lesse hid with the sunne. And sometime he shineth before the sun, and sometime he shineth after the sunne going downe, and therefore of simple men he is called Vesperus. It is sayde, that he is Lord of waters, therfore Lu∣canus speaketh of Mercurius and sayth: The Lord of waters much smitten.

Also Poets call him, God of faire spea∣king and of wisedome. Therfore Ptho∣lomeus saith, that he maketh men stu∣dieng in science of numbers and louers thereof: for he disposeth and maketh men able to science and vse of calkling and of accompts: and therefore he is called God of Merchants, for accompts is most néedfull to Merchants. Also he is called God of wrastling, as Isidore saith: for he wrastleth with the sunne, as he wold ouercome him: for alwaye he passeth nigh the sunne, neuer passing xxx. degrées from the sun. Therfore he is selde séene, for he is hid vnder the Sunne, and for heate of the sunne he is painted wanne and browne, and for his swiftenesse, he is called in Fables the ouer runner of Gods: for now he passeth with ye sun, now before the sunne, & now after the futi. When he commeth before the Sun, it seemeth that he standeth next the sun beames, & is called Stacionarius: & when he commeth after the sun, he semeth Re∣trogradus, going backward, as Macro∣bius saith: vnder Mercuri{us} be these signs, Gemini & Virgo, & he raigneth in Vir∣gine, but in Piscibus his raining passeth. Page  [unnumbered] He abideth alway within in the Sunne one Signe afore, or one behinde. Under Mercurius is contained, fortune, buying and selling, and gift: and he betokeneth wisedome and wit, and with good Pla∣nets he is good, and euill with euill. Hée abideth in euery signe eight and twentie dayes and sixe houres, and full endeth his course in CCCxxxvii. dayes. Huc vsque Ptholomeus.

Of the Sunne. Cap. 28.

THe (* Sunne, is named Sol, Phoe∣bus, & Titan, which was the elder brother of Saturne, not that the Sun had his beginning of Saelum, but Coelum, a celando, made and set by God almightie and called it the great lyght to rule the daye, which Sunne is placed among the seauen great Starres, called the seauen Planets: so named by the first inuen∣ters of Astronomy, to ye ende they might he seuerally discerned and knowen. The Sunne is the fourth in place, as it were a King in the middest of his throne: for vnder him is Luna, Mercurius and Ve∣nus: and aboue him in position & place, he hath as many, that is to wit, Mars, Iupiter, Saturne, by the which placing is expressed the most mightie ordinaunce of God, to the benefite of Nature.)

Isidore saith, that the Sunne is said, as it were Solus lucens, alone shining: for that he is the well of all light. And by his beames, the ouer bodies and the ne∣ther be lightned. And Misalath sayeth, that the Sunne is a gratious Planet of himselfe: but somtime by coniunction, he is made euill, and is male and a daye Planet, hot and drye: for the Sunne quickneth all thing, and giueth all thing lyfe, forme, and shape. For as he sayth, The Sunne is more in quantitie, in working, and in cléerenesse, than all the starres in heauen: for he hath more plen∣tie and sadnesse of lyght, and he is also more in might and in multitude of ef∣fects and dooings. Also he is more in euennesse of mouing: for he moueth al∣way forth right, and in his owne circle: and holdeth him alwaye in the middle, vnder the circle that is called Zodiacus, for his circle passeth straight by ye mid∣dle lyne of Zodiacus, and passeth neuer the boundes and the markes of the Cir∣cle Zodiacus. And therefore his mouing in his owne Circle is euen and lyke swifte, though it seeme somtime that hee moue vneuenly swifter either flower, in comparison to other things. Also as the Circle that is called Zodiacus, is distin∣guished in twelue spaces, that are called twelue signes: so the Circle of ye Sun is distinguished in twelue spaces, that be called signes; and euerye of these signes, containe xxx. degrées: and euery degrée, lx. minutes: & euery minute, lx. seconds. And when the Sunne passeth from one poynt of his circle, and commeth againe to the same poynt: he passeth by these twelue Signes, and this passing is called the circle of the aire: and he passeth not fully a degrée in a kindly daye, that is a daye and a night, as Albumasar ac∣counteth it, but he passeth lix. minutes, & viii. seconds, or lviii. so that of the last minute remaine two seconds, or lii. that be not passed: and so much lacketh, that the Sunne passeth not a ful degrée in one naturall daye. Then by his mouing or∣dinate, and by his course not distourbed, he ordayneth and disposeth, and perfect∣eth all thing in this world. Héerof spe∣keth Ambrosius in Exameron, and de∣scribeth the vertue of the Sunne, and sayth in this manner: The Sunne is the eye of the worlde, and mirth of the daye, fairenesse of heauen, measure of times, vertue and strength of all that is gendered, Lord of Planets, fairenesse and perfection of all the stars. Also Mar∣cianus sayth the same in this manner: The Sunne is the Well of inwit, and minde, and of reason: head and well of lyght, king of kinde, inwit of the world, shiner of heauen, moderatour of the fir∣mament: for therefore he moueth against the firmament, for to make his mouing moderate and temperate, and therefore he is called the brightnesse of heauen.

For as Macrobius sayeth in libro Ci∣ceronis. The definition of Plato was, that the light of all the roundnesse of Circles, commeth of the Sunne. And Plato in Thimeo saith in this manner: Page  132 God the master of things, maketh wa∣rely and wisely the most deere light, that that we call the Sunne, by whose brighte∣nesse and shining, heauen and all the ne∣ther things be lightned, & and he is mea∣sure of that that hath life. And in libro de Elementis Aristotle saith, That the Sunne hath his owne light, and the stars and the Moone receiue light of the Sun, as a glasse set before a candle receiueth lyght of a candle. And therefore: Mar∣cianus saith; that the Sunne passing at the middle of the circle that is departed in signes, sendeth from himselfe twelue beames, by the which the ouer bodyes, and the nether are lightened. Of these vertues and properties of the Sun spea∣keth Dionisius in libro de Diuinis no∣minibus cap. 5. and saith in this manner: The Sunne that hath his owne being, and is one manner shining light, inligh∣teneth many Essencias and qualities of things, that be seene and felt, and bée di∣uers in being: and that lyght the Sun renueth and féedeth, and maketh plente∣ous, encreaseth, chaungeth and setteth in place, and planteth, renueth ministereth all thing: and so of these words the pro∣pertie of the Sunne is knowen in his owne kinde, and in his owne effect. For in his owne substance he hath most sim∣plicitie: for he hath no substanciall com∣position of parts vnlike, nor of contrary parts, as the foure elements haue, and things that be made of Elements: but he hath all manner simplicitie in his own manner, kinde, lykenesse, and accord.

And therefore he hath euerlasting being and during in his substaunce, without corruption: for the compowning of cō∣trary things is the well of corruption; as Aristotle saith. And of this simply∣citie the Sunne hath lyghtnesse in sub∣staunce: for thicknesse and boystousnes of naturall partes, is cause and well of heauinesse: and of the lyghtnesse the bo∣dy of the Sunne hath ablenesse to moo∣uing, for light bodyes doe moue easely, & the Sunne is most swifte of subtiltie of his substaunce and of ablenesse to mo∣uing: for he hath most actualti & ver∣tue of working. For the more simple that a thing is kindly, the more might it hath to diuers workings and dooings. And therfore couenably Dionisius saith, that the Sunne is a lyght, euen and like shining: for in his light he sayleth ne∣uer; though it séeme sometime, that his light is taken away from vs, when the earth or Moone is set betwéene him and vs. Also he hath vertue of renewing: for he openeth poores & holes of ye earth, and bringeth foorth that is hid in mores and rootes, and cloatheth and reneweth the ouerpart of the earth, with hearbes, twigges, and flowers, for by entering of the vertue of the Sunne, that pearreth to the inner parts of the earth, that is in winter time like an old thing, that is fordryed and withered: the earth is eue∣ry yeare renewed with gréene things & faire. Also he hath vertue of nourishing: for the Sunne beame commeth into the inner parts of mores, rootes, and séedes: and dissolueth & departeth the moysture of the earth with his owne heate, and is lyke in his vertue of drawing, to the vertue of the séedes, mores and rootes: & therfore he draweth to him of that moy∣sture, and tourneth it into féeding & no∣rishing of things that spring of ye earth. Also he hath vertue to kéepe and to saue things of the nether world: for elements that be contrarye rach to other, because that they be so contrary, they should de∣stroy themselues, except they were recō∣ciled & saued, by influence of the vertue of eauen, and so kept in due béeing, as Alexander saith. Also he hath vertue to make perfect things: for elemental heat beginneth to work in generation of bo∣dies, and heate of the sunne perfecteth, & bringeth forth to due and full ende, as A∣lexander saith. Also he hath vertue of di∣stination, and of making of knowing: for colours of things, kindes, and of shapes of things, which be vnknowen in dark∣nesse and vndistinguished, by the presence of the lyght, and brightnes of the Sun, they are knowen & distinguished a sun∣ner. Also he hath vertue of vnitie & ac∣cord, aud that of himselfe: and also by accident, is of himselfe, for he ioyneth, re∣concileth and accordeth the Planets, in their owne effectes and doings.

Also he accordeth togethers, elements Page  [unnumbered] that be contrary, wherefore as Marcia∣nus saith, and Macrobius also: the Sun is the middle among the Planets: for to make harmonie and accord of heauen the Sunne in his owne circle, maketh that thing, that the middle string maketh in an instrument of musike. Also by ac∣cident heate, he ioyneth things that are of one kinde, as he dissolueth and depar∣teth things that be of diuers kindes: for as the matter asketh, in which he work∣keth, now he gathereth, and now he de∣parteth. Also he hath vertue of plentiful vertuousnes, for he giueth vertue of ge∣neration to these nether things, to bring forth things of diuers kindes. For (as Ari. saith) A man and the Sunne gende∣reth man, for nothing bringeth foorthe srulte, nor groweth, but the Sun beame reacheth thereto.

