Batman vppon Bartholome his booke De proprietatibus rerum, newly corrected, enlarged and amended: with such additions as are requisite, vnto euery seuerall booke: taken foorth of the most approued authors, the like heretofore not translated in English. Profitable for all estates, as well for the benefite of the mind as the bodie. 1582.
Bartholomaeus, Anglicus, 13th cent., Trevisa, John, d. 1402., Batman, Stephen, d. 1584.


AFter the opinion of the learned as fol∣loweth.*Iudg. chap. 7. ver. 3. Beholde I dreamed a dreame, and loe a cake of Early bread tumbled frō aboue into the hoast of Madian, and came euen to a tent and smote it that it fell, it ouerturned it, I say, and the tent fell downe, &c. Héerby we may learne that dreames of prophe∣sieng are by God, giuen vnto the enimies of godlynes, & to that nation, that afflic∣ted the holy people and the Church, and this is not the first time, for vnto an E∣thnike king, namely Pharao, were fatte and beasie kine: full and emptie cores of corne shewed by God in a dreame: vnto the Baker also and Butler, were shew∣ed things also that should come to passe, and afterward Nabuchad-nezar, which lead awaye the Israelites captiues, sawe twice dreames that had significattons: But this is more meruailous which is héere declared, the dreame néedeth no Io∣soph or Daniel for an interpretour: for that which the Souldier by the inspira∣tion of God dreamed, his fellow Souldi∣er expounded: And his neighbour aun∣swered and saide. This is nothing else saue the sword of Gedeon, the sonne of Ioas, a man of Israel, God hath giuen in∣to Page  84 his hands Madian and all his hoast: wherefore God gaue vnto vngodly men, both a true dreame, and also a faithfull interpretation thereof, and that confirm∣eth that frée gifts of grace are common, both to the godly and vngodly. Where∣fore it is not méete that any shuld boast of them, for they testifie not the holynes of men, but onely the lyberall bountiful∣nesse of God. As touching dreames, the Ethnikes and Peripatetikes, Aristotle, Hippocrates, & Galen, and other famous philosophers haue written many things, amongst thē Aristotle in his litle booke, De diuinatione per smniū (if it be his book) saith first, that this kinde of diuina∣tion seemeth not vtterly to be reiected. A farther discourse of dreames is expressed in ye Commentarie vpon ye booke of Iud∣ges by Doctor Peter Martir, where he saith, that dreames be abscure & foolish, & idle men do dreme of many vanities, by the meanes of those humours that lye inwardly hid. But the cause why they which are a sléepe, and not they which are waking, doe by sight faéele the nature of those motions, is this: because at the beginning they are lyttle, and when wee are waking, the sense of them flieth from vs: for by stronger motions of outward things which appeare before our eyes, we are drawen another way: but being on sleepe, we cease from outward labors, and are voyde from the course of grose sensible things: wherefore the sights & Images which are by the humours con∣tinuallye moued, are better comprehen∣ded of the fantasie when weare on sléep, then when we are waking: and when we sleepe, we farte better fée small things, than we doe being waking & whereby it appeare, because we thinke that noyses be they neuer so small, are great thun∣ders: and if any sweete fleame stick per∣aduenture vnto the tongue or roose of the mouth, it séemeth to vs that we tast honnie, sugar, swéete wine, and pleasant meates, yea, sometimes we thinke, yt we gladly eate & abundantly drinke: where∣fore those motions of humore which are intal, are in sleep shewed to be as it wer wonderful great: for which cause Phisi∣tions do héerby know very many begin∣nings of diseases. Dreames also are cer∣taine signes of ye affections of ye minde, as of couetousnes, hope, ioy, and mirth, & also of qualities: the fearfull dreame, that they flye daunger: the couetous, yt they imbrace riches: the lecherous, that they unbrace those, which the day before they secretly desired: the wrathfull, that they are fighting, killing, robbing, and brauling: the carelesse, that they are pi∣ping, singing, whisteling, hawking, hunt∣ing, dauncing and such lyke. Yet, with euery one of these vanities, is one com∣plection touched, but it followeth, as the youthfull humors increaseth and dimi∣nisheth both in man and woman. Also in sleepe many are molested with Ephi∣alte & Hvhiati, that is Iucubi & Suc∣cubi, which some Authors call arce, night spirits: rather diuells, which I sup∣pose to be wicked spirits who being not able to preuayle in the day, de defile the body in ye night: ye Phisitians do affirm, these are nothing els but a disease, so is al mans infirmities a disease to ye body, & a disquiet to an honest and chast mind As touching what is the outwarde cause of dreames, by ye colour of ye skie & clowds, or by the craking of ye crowes, clustring of flyes, bellowing of cattell, working of pismeres, stones sweating, kennels stin∣king, & such like, notwtstanding ye altera∣tiō yt foloweth, yet is it no certain diui∣natiō. Homer & Virgil made two gates of dreames, one of horne, ye other of yuo∣rie: ye of horne (as they say) pertaineth to true dreames, & that of yuorie to false, & they seme yt the gretest part passe throgh ye gate af yuory, & not through yt of horn. As touching ye dreames sent of God, or moued by ye diuel. 2. things are leguired: ye first, ye manner of ye visiō, ye secōd, iudg∣ment, for ye better vnderslāding of ye holy & former apperantes: as in Esdras, Za∣hary & Ioseph. Tertulian in his booke De anima, maketh mention of certain of those dreames yt hapned amōg Ethniks, as ye dreame of Astiage of his daughter Madane: also of Philip of Macedon, & of Iulius Octuius, whome M. Cicero be∣ing yet a boy, thought he saw him in his dreame, and being awake, as soone as he met him, he straight waye knewe him. Page  [unnumbered]Philo a Iewe and Cyprian wrote of dreames, that they are sometimes war∣nings sent by God, which serue to the edification of the Church. Augustine in his 12. booke De Genesi ad literam the third Chapter sayth that there are three kindes of dreames: The first pertaine to the outward sense which is called cor∣porall: The second spirituall, which con∣sist of Images, and haue place about the fantasie, or power of imagination: The thirde he nameth intellectuall, because they are comprehended onely by reason and iudgement of the minde. The diuell is the cause of dreames also, Augustine saith, that one by dreames declared in what houre a Priest would come vnto him, and through what place he would passe. And we are not ignorant that the Ethnikes had Oracles, where men were all night to obtaine visions & dreames. Such a one was the oracle of Amphi∣arus sonne of Oeleus an Argiue, and a Southsayer, being compelled by Adra∣stus to goe to the Citie of Thebes, as soone as he came thether, the earth ope∣ned and swallowed him vp. Amphilo∣chus a Philosopher, Trophonius, & Aes∣culapius, in those places the diuell shew∣ed vnto those which slept, the remedyes and medicines to heale such as were sicke, and therewithall also, gaue aun∣swere of other matters. Supernaturall sleepes and dreames doe come of God from aboue by good Angells, by ye which God reuealeth his will to whom it ple∣seth him, and we vnderstande that those kinde of dreames, doe much differ from those that be naturall, because they are of more certaintie, and sealed and confir∣med from aboue, so that the veritie of the same cannot be ambiguous or doubt∣full. S. Augustine in his Epistle to E∣uodius the 100. Epistle he saith, I wold to God I could discern betwéén dreames which are giuen to error, and those which are to saluation, neuerthelesse we ought to be of good chéere, because God suffe∣reth his children to be tempted, but not to perish. It is also-written by S. Au∣gustine in his booke De Ciuitate Dei, cap. 20. Iucubus doth infest and trouble women, and Succubus doth infest men, by the which words it is manifest, that the godly, chast, and honest minded, are not free from this grose subsection, al∣though more commonly the dishonest are molested therewith. Some hold opi∣nion, that Marline, in the time of Vor∣tiger king of great Britaine. † 70. yeres before Christ, was borne after this man∣ner. Hieronimus Cardanus in his tre∣tise De rebus contra naturam, séemes to be of opinion that spirits or diuels may beget and conceiue vnt not after ye com∣mon manner, yet he reciteth a storie of a young damoisell of Scotland which was got with child of an inchaunted di∣uell, thinking that he had bene a fayre young man which had layen with hir, wherevpon she brought foorth so defor∣med a monster, that he feared the behol∣ders, and was by them burned. It see∣meth not by any reason of man, that a diuell or spirite, should beget on a natu∣rall bodie either sonne or daughter, ex∣cept they in possessing new slaine or dead bodies, vse those powers that may come to a forme and shape forth of that bo∣die wherein it is infused, or that those spirites be not of that subtill Materia that the Demones are, but a more grose and earthie cause, as Nymphae, Drya∣des, Hobgoblins and Fairies. For that it is no straunge secreat to disclose that in fewe yeares heere in Englande,* two seuerall persons came acquainted with women as they thought, and knowing them carnally vanished awae and one of the persons kept co•••ane nr a fewe times, but how he prospered after, there is lefte no cause of triumph. Edward Fnton in his booke of the secreates of Nature; the seauenth-chaptor, reciteth forth of Iames Roffus in his bookes Dr conceptu & generatione homiris, that in his time, there was a wicked spi∣rite, had to doe by night with a com∣mon woman, being transformed into the likenesse of a man, wherevpon shée became immediately with shilde, which when she perceiued, she fell into so straunge a kinde of disease, that hir en∣trayles fell from hir, which could not be holpen or made sound by any deuise of Phisicke.

