Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

¶Of the Moone. Cap. 29.

THe Moone is called Luna,* as it were one of ye lights, that is to vnderstand principall & most, for he is most lyke to the sunne in greatnesse and fairnesse, as Isid. saith. For as it said in Exameron: the Moone is the fairnesse of the night, & mother of all humours, minister & Lady of the sea, measure of times, follower of the sunne, changer of the aire, and hath no light of hir selfe, but borroweth & ta∣keth of the plentie of the Sunne, and ta∣keth forme, shape, and figure of the Sun, as he is far or néere to the Sunne: Also the Moone lacking lightnesse of hir selfe, taketh lyght of the well of 〈◊◊〉 of the Sunne And therefore it is sayd 〈◊◊〉E∣lementorm in Aristo. That the Moone is alway halfe shired of the Sunne and re∣ceiueth light, and reboundeth it towarde the earth: for he hath kinde like to a shewer, that hath no proper colour, but taketh lyght of another: and the neerer he is to the Sunne, the more he looseth of his lyght to the earth-ward, but the cléerenesse, that he eeeth in the nea∣ther side, towarde heauen therefore he is the more shining vpward in the euer side. And therefore when he is coniunct with the Sunne, he sendeth no light to the earth, but is in the side of heuen and vpward fully shining. And against and, when he is before the Sunne is all shi∣ning toward the earth, and nothing to∣warde the heauen, as Beda sayeth, and Macrobius also. Also the Moone chain∣geth figure and shape: for he sheweth towarde the earth a diuers face of his lyght: for now the showeth hir selfe sha∣ped bow wise, and now as a circle and round to the sight of men, now Moy∣noydus, now Dictotomos, now Am∣phitricos, now Pancilenos. And he is Moynoydos, when he is new and see∣meth horned: and is Dictotomos, when he is as it were halfe full, and is eight dayes olde: & he is Amphitricos, when it is doubt of his full roundnesse when he is eleuen or twelue dayes olde: and he is Pansilenos, when he shineth at ful, when he is fourtéene dayes olde. Also the Moone sheweth hir selfe in three states: for he is with the Sunne in coniuncti∣on, when he is next to the Sunne or a∣side, when he passeth fro-ward the Sun, or when he is all afore the Sun. When he goeth first fro-ward the Sun, hee see∣meth with hornes as a bowe, & then al∣way the hornes be tourned Eastward: & when he commeth again to the coniunc∣tion, he receiueth the same figure & shape & then the hornes be alway turned west ward: & in that side that is turned from ward the Sun, he seemeth alway voyde, and in the side that is toward the Sun, full of lyght.