Also he hath vertue of comforting: for as the Sun ariseth about the circle y is called our Orizont, vertues of beastes be made stronger, & euen till y Sun come to the middle of ye heauen, they increase: and in his passing West ward & down∣ward: for his farnesse, bodies be féebled in their vertues, and fall as it were a∣sleepe: as it fareth in flowers, that open in the Sunne rising, & close in the Sun going downe as Alexander sayeth. Also he hath vertue of chaunging, of orday∣ning, and of distincting of times: for pas∣sing downwarde by the South signes, he maketh the dayes more shorte, and rising vp by the North signes, the daye is more long. Also he changeth y daies, for ye Sun shining vpon earth, maketh the day, & as the disposition of ye Sun is diuers,* ye day is diuers. For first ye Sun is red in the dawning, then he shineth in the morrow tide, and then at noone he is hot, & pale at euen. And therefore it is feigned, yt he had foure horses: of whom the first was redde, the second bright, the thirde burning, the fourth louing the Earth, as Beda sayeth. Also (as Beda sayeth) if the Sunne be speekled, or hid vnder a cloud, betokeneth a rainy daye: if he be redde and pale, betokeneth a day of tempest: and if he séemeth hoarish in the middle, so that he shine in ye mid∣dle, and sende out beames towarde the South, betokeneth tempest, moyst, and windie: if he be pale, and falleth among blacke clowdes, betokeneth Northerne winde, as Beda saith. Also he hath ver∣tue to comfort the nether things, as Isi∣dore sayeth, that by farnesse and nigh∣nesse of the Sunne, mens faces & beasts bodies be disposed in strength and heat. Therefore Marcianus saith, that by con∣stellation of the Sunne, men be fayre and nimble •••id wift. And therefore in Fa••es, he is paynted with feathers, and with chiteish face: and therefore he is called Phoebus, that is farre.

Also Peholomous saith, that the Sun maketh a man corpulent, great of body, faire of face, & welt coloured, with great eyen, & maketh a man able to all works of gold; if he be in his owne exhaltation: & to all workes of brasse he disposeth, if he be in his abating. Also he hath vertue of cleansing and of purging, for by spre∣ding of his beames, he clenseth and clée∣reth the ayre, and disperkleth and shed∣deth, and dryeth away pestilent aire.

Also though he be not hot of himselfe, yet he hath vertue of beating, of éeming, & of burning. And that commeth of con∣traction, and of rebounding and méeting of his beames, and mouing of the ouer par of the body, and namely if the bo∣dy which the beames come vpon, bée a shewer, and cleane and bright, as it is sayd in the science of Perspectiue. Also he hath vertue of drawing too, for by his heate, he draweth out of the Sea fumo∣sitie and vapors, and maketh them thick and turneth them into clowdes: and when they be so made thicke and clow∣die, he dissolueth and sheddeth them in hayle, now in raine, and now in snowe, Therefore Marcianus saith, that it is sayd in fables, that the Sunne was fast by the Occean, and that the vapors that were drawen vp, urned into nourishing and féeding thereof. And therefore some men tell, that strong heate commeth be∣fore strong rayne: and that is for great drawing of vapours, by strong impressi∣on of beames of heate, in the wombe, and hollownesse of a clowde, as Aristo∣tle sayth.

Also he hath vertue of giuing lyfe, Page  [unnumbered] that is séene and knowen by that that nothing may lyue, but there as the Sun beame may reach. And therfore Ptho∣lemeus saith in the same cooke: Under the Sunne is the Signe that is called Leo, and is his house: and he raineth in Ariete, and his reigne passeth in Libra, and vnder him is contained spicerye, winning, faires, and fortune: and he be∣tokeneth spirite and soule: and his cou∣lour is white and red, and is trustic and true, and full endeth his course in thrée hundred dayes. lxvi. and sixe houres. Also among all Planettes, he disposeth most beasts to boldnesse and to liuelinesse. And though he be most in quantitie, and most swift in mouing, his greatnesse & swift∣nesse of mouing is vnséene: for though he be eight times so great as all ye earth,* as Macrobius saith: for highnesse of his place, vnneth he séemeth two foote in quantitie. And that he is without com∣parison more than he séemeth, it is kno∣wen by that, that he seemeth more in his arising & downe going, when he is most farre from vs, than he seemeth in ye point of the South, when he is most nigh to vs. And so it is knowen that in behold∣ing of him our sight is beguyled.

And that is openlye declared in his moouing. For he mooueth swifter than an arrowe, and neuerthelesse it séemeth not that he moueth. for great cléerenes and passing of his quantitie, so the swift∣nesse of his mouing escapeth our sight. And this that is sayde sufficeth at this time.

¶Of the Moone. Cap. 29.

THe Moone is called Luna,* as it were one of ye lights, that is to vnderstand principall & most, for he is most lyke to the sunne in greatnesse and fairnesse, as Isid. saith. For as it said in Exameron: the Moone is the fairnesse of the night, & mother of all humours, minister & Lady of the sea, measure of times, follower of the sunne, changer of the aire, and hath no light of hir selfe, but borroweth & ta∣keth of the plentie of the Sunne, and ta∣keth forme, shape, and figure of the Sun, as he is far or néere to the Sunne: Also the Moone lacking lightnesse of hir selfe, taketh lyght of the well of 〈◊◊〉 of the Sunne And therefore it is sayd 〈◊◊〉E∣lementorm in Aristo. That the Moone is alway halfe shired of the Sunne and re∣ceiueth light, and reboundeth it towarde the earth: for he hath kinde like to a shewer, that hath no proper colour, but taketh lyght of another: and the neerer he is to the Sunne, the more he looseth of his lyght to the earth-ward, but the cléerenesse, that he eeeth in the nea∣ther side, towarde heauen therefore he is the more shining vpward in the euer side. And therefore when he is coniunct with the Sunne, he sendeth no light to the earth, but is in the side of heuen and vpward fully shining. And against and, when he is before the Sunne is all shi∣ning toward the earth, and nothing to∣warde the heauen, as Beda sayeth, and Macrobius also. Also the Moone chain∣geth figure and shape: for he sheweth towarde the earth a diuers face of his lyght: for now the showeth hir selfe sha∣ped bow wise, and now as a circle and round to the sight of men, now Moy∣noydus, now Dictotomos, now Am∣phitricos, now Pancilenos. And he is Moynoydos, when he is new and see∣meth horned: and is Dictotomos, when he is as it were halfe full, and is eight dayes olde: & he is Amphitricos, when it is doubt of his full roundnesse when he is eleuen or twelue dayes olde: and he is Pansilenos, when he shineth at ful, when he is fourtéene dayes olde. Also the Moone sheweth hir selfe in three states: for he is with the Sunne in coniuncti∣on, when he is next to the Sunne or a∣side, when he passeth fro-ward the Sun, or when he is all afore the Sun. When he goeth first fro-ward the Sun, hee see∣meth with hornes as a bowe, & then al∣way the hornes be tourned Eastward: & when he commeth again to the coniunc∣tion, he receiueth the same figure & shape & then the hornes be alway turned west ward: & in that side that is turned from ward the Sun, he seemeth alway voyde, and in the side that is toward the Sun, full of lyght.

The Moone increaseth all humours: for by priuye passings of kinde, floude Page  [unnumbered] and ebbe is increased and multiplyed. In hir waning the marrow of ye bones, the braine of the head, and humoures of the body be made lesse: and in wexing and increasing of hir, they are increased, and therefore all thing hath compassion of the default of the Moone. Also she draweth to hir waters of the sea, for as the stone Adamas draweth after him yron, so the Moone moueth and draweth after hir the Occean sea. Therefore in the rising of the Moone, the sea swelleth and increaseth, and floweth by East, and ebbeth and decreaseth by West: and a∣gainward when the Moone goeth down, the sea floweth by West, and ebbeth by East. And as the Moone hath more lyght or lesse: so the sea stretcheth or with∣draweth in his flowing and ebbing, as Marcobius sayth in lib. Ciceronis. The sea of Occean, in the increasing of the Moone holdeth this maner: for the first day of the Moone he is more full then he is wont, and is at highest: and decrea∣seth and waneth the second daye, and so he withdraweth before the seuenth day. Then againe he increaseth and spring∣eth seuen dayes, so yt the fourtéenth daye the spring is at the highest: and so al∣way in the new Moone, the spring of the sea is highest, and also in the full of the Moone. Also the Moone gathereth deawe in the aire, for she printeth the vertue of hir moysture in the aire, and chaungeth the ayre in a manner that is vnséene, & breedeth and gendereth deaw in the vt∣ter part thereof: for we sée that ye more cléere that the Moone is in the Summer time, the more plentie of deaw is séene vpon the grasse and hearbs. Also among planets, the Moone ful endeth hir course, in most short time: for hir circle is more short: and therefore in the space of sea∣uen & twentie daies and eight houres, he passeth by all the signes of the Circle that is called Zodiacus, as Ptholomeus sayth. And therefore Ptholomeus spea∣keth in this manner of the Moone, and sayth, that vnder the Moone is Cancer, & is hir house, and she raigueth in Cancer, and the passing of hir raigne is in Libra, and is a cold Planet, and passing moyst, female, and a night Planet, & abideth in euery signe two dayes, sixe houres and a halfe: and full endeth his course, in seuen and twentie dayes & viii. houres. Among all the starres that he called Er∣ratice, the Moone passeth in most vncer∣taine and vnstedfast mouing: For be∣cause of shortnes of his course, he passeth and walketh now vnder the Sun, now behinde and after the sunne. And when the sunne passeth by the South & lowest Circles, then the Moone passeth by the North and lower circles: and then the Moone is vpright as a boate, and hath hornes vpwarde: but when he is vnder the Sun, he hath hornes boowing toward the earth, and when he wayneth, he is a∣reared, as Beda sayeth. Also when the Moone is betwéene vs and the sun, then ofte is Eclypse, that is default of ye sun: and this default may neuer fall by kind but in coniunction of the sunne & moone, when the Moone chaungeth. And this coniunction is in the lyne, that is called, Linea eclyptica, and is the middle lyne of the circle that is called Zodiacus, and the Eclipse falleth alway when ye sunne is in the head of the Dragon, & the Moone in the tayle againward. Héereof speak∣eth Albumasar in libro de motibus pla∣netarum, and saith: If the Moone mée∣teth with the Sunne, & passeth euen be∣tweene vs and the sunne, he maketh vs haue default of the sunne beames: and that is in Capite or in Cauda Draco∣nis, in the head or in the tayle of the Dragon: what is Caput & Cauda dra∣conis, it shalbe sayd héereafter. Also when the earth is betwéene the Sun and the Moone, the Moone lacketh his lyght, and is Eclipsed. Heereof speaketh Marcianus in lib. de Astro. and saith in this man∣ner. The Moone going vpward or down∣ward, falleth into the Sun line if hir be xxx. dayes olde. When he is all vnder the sunne, he darkneth and taketh away the light of the sunne, and maketh dark∣nesse in earth: and maketh not this de∣fault in euery moneth, for he is not al∣way in the same line, that is euen and straight lyne betwéene the sunne and the earth. And the same default falleth on the Moone, when the Moone is all before the sunne, and is fifteene dayes olde.

