Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.

¶ Of the creation of the childe. Cap. 4.

ABout the begetting and generation of a childe, it néedeth to haue conena∣ble matter, and spéedefull place, and ser∣uice and working of kinde, that is to wit, heat, as the cause efficient working and doing, and spirite that giueth ver∣tue to the body, and gouerneth and ru∣leth that vertue. The matter of the child is humour Seminalis, that is shedde, by working of generation, and commeth Page  [unnumbered] of both the partes, of the father and the mother. First this matter is shed in the place of conceiuing abroad, and by the drawing of vertue of kinde, it is gathe∣red togethers in the cells of the mother. And is medled togethers by working of kinde heate. For if the digest bloud of the father and mother were not med∣led together, there might be no creation neither shaping of a child. For ye matter of bloud that commeth of the male is hot and thicke. And therefore for the greate thicknesse thereof it maye not spread it selfe abroad. And also for ye passing great heate, the matter of the childe should bée destroyed and wasted, but it receiued tē∣perance of the womans bloud, that hath contrarye qualities. This matter gathe∣red in the cell of the right side of the mo∣ther, falleth to a male kinde. And in the lefte side to the kinde of a woman a female. And this diuersitie falleth for mastery of heate in the right side rather then in the lefte, as sayth Galen. Con∣stantine, and Aristotle. liber. 15. If the vertue of the bloud of the Fathers side haue the masterie, the child is like to the Father, & so againeward. And if the ver∣tue be like strong in either of them, the childe is like both Father and Mother. This matter is fodde within by the ver∣tue of kinde heate, and is beclipped with a little skin, and ronleth as milke.* This skinne is the matter of Embrioms, that is the healing and the couering of the childe, and so the childe is layed therein in the mothers wombe. And this skin commeth out with the childe, when it is borne, when the stronges bée broke with the childe, with the which the childe is tied to the cells of the mother. And if it happe by any chaunce, that the skinne abide still in the wombe, after the childe is borne, then the woman is in perill. Then to the matter conceiued, and by vertue retentiue ioyned, kinde sendeth forth menstruall bloud, and by heate and humour of that bloud ye childe that is conceiued is fedde and nourished, with such a foment and nourishing the fielde of our generation & birth is moi∣sted and sprong. For as Galen and Con∣stantine say: When the séede ranled and cherneth as milke, when it is full of spi∣rit, and of kinde heate, it draweth to it selfe féeding and nourishing, and that is by veines and arteryes that bréede and spring of the substaunce of the séede, and bée ioyned to the menstruall bloud. And that is néedfull, that the matter of the childe haue nourishing and féeding that commeth thereto by veines and spirit, that commeth thereto by arteries & wo∣sen. By these two, that is to wit,* the matter seminall and humour of nourish∣ing and féeding, kind heate that is closed within, doth shape the members of the bodie of the childe, and that by might and vertue informatiue of shaping. For of the Essentia of the séede, it shapeth the braine, bones, griftles, fe••es, skinnes, sl∣newes, veines, and arteryes, wosen and pipes. And of menstruall bloud, kinde shapeth the liuer and al the fleshly mem∣bers, of the which the substaunce is bred and commeth of bloud. And first kinde shapeth the principall members, as the heart, the braine, and liuer, which are the foundation of the other members: and in beginning while these be a lumpe of bloud, they bée full nigh togethers, but afterward they be diuided and departed a fonder. Of these thrée foundations spring other thrée: Of the braine spring the sinews, and the marrow of the ridge bone: of the heart, arteryes, wosen and pipes, spring: and veines of the liuer. When these foundations be made, kind maketh and shapeth bones to kéepe and saue them. As the skull to kéepe & saue the braine, and defend it, and the ribbes of the breast to defend the heart, and the ribbe of the side to defend the lider: and so of other. After these bréede and spring other members, later then these, as the hands a, féete, and such other. These bée not shapen all at once, but lyttle and lyttle one after another. The childe is bred and commeth forth in foure de∣grees: Thē first is when the séede is nigh as it wer milke: The second, when the seede is become into bloud, yet then is not the liuer nor the heart, nor the braine perfectly shaped, but they bée as a lumpe of bloud, and this degrée is cal∣led Fetus by Ipocras speach. The thirde Page  72 degree is, when the heart, braine, and li∣uer are shapen, and the other members vnshapely, and not diuided: The last de∣gree is, when all the members be like euen shaped: and this degree is called, Iasans of Ipocras, for now the bodye is made and shapen with members and lyins, and disposed to receiue the soule. Then it receiueth soule and life, and be∣ginneth to moue it selfe and sprall, and to put with feete and with handes, and if it be a female, it moueth in the lefte side, and if it be a male it moueth in the right side as saith Galen. In the degree of milke this matter is vii. dayes, in the degrée of bloud ix. dayes in the degrée of a lumpe of flesh xii. dayes, and in the fourth degrée before full persection xviii. dayes, whereof follow these verses:

Sep in lacte dies, ter sunt in sanguine terni.*
Bis seni carnem, ter seni membra figurant.
That is to vnderstand, The matter of the seede abideth vii. dayes in milke, ix. in bloud, and xii. in flesh, & then in xviii. dayes the members be shapen. Then from the daye of conception to the daye of full complicion and the first lyfe of the childe, be xlvi. daies, so that the first daye and the last be accounted in ye tale: & by this appeareth, that in xlvi, dayes,* the childe is alyue, and full shape touch∣ing the effect and doing of generation. And in this manner Austen accompteth the buylding of the Temple vnder the number and tale of xlvi. yeare, and com∣pareth and likeneth thereto perfection of the body of Iesu Christ. Super. lo. 9. & li. 4. de Trin. ca. 5. Ther among other he sayth these words,* xlvi. times vi. dayes be CC. dayes and lxxvi, which number of dayes make ix. months and vi. dayes. And it followeth in the same chapter, And it is written, that our Lorde was borne in the viii Kalendes of Ianuarie. Then from conception, that was from the viii. Kalendes of Aprill, to the daye of the birth, yt was the viii. day of Ianu∣ary, be accounted CC daies, lxxvi. ye con∣teineth the number of xlvi. times vi. In so many yeres the Temple was buyld∣ed, &c. And li. 3. ca. 34. Const. saith, that a male childe that shall be borne in the viii. month, is formed in thirtie dayes, & full shaped in lxx. dayes. Then he saith, that a male child of x. months is formed in xlvi. dayes, and at the full in lxxxx. In the same place the time is described of the first life, and full shaping of a maide childe, but I passe ouer shortlye, taking heede hereto, that the female is more slowly formed and shapen at full than a male childe. Therefore the leede that the male commeth of, is more stronger and more, hot, and in more hotter place recei∣ued, than the seede that the female com∣meth of. Also Constantine and Galen saye super Aphor. that Ipocras sayeth, That euerye childe mooueth in eight monthes, and if he were than so strong, that he might passe out in anye wise, then he should lyue. And if it purpose to passe out and may not passe out, then it is féebled & grieued with trauell of that mouing, so that when he commeth out, in the next month after, he shal not long liue. And if the birth abideth to the ninth month, or till the beginning of the tenth month, then ye childe becommeth strong, and is born without perill, as saith Con∣stantine li. Pantegni. ca. 34.