The Moone increaseth all humours: for by priuye passings of kinde, floude Page  [unnumbered] and ebbe is increased and multiplyed. In hir waning the marrow of ye bones, the braine of the head, and humoures of the body be made lesse: and in wexing and increasing of hir, they are increased, and therefore all thing hath compassion of the default of the Moone. Also she draweth to hir waters of the sea, for as the stone Adamas draweth after him yron, so the Moone moueth and draweth after hir the Occean sea. Therefore in the rising of the Moone, the sea swelleth and increaseth, and floweth by East, and ebbeth and decreaseth by West: and a∣gainward when the Moone goeth down, the sea floweth by West, and ebbeth by East. And as the Moone hath more lyght or lesse: so the sea stretcheth or with∣draweth in his flowing and ebbing, as Marcobius sayth in lib. Ciceronis. The sea of Occean, in the increasing of the Moone holdeth this maner: for the first day of the Moone he is more full then he is wont, and is at highest: and decrea∣seth and waneth the second daye, and so he withdraweth before the seuenth day. Then againe he increaseth and spring∣eth seuen dayes, so yt the fourtéenth daye the spring is at the highest: and so al∣way in the new Moone, the spring of the sea is highest, and also in the full of the Moone. Also the Moone gathereth deawe in the aire, for she printeth the vertue of hir moysture in the aire, and chaungeth the ayre in a manner that is vnséene, & breedeth and gendereth deaw in the vt∣ter part thereof: for we sée that ye more cléere that the Moone is in the Summer time, the more plentie of deaw is séene vpon the grasse and hearbs. Also among planets, the Moone ful endeth hir course, in most short time: for hir circle is more short: and therefore in the space of sea∣uen & twentie daies and eight houres, he passeth by all the signes of the Circle that is called Zodiacus, as Ptholomeus sayth. And therefore Ptholomeus spea∣keth in this manner of the Moone, and sayth, that vnder the Moone is Cancer, & is hir house, and she raigueth in Cancer, and the passing of hir raigne is in Libra, and is a cold Planet, and passing moyst, female, and a night Planet, & abideth in euery signe two dayes, sixe houres and a halfe: and full endeth his course, in seuen and twentie dayes & viii. houres. Among all the starres that he called Er∣ratice, the Moone passeth in most vncer∣taine and vnstedfast mouing: For be∣cause of shortnes of his course, he passeth and walketh now vnder the Sun, now behinde and after the sunne. And when the sunne passeth by the South & lowest Circles, then the Moone passeth by the North and lower circles: and then the Moone is vpright as a boate, and hath hornes vpwarde: but when he is vnder the Sun, he hath hornes boowing toward the earth, and when he wayneth, he is a∣reared, as Beda sayeth. Also when the Moone is betwéene vs and the sun, then ofte is Eclypse, that is default of ye sun: and this default may neuer fall by kind but in coniunction of the sunne & moone, when the Moone chaungeth. And this coniunction is in the lyne, that is called, Linea eclyptica, and is the middle lyne of the circle that is called Zodiacus, and the Eclipse falleth alway when ye sunne is in the head of the Dragon, & the Moone in the tayle againward. Héereof speak∣eth Albumasar in libro de motibus pla∣netarum, and saith: If the Moone mée∣teth with the Sunne, & passeth euen be∣tweene vs and the sunne, he maketh vs haue default of the sunne beames: and that is in Capite or in Cauda Draco∣nis, in the head or in the tayle of the Dragon: what is Caput & Cauda dra∣conis, it shalbe sayd héereafter. Also when the earth is betwéene the Sun and the Moone, the Moone lacketh his lyght, and is Eclipsed. Heereof speaketh Marcianus in lib. de Astro. and saith in this man∣ner. The Moone going vpward or down∣ward, falleth into the Sun line if hir be xxx. dayes olde. When he is all vnder the sunne, he darkneth and taketh away the light of the sunne, and maketh dark∣nesse in earth: and maketh not this de∣fault in euery moneth, for he is not al∣way in the same line, that is euen and straight lyne betwéene the sunne and the earth. And the same default falleth on the Moone, when the Moone is all before the sunne, and is fifteene dayes olde.

Page  134For if the Sunne be then vnder the earth, and maketh shadow of the great∣nesse of the earth, that stretcheth to the lyne that is straight afore the Sunne, and if the Moone commeth into that line, hir light is taken away: for the shadow of the earth is euen set betwéene the Sunne and the Moone. Then the Moone is not so clipsed euery month: for he is not full in the line that the clipse is in, & that shadowe is not euen betwéene him & the Sunne: & therfore his light is not euery month taken away. Also somtime the Moone containeth in it selfe, a man∣ner darknesse and dimnes, and that com∣meth of qualytie of his owne body, that is kindly darke: for he hath no lyght of himselfe, but of the Sunne: or as some men meane, that darknesse commeth of the shadow of the earth, of the which is rebounded a maner dimme spleke in the body of the Moone, that dimmeth some deale his lyght: and that is most, when he is nigh to the earth, the Moone taketh some manner hoare and filth as Marcia∣nus sayth, and when he passeth vp to the higher circles, he is bright and cleane, & then he seemeth not wemmed, with no speckles, and smotching, as Marcianus saith. Also the Moone signifieth and beto∣keneth chaunging of times and of wea∣thers: for (as Beda saith) if the Moone be redde as golde in the beginning, then he betokeneth windes: and if ther be black specks in the ouer corner and luemmes, he betokeneth raine in the beginning of the month: and if he be red in the mid∣dle, it betokeneth faire wether and cléere in the full of the Moone: and in night rowing, if the Moone lyght spranckleth on the cares, then tempest shall come in short time, as Beda sayth. Also in ye har∣monie of heauen, the Moone maketh the heauiest sowne,* as Marcianos sayth: for in the circle of the Moone is an heauie sowne, as a sharp sowne is in the sphere of heauen yt commeth of ordinate sowne, and of sherking of the mouing of the cir∣cles, and of the roundnesse of heauen.