Page  134For if the Sunne be then vnder the earth, and maketh shadow of the great∣nesse of the earth, that stretcheth to the lyne that is straight afore the Sunne, and if the Moone commeth into that line, hir light is taken away: for the shadow of the earth is euen set betwéene the Sunne and the Moone. Then the Moone is not so clipsed euery month: for he is not full in the line that the clipse is in, & that shadowe is not euen betwéene him & the Sunne: & therfore his light is not euery month taken away. Also somtime the Moone containeth in it selfe, a man∣ner darknesse and dimnes, and that com∣meth of qualytie of his owne body, that is kindly darke: for he hath no lyght of himselfe, but of the Sunne: or as some men meane, that darknesse commeth of the shadow of the earth, of the which is rebounded a maner dimme spleke in the body of the Moone, that dimmeth some deale his lyght: and that is most, when he is nigh to the earth, the Moone taketh some manner hoare and filth as Marcia∣nus sayth, and when he passeth vp to the higher circles, he is bright and cleane, & then he seemeth not wemmed, with no speckles, and smotching, as Marcianus saith. Also the Moone signifieth and beto∣keneth chaunging of times and of wea∣thers: for (as Beda saith) if the Moone be redde as golde in the beginning, then he betokeneth windes: and if ther be black specks in the ouer corner and luemmes, he betokeneth raine in the beginning of the month: and if he be red in the mid∣dle, it betokeneth faire wether and cléere in the full of the Moone: and in night rowing, if the Moone lyght spranckleth on the cares, then tempest shall come in short time, as Beda sayth. Also in ye har∣monie of heauen, the Moone maketh the heauiest sowne,* as Marcianos sayth: for in the circle of the Moone is an heauie sowne, as a sharp sowne is in the sphere of heauen yt commeth of ordinate sowne, and of sherking of the mouing of the cir∣cles, and of the roundnesse of heauen.

And as he saith, thereof commeth most swéete melody & accord. Also the Moone giueth plenteousnesse to the séedes of the earth: For in rayng she ouer séedeth, that profiteth by deaw, that falleth of the body of the Moone as he saith: and ther∣fore in Fables she is called Proserpina:* For Nations call the Moone Goddesse of séedes that be throwen in the earth. Al∣so she is called Diana, Goddesse of woods and groues: for the giueth light to wilde beasts, that gather their meate by night in woodes and groues. And therfore na∣tions cal the Moone Goddesse of hunters, for hunting is ofre in woods and groues: * and therefore they painted a Goddesse, with a bowe in hir hande, for hunters vse bowes. Also though the Moone bée colde and moyst, yet he taketh heate of nighnesse of the circle of the Sunne, for by heate and drinesse of the Sunne, his passing coldnesse and moysture is tempe∣red, for that he shoulde not in comming downe toward the earth, make winter euery month, as Macrobius saith. Also as Albumasar saith, the Moone cleanseth the aire, for by his continuall mouing, he maketh the ayre cléere and thinne: and so if mouing of the sphere of the Moone were not, the ayre should be corrupt with thicknesse and infection that should come of outdrawing by night of vapours and moysture, that great corruption shoulde so••e thereof. Also Astronomers tell, that among all Planets, the Moone in ulyng hath most power, ouer dispositi∣on of mans body: For as Ptholemeus sayth, in libro de iudicijs astrorum. Un∣der the Moone is contained sicknes, losse, feare and dread, and bomage. There∣fore about the chaunging of mans body, the vertue of the Moone worketh princi∣pally: and that falleth through the swift∣nesse of his mouing, and for that hee is nigh to vs, and also for the priuie pow∣er & might that is kindly in the Moone: and therefore a Phisition knoweth not perfectly the chaunging of sicknesse, but if he know the effectes and workings of the Moone, in mans bodye. Therefore Hippocrates in principio Pronostico∣ruin, speaketh of the Moone, and sayth in this manner: A certaine starre is of he∣uen, in the which a Phisition must take héede and vnderstand it, the purueyaunce thereof is wonderfull and dreadfull. And Galen in commento de diebus creticis.Page  [unnumbered] saith: A Phisition must take héede and aduise him of a certaine thing, that fay∣leth not, nor deceiueth, the which thing, Astronomers of Aegypt taught, that by coniunction of the bodye of the Moone with starres fortunate, commeth dread∣full sicknesse to good end: and with con∣trary Planets, falleth the contrary, yt is to euill ende. And therefore a Phisition, that is perfectly wise and ware, by Hip∣pocrates learning, shall behold first the Moone, and when he is full of light: for then humours increase in men, and ma∣rowe also, and increasing in the Sea, & in all worldly things. Then when the sicke man falleth in his bedde, it néedeth to sée and knowe, if the Moone passeth then out of coniunction: for then the sicknesse encreaseth, till the Moone come to the degrée of opposition, that is afore the Sunne in the full of the Moone, and if he be then with an euill Planet, or in an euill signe, and hard aspect to yt hoose of Mars, that is the viii, signe, that is to meaning: If the Moone haue aspect to Mars, that is called the Lord of yt signe, named Scorpio, then of death is dread, & if the Moone be with a good Planet, & in a good house and signe, and hath aspects to the Lord of the house of lyfe, that is Mars, That is Lord of Aries, that is the first signe: then is hope of lifes & so men shall see and doeme of other, as it is sayd in the booke that Hippocrates made, and hath the name, De Iudicajs infirmitacis secundum Luuam.

¶Of certaine properties of the Moone. Cap. 30.

ALso the Moone hath some proper∣ties, which he not full good, as well in substance as in effect: for that he hath substanciall darknesse, because yt he hath no light of himselfe, as other Planets haue: and he is most vnstable, for no starre passeth so about by all the partes of Zodiacus, as the Moone doth. And al∣so of euill willed starres and grieuous, he taketh euill qualyties and griefes: for as Ptholomeus saith, the Moone with euill Planets is euill.

Also the Moone by his sitting betwéene vs and the Sunne, taketh from vs the cléere lyght of the Sunne: and when the Moone commeth into the shadowe of the earth, he léeseth his lyght and faire∣nesse, and perfection. Also for he is nigh to fat ayre and to the earth, he taketh a fowle sleke and vnseemelye, of shad∣dowe,* of the ayre, and of infect ayre, as Marcianus saith. Also the farther the Moone goeth fro-warde to the Sunne, the more light he taketh and cléerenesse, in the side that is towarde the earth: and the more he fayleth and abateth in light in the side that is toward heauen. Also he hath many euill effectes and doinge, for as Ptholomeus saith, The Moone maketh a man vnstable, changeable,* and remouing about from place to place.

And be maketh a man euill disposed and disordered in the eyen, and he maketh in a man the one eye more then that other, or he maketh him looke a squint, & some we or a Pearle in the one eye, and hée sayth more heereto, that a man in whose complection the constellation of yt Moone hath masterie, shall not be without de∣fault or a wem in his eye, & that happe∣neth by reason of yt passing moysture of ye Moone, that is nigh to the eyen, & dis∣poseth the humors of the eyen to so euil and shrewde qualitie. Also it is sayd in lib. Milala••• cap. 5. that the Eclipse of the Moone, if it be in Winter, in colde signes, betokeneth passing coldnesse and great binding in earth and in ayre, and in waters, and if it be in watry signes, it betokeneth full great plentie of raine & of water: & if it be in nirie signes, it betoke∣neth perit of tempest & of windes. Ptho∣lomeus & Albumasar say, that the Moone when he is in yt secōd signe after yt ascen∣dent,* betokeneth discomfort, wo, sorrow, & losse of cattel by théeues & robbers. Also in the fourth signe, & in the art, and in the right, he betokeneth wrath, anguish, with drawing, & chaungeablenesse of ye people, & betokeneth the tenth signe, yt who yt then beginne to rebell shall be soone set down and in ye twelfth, he betokeneth let, strife, hardnesse, & prison of friends. And in all other houses & signes he hath good effect, and betokeneth good, namelye if he be in companye with good Planettes. Page  135 By diuers age of the Moone, menstruall humours in women moue, and braine in heasts, and diuers passions be excited in bodies by vertue of the Moone, as it fa∣teth in them that haue the fallyng euil. This that is sayd of the properties of the Moone, and of other Planettes is sufficient for this time.

