Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

¶Of venemous Wormes. Chap. 68.

OUer and beside the foresayd euills and passions, which bée rehearsed and described before, most perilous death and euills happen and come to man∣kinde by wicked venim. And for that all kinde of venim is contrary to the com∣plection of mankind, it slayeth sodeinly, but men haue the sooner helpe & remedy. Some venim commeth of corruption of meate and drinke: And some of biting, of créeping wormes and of adders, and of serpents, and of other beasts, of whom their humours and téeth be venimous to mans body Also some venim is hot and drye, as the venim of an Adder, which is called Tirus,* and of an Adder that is cal∣led Vipera, and other such. And some ve∣nim is colde & drie, as the venim of scor∣pions: and some venim is cold & moyst, as the venim of Spiders.* The venim of Serpents & Adders is diuers in mal∣lice, as Auicen saith in Cade venonosis. For the venim of males is more sharp and strong then the venim of females. And yet the female Serpents haue moe téeth then males, and therefore they be taken for ye worse, as Auicen saith there: Also the venim of the olde Serpents is worse then the venim of the young: And of great and long, worse then of ye short of the same kinde. Also the venim of them that abide in hills and woodes is worse, then of them which bée nigh cliffes and banks of waters. Also ye ve∣nim is worse that commeth of one that is fasting, then the venim that commeth of one that is full. Also venim is sharper in Summer then in winter: And adders and Serpents sting sooner at the middes of the daye, then in the morning: And sooner by day then by night. For by heat the venim is shedde into the vtter parts, and is in time of coldnesse. as it were frosen in one place. The venim of the Adder that is called Tirus, and of the Adder that is called Vipera, and of all other Adders though it be hot, yet it hap∣peneth, that of theyr biting commeth he∣uinesse and coldnesse, by reson of slaieng & quenching of kinde heat, by contrary∣nesse of venim. For kinde heate by shed∣ding and sprinckling therof heateth the body, when it is ouerset: And as it were queint by strength of venimme, it hea∣teth the vtter partes. Hotte venimme gathereth not togethers the hot bloud of the heart: but it departeth and shed∣deth kinde heate, and slayeth it.

Uenim of a Cockatrice is so violent that it burneth all thing which is nigh it:* And so about his denne and his hole nothing waxeth greene. It slayeth sodeinly birdes and fowles that flye a∣fore his denne. All beasts that come nigh be astonied and moue not, but fal down, and so die, onely by his venimous sight, or breathing or whisteling And he that Page  115 is bitten of him, melteth and swelleth, and casteth venim, and dieth sodeinlye. Uenimme of the Cockatrice is so vio∣lent and strong; that if it be touched with a Spears the touches shall féele the violence of the venimme, 〈…〉Auicen telleth of and that touthed such a worme with his speare in India, and seeth with fall downe dead, and his horse also. Hée that is hurt of a Cockatrice, hath such a token, the body chaungeth sodeinly into gréene coulour & hiew, and sodeine death followeth. And there within the place where ye Cockatrice dwelleth the venim of an adder that is called Aspi is worst, for it slayeth within two hoares or thrée. The tokens of his biting bée those: So∣deine chaunging coulour of the skinne, great poring, sodeine coldnesse of mem∣bers; sléeping, and déepe closing of the eie¦liddes, great and strong thirst so that the patient thinketh that he dieth onely for thirst. The venim of another man∣ner adder, that is called Aspis, and is cal∣led also Spuens, spitting, by reason that he slayeth with his spitle, his spitle is so violent, that it slayeth al thing that hath lyfe, if it toucheth that spittle. It slayeth and it be felt. But he that is venimmed féeleth of the first sore & great ach about his bowels and guts, and hath darknesse of eyen and closing, and strong sléepe, with the crampe and ••resting of the necke and pulse inordinate. And against that venimme helpeth no medicine, but onely cutting off, or burning of the mem∣ber, in the which the venim is cast. For burning fordrieth and closeth and stop∣peth the waies that the venim may not passe vnto the heart. Also the venim of a Dragon is full malitious, & his venim is most in the tayle, and in the Gall. With that venim commeth most heaui∣nesse of bodie, swelling of lippps, and giddinesse, dunnesse and darknesse of the eyen, destroieng of reson, inordinate mo∣uing and féeblenesse of vertue. Uenim of a Scorpion slaieth, but if men haue re∣medy the sooner: Thereof commeth bur∣ning & pricking about the member that is stung. And when it commeth to the heart, the patient swoneth, and breaketh out, & sweateth: And it closeth the heart, of the last, and fréeseth the body with his coldnesse, & thereof commeth death and destroieng of lyfe. Séeke afterward of the propertie of the Scorpion in the last booke.

Among all the venimous beates,*a∣ber is most pernitious, for he is as a can∣••• to himselfe, a poison to his neigh∣bour, and the diuell before God.