And as he saith, thereof commeth most swéete melody & accord. Also the Moone giueth plenteousnesse to the séedes of the earth: For in rayng she ouer séedeth, that profiteth by deaw, that falleth of the body of the Moone as he saith: and ther∣fore in Fables she is called Proserpina:* For Nations call the Moone Goddesse of séedes that be throwen in the earth. Al∣so she is called Diana, Goddesse of woods and groues: for the giueth light to wilde beasts, that gather their meate by night in woodes and groues. And therfore na∣tions cal the Moone Goddesse of hunters, for hunting is ofre in woods and groues: * and therefore they painted a Goddesse, with a bowe in hir hande, for hunters vse bowes. Also though the Moone bée colde and moyst, yet he taketh heate of nighnesse of the circle of the Sunne, for by heate and drinesse of the Sunne, his passing coldnesse and moysture is tempe∣red, for that he shoulde not in comming downe toward the earth, make winter euery month, as Macrobius saith. Also as Albumasar saith, the Moone cleanseth the aire, for by his continuall mouing, he maketh the ayre cléere and thinne: and so if mouing of the sphere of the Moone were not, the ayre should be corrupt with thicknesse and infection that should come of outdrawing by night of vapours and moysture, that great corruption shoulde so••e thereof. Also Astronomers tell, that among all Planets, the Moone in ulyng hath most power, ouer dispositi∣on of mans body: For as Ptholemeus sayth, in libro de iudicijs astrorum. Un∣der the Moone is contained sicknes, losse, feare and dread, and bomage. There∣fore about the chaunging of mans body, the vertue of the Moone worketh princi∣pally: and that falleth through the swift∣nesse of his mouing, and for that hee is nigh to vs, and also for the priuie pow∣er & might that is kindly in the Moone: and therefore a Phisition knoweth not perfectly the chaunging of sicknesse, but if he know the effectes and workings of the Moone, in mans bodye. Therefore Hippocrates in principio Pronostico∣ruin, speaketh of the Moone, and sayth in this manner: A certaine starre is of he∣uen, in the which a Phisition must take héede and vnderstand it, the purueyaunce thereof is wonderfull and dreadfull. And Galen in commento de diebus creticis.Page  [unnumbered] saith: A Phisition must take héede and aduise him of a certaine thing, that fay∣leth not, nor deceiueth, the which thing, Astronomers of Aegypt taught, that by coniunction of the bodye of the Moone with starres fortunate, commeth dread∣full sicknesse to good end: and with con∣trary Planets, falleth the contrary, yt is to euill ende. And therefore a Phisition, that is perfectly wise and ware, by Hip∣pocrates learning, shall behold first the Moone, and when he is full of light: for then humours increase in men, and ma∣rowe also, and increasing in the Sea, & in all worldly things. Then when the sicke man falleth in his bedde, it néedeth to sée and knowe, if the Moone passeth then out of coniunction: for then the sicknesse encreaseth, till the Moone come to the degrée of opposition, that is afore the Sunne in the full of the Moone, and if he be then with an euill Planet, or in an euill signe, and hard aspect to yt hoose of Mars, that is the viii, signe, that is to meaning: If the Moone haue aspect to Mars, that is called the Lord of yt signe, named Scorpio, then of death is dread, & if the Moone be with a good Planet, & in a good house and signe, and hath aspects to the Lord of the house of lyfe, that is Mars, That is Lord of Aries, that is the first signe: then is hope of lifes & so men shall see and doeme of other, as it is sayd in the booke that Hippocrates made, and hath the name, De Iudicajs infirmitacis secundum Luuam.