¶Of the head and taile of the Dragon. Ca. 31.

TWo starres there be, that be no pla∣nets, but it séemeth, that they haue kinde and effect of Planets: and they be called Caput Draconis, and Cauda, the head of the Dragon and the tayle. And they moue with the firmament, & followe his course: and so they passe from the signe that is called Leo, into the signe that is called Cancer: and from that signe that is called Cancer, into the signe that is called Gemini, and so forth. And the Dragons head abideth in euery signe, 18 monethes, that is a yeare and an halfe, and the taile also: and full en∣deth his course in. 18. yeares, and if the head he in any signe, alway the tayle is in the signe that is euen afore him, and the wombe in the fourth signe, and if the head be in Cancer, the wombe is in A∣ries, and the taile is in Capricornus. And if the head be in Leone, the wombe is in Cancer, and the taile in Aquario: and so of other signes. And therefore because of contrarie aspect, the taile is alwaye be∣nimous. And the head hath his exaltati∣on in thrée degrées of Gemini, and his a∣bating in thrée degrées of Sagittarius. And againward: the taile hath his exalta∣tion in the third degrées of Sagittarij, and falleth in the thirde degrée of Gemini. And héere we must take héed, that when the Moone is coniunct to the head of the Sun, or to the taile, being nigh the degrées of coniunction, by. 12. degrées thence or within, alway the Eclipse shall be more or lesse, as the head or taile commeth nére of father to the degrée of coniuncti∣on. And this hath a speciall place in the Eclipse of the Sun. In the same wise it shall be helde in the Eclipse of the Moone.

For if the Moone commeth in anye signe with the taile, and the Sun is with the head in the signe that is euen afore: then shall be the Eclipse of the Moone. And againewerd: if the Sun be with the taile in any signe, & the Moone with the head in the signe that is euen afore him: then again shall be ye Eclipse of ye Moone. And if he commeth in the same degrée: then the Eclipse shall be gneral: and so he must come in ye head or in the taile in yt same degrée, or nigh .12. degrees thence. or within, if the Eclipse shall fall. And so in the coniunction, the Sunne & the Moone must be in the same signe, or in the same degrée, and in the same minute, & in the same degrée.

Héereof it followeth, that though the Moone be ioyned with the Sunne, and chaungeth euery moneth, he maketh not Eclispe alway: for they come not alwaie togethers vnder the line of Eclipse. For yt Moone chaungeth not, neither hath con∣iunction alway in yt same degrée, neither the head and taile méet alway in yt con∣iunction, nor oppsition of the Sunne and the Moone.

Of the starre Cometa, chap. 32.

COmeta is a Starre beclipped with burning gleames, as Beda doth say, and is sodeinly bred, & betokeneth chan∣ging of kings, and is a token of Pesti∣lence, or of war, or of winds, or of great heate. Sometime it séemeth, yt such stars so beset with blasing beames, moue with the mouing of Planets: And somtime it séemeth that they be pight & not mouea∣ble. And alwaye (as Beda saith) they be séene in a certaine place of heauen: And they passe not by diuerse parts of yt Zo∣diac, as Planets do, but if séemeth yt they be in yt circle that is called Laclens, or Galaxia, & they spread their beames to∣ward the North, and neuer towarde the West. And therefore they be not seene in the West side. And they be séene but in short space of time, that is seauen daies: but sometime it is séene the space of. 8. daies, as Beda telleth. Whereof it is yt this star that is called Cometa commeth and is gendered, whether it bée of Pla∣nettes, or of starres that bée pight: Page  [unnumbered] alway he is séene in the firmament in the North side as he saith. Héereof it fo∣loweth, that the starre that was séene in the birth of Christ was not Cometa, for he passed and moued out of the East by South toward the West: and so moue not the starres that be called Stella Co∣mete, as Chrisostomus saith.

¶Of fixed starres. Cap. 33.

STellae be called starres, and haue that name of Stando, standing: for though they moue alwaye, yet alway it séemeth that they stande, as Isido. sayth. And they be called Sidera, and haue that name of Considerando, taking héede: for of them Astonomers take héede, and by them giue iudgements and dontes, and knowe what shall befall. Also they hée called Astra, and haue that name of Au∣stros, or of Anastros: for by opposition, bodies of some starres, be pight in the where of the firmament, as nayles in the roundnesse of a whéele: and that is troth of some, and namely of the more great, as Isido, sayth. And Alphraganus saith, that a star is lyght gathred in his roūd∣nesse and sphere. Therefore the more ga∣thering of lyght is in the substaunce of the body of a starre, the more he is in quantitie, in fairenesse, cléerenesse, and al∣so the more in might and vertue. Also he calleth starres of lyght: for that they be bright bodyes, and giue to men & beastes, by night when it is dark, the comfort of lyght, and ornate & hight the ouer parte of this worlde, and as farre foorth as they may, they be in stéed of the Sunne, of whome they receiue lyght, and by continuall sending out of beames, they cleanse and pourge the aire: by vertue of them, corruption of pestilence is taken away from the nea∣ther worlde. Also by vertue of stars. E∣lements that be contrary each to other, be conciled and accorded, and lightened with euerlasting shining of starres. By heate of them all things the nourished & saued: for after Plato (as Beda sayeth) the starres be of firie kinde, for manye men in olde time sayd, that heauen with lyght and ornaments thereof is of fierie kinde. And Aristotle and other Philo∣sophers meane & vnderstand, that heuen is the fift Element, distinguished from the foure Elements in kinde and in pro∣pertie, and they saye, that the starres hée not colde nor hot in substaunce, no more than the heauen is: they be but hot on∣ly in working, effect, & doing. For hea∣uen by continuall and euerlasting m∣uing, heateth that thing, vpon the which he moueth, and so heauen and the starres heate and coole these nether things: for by mouing and rebounding of beames, they heate and bréede vertue of heate in the vtter parte of a bodys that is afore them. But whereof the starres be made, certaine it is, that they be of most pure and simple kinde, and not corrupt. Len∣thing their shape they be most bright, & also they be round in figure, and be sad, and sound, not hollowe, nor hoaly in the vtter part: they be plaine and not rough nor corued: in place they be highest, in mouing they be most swifte, in quanti∣tie they be most great and huge, though they same lyttle, for farnesse of place, in number and tale: onelye he knoweth how many they be, that numbreth and telleth the starres In might & working, the stars be most vertueus among bo∣dies: for the starres grauer, and change and saue the nether things.

The starres by out sending of theyr beames, lyghten the darkenesse of the night, & full ende theyr course in spheres and circles, and moue in one swifenesse no tune more swiftlye than other: and they hide theyr lyght in presence of the Sunne, of whom they receiue lyght. In theyr comming and rising, they chaunge the ayre in many maner wise: for they make now tempest and now faire wea∣ther and cléere: as Beda sayth. Also by chaunging of coulour, and sprincklyng of beames, they betoken, nowe good happes, and nowe euill, as Astronomers tell.

Also they be gracious to shipmen, and shewe their waye in the middle of the Sea. Where starres be coniunct nigh togethes, they giue the more lyght, and bee more fayre and bright.