Page  85Wicked spirits are neuer vnpossessing nor meresing those ye appertain vnto that kinde, which is lyke vnto themselues, for womē may conceiue in euill thought the formed shapes that the deepe impres∣sion of the minde is fixed vnto, at con∣ception: and men also diuelishly think∣ing of filth, beastly and deformed man∣ners, shapes and formes, in their heate of generation, doe powre forth to ye ma∣nifesting of Gods high Iustice, ye thing no lesse monstrous by natures corrupti∣on, as also by the present diuelish and vncleane intention: by the which it may be sayd, that diuells doe in deede beget sonnes and daughters. I would to God that the foule lust of such vncleannesse, were banished foorth of England, which will neuer be, vntill discipline pinch the great as well as the small: for the one presuming so much of the lybertie of the other, both goe without punishment, and the glorie of God diminished.

The cause of this impediment.

In the bodye commeth a vaporous humour or fumositie rising from the sto∣macke to the braine: it maye come al∣so through surfet and dronkennesse, and sleeping vpright, these bréede dreames & disquieting of the powers, make men to seeme or deeme that which is the contra∣rie. Likewise the vapour of golde & sil∣uer do so incense the braine and inflame the stomacke, that many times Iustice mindes to punish, when he thinketh no∣thing lesse. Thus ye goodly are disquieted, by missing of that sight, that they would gladly see, and tho wicked triumph, as though they wer not séene nor perceiued.

The remedie.

Kéep good & tēperated dyet, for some eat too much, and many other wold eate if they had it: as for those that disdaine to work, those are worthy to fast. Also take héed of lieng vpright, for too much lieng vp∣right, bréedeth the cause of stiffeling of the body, and the endlesse damnation to both soule and bodie.