Page  136 As it fareth in the seuen starres, & in the stare of the circle the which is called Ga∣laxia, that is Watlingstrete. And though they shew so greate fairenesse because of company & gathering, togethers, & also be more bright and cléere, being coniunct then else, yet for to take héede of each by himselfe, they séeme not faire. And the cause thereof is (as Marcianus saith) for passing brightnesse of ones shining, ta∣keth away the default of another, and so when one lacketh and faileth, ano∣ther that is more cleere amendeth & ful∣filloth. Also for fairnesse of place, starres séene to men vnlyke greate: for some séeme more and some lesse. For Albuma∣sar saith: The more euen the starres be straight ouer our heads, the lesse they soeme in quantitie, and more little to our sight. Againeward: The farther they bée from the place that we be in, in their ari∣sing and downe going, the more greate they séeme generally to our sight. And al∣so they séeme more great in quantitie in the downe going, then in the rising, as Beda sayth, A point is called Ceneta ca∣pitis nostri, & is the point that is aboue heauen ouer our heads. And so it is sayd, that a thing is in the Ceneth of our head, when hée is aboue streight ouer our heads: for Ceneth is called a straight set∣ting oūer our heads, and the reason ther∣of is for this cause, as hée saith, for va∣pours that come vp from the earth, suffer not the beames to come straight & euen to our eien: & therefore the eie is decei∣ued in such a sight. For the eie wéeneth that it taketh in himselfe what is beset in the aire, and lightened with the Sun beame. But Algazel sayth, such a fight is deceiued: as the sight of a Candle is séene without let of an eie that is whole, but of a bleare eie it is not séene without likenesse & shape of a manner of a raine∣bowe. And an eie that is deceiued, wée∣neth alway to sée in another thing, as in light that it séeth, and wéeneth that is in another thing that is not, but rather in the same eie, as Auicen saith, Capitu∣lo de obscuriefare isus. Seeke before of the sight. Also Marcianus sayth. That starres passe in there circles with har∣mony: for all tunes and accord of musike be found among starres, nor the wright of the neather bodies make not discord in the melodye of the ouer bodyes: neither in melodie of the middle bodyes. Nor againewarde, the sharpnesse of sowne of our bodyes, destroy not the sowne of the neather heauie bodies, as Marcianus saith Aristotle saith in libro de coelo & mundo, that stars be of the matter of the bodye of heauen, in the which they bee pight. And therefore they bee kindlye cléere and bright, as the heauen is, in the which they goe about. All the starres haue lyght of theyr owne out of the Moone. But though Starres haue lyght of their owne: yet to perfection of their light, they receiue supplyment and helpe of the Sunne. Starres communicate and part each with other theyr lyght: For one maketh another more cleere, and the goodnesse of the one stretcheth the good∣nesse of another, as it is saide In libro le coniunctionibus Planetarum. Also starres be conteined in their owne pro∣per circles and place: and therfore though the circle of one méete sometime with the circle of another, and entreth therein, they forsake not therfore their owne cir∣cles and place, nor let them that they méete, nor doe wrong none of them to other, Also (as Marcianus sayth, Some starres arise sooner, and go sooner downe: and some starreo arise later, and goe la∣ter downe: and some arise together, and goe not downe ot once. And this diuer∣sitie of rising and going downe, salleth and commeth of vneuennesse of circles, in the which they bée seene going downe or arising. For by highnesse or low∣nesse of the bodye of heauen, the starres arise and goe downe in diuerse times: also Starres chaunge and distinguish times, yeares, monethes and dayes. For (as Aristotle sayth, in libro de pro∣prietatibus Elemento••m) chaunging of tune is not but by chaunging of starres, in diuers signes, and aboue the seauen Climates and countries, as by chaunge of the Moone in euery xxviii. dayes, or by chaunging of Mercurius and of Venus, in euerye tenth moneth, or in lesse time: or by chaunging of the Sunne in euerye yeare, or by chaunging of Mars in two Page  [unnumbered] Yeare, or of Iupiter in. 12. yeare, or of Sa∣turnus in. 30 yeare, or by coniunction and termutation of Triplicitye in .CCC.. yeares. Or else for chaunging of round∣nesse and circles of Starres, that bee pight: for they chaunge in one degrée in a C. yeare, the chaunging of them fal∣leth in euerye. xxxvi. C. yéere. And this is the greate yeare, that is the last of all things. Huc vsque arislot, in codem libro. In libro Ciceronis Macrobius sayth, That the ende of this greate yéere is when al the starres and Planets, that be in heauen, passe from a certeins place, and goe about, and come againe to the same place, as Philosophers say, after. 15. M. yéere. But whatsoeuer Philosophers tell héereof, we shall holde certeinly: that that belongeth not to vs to déeme, what time the last end shall come. And when it shall be, hée onelye knoweth, that is maker of times, and conteineth in his might and power, moments and times.

Of Polus. Chap. 34.

AS Beda sayth, Polus is a right lyt∣tle starre, of the which all the ouer part of heauen is so called. And two Po∣lis there be, that one is called Articus or Bovealis, that alwaye shineth to vs, and neuer goeth downe to our sight. For al∣waye hée is aboue vs: And bée hath that name Polus, of Pollendo, shining: for he shineth alwaye to the worlde. The other Polus is called Antarticus, that is to wit, the South or the raine star, and is afore the North starre that is called Polus articus, which is alway vnséene to vs. Betwéene these two Polis, as it were betwéene the endes of the world, the fir∣mamēt moueth alway. These two Polus moue neuer out of theyr owne place, but yet they bée borne rounde about in the circle of the sphere. A line that is called Axis, stretcheth by the middle point of the earth from pole to pole. About the which Axis all the swiftnesse of the fir∣mament is rauished and mooueth. And this line yt is called Axis is not material: but rather a certeine intellectuall line, & stretcheth from pole to pole, euen streight as a line in drawen euen & streight from one point to another. About this ••ne that is called Axis, as it were about the middle of the world, the firmament pas∣seth about with endlesse rauishing. Then the Pole is a starre higest in place, most swift in moouing, and least in quantitie to our sight: though he bée full greate and huge in himselfe: and hée is most profitable in effect. For by the place of this starre, place and stroedes and boundes of the other starres & of circles of heauen be knowen. Therefore Astronomers be∣holde most this starre. Then this starre is described of most short circle: for hée is farre from the place that wée bée in, hée hideth the hugenesse of his quantitye for vnmoueablenesse of his place: and he doth certifie men most certeinly, yt behold and take héede thereof. And therefore hée is called stella maris, the starre of the sea. For he leadeth in the Sea men that saile, and haue shippe mens craft.

And because of his place, tho middle of all heauen is knowen, and by the going aboute of certeine Starres, that hee cal∣led Arcthurus, the starre which is called Pelus, is distinguished from other stars. Arcthurus is like therto, & is common∣lye called Charlemaynes Waine. And this starre hath that name Polus articus of Arcthurus: for it is nigh thereto, as Beda sayth.

Of Arcthurus. Chap. 35.

ARcthurus is a signe made of seuen starres, set in the line that is called Axis, and goeth about in himselfe, as Isidore sayth. The circle of these seuen starres, for it goeth about as a waine, is called among Latines, Septentrio, & Septentriones also. And is commonlye called in English Charlemaines waine,* and he goeth not downe: for that these seauen stars be full night to the pole, that is the highest starre. And the same circle is called Artophilax: for that it follow∣eth a signe that is called Visa: Olde men called the same circle sometime Boetem: for that it is nigh the signe that is named the waine, and is signe that many men behold, & is arated with many stars: a∣mong yt which is the signe Arcthurus, ytPage  137 is properlye a Starre sette behinde the taile of the signe that is called Visa ma∣ior, the more Beare. And therefore all that constellation Arcthurus, hath that name of that starre, as Isidore saith, and hath worthely that name Arcthurus of Artando, binding & knitting. For of the first part thereof cold ariseth, by reason it is farre from the heate of the Sun, & by cold the holes and pores of the earth bee constrained, bound, and stopped. And the seauen starres appeare with beames of light, and or bright forme and shape. Of which foure, the first bée ordeined, as it were a quadrangle, with foure sides, each against other. And the thrée that followe bée disposed as it were halfe a circle, and they bée set vnder the pole, about the line that is called Axis. And therefore alwaye they winde rounde a∣bout the pole, as it were about the mid∣dle point, as Gregorie saith. Always these starres winde and tourne round a∣bout that lyne that is called Axis, as a Beare doth about a stake. And therefore that circle is called the more Beare, as Macrobius saith. Alway this circle win∣deth round about, and goeth neuer down out of sight, as Gregorye sayth. When thrée starres goe vpwarde, foure goe downewarde. And againeward. When foure goe vpwarde, three goe downe∣warde, as Gregorie sayth. Among all the high circles, the circle of Arcthurus is highest. For it is next to the Pole, and sheweth him most to mennee sight, and is séene euery time of the night, but if it happen, that it be let by mistres, or clowdes set betwéene him and the sight. Among the middle starres of Arcthos, falleth downe as it were a Dragon, or a flying starre in lyknesse of lightning: and ••••d Draco, as Marcianus saith. a••••••teth in his comming with spran∣cling b••ur••s, namelye in Winter, and betokeneth and signifieth stronge frost on water, and on earth, as Marcianus sayth.

Of Orion, Chap. 36.

ORion is a signe which ariseth in Winter;* and exciteth Waters and tempestes. And Orion is dimme, and bréedeth and bringeth foorth windes and tempestes, and Orion hath the name of rising and hugenesse of waters, as Isidore sayth. In his rising hée gende∣reth and dréedeth tempestes, and chan∣geth the ayre, and is disposed and sha∣pen as an armed man, stretching out his feete and armes. And his length and longitude stretcheth nigh to the breadth and latitude of thrée signes, as Marcia∣nus sayth. And hée shineth most in the signe that is called Taurus as hee sayth: And Orion is a constellation most nota∣ble, because of hugnesse, and also of faire∣nesse: and also because of dispesition and vertue. For it stretcheth out of the signe, that is called Aries, to the signe yt is cal∣led Gemini, as Marcianus saith. And al∣so he maketh with his brightnesse, those thrée signes the more faire and cléere, as he saith: and he is shapen in the order of starres, as it were a knight giroe with a Swoorde. Of him speaketh Marcianus, and saith in this manner: Amtus etjam fragrans splendebat in armes, that is to meane, hée armed also burning brighte shone in weapon and armes. But as he sayth, brightnesse of Orion betokeneth faire weather and cléere: and again ward: His darknesse strong weather and tem∣pest. When the Sunne is in the signes of Orion, which bée Taurus and Ge∣mini, then bourgene and spring al things that receiue féeding and nourishment of water, of aire, and of earth, as he sayth. After this constellation Orion commeth and followeth a starre that is called Co∣nicul, and is euill willed and noyfull, as Astronomers tell: and fables meane, that that star was Iupiters hound, as hee telleth. But this Cannicula is not that noi∣full star, that is called Canis, and ariseth in the signe yt is called Leo. Of the which starre certeine dayes haue their names, and bée called Dies caniculare amonge Philosophers, as Gregory sayth. Then Orion in his first rising betokeneth tem∣pest and weather, and afterwarde fayre weather: and worketh with the Sunne, to make the earth plenteous: and when the Sunne is in the signe, that is called Taurus, Orion withdraweth him as Page  [unnumbered] though he hide himself vnder the Sunne beames, nor then hée sheweth not his cléerenesse to the neather things. And hée ariseth againe in Iuly, when the Sun ascendeth in Gemini, to the higher circles when the earth hath most distemperance of aire in hot qualitie.

Of Hyades. Chap. 37.

*HYades called Situle also, be rainye stars. For in the arising of them fal∣leth much raine, as Isidore saith in libro tercio. For that time by violence of the heate of the Sunne,* vapours bée drawen vpward, of the sea and of the land, more strongly then in other time. And he resol∣ued and shed, & turned into raine by mo∣uing of those stars that be called Hya∣des. And therfore the stars be called Hia∣des, & Situle, as it were suckers. For it is said in fables, that they drawe the hu∣mours to themselues, & do resolue them and temper them, as Iginius saith. And these stars haue their place & stéed in the front of the signe that is called Taurus, as Marcianus saith. And when the daye lengthneth, and the Sun goeth vpward, and is more seruent: then commonly Hi∣ades be first séene, as Gregorie sayth, su∣per Iob, 20. When Saturnus pusheth them: then they bréede diuerse tempestes and wethers, as Beda sayth. In the ri∣sing of those starres, that be called Hya∣des, fruites and cornes growe plenteous∣ly. For then they bée well sprong with raine. This constellation Hyades hath many full cléere stars set about him, and ariseth in the sixtéenth degrée of the signe that is called Cancer, and they distronble the ayre in their arising, as Albumasar saith.

*The Romanes call these starres Sun∣culae.

Of Pliades. cap. 38.

PLiades be seauen Starres, and haue that name of Pluralitie. For they bée many, and bée set nigh togethers: but yet distinguished a sunder, as Grego∣rye sayth. And Pliades arise in Win∣ter. And the more cléerer and colder the aire is, the better they bée knowen and distinguished from each other. One is séene shine among those seauen, which sheweth not it selfe at the full, neyther fullye hideth it selfe. Their place is be∣twéene the knées of the signe which is called Taurus, as the Authour Isidore saith, and Gregory also. In the month of Iune the Sun taketh his course and his way by those .7. starres pliades. And then the heat of the aire is tempered by raine of springing time. And at this time the earth is arraied with fairenesse of flow∣ers, as Marcianus saith.* And for this cause it is said, that Juno loued ye Cor∣desse Maia. And it is seined, that she was one of the .7. stars pliades. And shée was Mercurius mother. Thus meaneth say∣ning of Poets, as Marcianus saith. And Albumasar saith, that plyades the seauen starres, doe arise in the .16. degrée of the signe that is called Taurus, with other starres that be called Hyades, and they distrouble the ayre with theyr moo∣uing.

Pliades the seauen starres which mar∣riners vse in trieng of coasts: Poettes seigne them to be the seuen daughters of Licurgus or Atlas.

Of Canicula. Chap. 39.

CAnicula is a full seruent starre, and ariseth in the .29. degrée of the signe that is called Taurus, as Albumasar sayth. In the arising thereof is a great disturbaunce of the ayre and weather. And of this starre the dayes, that bée called Dies caniculares, haue that name: in which dayes it is sull perillous to be let bloud, or to take laxatiue medi∣cines: that is for passing distemperaunce of the ayre in heate. And therefore in Aphorism. Hippocrates sayth, That be∣fore that starre Canis, and after that Starre, and vnder that starre Canis, lax∣atiue medicines noieth and groweth.*

There it is sayde in Commento, that before the rising of that Starre, and in the rising, and anono after the rising thereof, it is perillous to giue laxatiue drinkes. For then the ayre is hotte and drie. And that commeth of an hotte Page  138 signe, and of the hot starre, and of the Sunne, that is then with that star Ca∣nicula, in the signe that is called Leo: for with little medicine the bodie should be made too hot and to drie, and therevpon happely shuld come to a feauer. And also the medicine shuld wose and passe out, & work the lesse. For then holes and pores be open and wide, by reason of the heate of the aire. And there Galen saith, That strong heate without forth, draweth out the strength and vertue of the medicine. And therefore hot water is contrarye to laxation, if the heate of the aire be strong at that time. Also the inner vertue is then féeble, & is made more féeble by drin∣king, or by letting of bloud. And the Ca∣nicular daies begin in the fiftéenth Ba∣lends of August: and they end in ye Nonis of Septembris. And so they be euen fiftie, as it is sayd there.

Of light. Chap. 40.

*AS Basilius saith, Light is a kinde in all his partes lyke. Authours speake diuerslye of lyght, what it should bée in deede, whether it bée in substaunce or ac∣cident. Aristotle sayth, That lyght is no bodye, nor streaming out of a bodye. And Damascenus saith, That light hath no substaunce of his owne. And Austen sayth super Genesim. ad litteram, That the lyght is a bodylye substaunce, most simple in kinde of bodyes, and most multiplied and increased in diuerse mat∣ter of workings, most moueable, and passinglye thirling and pearcing, and least letting, and most breeding, and most highlye accordeth and reconcileth things the which bée diuerse and contra∣rye, and is most conuertible, and is grounde and beginning of highest natu∣rall motion, and most perfectible, most gladde and most communicatiue: ther∣fore in bodyes nothing is more profita∣ble then light: and nothing more con∣uenient and conenable, nothing more sayre, nothing more swifte, nothing more subtill. nothing more inpassible or wemlesse, nothing more vertuous found then light. Also Lux and Lumen is light in English, but in Latine is diffe∣rence betweene those two Nounes. For Lumen is a flowing and a streaming that floweth out of the substance of light: but Lux is the sustantiall well, vpon the which Lumen is grounded. For if light in it selfe were accident, needs by it self it wer accident to some thing: & accident by it selfe hath cause of beeing of very forme of his obiect. And so if light in the aire wers accident, it shuld haue cause of being of the very forme of the aire: & that may not bée. Also light chaungeth his subiect, as it is knowne. For light is first in the East, & afterward in the West. And the East light gendereth light that is nexte thereto: & so forth euen to the West: And accident chaungeth not his subiecte, nor worketh not without his subiect, but ther in. And héereby it séemeth that light is not accident. Also if light were accident of the ayre, the aire should sodeinly moue with ye wind out of the East into the West, as the mouing of light is sodein. And so the aire moueth not sodeinly, nor anye other element. Also nothing is more worthy & noble then light: & accident is lesse wor∣thy then the substance: And so it séemeth yt light is not accident. For aire is much lesse worthy, and lesse noble then light. But if light be a body, it is hard to know and vnderstand, how & in what manner light is in the aire, or in any cléere bodie, as in Christall. For two bodyes maye not be at once in the same place. Neuer∣thelesse it is not inconuenient nor im∣possible to set, that lyght is a bodylye substaunce, and that it is at ones with another body: for we see water and ashes ioyned and meddeled togethers, sauing bodie and place of both. And the contei∣ning of either distinguished from other, and the parts of eyther conteined with∣in his owne vtter parte. In what man∣ner wise so euer they be meddeled toge∣thers ashes and water, the water abideth in his corporalnesse, by ioyning and con∣tinuing togethers of his partes: and ashes in his body also. But for this med∣deling and ioyning togethers, they bée not two bodies in the same place: But the water hath his owne place, and the ashes his owne place. So light may bée in the aire, or in euerye each other body, Page  [unnumbered] sauing the corporalitie of either, and contuniaunce of theyr substantial parts. And so light entering into the inner partes of the ayre, or of Christalline, hath his owne place, beclipping aboute his vtter partes. And that place distingui∣sheth light from the substaunce of the bodie, to whome it is ioyned, though it may not for simplicitie of his substaunce bee felt nor seene. But yet it is more wonder, that many lyghtes, which bée brought in one place, and the lyghtes meddeled together, and though they bée ioyned and vnited, yet neuerthelesse the substantiall forme of each light is saued, by the which forme euery of them is di∣uerse from other, though none of them be materiall cause, or formall to other, as Dionisius teacheth openly, in li. de diui∣nis nominibas, and saith in this manner: When lightes (saith hée) of lampes bée in an house, and bée one whole lyght gathered togethers, and bée common to all, yet they haue a prime distinction be∣tweene themselues, and be distinguished a sunder, by one distinction, and by distin∣guished vnity. For wee see when manye lampes be light, for one light, one claere∣nesse commeth of all theyr lightes, and shineth without knowing distinction. And no man (as I thinke) can sequester the light of one of them from the lyght of another: nor out of the ayre that they be in, while they bee all together: nor 〈…〉 by sight one from another, while they bee altogether shining, all the lyght seemeth one without distincti∣on. And if one lampe bee withdrawen, it taketh not awaye anye thing of the others light, nor leaueth there of his owne light. For as it is sayd, there is a perfect rutie vniuersallye meddeled, and no confusion in anye parte. And the vni∣tie is so much in this bodylye ayre and materiall light. Lue vsque Diomsius. In these wordes Denis seacheth open∣lye, that lights bee ioyned togethers, and the substantiall propertie of each is sa∣ued, and accident properties, and taketh with them both in comming and go∣ing.

Also Denis sayth, that light that is cal∣led Lux in Latine, is a substance being in it selfe: and thereof commeth beaming & a manner shining of other bodies For al∣waye Lux, light, shineth in it selfe. Ne∣verthelesse it shineth not alway but only when it sindeth a body with matter dis∣posed and able to be lightned, as Austen saith: for substance of heuen is very light, that hath the first place in bodies: and neuertheles heuen lightneth not in dark∣nesse nor by night. Then alway light shi∣neth inuisibly, and in darknesse: but it shineth not alwaye sightlye. And there∣fore euery creature feeleth the vertue of light. For vertue of lyght worketh vn∣séeingly, feeling and moouing in beasts, as it is sayde in libro Fontis vitae. Also in libro de ludicijs astrorum, Albuma∣sar saith, that Hippocras taught, yt but if the life of stars, tempered the thicknes of the ayre by night, all bodyes with soules should be destroied: and neuerthe∣lesse it is certain, ye of light of stars is not séene by night, for impression of working of light is knowen in toe sea that ebbeth & floweth by respect of the Moone to some part thereof, whether the Moone lighten the aire or no. Also though the thinkes, holes, and dens of the earth, bée not light∣ned: yet the vertue of light worketh in them, as it is séene in cares of mettall, & in other things that be gendred and bred déepe within ye earth And shortly to speak the presence of light is néedfull in euery body yt is medled; by the which contra∣ries in elementes be ioyned. Also light sheddeth it self from the highest heauen: yt is called Coelum imperium, euen to ye middle of the world, & is one in his sub∣stance, and simple in more and roote, yet is it variable after the diuersitie of bodies that receiue it, whether it be the Sun, or the ouer bodyes, or neather, wherein is one substaunce, vertue, and working of light, though there be no vertue of ligh∣tening therein. This is the first gende∣ring light that was made the first daye, as Basilius saith, that is aboue the Sun, and other lightes and starres that were made the fourth day.* Therfore the Sun, and other starres, be bearers of the first light: which through taking of body∣lesse lyght, they bee suffisaunt to euer∣lasting lightening, without losse of Page  139 their owne substaunce. Therefore this light stretcheth into euery place, and per∣secteth and dispoleth all bodyes, some more and some lesse. Then it is moare, rooe, and fundament of all shining, and is one in substaunce: and of none of the lower bodyes conteyned accidentallye: but it conteineth all bodyes, and is for∣mall in comparison to them, though it be materiall in it selfe, and is in place and steede: And therefore for light is ma∣teriall, it maye haue diuerse partes in diuerse place. And for it is forntall, it hath indeede diuerse partes in diuerse place. For what the matter may haue in power, the forme hath the same in effect and déed. Heereof it followeth openly, that for lyght: in kinde of bodyes hath least of matter, and most of forme, lyght is more néere in kinde to fourme then to matter: And therefore because of matter, it is in the least stéede, that is a point. And because of forme, it is in euery place and stéede. For euerye thing mooneth to his owne forme as Aristotle sayeth.

And therefore the nobler that it is, the more it extendeth hiss matter, as Algazel sayth. Wherefore the forme of light, be∣cause it is the most noble of bodilye formes, it stretcheth and spreadeth most his matter: and therfore onepoint of light or of shining, were suffisaunt of it selfe to lighten all the worlde: For the no∣blenesse of matter, and for most adual∣nesse & doing of forme, as Algazel saith: & Then light is one simple and vniforme, in his essence, though bodies of light bée diuerse & distinguished & sonder. Though they séeme in one act gathered lyke, yet one lightening commeth not in the sub∣staunce of another, though it séeme to the sight that they be ioyned in one lyghte∣ning and light. Then it is not inconue∣nient to set two bodyes together in one place, if one of them bée subtile and for∣mall, and as it wer complement and per∣fection of the other: and that other ma∣terii•••• vnperfect. And two bodye that be blessedfull (as bodyes shall 〈…〉 the bli•• of heauen) maye not be in 〈…〉 place and stéede. For neither of their ••ay be materiall in no w••e or that other•• But a bodye that is v••full, and ano∣ther that is not blissefull, may bée toge∣thers in the same steebe and place, with∣out inconuenience, as saith Austen open∣ly. And Basilius sayth, That light is most moueable. For it moueth it selfe without ceasing, & gendereth light in lines, forth∣right, and in roundnesse all aboute: And mooueth and sheddeth it selfe into all partes about: and touching it selfe it mo∣neth sodeinly: For light is more able to work & pearceth, & commeth into the in∣nest part of euerye thing, without lette and tarrieng. And sight gendereth things that bée diuerse and vnlyke, and ioyneth and accordeth the contraryes, that bée in Elements, and in middle bodyes. And also by outcasting and stretching, and onercasting, breaking and rebounding of beames, light bringeth forth all thing, and kéepeth and saueth them in béeing, or disolueth and vndoeth theyr being, as Calcidius sayth Super T••meum. Also lyght gonerueth and ruleth lyfe, and during of all thing, & multiplyeth it selfe gendering: for lyght gendereth lyght, and lyght that is gendered, gendereth lyght that commeth after, and lyghte∣neth forth: and so in an instaunt, one point that is product, filleth all the world of lyght and shining. Also lyght shew∣eth it selfe and other things of heauen by his incomparison in the vtter parte of a moyst bodye, and cléere light worketh diuerse effects. And as Austen sorth, light putteth of darknesse, and vndoeth cleyngnesse and discomfortes: and de∣stroyeth false waiting and spicing. Of lyght commeth surette, it bringeth forth all gladde, and merrye kinde and shape. And bringeth in fourme and fayrenesse to all things & for without light all bo∣dyes tenidius hidde and vnknowne. Doe awaye lyght (sayth Daiuascene) and all things be vnknowne and abide in darknesse. Then (as Ambrose saith, and Masilius a••d,) Lyght is the fayre∣nesse of euery creature that is séene: The grace whereof most in sight and behol∣ding, that maketh other members and partes of the worde, wortye to be pleased: And this same (as Basinus saith) is aboue heauen most peaceable wel ng place of ••••lld and of Sa••tes. Page  [unnumbered] This is by ensample the shewing of the 〈…〉 trinitie. This lyght without di∣minishing of it selfe, sheweth and shod∣deth light, which receiued in the ouer parte of a darke bodie, doth not drowne and déep it selfe therein touching ye like∣nesse of sight, but touching might and vertue. Isidore saith, lyght hath manye other propertyes worthy to be praysed, in substance, vertue, & working: nothing is sound more cleere, and pure then the substance thereof. Therefore though it passe by vilenesse and filth, it is not de∣filed: Nothing is more actuall in deede then the vertue therof: Nothing is found more profitable in bodyes then the wor∣king thereof.

Of shining. chap. 41.

SHining is springing and streaming out of the substaunce of light. And commeth out of light without mingling of any other nature. And duteth as long as the light, of the which in commeth, as Austen saith. As saue as fyre is, as soone, is shining. Therefore if fyre were euer∣lasting, shining were euerlasting: Also shining commeth of light without di∣minishing of light, and without dry∣ling of the cleannesse of lyght, and with∣out discontinuance thereof,* with shew∣ing of it selfe and of other things, and with multiplieng of it selfe, as Basilius sayth.

Of beshining. chap. 42.

BEshining and light he diuerse as Species a genere. For euery shining is light, but not againe ward & euery lyght is shining: for euery shining is a certain out streaming of the substaunce of light, receuied in the aire, or in another cléere bodie, and shed all about. And as the au∣thour of Perspectiue saith, in thrée man∣ner shining is found. For some shining is called Lumen reflexum some Frae∣tum and some Directornos Reflectum i beshining, as from a mirrour or a shew∣er, or from other glistering bodies that rebound againe the shining that they re∣ceiue. And then that shining that reboun∣deth againe is called Lumen reflexum. The other shining that is called Lumē fractum, is when shining commeth to a bodie, that is seene deale thicke or hard, that it may not receiue & take lyght in it selfe, but for the matter and kinde of that body is not full obedient, that shi∣ning passeth not foorth light, but blen∣cheth aside from the right passae, and such shining and brightnesse is called Fractio radi). The third manner of shi∣ning is called Lumen directum, that is not put of nor findeth matter in ebedirit in no manner wife. And posseth fraly, and doth perfect working. And this shining maketh the ayre perfect and o∣ther cleere bodyes, and highteth formes and shape, and sheweth shape and fi∣gures, and comforteth and gladdeth ey∣en, and exciteth & waketh men of sléepe, of sluggardye and slouth. And printeth lykenesse and shapes, and Imaes in the vtter parts of mirrors and of bright glistering bodyes. For shining com∣meth to the vtter part of a glistering bo∣dye, and reboundeth agains in angles and corners, that bee lyke murb. And printeth therein shapes and fourmes of all bodyes. And so it setteth for the vtter parte of a mirrour by Imog••ad shape, the thing that is wilbent by substaunce. Also stmi•• taketh perfection by the dis∣position of the matter, that it commeth in. For his clerenesse increaseth in cléere matter and eleoue, and abat••h in scule matter and darke. For in déere matter as Christd •• and aire, it findeth no let. Therefore into ••sith a matter, it put∣teth, one his vene shining beames, and sheweth to•••cDenis sayth, And the more perfect lye it is printed into a bo∣dye the more largelye it is rebounded thence, and stremeth to the or•• in bodies. And when it commeth to grose matter & borthous, thred it hath dimme distribu∣tion of working: as when it is shedde into fatre mai••, it is vnperfectlye ta∣ken so that si••n it is shedde and & but, is seemeth darke. And so the saines of the matter letteth distribution and poining of the shining of the matter, that is ta∣ken. Then in cléere and pure substaunce shining as perfectly seene and increased: Page  140 in great and thicke substance, it is dimi∣nished. And so it followeth, that pure matter and subtill, taketh shining of light, perfectly. And it is founde, that dr••me matter, boystous, and thicke, putteth off shining of light, and bright∣nesse.

Of the light beame. cap. 43.

A Light beame is a bright streame of a bodye of lyght, by the which beame, lyght and shining doth his wor∣king, as Beda sayth. And some beame passeth straight forth, and commeth of the bodye of light, moouing by a straight line without blenching, and commeth to the middle point, and is called Perpen∣dicularis and Rectus: And some beame commeth of a bodie of lyght, and findeth a cleere body, and passeth not forth right, but sidelyng and blenching, and this blenching is called breaking of the beame. And such a light beame is called breaking of the Beame. And such a light beame is called Radius colleteralis, & Confractus. And the Sunne beame passeth straight foorth from the bodye of lyght, or blencheth aside, and méeteth with a bodye, that putteth and smiteth the light againwarde: and such a smi∣ting and putting is called bending of the beame: and such a Beame is called Radius reflexus, as the Authour of Per∣spectiue sayth. And so a Beame of light is moueable, and cleere, and bright, and rounde, and right of it selfe, and most conteined if it be of a straight Beame: and it happeneth sometime, that a light or bright beame is broken and shuft a∣side, or againeward, by the disposition of matter that it findeth and toucheth. Such a beame is closed in a hollowe clowde, and most worketh and maketh diuerse formes, coulours, shapes, and figures in the Clowde, or in the ayre, as it fareth in the coulours of the Raine-bowe, that is not else called, but entering of light beames into an hollowe clowde and wa∣tyre, as it is sayde libro Mecherorum: alwaye sodeinlye by moouing of beames that moue continuallye and sodeinlye, it happeneth that the ayre about is sette a fire: and namelye if the beames meete in the place of rebounding. For there the beames be gathered, and beat each other: and so they are cause why the ayre a∣bout is oft set a fire, as it fareth in Chri∣stall, and in Berrall. For if such a stone be set afore the Sunne, and put thereto, it shall set it on fire.

Of shadow. cap. 44.

SHadowe is setting of a thicke bo∣dy and diuine afore lyght, or afore a bodye of light. And thrée manner kindes bée of shadowe by consideration of Philosophie. It happeneth, that a bo∣dye of lyght is rounde, and sometime more then the bodie that is set before the lyght, and sometime euen as much, and sometime lesse: If it bée euen as much, it maketh the shadowe euen as much rounde, and such a shadowe is called Chelindroydes, that is to vnderstande, Like round. If it be lesse then the Ob∣stacle that letteth light, it maketh the sha∣dowe stretch abroade, as it were a Pa∣uier: and such a shadowe is called Ca∣thaloydes. And if the bodye of light bée more then the bodye, that letteth lyght, it maketh the shadowe stretch foorth sheeld wise, and the point forwarde: and such a shadowe is called Conoydes. Héereof it followeth, that the Sunne, for it is more then all the earth, maketh the shadowe Conoydes, that is, shapen as a shielde. Then happening, that the earth béeing euen set afore the Sunne in a cer∣taine manner assigned, it maketh the shadowe stretch so high, that it stretcheth to the Moone, and infecting the Moone, maketh Eclipse thereof: But when the Sunne passeth besides the sphere of the earth, the point of that shadowe passeth aside into some parte that is there a∣fore: and then the Moone is fréely séene shining. And when the Moone is euen straight betweene vs and the Sunne: then the Moone maketh the shadowe sha∣pen as a pauier: and therefore the Moone beshaddoweth the earth, and maketh a perticular Eclipse. For such a shadowe is not suffisaunt to couer all the earth, for in some place, the earth is lightned with Page  [unnumbered] the Sunne beames. By such a shadowe commeth eclipse in one Climate & coun∣trey though another Climate bée lighte∣ned, as Albumasar saith: and shadow∣eth and beareth downe the Sunne, and hideth the shining of the Sun beames, & causeth barrennesse of the earth: and is friendly, & féedeth adders & serpents: and cooleth men and other things that bée too hot: and letteth and tarryeth riping of fruit and of corne: and striketh men and beasts with many manner feauers & dreades horrible. And though it be no body of kinde: yet it sheweth shape and likenesse of body, and shapeth it selfe by mouing and rest of bodyes. For when the body mooueth, the shape moueth and resteth when the body resteth: and follo∣weth them that goe: and flyeth them that pursue. Also the longer the day is, and the higher the Sunne is in heauen, ye shorter is the shadow of the body that it maketh. And againward. And therefore in the Sunne rising, & also in the going down, the shadow is more then at mid∣day.

Of darknesse. Chap. 45.

DArknesse is absence of light, and is called Tenebre of Tenendo, holding. For it bindeth and holdeth the eyen, that they may not sée the Sun nor any other light: and so darknesse is nought els but priuation. Also darke aire is called dark∣nesse: and so is the shadow of a dim bo∣dy, as Basilius saith, and is contrarye to light both in qualitie and in place Dark∣nesse bringeth in feare & dread, and with∣draweth fairenesse of coulours, and aba∣teth shame, and nourisheth sléepe & simn∣ber.

*I Haue thought good to set before thee, forth of the booke de Occulta Phi∣losophia of Henne Cornelius Agrippa, his Ladder, wherein is the wonder∣full compact of the vniuersall diuision of the number of. 12. beginning with the twelue orders of blessed spirits, omitting the. 12. names of God.

Seraphin, Cherubin, Throni, Dominationes, Potestates, Virtutes, Principatus, Archangeli, Angeli, Innocentes, Martires, Confessores.

The .12. Angells presidents ouer the signes.

Malehidel, Asmodel, Ambriel, Muriel, Verchiel, Hamadiel, Zuriel, Barbiel, Aduschiel, Hananell, Gabiel, Barchiel.

The .12. Tribes.

Dan, Ruben, Ihuda, Manasse, Asser, Simeon, Isachar, Beniamin, Neptalin, Gad, Zabulon, Ephraim.

The .12. Prophets:

Malachias, Aggaeus, Zacharlas, Amos, Oseas, Micheas, Ionas, Abdias, Sephonias, Naum, Abacuck, Ioel.

The .12. Apostles.

Mathias, Thadaeus, Simon, Iohannes, Petrus, Andreas, Bartholomeus, Philippus, Iacobus, Thomas, Mathaeus, Iacobus minor.

The .12. signes in the Zodiack.

Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpius, Sagittarius, Capri∣cornus, Aquaries, Pisces. These are in the celestiall world.

The .12. Moneths.

March, Aprill, May, Iune, Iuly, August, September, October, Nouember, De∣cember, Ianuarie, February. In the elementall world.

The .12. Plants.

Elelisphacos, *Peristereon, *Peristereon, Symphytus, Cyclaminus, Calamin∣thus, Scorpiuros, Artemsia, Anagallis, Lapathus, Dracontea, Aristolochia.

The .12. Stones.

Sardonis, Sardius, Topazius, Chalcedonius, Iaspis, Smaragdus, Berrillus, Ame∣thystus, Hyacinthus, Chrysopassus, Christallus, Saphirus.

Page  141

The .12. principall members.

Caput, Collum, Brachia, Pectus, Cor, Venter, Renes, Genitalir, Anche, Genua, Head, Necke, Armes, Brest, Heart, Belly, Reines, Members, Hippes, Knées, Ctura, the shanke. Pedes, the féete.

The .12. pointes of the dampned Diuells.

Pseudothie, False Prophets: Spiritus mendacij, Lieng spirits: Vasa iniquitatis, Uessalls of iniquitie: Vltores celerum, the last sharpnesse or endlesse torment. Prestigiatores. Iuglers, Cosoners, and Scorners: Aerae potestates, airie gouernors: Furae seminatrices malorū, sowers of desperate discord: Criminatores, siue explo∣ratores, False accusers, and outragious railers.

Tentatores, siue insidiatores, Prouokers and inticers: Malefice, Witches, Apo∣state, Reniers of the faith: Infideles, Unbeléeuing.

These .12. sortes of peoples, framed to the. 12. sortes of wicked Diuells, are made one in the proportion of endlesse dampnation, euen so, in the gouernment of euery. 12. is specified the most vnsearchable will of God, howe farre man hath power of gouerning, and by what effectes he is gouerned, the knowledge where∣of, is the gifte of God, the benefite of men, and the alteration of all other crea∣tures.

Blacknesse, is darknesse, a grisly hiew to tell,
a bright shining cleerenesse, doth punish in the hell:
On earth it giues dought, in heauen eternall ioy,
in hell, contrary turning the wicked to'anoy.
This is the might of God, for lasting soules to know
that bodies haue possest, perpetuall ioy or no.
His mercie, moue vs still, of mischiefe to beware,
his loue, accept our will, to him our soules prepare.

A note also of the foure seasons of the yeare.

The Spring time is hot and moist, and continueth so long as the Sunne is in Aries, Taurus, and Gemini, March, Aprill, May, which is from the .10. of March, vnto the .12. of Iune.

The Sunne is hot and drie, conned from the beginning of Cancer, vnto the ende of Virgo, Iulye and August: September, that is from the .12. of Iune, vnto the .14. of September. Harnest is colde and drie, that is from the beginning of Li∣bra, vnto the end of Sagittarius. October, Nouember, December, counted from the 14. of September, to the 12. of December.

Winter is colde and moyst, continuing from the beginning of Capricornus, to the ende of Pisces, Ianuarie, Februarie, March, Capricornun, Aquarius, & Pis∣ces, that is from the .12. of December to the .10. of March.

A briefe note how to vnderstand the Ephimerides.

Understand ther be seauen Planets, the highest, Saturne ♄, then Iupiter ♃, Mars ♂, Sol ☉. Venus ♀ Mercury. ☿, and the Moone ☽

A coniunction is figured ♂, and it is when an other Planette is ioy∣ned with the Sunne, or Moone, or others among themselues within one degree.

The Sextile aspect or radiation is thus expressed, ✶ and it is within as degrees, the one from the other.

The quadrant aspect thus □, 90 degrées distant. That Trine thus, △ separated. 120. degrées. The opposition thus ☍, 180 degrées, the one distant from the other.

These followe by order.

    Aspects.
  • Coniunction ☌,
  • Sextile ✶,
  • Quadrat □,
  • Trine △,
  • Opposition ☍.
    Planets.
  • Saturne ♄,
  • Iupiter ♃,
  • Mars ♂,
  • Sol ☉,
  • Venus ♀,
  • Mercurie ☿,
  • Lunae ☽.
Page  [unnumbered]
    Signes,
  • Aries ♈,
  • Taurus ♉,
  • Gemini ♊,
  • Cancer ♋,
  • Leo ♌,
  • Virgo ♍,
  • Libra ♎,
  • Scopio ♏,
  • sagittarius ♐,
  • Capricornus ♑,
  • Aquarius ♒,
  • Pisces ♓:

FINIS LIBRI OCTAVI.